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The following pages are dedicated to the many efforts that have been, and are being made to untangle the story of an Indian that lived during the middle to late 1700's. There is much interest among several of his descendants to uncover some documentation on the life of this "red man" and his family. We believe that some of his descendants may have a story, or documents that will establish the past existence of Chief Cucklemaker as a fact. This is an effort to obtain any information available on this subject.

Some of the stories that have been told are included on the following pages. However, these stories lack consistency making it impossible to determine which, if any, are facts. Included on the following pages are dates, events, and some of the conditions that existed between the early settlers and the Indians of this area between the years of 1650 and the early 1800's. Much of this information was "borrowed" from the diaries and journals of people that lived during that time. Some information is from an old North Carolina history book that was published in 1941. For all that are searching for answers, we hope the contents of these pages will be helpful in some way.
Written by: Stanley Hoggard, Descendant     March 15, 1999


Is the story of Chief Cucklemaker a legend, or a fact? Over a time span of 200 years or more, the story of an Indian that lived during the 1700's has been told by a multitude of people that claim to be his descendants. Today, these descendants are many, and the majority has settled in Bertie and neighboring counties. All are familiar with, and still tell the story of their ancestors, Chief Cucklemaker, and his French wife. According to information that has been shared with us, the original name of this Indian was " Chief Cucua Mucua." It is believed that early settlers altered the name Cucua Mucua to Cucklemaker through an error in spelling. This information was received from different sources that live in different directions. Chances are, these people have never met, but they tell the same story - up to a certain point. If these Indian stories are true, many of us that are related to the Castelloes inherited Indian blood from more than one source: Chief Cucklemaker, and from an Indian squaw that was known by the English name of Martha Butler. The name of Martha Butler is well documented, so we will let her rest in peace. The past existence of Cucklemaker is not very well documented. For this reason, a few people believe the "Chief" never existed. In the following paragraphs, we will share some of the "scant" information we have received over the years. We hope you can provide answers to some of the questions we will be dealing with. If you have answers, let us hear from you.


According to family tradition, the grandchildren of Cucklemaker told many stories about their Indian grandfather. Some of these stories have survived through the years, and are often repeated today. They said that he was an Indian Chief-, that he married a French widow with two children from her first marriage, and produced two more children through her marriage to Cucklemaker. Information from different sources agree that the name of his wife was Elizabeth Marie Calis-Duneleaux. It is believed that the date of his birth was around 1750 - 1755. His marriage to the French widow was around the year of 1778. One of the stories of the past informs us that Cucklemaker refused to become involved in clashes against other Indians. Because of this, sometime during the year of 1792 Cucklemaker was ambushed and shot to death at the same location where Ross Church now stands. The person that committed the crime was never apprehended. His name remains a mystery to this day.

Ross Church Community is located near the center of Bertie County. We are told that this is where Cucklemaker made his home, acquired much land and enjoyed prosperity. My father and several of his siblings were bom in the late 1800's. They remembered their grandmother Penelope Cale-Mizell Hoggard, and her stories about her father Charney Cale, and grandfather Cucklemaker, alias John Cale, Indian. According to the family, Charney and all his children had strong Indian physical traits. Penelope's grandchildren repeated her stories as long as they lived. They told of how Cucklemaker acquired much of his land through "foot-racing" competition; that he was "swift" on his feet, and a long-distance runner of great endurance. There are many other stories of which we can't recall all the details. There are conflicting stories which we will refer to later.

Some of the land that Cucklemaker was "assumed" to have owned is located between Ross Church and Todd's Crossroads, a distance of one mile. At the half-mile point between these two locations, there is a field on the northwest side of the road with a small creek on its northeast boundary. The name of the creek is Cucklemaker Creek. This creek is also known as Cucklemaker Swamp, and is a better description. Near this small creek, there is a large mound of earth. According to tradition, somewhere within this mound is the remains of Cucklemaker and his French wife, Elizabeth. Some people believe that the answer to many of today's questions about their family was buried with them.


The mound is generally referred to as the "Indian Graveyard,"or the "Cale Graveyard." It is believed that many members of the Cale family were buried at this location. The mound is about 200 feet from the creek, and about the same distance from the road. The mound is now covered with a growth of large pine trees and a thicket of "cat- claw" briars. In the field where this mound is located, shards of pottery, fragments of clay tobacco pipes, and arrow heads have been collected until there is nothing to be found of any significance.

