New Hartford.--A town was established about the year 1805 on the west bank of the Mississippi, at or near the present road station, known as Illinois. It was named New Hartford, and Christian Wilt and John W. Honey erected a shot tower there, and opened a store--the first one ever established in the county. This was the probable extent of the place.

Herculaneum. --This town, which subsequently became first the county seat of Jefferson County, was laid out in 1808 by Moses Austin and S. Hammond. It was located at the mouth of Joachim Creek, midway between St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve. It was the shipping point for the lead smelted at Valle's Mines, Richwood's, Old Mines, Potosi, and the balance of the mines in Washington County, and soon became quite a thrifty town. Two towers were erected there at a point where the rock overhangs the bottom. On this rock a building was erected, and other works prepared for smelting and casting the lead, and it was then dropped through copper sieves into a receptacle with water below, where there was another building in which the polishing of the shot was performed. At one time this town contained thirty-five houses, and a population of 150, four stores, a postoffice, jail and schoolhouse. It also contained a commodious warehouse for storing lead and merchandise, then kept by Elias Bates. The first postoffice in the county was established at this place, and it remained the only postoffice in the county until 1837, when Hillsboro was located and an office established there. The people from Big River and Dry Creek, and everywhere else in the county, went to Herculaneum for their mail and what goods they wanted to buy. After the county seat was moved to Hillsboro, Herculaneum began to decline, and so continued until, like the celebrated city for which it was named, it became numbered among the things of the past, and nothing now remains to mark its former site save the chimney of the old Fletcher mansion, in which Gov. Fletcher was born.

In 1819 John W. Honey, an early merchant at Herculaneum, and a very prominent early settler, made a trip to New Orleans as captain of the steamboat "Maid of Orleans." His certificate of appointment as such captain, as recorded in his log book still in existence, is as follows:


By virtue of instructions received from Mr. John K. West, of the city of New Orleans, agent of the steamboat "Maid of Orleans," of which the annexed is a copy, I do hereby appoint John W. Honey to the command of said steamboat, which is to leave this place with possible dispatch, and on her way to stop at the mouth of the Ohio, there to receive such articles as may be put on board by Mr. Ober, and from thence to a place below, called Lucas' Landing, and to make inquiry if a quantity of tobacco is near that place to be shipped, if so, to receive it at the rate of $6 per hogshead; touching again at Natchez for such freight as may be procured without delay. For and in consideration of the services of the said John W. Honey, in behalf of the owners of said steamboat, I do agree to pay him $100 per mouth, and 2 1/2 per cent on all freights. Which contract shall have its full force by the power now vested in me; but if, at any time, any difficulty should arise relative to this agreement, I do not hold myself responsible for the payment of the same, but refer the said John W. Honey to the agent of thc said steamboat for a full compliance of this agreement agreeably to the annexed instructions transcribed from the original:
When you have discharged, dispatch her immediately to New Orleans to my address, and if your business will not permit your returning in her, you will employ the most suitable person you can procure at St. Louis to take command of her, taking care, if possible, that he is a good pilot.
      [Signed] H.W. TURNER.

Elijah Chaddick, the pilot on the up trip, was engaged at rate of $100 per month, to pilot the boat back to New Orleans, crew of laborers were employed at $25 per month each. Passage from St. Louis to New Orleans was engaged by Joseph Wiggin, Dr. Francis Armstrong, Manuel Castando, John Chenard and D. H. Vaughan, at $50 each. Berthold and Chouteauu, and other merchants of St. Louis, shipped on this vessel a large amount buffalo robes, beeswax, raccoon and muskrat skins, etc., all consigned to parties in New Orleans. Hubert Gouion, of St. Louis, shipped a quantity of apples to Madam Superior Gensone of Ursalin Convent at New Orleans. All through freight was charged at the rate of 1 cent per pound. All being ready, the "Maid of Orleans" departed from St. Louis at 1 o'clock P.M., August 3, 1819, and arrived at Herculaneum at 5 o'clock same day, and remained there over night. Soon after the vessel reached this place, a constable went on board and arrested Mr. D. H. Vaughan, one of the passengers, for a debt said to be due some person in St. Louis, and took him ashore. Omitting incidents by the way which are very interesting, but not admissible here for the want of space, the log for each day's travel from Louis to New Orleans was as follows:

August 8, St. Louis to Herculaneum 80
August 4, thence to a point five miles below Cape Girardeau 112
August 5, thence to Ramsay's Landing, seven miles below the mouth of the Ohio 51
August 6, thence to point of anchor 120
August 7, thence to Island No. 50 122
August 8, thence to anchor one mile below Island No. 68 115
August 9, thence to point of anchor 123
August 10, thence to point one mile above Island No. 105 128
August 11, thence to Ellis Cliffs (distance
not given)
August 12, the "Maid of Orleans" overtook the steamboat" Henderson" and set out to beat her to the city, passed her and arrived at New Orleans at 5 o'clock P. M. on the 13th, the "Henderson'' arriving about two hours later. After discharging the cargo, Capt. Honey engaged to serve on the "Maid of Orleans" as master for $60 per month, in which capacity it is presumed he made his return trip. In 1823 he and Elias Bates were merchants in partnership at Herculaneum, and did the wholesale business at that place.

