Some of the stories that have been told are included on the following pages. However, these stories lack
consistency making it impossible to determine which, if any, are facts. Included on the following pages are
dates, events, and some of the conditions that existed between the early settlers and the Indians of this area
between the years of 1650 and the early 1800's. Much of this information was "borrowed" from the diaries
and journals of people that lived during that time. Some information is from an old North Carolina history
book that was published in 1941. For all that are searching for answers, we hope the contents of these pages
will be helpful in some way.
Written by: Stanley Hoggard, Descendant     March 15, 1999
Ross Church Community is located near the center of Bertie County. We are told that this is where Cucklemaker made his home, acquired much land and enjoyed prosperity. My father and several of his siblings were bom in the late 1800's. They remembered their grandmother Penelope Cale-Mizell Hoggard, and her stories about her father Charney Cale, and grandfather Cucklemaker, alias John Cale, Indian. According to the family, Charney and all his children had strong Indian physical traits. Penelope's grandchildren repeated her stories as long as they lived. They told of how Cucklemaker acquired much of his land through "foot-racing" competition; that he was "swift" on his feet, and a long-distance runner of great endurance. There are many other stories of which we can't recall all the details. There are conflicting stories which we will refer to later.
Some of the land that Cucklemaker was "assumed" to have owned is located between Ross Church and Todd's Crossroads, a distance of one mile. At the half-mile point between these two locations, there is a field on the northwest side of the road with a small creek on its northeast boundary. The name of the creek is Cucklemaker Creek. This creek is also known as Cucklemaker Swamp, and is a better description. Near this small creek, there is a large mound of earth. According to tradition, somewhere within this mound is the remains of Cucklemaker and his French wife, Elizabeth. Some people believe that the answer to many of today's questions about their family was buried with them.
Some of these probably date back for hundreds of years. Some people believe that the mound was either built, or started by the early Native Americans. My mother, Bessie Miller Hoggard (1899 - 1994) told me some years ago that she attended the last funeral and burial at this site. The year was 1906. It is believed that some of the early members of the James Ross Log Meeting House (Ross Church) were buried at this location. We live near this mound, and can see the trees that tower over it from our home. Each time we see the mound, we think of an Indian from the past.
Cucklemaker Creek is very small for the volume of water that flows through it. During periods of heavy rainfall, water flows over the banks and floods the fields. Water in the creek flows in a southerly direction through Will's Quarter swamp, as it makes its way to Cashie River. The nearest part of the creek to the Indian graveyard was named the "Baptizing Hole" during the early 1800's. According to the early records of Ross Church, hundreds of people were baptized in this small creek, as they became members, summer and winter. Some people believe that the creek was named after Cucklemaker. Others believe that the creek was named before his time, and he named himself after the creek. Since the Indians had lived in this area many years before the arrival of Cucklemaker, we would think that they had already named the creek. However, if this creek was known by another name, chances are favorable that it was changed to "Cucua Mucua" (Cucklemaker) sometime during the late 1700's.
When Cucklemaker married Elizabeth, we are told that he changed his name to Jean Calis, the name of Elizabeth's father.. Later, he Anglicized to the English name of John Kail (Cale). According to the rules of The Anglican Church (Church of England - Episcopal), Cucklemaker officially became an English subject if he Anglicized to John Cale (?). This process required Cucklemaker to take an oath of loyalty to the British Crown, and gave him the rights and privileges of other Englishmen.
The verbal story of Cucklemaker states that he sired two children by Elizabeth after their marriage: Tilury Cale and Charney Cale. Little information has surfaced on the life of Tilury Cale. When we view the handwriting of the 1700's, we see the capital letters "T" and "S" were similar in configuration; the same with "u" and "v;" "r" and "e." For this reason, some people believe the name Tilury should be read as Silvey. However, some descendents believe that Tilury did exist; that he was born during the year of 1781, and later married Amilia Bryant. Some say that both Tilury and Silvey existed. Others say that there is only one person involved in these two names. We are looking forward to see more information surface on this subject.