Some of these probably date back for hundreds of years. Some people believe that the mound was either built, or started by the early Native Americans. My mother, Bessie Miller Hoggard (1899 - 1994) told me some years ago that she attended the last funeral and burial at this site. The year was 1906. It is believed that some of the early members of the James Ross Log Meeting House (Ross Church) were buried at this location. We live near this mound, and can see the trees that tower over it from our home. Each time we see the mound, we think of an Indian from the past.

Cucklemaker Creek is very small for the volume of water that flows through it. During periods of heavy rainfall, water flows over the banks and floods the fields. Water in the creek flows in a southerly direction through Will's Quarter swamp, as it makes its way to Cashie River. The nearest part of the creek to the Indian graveyard was named the "Baptizing Hole" during the early 1800's. According to the early records of Ross Church, hundreds of people were baptized in this small creek, as they became members, summer and winter. Some people believe that the creek was named after Cucklemaker. Others believe that the creek was named before his time, and he named himself after the creek. Since the Indians had lived in this area many years before the arrival of Cucklemaker, we would think that they had already named the creek. However, if this creek was known by another name, chances are favorable that it was changed to "Cucua Mucua" (Cucklemaker) sometime during the late 1700's.


It has been told by different sources from opposite directions, that the wife of Cucklemaker was a French Huguenot (Protestant). These sources agree that her name was Elizabeth Marie Calis-Duneleaux. She was the widow of a Frenchman, Henri Duneleaux, and had two children during their marriage, a male, and a female. The name of the female was Marie. We have been, told that she married John Mizell, and produced a son by him that they named "Little-John." The male was named after his father, Henri Duneleaux. We are informed that the English version of the French name "Duneleaux" was "Dunclow," also "Dundelow." Henri, the son, was said to be a short man and was known as Henry "Lowhill" Dundelow. It is interesting to note at this point that a man by the name of John Dundelow became a member of Ross Church during the month of August 1822. More Dundelows, both male and female became members later.

When Cucklemaker married Elizabeth, we are told that he changed his name to Jean Calis, the name of Elizabeth's father.. Later, he Anglicized to the English name of John Kail (Cale). According to the rules of The Anglican Church (Church of England - Episcopal), Cucklemaker officially became an English subject if he Anglicized to John Cale (?). This process required Cucklemaker to take an oath of loyalty to the British Crown, and gave him the rights and privileges of other Englishmen.

The verbal story of Cucklemaker states that he sired two children by Elizabeth after their marriage: Tilury Cale and Charney Cale. Little information has surfaced on the life of Tilury Cale. When we view the handwriting of the 1700's, we see the capital letters "T" and "S" were similar in configuration; the same with "u" and "v;" "r" and "e." For this reason, some people believe the name Tilury should be read as Silvey. However, some descendents believe that Tilury did exist; that he was born during the year of 1781, and later married Amilia Bryant. Some say that both Tilury and Silvey existed. Others say that there is only one person involved in these two names. We are looking forward to see more information surface on this subject.

There is no problem in documenting the past existence of Charney Cale. His date of birth is given as the year of 1779. He married Elizabeth Harmon on October 24, 1804. According to the information we have, they had no children until 1814, or 1817. By the year of 1829 they had eleven children. It is through these children and their descendants that the story of their Indian grandfather, Chief Cucklemaker, has traveled in all directions, and has survived for over 200 years. Today, the descendants of Charney Cale number in the thousands. After the death of Charney's wife Elizabeth, he married Judith Mizell, December 20, 1848. Judith was the daughter of Elder Moses Mizell. Moses Mizell was ordained as a "religious Minister of the Gospel" at Ross Church during the month of June 1843, by former pastor Elder James Ross. Charney -Cale became a member of Ross Church during the month of August in 1824. For the next twenty-five years, his name appears many times in the church minutes where he was appointed to serve on various committees. On July 24, 1860, Chamey Cale departed from this life. There is information that he was buried in the Indian/Cale Graveyard.


Let it be said here, that this is not, an attempt to give a correct genealogical account of this family. However, it is an attempt to obtain additional information on Charney's family. The information we have is not complete, and is subject to being inaccurate. We would appreciate the receipt of any additional information.

Wife of Charney: Elizabeth Harmon, daughter of Parker and Patricia Harmon.
1. Jesse- Born ca 1810, died ca 1848

2. Windfield L.- Born ?, died 1/10/1848

3. Loderick or Lodowick- Born ca 1818, died ca 1838 in Cass County, Illinois. Married Fanny Lavina White daughter of  David White and Rachael Cowand.   

