The fort was built by South Carolinian forces led by Colonel John Barnwell (also known as Tuscarora Jack) during the Tuscarora War. This fort was built in preparation for a battle against Chief Hancock's home of Catechna (Cotechney). Two battles were fought there. The first battle on 27 Feb 1712 resulted in a decision by Barnwell's forces to quit fighting because the captives were being tortured during the assaults on the fort. The second battle on 7 Apr resulted in the Tuscarora surrendering on generous terms. The remains are two miles northwest of the town of Fort Barnwell on the Cotechney Creek at the Neuse River. It is about thirty miles from New Bern.