There is no problem in documenting the past existence of Charney Cale. His date of birth is given as the year of 1779. He married Elizabeth Harmon on October 24, 1804. According to the information we have, they had no children until 1814, or 1817. By the year of 1829 they had eleven children. It is through these children and their descendants that the story of their Indian grandfather, Chief Cucklemaker, has traveled in all directions, and has survived for over 200 years. Today, the descendants of Charney Cale number in the thousands. After the death of Charney's wife Elizabeth, he married Judith Mizell, December 20, 1848. Judith was the daughter of Elder Moses Mizell. Moses Mizell was ordained as a "religious Minister of the Gospel" at Ross Church during the month of June 1843, by former pastor Elder James Ross. Charney -Cale became a member of Ross Church during the month of August in 1824. For the next twenty-five years, his name appears many times in the church minutes where he was appointed to serve on various committees. On July 24, 1860, Chamey Cale departed from this life. There is information that he was buried in the Indian/Cale Graveyard.
Wife of Charney: Elizabeth Harmon, daughter of Parker and Patricia Harmon. CHILDREN OF CHARNEY CALE: 1. Jesse- Born ca 1810, died ca 1848 2. Windfield L.- Born ?, died 1/10/1848 3. Loderick or Lodowick- Born ca 1818, died ca 1838 in Cass County, Illinois. Married Fanny Lavina White daughter of David White and Rachael Cowand. 4. Duncan L. Born 2/8/1817, died 4/23/1885. Married Harriet Hoggard, daughter of Elisha. 5. Gilbert R. Born 1818, died 11/17/1844 in Autauga County, Alabama 6. Martha - Born 1819, died 9/11/1845. Married Henry Baker 7. Amelia E. - Born 1820, died 1/27/1847. 8. Mary E.- Born 1821, died ca. 1865 Married Issac Pearce. 9. Elizabeth Born 1822, died 10/7/1854. Married David Pearce 10. Sarah (Sally) Born 1/28/1827, died 12/12/1911 Married Henry Baker 11. Penelope - Born 5/23/1829, died 8/3/1920. Married William D. Mizell. After the death of William, she married Joseph E. "Pegleg" Hoggard, son of Reddick, and grandson of Elisha. 12. Charney Cale II- Born 1826, died 7/1861 in Yadkin County, NC. Married Christian (Kitty) Caroline Mizelle After Martha died in 1845, Henry Baker married Sarah.
If Cucklemaker was an Indian chief, did he ever have a tribe, if so, what was the name of it, and what happened to it? If he did not have a tribe why was he called a chief ? Was he native to this area, or did he move here from another area? If he moved here from another area, where was the other area located ? Of the three Indian linguistic stocks that lived in this area at one time, of which stock did he belong to, Algonqian, Iroquois, or the Sioux? How was it possible for him to "enjoy prosperity" during a time when other Indians had admitted defeat, and had either died or moved away in despair, due to the encroachment and harsh treatment of the "white" settlers? Where did he become involved with the French, of which he took a wife? Why did he change his name from the French name of Jean Calis, to the English name of John Cale? If it is known that he had two children, Tilury and Charney, why is there no documentation other than "hear-say" ?
The story now begins to get complicated. There is good evidence that Charney Cale lived his early years as "Charney Dundelow". This evidence indicates that Charney changed his name to "Cale" when he was about forty years of age. Also, it has been said that Charney was not born to "Indian John's" Elizabeth, but was born to a woman that was known as Grace Cale, and had a sister that was known as Silvey (Silvia) Cale. If Charney was born to either Grace Cale, or John Cale and Elizabeth, why was he a Dundelow? If he was born a Dundelow, why did he wait forty years to change his name to Cale? The following evidence might suggest an answer to the Charney Dundelow story: It is said that Grace Cale was sister to a man that was known as "John Cale", Englishman. We will return to Charney later.
Some of the people that have researched this Indian place him in the Iroquoian (Tuscarora) Nation. According to these sources, it is believed that the family of Cucklemaker moved from the Pamlico River area to the Indian Woods Reservation in Bertie County during the year of 1717. Other Tuscarora tribes moved on this reservation during the same year. According to the opinion of all that have researched this Indian, the possibility of Sioux ancestry is not to be considered. A brief look at the Algonquin and Iroquoian Nations during Cucklemaker's time might help us to form a favorable opinion on one of these stories.