4.  Duncan L. Born  2/8/1817, died 4/23/1885. Married Harriet Hoggard, daughter of Elisha.

5.  Gilbert R. Born 1818, died 11/17/1844 in Autauga County, Alabama

6.   Martha - Born 1819, died  9/11/1845. Married Henry Baker

7.   Amelia E. - Born 1820, died 1/27/1847.

8.    Mary E.- Born 1821, died ca. 1865 Married Issac Pearce.

9.    Elizabeth Born 1822, died  10/7/1854. Married David Pearce

10.    Sarah (Sally) Born 1/28/1827, died 12/12/1911 Married Henry Baker 

11.   Penelope - Born 5/23/1829, died  8/3/1920. Married William D. Mizell. After the death of William, she married Joseph E. "Pegleg" Hoggard, son of Reddick, and grandson of Elisha.

12.    Charney Cale II- Born 1826, died 7/1861 in Yadkin County, NC. Married Christian (Kitty)  Caroline Mizelle

After Martha died in 1845, Henry Baker married Sarah.


On the surface, the story of Chief Cucklemaker is a simple story about an Indian that married a French woman, changed his name to "John Cale," and sired two children by his French wife. Through one of these children, Charney Cale, he became the ancestor of many people.... End of story. This is but a brief story, but when researched the many questions involved become endless, and this grand old story gets complicated. We would like to share some of the questions that are asked about the family of Chief Cucklemaker, alias John Cale. Perhaps, someone that reads this can provide some answers.

If Cucklemaker was an Indian chief, did he ever have a tribe, if so, what was the name of it, and what happened to it? If he did not have a tribe why was he called a chief ? Was he native to this area, or did he move here from another area? If he moved here from another area, where was the other area located ? Of the three Indian linguistic stocks that lived in this area at one time, of which stock did he belong to, Algonqian, Iroquois, or the Sioux? How was it possible for him to "enjoy prosperity" during a time when other Indians had admitted defeat, and had either died or moved away in despair, due to the encroachment and harsh treatment of the "white" settlers? Where did he become involved with the French, of which he took a wife? Why did he change his name from the French name of Jean Calis, to the English name of John Cale? If it is known that he had two children, Tilury and Charney, why is there no documentation other than "hear-say" ?

The story now begins to get complicated. There is good evidence that Charney Cale lived his early years as "Charney Dundelow". This evidence indicates that Charney changed his name to "Cale" when he was about forty years of age. Also, it has been said that Charney was not born to "Indian John's" Elizabeth, but was born to a woman that was known as Grace Cale, and had a sister that was known as Silvey (Silvia) Cale. If Charney was born to either Grace Cale, or John Cale and Elizabeth, why was he a Dundelow? If he was born a Dundelow, why did he wait forty years to change his name to Cale? The following evidence might suggest an answer to the Charney Dundelow story: It is said that Grace Cale was sister to a man that was known as "John Cale", Englishman. We will return to Charney later.


One of the stories about the ancestry of Cucklemaker informs us that he was of Algonquin stock, and the last chief of the Roanoke Nation (Tribe); a descendant of Chief Wanchese, brother of Manteo. This story does not offer any suggestions as to why he moved to Bertie County. Another story places him in Perquimans County "where he was born", and moved to Bertie County as a young man. It is suggested through other stories that he was one of the last survivors of the Chowan Tribes.

Some of the people that have researched this Indian place him in the Iroquoian (Tuscarora) Nation. According to these sources, it is believed that the family of Cucklemaker moved from the Pamlico River area to the Indian Woods Reservation in Bertie County during the year of 1717. Other Tuscarora tribes moved on this reservation during the same year. According to the opinion of all that have researched this Indian, the possibility of Sioux ancestry is not to be considered. A brief look at the Algonquin and Iroquoian Nations during Cucklemaker's time might help us to form a favorable opinion on one of these stories.


According to early North Carolina history, the Algonquin (also Algonqin, and Algonquian) Nation occupied the coastal areas from the Virginia line to the Cape Lookout area. Their inland boundary began at the Virginia line, and followed a line running south, crossing the Chowan River near Bennet's Creek, including a small strip of Bertie County on the east. From the Chowan River, this line formed an arch that extended to the New Bern area, then turned southeast to Cape Lookout. (See map A, pg. 12.) Around the year of 1650, a description of these Indians was entered into the journal of one of the early surveyors as follows: " We found the inhabitants of this land to be very numerous, brave, and likeable 'savages'." Some of this territory was set up as an Indian Province. There were many independent Tribes. The year 1660 marked the beginning of the end for these "poor souls." This was when the settlers from Virginia began to move into the coastal areas. These settlers were afflicted and obsessed with a sinful condition known as "power and greed." The decline of the coastal tribes was very rapid. By the year of 1750 the only coastal tribe intact was the Chowan Tribe, with few members. During the year of 1752, Bishop Spangenberg of Edenton wrote, "The Chowan Indians are reduced to a few families, and their land has been taken away from them." Three years later in 1755, Governor Dobbs reported that the Chowan Tribe consisted of two men, and seven women and children who were "ill used by their neighbors." The same year of Dobbs' report, the coastal North Carolina Algonquin Indian Nation vanished from history. (Compare Map B, pg. 13 with Map C, pg. 14.) To prevent starvation, the few Indians that remained were forced to do something they had fought and struggled for a hundred years to resist; they joined a society of white people.

According to the story of Cucklemaker, he was bom around 1750-1755. If he was from an Algonqian tribe, he was born during the time the few Indian survivors were reluctantly joining the "white society" to avoid starvation. There are stories of many Indians selling themselves into slavery during this time. The theory from this location is, if Cucklemaker was Algonquin, he was probably from the Chowan Tribe. Do you suppose that some white family had mercy on one of the children mentioned in Dobbs' report, adopted him, and later moved to Bertie County? An old map dated 1748 shows what appears to be an "E. Cale" homestead between Edenton and the present location of Chowan River Bridge. (See Map B, pg., 13.) It is possible that a connection could have been made there. When we consider the possibility of Cucklemaker being the chief of an Algonquin Tribe, we must compare the date of his birth, 1750-1755, with the date the last tribe ceased to exist, 1755. He would have been one, to five years old at this time - a very young chief. It would have been difficult for him to prove that he was brave and strong, and possessed survival and leadership skills. This test was required before an Indian could become the chief of a tribe.


The Iroquois of eastern North Carolina were referred to as the "Tuscarora of the Coastal Plains." They were of the same stock as the Cherokee in western North Carolina. The Sioux Indian "Nation" occupied the central (Piedmont) section, separating the Tuscarora from the Cherokee. (See Map A, pg. 12.) The Tuscarora tribes were described as a peace loving people. However, if they were provoked or threatened they became "wild and very aggressive." During the late 1600's white settlers became a threat to their lifestyle. The traders would visit the Indian settlements and carry away many valuables for one bottle of rum. Information from journals and diaries written during this time tells of how the Indians would drink rum and "howl like a pack of bedlamites." The settlers began to acquire Indian property by any means possible, then forbade them to hunt on the property for game needed to feed their families. By the early 1700's the Indians learned that the settlers, Swiss and German, were planing to build a town on the Neuse River that they would name New Bern. The Tuscarora realized that they were in the process of being either forced out, or dominated by this white society.

Before the year of 1700 the Tuscarora of the Coastal Plains had divided into two groups, the southern tribes, and the northern tribes. The leaders of these groups, being impressed with English titles, had elevated their position to that of "King." King Hancock was the leader of the southern tribes. King Tom Blunt was the leader of the northern tribes. A report of 170l estimated the combined population of these tribes at 5000-7000, of which 1200-1300 were "fighting men." This report included a list of fifteen Indian towns, some as far west as Orange County, and an impressive number of tribes in the Pamlico and Neuse River areas. Included in these reports were the unscrupulous deeds that were being committed by some of the Englishmen. According to the report, Indian family members, men, women, and children were being "removed" from their families and taken to South Carolina where they were sold as slaves. If a father tried to protect his family, he was killed before the other members of the family were taken away by force. The English tried to justify this "slave market" by calling the Indians "savages." There is another interesting name the English used when referring to themselves: "Christians."

In the year of 1710 the Tuscarora Tribes made an appeal to the provincial government in Pennsylvania, asking for a friendlier region to relocate where they would be free from "evil encroachments." They told the officials that many of their people were being sold into slavery, and of others being killed when defending their children and friends. The officials were already aware of the conditions between whites and the Tuscarora, and promised to help them with the problem. The Indian delegation returned to their tribes in North Carolina and waited. The promise made by the officials was never fulfilled. was apparent that their request had been ignored, the southern Tuscarora tribes under the leadership of King Hancock decided to employ the "Tuscarora method" in an effort to earn some respect from the English. Hancock secretly became allied with the Algonquin tribes on the Pamlico River, Sound, and adjacent inland areas. It is believed that some of the northern Tuscarora tribes were also members of this pact.