According to the story of Cucklemaker, he was bom around 1750-1755. If he was from an Algonqian tribe, he was born during the time the few Indian survivors were reluctantly joining the "white society" to avoid starvation. There are stories of many Indians selling themselves into slavery during this time. The theory from this location is, if Cucklemaker was Algonquin, he was probably from the Chowan Tribe. Do you suppose that some white family had mercy on one of the children mentioned in Dobbs' report, adopted him, and later moved to Bertie County? An old map dated 1748 shows what appears to be an "E. Cale" homestead between Edenton and the present location of Chowan River Bridge. (See Map B, pg., 13.) It is possible that a connection could have been made there. When we consider the possibility of Cucklemaker being the chief of an Algonquin Tribe, we must compare the date of his birth, 1750-1755, with the date the last tribe ceased to exist, 1755. He would have been one, to five years old at this time - a very young chief. It would have been difficult for him to prove that he was brave and strong, and possessed survival and leadership skills. This test was required before an Indian could become the chief of a tribe.
Before the year of 1700 the Tuscarora of the Coastal Plains had divided into two groups, the southern tribes, and the northern tribes. The leaders of these groups, being impressed with English titles, had elevated their position to that of "King." King Hancock was the leader of the southern tribes. King Tom Blunt was the leader of the northern tribes. A report of 170l estimated the combined population of these tribes at 5000-7000, of which 1200-1300 were "fighting men." This report included a list of fifteen Indian towns, some as far west as Orange County, and an impressive number of tribes in the Pamlico and Neuse River areas. Included in these reports were the unscrupulous deeds that were being committed by some of the Englishmen. According to the report, Indian family members, men, women, and children were being "removed" from their families and taken to South Carolina where they were sold as slaves. If a father tried to protect his family, he was killed before the other members of the family were taken away by force. The English tried to justify this "slave market" by calling the Indians "savages." There is another interesting name the English used when referring to themselves: "Christians."
In the year of 1710 the Tuscarora Tribes made an appeal to the provincial government in Pennsylvania, asking for a friendlier region to relocate where they would be free from "evil encroachments." They told the officials that many of their people were being sold into slavery, and of others being killed when defending their children and friends. The officials were already aware of the conditions between whites and the Tuscarora, and promised to help them with the problem. The Indian delegation returned to their tribes in North Carolina and waited. The promise made by the officials was never fulfilled. When.it was apparent that their request had been ignored, the southern Tuscarora tribes under the leadership of King Hancock decided to employ the "Tuscarora method" in an effort to earn some respect from the English. Hancock secretly became allied with the Algonquin tribes on the Pamlico River, Sound, and adjacent inland areas. It is believed that some of the northern Tuscarora tribes were also members of this pact.
In the early morning hours of September 22, 1711, the war cries were heard: The "Tuscarora War" had begun. According to early North Carolina history, the first person to be killed by the Tuscarora was the best white friend they had, British Surveyor General and Historian, John D Larson. The first three days of the war has been described as a massacre of white men, women, and children, along the Trent, Neuse, and Pamlico rivers, including adjacent territory. For the next two years the war alternated between sporadic clashes and general war. During this time the Tuscarora maintained their attacks as the English grew weaker, and realized that they were all but defeated. The English, in desperation, "begged" King Tom Blunt and his northern Tuscarora tribes for help. They promised Blunt permanent land and financial support for his tribes if he would help them to defeat Hancock and his tribes. Blunt agreed. The northern tribes entered the war, and were later aided by a detachment of militiamen from South Carolina. History credits Tom Blunt and the northern tribes for saving the "white man" during the Tuscarora War.