In the early morning hours of September 22, 1711, the war cries were heard: The "Tuscarora War" had begun. According to early North Carolina history, the first person to be killed by the Tuscarora was the best white friend they had, British Surveyor General and Historian, John D Larson. The first three days of the war has been described as a massacre of white men, women, and children, along the Trent, Neuse, and Pamlico rivers, including adjacent territory. For the next two years the war alternated between sporadic clashes and general war. During this time the Tuscarora maintained their attacks as the English grew weaker, and realized that they were all but defeated. The English, in desperation, "begged" King Tom Blunt and his northern Tuscarora tribes for help. They promised Blunt permanent land and financial support for his tribes if he would help them to defeat Hancock and his tribes. Blunt agreed. The northern tribes entered the war, and were later aided by a detachment of militiamen from South Carolina. History credits Tom Blunt and the northern tribes for saving the "white man" during the Tuscarora War.

After the war, the remnants of the defeated southern tribes of the Tuscarora began a long and slow migration to New York State. The northern tribes, diminished in number and disorganized due to the war, were united under the leadership of Chief Tom Blunt. Blunt and his tribes were rewarded with land on the Pamlico River, where they established a reservation. During the following two years, Blunt's tribes were attacked repeatedly by what was believed to have been disorganized renegade Indians from the south. The Tuscarora asked for, and received land for a new reservation. In the year of 1717, what remained of the Tuscarora Nation of the Coastal Plains moved to their last reservation. The land was described as being among the most fertile in the State of North Carolina. This land is still known as the " Indian Woods of Bertie County, North of the Roanoke."

When the Tuscarora moved to this new reservation and saw the good soil and ideal hunting and fishing conditions, they probably thought that some of their problems were behind them. They might have even entertained the thought that some day in the future they would be accepted as people, not as "red skin savages." The Indians prospered for a few years before they began to experience problems that were familiar to them: Encroachment from outsiders. Many died due to the "white man's diseases," of which their immune systems had never developed, resistance. By the.year of 1750 they had lost much of their land, and outsiders dominated their affairs. There are stories of these people livng in poverty, which caused both males and females to leave the reservation in search of work. As mentioned earlier, Bishop Spangenberg, on September 15, 1752 visited the Chowan Tribe located near Bennet's Creek. Ten days later, on September 25, he visited the Tuscarora in the Indian Woods. His diary provides the following: "We also visited the Tuscaroras, who live on the Roanoke.... The Indians have no king, but a captain elected from among them by the whites. There are also several chiefs among them ... they live in great poverty, and are oppressed by the whites...." During the early 1800's the Tuscarora vacated the Indian Woods Reservation. They probable moved out without a chief to lead them, into a world that had been hostile to them since the arrival of the white man. Their last chief, Samuel Smith, died in 1812. There is good evidence that all of these people never migrated to New York State as once reported. It is believed that a large number settled in the counties of Gates, Northhampton, and the northern boundary of Hertford. What was once a proud and brave nation had ended.


There are some skeptics about Cucklemaker and the French connection (his wife). They have some questions about where he could have found a French woman. They have probably forgotten some of the history of our past. By the late 1600's there was a French presence in all of what became the original thirteen Colonies. In North-Carolina, the French settled in the Pamlico, Neuse, and Trent River areas. They established the Town of Bath, the first town to become incorporated in North Carolina. (See Text, pg. 15.) These areas where the French settled were in Indian Territory. One factor in why the French and Indians became good friends is because they shared a common enemy: The English. After the Tuscarora war, the tribes lived on a reservation on the Pamlico River for about two years, which was near a French settlement. An old Tuscarora tradition states that the French moved in, merged, and became family members as they intermarried. In the year of 1717 they all moved to the Indian Woods Reservation in Bertie County as one unit. There is a possibility that some of the members of this unit were the ancestors of Henri Duneleaux, Elizabeth Marie Calis, and Chief Cucklemaker.

There was another event that united some French families with the Tuscarora. The French-Indian War (1754-1763) was fought during the time Cucklemaker, Henri, and Elizabeth were probably growing up as children. This was an effort by the English to force the French from all the colonies. The French and many Indians from the north became allied against the English. After nine years of war, the English prevailed. An agreement was made to the effect that all French subjects would leave the colonies and move into either Canada, or west of the Mississippi into Louisiana Territory. (See Map D, pg. 16.) According to history, many of the French subjects sought refuge among Indian tribes, were accepted, and never moved from the colonies.

The purpose for this brief history of the Algonquin, Tuscarora, and French, is to establish a background that will support one of the Cucklemaker stories. We have included dates and events that will enable us to eliminate some of the stories we have heard about this Indian. According to some of these dates, if he was a chief, he was not of Algonquin stock. The Tuscarora and French history supports a background for his ancestory, his wife, his title as an Indian chief, his presence in Bettie County, and a reason for leaving the reservation.


Some people have tried to research the stories that have been told about Cucklemaker and his family. Much of this has been done to in an effort to establish his past existence as a documented fact. Experienced genealogists will tell us that many family related events, and facts, were never documented back in the 1700's, due to circumstances at the time. Our best source of information on family matters during that time was recorded in family Bibles and personal diaries. We remember people that were bom in the late 1800's that filed for social security benefits during the 1960's. They had paid into the program, but were not eligible for benefits because they could not produce a birth certificate. There were no records to prove that their birth was a fact. Some of these people produced proof of their date-of-birth through family Bibles. Others had to pursue their rights to benefits through the medical and legal professions. Back in the 1700's and 1800's, many of our families failed to record some important events that we would like to obtain information on today. We can think of reasons why some of these events (births, marriages, etc.) were never recorded: Illiteracy, illegitimacy, and complacency. Cases such as these are what we call "undocumented facts." The case of Chief Cucklemaker is in a related category, and probably includes one or more of the following: Illiteracy, illegitimacy, and complacency. Richard Caswell was the first constitutional governor of North Carolina. His name is written in encyclopedias, U.S., and N.C. history books. He served as governor from 1776 through 1780, the same period of time of which we are trying to obtain information, preferably documentation. When Governor Caswell died, newspapers covered his funeral and burial, and notations were made in his family diary. Today, no one knows where Governor Caswell was buried. If a marker was ever placed on his grave, it has been missing so long that nobody remembers seeing it. All the people that wrote about his death failed to record the site of his burial. We used the case of Caswell as a reminder that some events of the past cannot be documented.

We don't believe all the stories we have heard about Cucklemaker, but we believe that some of the stories should be considered. We may never know all the details, but we believe the past existence of the "Chief"' is an undocumented fact. When,we believe something, but don't have the facts to prove it, we are told to work on theory. Since we have a number of stories on this subject that has been shared with us over the years by other interested people, including possible information through research, we have formed an opinion and a personal theory. We have tried to include information in the foregoing paragraphs that will support our theory. We will hold to this theory until substantial information surfaces that would indicate a need for reconsideration.


As previously stated, it is believed that many people of French ancestry moved with the Tuscarora from the Pamlico River area to Bertie County during the year of 1717. We are assuming that Henri Duneleaux and Elizabeth Marie Calis were bom at the Indian Woods Reservation, where they later married and produced two children. Sometime before, or during the year of 1778 Henri Duneleaux died. There are reports that he died during the early days of the Revolutionary War. Chances are, Cucklemaker and Henri had been friends, so he received Henri's wife and children to support. At this time conditions on the reservation were not favorable to support a family. As Bishop Spangenberg noted in his diary, "they were living in great poverty." Cucklemaker decided to leave the reservation to find better conditions. This is probably when he changed his name. He could have changed his name to either Henry, or Jean Duneleaux (Dunelow) as a tribute to his friend, and his wife's first husband, or his wife's father. There are many stories about him changing his name to John Cale. We believe that the most appropriate name in the overall picture of the Cucklemaker story is "Dunelow."

After Cucklemaker and Elizabeth left the reservation, we believe they found a family that befriended them, and helped them to start a new life. The head of that family was probably John Cale, Englishman. This new life proved to be successful and prosperous due to the leadership skills of this former Indian chief, and help from the Cale family. During the early years of their marriage, two children were born. The name of one of these children was Charney. The name of the other was either Tilury, or Silvey. There have been suggestions that Sylvia was Charney's sister, and they were the illegitimate children of Grace Cale, sister to John Cale. In a typewritten copy of the Last will and Testament of Grace Cale, she willed "all the goods that I am professing of to her "loving daughter" Sylvia Cate. A Charney Cale is mentioned in this will, but is referred to as her grandson. It is known that there were as many as three Charney Cales. This will was written March 15, 1816. This is the same period of time that Charney, "son of Cucklemaker" was known as a "Dundelow." Some people have searched "high and low" in an effort to place Charney Dundelow/Cale in a family other than that of his Indian father and French mother. To our knowledge, no one has succeeded in those efforts. It is believed by many, also from here, that the "Chief" was his father, and Elizabeth was his mother. However, after the death of his parents, we believe he developed a close relationship with the John Cale family.

One of the stories about Cucklemaker informs us that he Anglicized to the name of John Cale (?). This was after he married Elizabeth, and after he had lived an unknown period of time as "Jean Calis" (?). According to the story, he married Elizabeth during the year of 1778. This date should be compared with other dates and events of this same period of time. We all remember that the American Revolutionary War began the year of 1775. In 1776 the original colonies became united, agreed upon, signed, and announced a Declaration of Independence from the British Crown. After this, according to our history during this period of time, it was illegal for anyone to pledge allegiance or loyalty to the British Crown through the Anglican Church (Church of England). Vowing to be loyal to the British Crown was a requirement of the Anglicization process. The law making this illegal was enacted two years before Cucklemaker and Elizabeth became married. By the end of the Revolutionary War, the Church of England ceased to exist in the United States. This church split and became either the Anglican Communion Church, or the independent Protestant Episcopdl Church.