After the war, the remnants of the defeated southern tribes of the Tuscarora began a long and slow migration to New York State. The northern tribes, diminished in number and disorganized due to the war, were united under the leadership of Chief Tom Blunt. Blunt and his tribes were rewarded with land on the Pamlico River, where they established a reservation. During the following two years, Blunt's tribes were attacked repeatedly by what was believed to have been disorganized renegade Indians from the south. The Tuscarora asked for, and received land for a new reservation. In the year of 1717, what remained of the Tuscarora Nation of the Coastal Plains moved to their last reservation. The land was described as being among the most fertile in the State of North Carolina. This land is still known as the " Indian Woods of Bertie County, North of the Roanoke."
When the Tuscarora moved to this new reservation and saw the good soil and ideal hunting and fishing conditions, they probably thought that some of their problems were behind them. They might have even entertained the thought that some day in the future they would be accepted as people, not as "red skin savages." The Indians prospered for a few years before they began to experience problems that were familiar to them: Encroachment from outsiders. Many died due to the "white man's diseases," of which their immune systems had never developed, resistance. By the.year of 1750 they had lost much of their land, and outsiders dominated their affairs. There are stories of these people livng in poverty, which caused both males and females to leave the reservation in search of work. As mentioned earlier, Bishop Spangenberg, on September 15, 1752 visited the Chowan Tribe located near Bennet's Creek. Ten days later, on September 25, he visited the Tuscarora in the Indian Woods. His diary provides the following: "We also visited the Tuscaroras, who live on the Roanoke.... The Indians have no king, but a captain elected from among them by the whites. There are also several chiefs among them ... they live in great poverty, and are oppressed by the whites...." During the early 1800's the Tuscarora vacated the Indian Woods Reservation. They probable moved out without a chief to lead them, into a world that had been hostile to them since the arrival of the white man. Their last chief, Samuel Smith, died in 1812. There is good evidence that all of these people never migrated to New York State as once reported. It is believed that a large number settled in the counties of Gates, Northhampton, and the northern boundary of Hertford. What was once a proud and brave nation had ended.
There was another event that united some French families with the Tuscarora. The French-Indian War (1754-1763) was fought during the time Cucklemaker, Henri, and Elizabeth were probably growing up as children. This was an effort by the English to force the French from all the colonies. The French and many Indians from the north became allied against the English. After nine years of war, the English prevailed. An agreement was made to the effect that all French subjects would leave the colonies and move into either Canada, or west of the Mississippi into Louisiana Territory. (See Map D, pg. 16.) According to history, many of the French subjects sought refuge among Indian tribes, were accepted, and never moved from the colonies.
The purpose for this brief history of the Algonquin, Tuscarora, and French, is to establish a background that will support one of the Cucklemaker stories. We have included dates and events that will enable us to eliminate some of the stories we have heard about this Indian. According to some of these dates, if he was a chief, he was not of Algonquin stock. The Tuscarora and French history supports a background for his ancestory, his wife, his title as an Indian chief, his presence in Bettie County, and a reason for leaving the reservation.
We don't believe all the stories we have heard about Cucklemaker, but we believe that some of the stories should be considered. We may never know all the details, but we believe the past existence of the "Chief"' is an undocumented fact. When,we believe something, but don't have the facts to prove it, we are told to work on theory. Since we have a number of stories on this subject that has been shared with us over the years by other interested people, including possible information through research, we have formed an opinion and a personal theory. We have tried to include information in the foregoing paragraphs that will support our theory. We will hold to this theory until substantial information surfaces that would indicate a need for reconsideration.
After Cucklemaker and Elizabeth left the reservation, we believe they found a family that befriended them, and helped them to start a new life. The head of that family was probably John Cale, Englishman. This new life proved to be successful and prosperous due to the leadership skills of this former Indian chief, and help from the Cale family. During the early years of their marriage, two children were born. The name of one of these children was Charney. The name of the other was either Tilury, or Silvey. There have been suggestions that Sylvia was Charney's sister, and they were the illegitimate children of Grace Cale, sister to John Cale. In a typewritten copy of the Last will and Testament of Grace Cale, she willed "all the goods that I am professing of to her "loving daughter" Sylvia Cate. A Charney Cale is mentioned in this will, but is referred to as her grandson. It is known that there were as many as three Charney Cales. This will was written March 15, 1816. This is the same period of time that Charney, "son of Cucklemaker" was known as a "Dundelow." Some people have searched "high and low" in an effort to place Charney Dundelow/Cale in a family other than that of his Indian father and French mother. To our knowledge, no one has succeeded in those efforts. It is believed by many, also from here, that the "Chief" was his father, and Elizabeth was his mother. However, after the death of his parents, we believe he developed a close relationship with the John Cale family.