According to the dates in the last paragraph, if Cucklemaker failed to Anglicize to John Cale before July 4, 1776, it probably didn't happen. Then why is the name of John Cale so prominent in the Cucklemaker story? We offer the following suggestions that may, or may not be valid. During the years following the Revolutionary War, the Bertie County govennnent consisted of justices of the peace that was appointed by the Governor of North Carolina. These people were appointed for life, and were to serve without pay. The justices of the peace appointed officers to oversee the affairs of each precinct. These justices and officers were responsible for the judicial system, roads, bridges, taxes, the general welfare of the citizens, and other business. During those days of our past history, the average life span was much shorter than it is today. Because of this, many children became orphans. It was the responsibility of the county officials to find homes and training for those children. The children were usually placed in private homes under the supervision of stepparents of good character. They were taught a vocation and trained in the necessary social skills to prepare them for adulthood. This proved to be a humane and successful system.

According to the dates we are using, Charney would have been thirteen years of age, or younger, at the death of his Indian father. It is possible that he could have been placed in a private home, and that home could have been that of John Cale. It is also possible that John became the administrator of any property that was left to Chamey. As Charney grew into adulthood, he could have accepted John as his father. This could explain why some of the stories we have heard, say that Cucklemaker, and John Cale were the names of the same person. Charney probably had two fathers, his biological father, and his stepfather. Charney's children never knew Cucklemaker, or John Cale. Both had died before their time. What they did know was that their father was of "Indian blood;" that their grandfather's name was Cucklemaker, also John Cale. The reason for this is not because Cucklemaker. changed his name, it is because Charney changed fathers. The person that changed his name to Cale was Charney Dunelow. This could account for a "mix-up" of names as the story was told over the years. If something as has just been described really happened, we can understand why it is so difficult to locate our Indian ancestor of the past. He did what Indians do best, he covered his tracks well.

A last word on Charney, "the son of the Chief." We may never find any information on his training from childhood to adulthood, but we know that he was trained well. He either inherited much property, or acquired it through other means as he lived a successful life. From a Bertie County Census taken during the year of 1850, Charney is listed as being sixty-seven years of age. He was living with his second wife, Juda (Judith) Mizell-Cale, forty-eight years of age. Other members of the household were his daughter, Penelope Cale-Mizell, age twenty-four, and her two children by her deceased husband, William Dossey Mizell. The names of the children were listed as Charney L. Mizell, age three; and William D. Mizell, Jr., age one. Charney's property was listed as 2000 acres of land. We feel that we have acquired some knowledge of Charney's character from the old records of Ross Church. We believe that he was "sometimes" honest, but mischievous. On one occasion, he went before the church and charged himself with being recently intoxicated. During those years, a deacon charged with intoxication usually resulted in termination of membership. For some reason, Charney was forgiven. On another occasion, Penelope Hoggard (believed to be the widow of Elder John Hoggard) brought charges against Charney, demanding that he be reprimanded for "spooking" her horse, then "acting disorderly" afterward. The church instructed them to settle their differences privately. Time and again, Penelope brought up this incident and insisted the church take action. It seems that she became so "worked up" that the church "excluded" her from membership. Charney was restored to fellowship. One more question: Why did Charney change his name from Dundelow to Cale? The word that has been passed on to us is that he had an extramarital affair with a woman that resulted in the birth of a child. When the mother of the child began to demand support, he changed his name to Cale. We have no idea why this should have relieved him of that responsibility, but we believe that Charney Cale had a way of doing things that usually worked in his favor.


As previously stated, Henri and Marie were the children of Elizabeth and Henri Duneleaux. We have no way of knowing what age they were when their father died. When Cucklemaker married Elizabeth, we believe he accepted them as part of his family and provided for them. Since we have nothing but "hearsay" information on them, we will share what we have, and believe. The word is that Marie married John Mizell. We believe this John Mizell was one of the early members of Ross Church. In the month of May 1806 the following entry was made in the church minutes: "Saturday before the fourth Lord's day in May, The meeting was held at John Mizell's, and was introduced by Elder James Ross. No business done. The most of the brothers being present, and appeared in peace and love with each other." This John Mizell lived southeast of Will's Quarter Swamp, on the southwestern edge of what we know today as the "Big Woods." A road was built through this general area after the days of John. It begins at the old Hoggard Mill and ends at Green's Cross. On this road is a small farm that was known as the "Will Mizell Home- place." Mr. "Will" died around 1955. It is believed from here that he was a descendent of John, and was living on land that was formerly owned by John. It is possible that the Mizelles in the Green's Cross area are members of this family. There are many Mizelles today. . Marie and John are probably busy counting her descendants.

We are led to believe that Henri Duneleaux, Jr. (Henry "Lowhill" Dundelow) did not move from this area. We are told that the surname Dunelow (Dundelow, today Dunlow) originated in this immediate area. We have no information on Henry's family; however, there is a name from the past that could be a clue. Up until the late 1950's, a man by the name of Charlie Dunelow attended Ross Church. At this time he was over ninety years of age, and had several children. He named his first son C. Henry Dunelow. Charlie Dunelow was probably born around 1868. He could have been a descendant of Henry "Lowhill" Dunelow. Charlie lived about three miles from the church on the Askewville Road. The Dunlows still own property there.


There are some unwritten messages to be found in the history of Indians. One of these messages reminds us that many Indians "owned " property for which they never obtained deeds for proof of ownership. Their experience in dealing with the English taught them that a document in their possession was ignored and useless. They would settle on property with the intention of fighting to maintain ownership when threatened, or move to another location. In these cases, documenting past ownership is very difficult. This situation may apply in the case of Cucklemaker, and could make it impossible to prove that he was ever a property owner. However, if the English name he used can be determined, there is a possibility of some documentation. It is possible that some of the descendants have information that would help to put the story of Cucklemaker together as a fact. If this information exists, we would greatly appreciate the opportunity to meet, or bear from anyone that has it. We will welcome anything from a simple traditional story, to copies of written documentation.

Our history states that "white families" were the pioneers of this area, and our nation. This is a misleading statement. The real pioneers arrived here thousands of years before the presence of the white man. They became friends with nature, and were contented with what nature provided for them. They lived a life void of many of the diseases that arrived here with the "white strangers." Some of the techniques they developed, such as dehydration of food, tanning of animal hides, medicine from herbs, etc., are still used today. The military still teaches many survival techniques that were developed by these early pioneers that became known as the "red man." They developed skills that enabled them to produce tools and weaponry from stone and bone; canoes from logs and bark; cooking utensils and storage containers from clay and bamboo, rope and binding materials from vegetation and animal organs. These things were produced without the use of any implements, other than ingenuity and the hands. As we walk through some of the fields where they once occupied, fragments of pottery and stone can still be seen. The names they gave to many of our rivers, towns, and other locations have become a part of our dialect. It has been estimated that as many as 85% of us that descended from the early settlers of this area, have also been "infused" with a trace of Indian ancestory. Many people are unaware of the "red man's" genes they inherited.

We inherited this Indian ancestory in many ways: Some by direct descent, others by indirect descent. There were many legitimate and common-law marriages between Indians and whites. During the middle to late 1700's, the Indians in this area were so poverty stricken that they often accepted jobs of servitude among the white settlers. The males usually became common laborers. The females became servants, and all too often, the mistress to the "master"of the family. Many children were born as a result of these relationships, and were accepted as family members. During the year of 1763, the Rev. Alexander Stewart, a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, visited Hyde County and made the following report: "The remains of the Attamuskeet (Mattamuskeet), Roanoke and Hatteras Indians, live mostly along the coast, mixed with the white inhabitants. Many of these attended the places of public worship while I was there, and behaved with decency and seemed desirous of instruction. They offered themselves and their children to me for baptism...." Similar stories are told of the Tuscarora mixing with the whites after their tribes became disorganized. T'he French and Indians "freely" intermarried, and the offspring became members of our society. For 250 years these Indian genes have been distributed through marriage and offspring. The Cucklemaker story is probably more typical than unusual.

Through the journals and diaries of the early surveyors and clergymen, we can learn of things from our past that are not taught from our history books. From this information, we have made an effort to include some events and dates of the time span in which the "assumed" Cucklemaker was born and lived. We hope some of these can be useful to the descendants that still remember, and tell the stories of their Indian ancestors. Long lives the "Chief."

Stanley Hoggard
1112 Bull Hill Rd.
Windsor, NC 27983

(252) 794-3959

If you claim to be a descendant of Chief Cucua Mucua (Cucklemaker), and you have a story about his past existence, please send a note or call us. Perhaps, some day we can write his story based on fact.

Note from Neil Baker. If any one has any info about this please let me know. Note: Neil Baker passed away. We are continually grateful for all his contributions.

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