One of the stories about Cucklemaker informs us that he Anglicized to the name of John Cale (?). This was after he married Elizabeth, and after he had lived an unknown period of time as "Jean Calis" (?). According to the story, he married Elizabeth during the year of 1778. This date should be compared with other dates and events of this same period of time. We all remember that the American Revolutionary War began the year of 1775. In 1776 the original colonies became united, agreed upon, signed, and announced a Declaration of Independence from the British Crown. After this, according to our history during this period of time, it was illegal for anyone to pledge allegiance or loyalty to the British Crown through the Anglican Church (Church of England). Vowing to be loyal to the British Crown was a requirement of the Anglicization process. The law making this illegal was enacted two years before Cucklemaker and Elizabeth became married. By the end of the Revolutionary War, the Church of England ceased to exist in the United States. This church split and became either the Anglican Communion Church, or the independent Protestant Episcopdl Church.
According to the dates in the last paragraph, if Cucklemaker failed to Anglicize to John Cale before July 4, 1776, it probably didn't happen. Then why is the name of John Cale so prominent in the Cucklemaker story? We offer the following suggestions that may, or may not be valid. During the years following the Revolutionary War, the Bertie County govennnent consisted of justices of the peace that was appointed by the Governor of North Carolina. These people were appointed for life, and were to serve without pay. The justices of the peace appointed officers to oversee the affairs of each precinct. These justices and officers were responsible for the judicial system, roads, bridges, taxes, the general welfare of the citizens, and other business. During those days of our past history, the average life span was much shorter than it is today. Because of this, many children became orphans. It was the responsibility of the county officials to find homes and training for those children. The children were usually placed in private homes under the supervision of stepparents of good character. They were taught a vocation and trained in the necessary social skills to prepare them for adulthood. This proved to be a humane and successful system.
According to the dates we are using, Charney would have been thirteen years of age, or younger, at the death of his Indian father. It is possible that he could have been placed in a private home, and that home could have been that of John Cale. It is also possible that John became the administrator of any property that was left to Chamey. As Charney grew into adulthood, he could have accepted John as his father. This could explain why some of the stories we have heard, say that Cucklemaker, and John Cale were the names of the same person. Charney probably had two fathers, his biological father, and his stepfather. Charney's children never knew Cucklemaker, or John Cale. Both had died before their time. What they did know was that their father was of "Indian blood;" that their grandfather's name was Cucklemaker, also John Cale. The reason for this is not because Cucklemaker. changed his name, it is because Charney changed fathers. The person that changed his name to Cale was Charney Dunelow. This could account for a "mix-up" of names as the story was told over the years. If something as has just been described really happened, we can understand why it is so difficult to locate our Indian ancestor of the past. He did what Indians do best, he covered his tracks well.
A last word on Charney, "the son of the Chief." We may never find any information on his training from childhood to adulthood, but we know that he was trained well. He either inherited much property, or acquired it through other means as he lived a successful life. From a Bertie County Census taken during the year of 1850, Charney is listed as being sixty-seven years of age. He was living with his second wife, Juda (Judith) Mizell-Cale, forty-eight years of age. Other members of the household were his daughter, Penelope Cale-Mizell, age twenty-four, and her two children by her deceased husband, William Dossey Mizell. The names of the children were listed as Charney L. Mizell, age three; and William D. Mizell, Jr., age one. Charney's property was listed as 2000 acres of land. We feel that we have acquired some knowledge of Charney's character from the old records of Ross Church. We believe that he was "sometimes" honest, but mischievous. On one occasion, he went before the church and charged himself with being recently intoxicated. During those years, a deacon charged with intoxication usually resulted in termination of membership. For some reason, Charney was forgiven. On another occasion, Penelope Hoggard (believed to be the widow of Elder John Hoggard) brought charges against Charney, demanding that he be reprimanded for "spooking" her horse, then "acting disorderly" afterward. The church instructed them to settle their differences privately. Time and again, Penelope brought up this incident and insisted the church take action. It seems that she became so "worked up" that the church "excluded" her from membership. Charney was restored to fellowship. One more question: Why did Charney change his name from Dundelow to Cale? The word that has been passed on to us is that he had an extramarital affair with a woman that resulted in the birth of a child. When the mother of the child began to demand support, he changed his name to Cale. We have no idea why this should have relieved him of that responsibility, but we believe that Charney Cale had a way of doing things that usually worked in his favor.
We are led to believe that Henri Duneleaux, Jr. (Henry "Lowhill" Dundelow) did not move from this area. We are told that the surname Dunelow (Dundelow, today Dunlow) originated in this immediate area. We have no information on Henry's family; however, there is a name from the past that could be a clue. Up until the late 1950's, a man by the name of Charlie Dunelow attended Ross Church. At this time he was over ninety years of age, and had several children. He named his first son C. Henry Dunelow. Charlie Dunelow was probably born around 1868. He could have been a descendant of Henry "Lowhill" Dunelow. Charlie lived about three miles from the church on the Askewville Road. The Dunlows still own property there.
Our history states that "white families" were the pioneers of this area, and our nation. This is a misleading statement. The real pioneers arrived here thousands of years before the presence of the white man. They became friends with nature, and were contented with what nature provided for them. They lived a life void of many of the diseases that arrived here with the "white strangers." Some of the techniques they developed, such as dehydration of food, tanning of animal hides, medicine from herbs, etc., are still used today. The military still teaches many survival techniques that were developed by these early pioneers that became known as the "red man." They developed skills that enabled them to produce tools and weaponry from stone and bone; canoes from logs and bark; cooking utensils and storage containers from clay and bamboo, rope and binding materials from vegetation and animal organs. These things were produced without the use of any implements, other than ingenuity and the hands. As we walk through some of the fields where they once occupied, fragments of pottery and stone can still be seen. The names they gave to many of our rivers, towns, and other locations have become a part of our dialect. It has been estimated that as many as 85% of us that descended from the early settlers of this area, have also been "infused" with a trace of Indian ancestory. Many people are unaware of the "red man's" genes they inherited.
We inherited this Indian ancestory in many ways: Some by direct descent, others by indirect descent. There were many legitimate and common-law marriages between Indians and whites. During the middle to late 1700's, the Indians in this area were so poverty stricken that they often accepted jobs of servitude among the white settlers. The males usually became common laborers. The females became servants, and all too often, the mistress to the "master"of the family. Many children were born as a result of these relationships, and were accepted as family members. During the year of 1763, the Rev. Alexander Stewart, a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, visited Hyde County and made the following report: "The remains of the Attamuskeet (Mattamuskeet), Roanoke and Hatteras Indians, live mostly along the coast, mixed with the white inhabitants. Many of these attended the places of public worship while I was there, and behaved with decency and seemed desirous of instruction. They offered themselves and their children to me for baptism...." Similar stories are told of the Tuscarora mixing with the whites after their tribes became disorganized. T'he French and Indians "freely" intermarried, and the offspring became members of our society. For 250 years these Indian genes have been distributed through marriage and offspring. The Cucklemaker story is probably more typical than unusual.
Through the journals and diaries of the early surveyors and clergymen, we can learn of things from our past that are not taught from our history books. From this information, we have made an effort to include some events and dates of the time span in which the "assumed" Cucklemaker was born and lived. We hope some of these can be useful to the descendants that still remember, and tell the stories of their Indian ancestors. Long lives the "Chief."
Stanley Hoggard 1112 Bull Hill Rd. Windsor, NC 27983 (252) 794-3959If you claim to be a descendant of Chief Cucua Mucua (Cucklemaker), and you have a story about his past existence, please send a note or call us. Perhaps, some day we can write his story based on fact.
Note from Neil Baker. If any one has any info about this please let me know. Note: Neil Baker passed away. We are continually grateful for all his contributions.