Hillsboro.-- The origin of Hillsboro, the county seat of Jefferson County, and the erection of the first and subsequent public buildings, has been given elsewhere. A Mr. Henson built the first house in Hillsboro. It was a log cabin, and stood on the northwest corner of the present courtyard. He also opened the first brickyard and made the first brick for the town. The first tavern in the town was kept by Mr. Gains, near the town spring; a portion of the old house is still standing. The next was the Red Line Tavern, which stood where the courthouse now stands. About the same time (near the year 1840) John Hammond built a large, double log house on the corner east of and opposite the northeast corner of the courtyard. This building faced to the west, and in it the third hotel was opened. Afterward, Eugene Amor purchased the property, and added a large frame building, facing the street on the north, and kept a hotel and a saloon, and sold general merchandise, and did an extensive business for many years. The whole building burned down November 28, 1885, after it had passed into the hands of Jacob Douglas, who was then keeping a hotel and saloon in it.

The first store in Hillsboro was opened by Michael Horine, in the valley near the spring. Soon thereafter he erected the first brick house in the town, it being the old store-room on the north side of the street and near the west end, and moved his store therein. Afterward L. J. Rankin, now of De Soto, bought the property of Horine, and kept a store there about seventeen years, and did an extensive business. Thomas C. Fletcher built the residence on the west side of the street, near the town spring, where Mrs. Honey now lives. He was then clerk of the circuit court. Soon after the county seat was established at Hillsboro, the whole of the Fletcher family resided there for a number of years. Among the early merchants was Charles Williams, who sold goods for a number of years on the corner where the brick hotel now stands.

The first blacksmiths in the town were William Walker and Charles Pooley. The hotel known as the Huskey House was erected about the year 1848, and stood directly opposite the old Horine & Rankin store building. The first schoolhouse was a log cabin, and stood in the valley, just west of town. It was also used as a "meeting house." The Catholic Church was built before the war, but was not long used as a church. It stands idle at present.

The following is a directory of the business of the town at the present writing (March, 1888):
General stores--J. J. Hoekin, Mrs. E. Volner and J. W. Garrison;
drugs--Dr. T. S. Brewster;
furniture--B. Lackamp;
wagon shop-- Charles Yeager;
blacksmith shop--Henry Hurtgen;
shoe shop--Andrew Reisch;
printing offices--Jefferson Democrat and Crystal Mirror;
physicians--T. S. Brewstet and G. M. Mockbee;
stage lines--R. Marsden and Henry Stelbrink. These stages make four trips daily to and from the railroad at Victoria.
J.J. Hoeken is the postmaster. There are also two title abstract offices, and a third one under process of completion, owned respectively by Thomas & Horine, Ed. Walker and Kleinschmidt & Booth. There are also a number of law offices in the town, where the leading members of the bar reside.

Societies. --Joachim Lodge, No. 164, A. F. & A. M., chartered in May, 1856, has a present membership of about 50; Hillsboro Lodge, No. 179, A. O. U. W., was organized January 31, 1880. The present membership is about 40.

The first Masonic lodge in Jefferson County, known as the old Joachim Lodge, was organized at Herculaneum soon after that town was established. It received its charter from tile Grand Lodge of Tennessee, and was one of the first three Masonic lodges organized in the Territory of Missouri. When Herculaneum ceased to be a town, the charter of this lodge was surrendered, and its name was given to the Masonic lodge in Hillsboro upon its organization.

The town also contains a Union Protestant Church, in which different denominations worship.

Hillsboro is pleasantly located on an elevated and healthful position near the center of the county, and contains a number of good brick buildings and fine residences. In consequence of the building of the Iron Mountain Railroad, and the springing up of a number of villages along that line, Hillsboro has always remained and seems destined to remain, a small village.

De Soto. --This is the largest town in Jefferson County. It is located on Joachim Creek, and on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, forty-two miles from St. Louis. It was laid out in September, 1857, by Thomas C. Fletcher (later governor) and Louis James Rankin. Afterward a number of additions thereto were laid out on adjoining territory by various parties.

The first house on the site of De Soto was built in 1855 by Col. John W. Fletcher, who, in the same year, erected a steam sawmill near where the railroad machine shops now stand. The first store was opened in 1857 by E. M. Boli, and the next merchants were B. S. Reppey and D. Cohen. In 1860 there were three general stores, kept, respectively, by Boli & Moon, B. S. Reppy, and D. Cohen. The first blacksmith in the town was George Flint. The first brick house was built by D. Cohen. At the outbreak of the Civil War the town contained not over 200 inhabitants. At the close of the war John Hamel purchased the first stock of drugs, and formed a partnership with J. C. Kruse, who had been a hospital steward in the army, and together they opened the first drug store. Afterward Gust Hamel bought his brother John's interest, and soon thereafter Mr. Kruse died and then Gust Hamel became sole owner of the store. The present Commercial Hotel building was erected in 1858, and the first hotel was opened therein by a Mr. Ellroth. The De Soto House (east of the railroad) was built during the war, and opened by M. A. Douthett. The postoffice was established soon after the town was laid out, and the first postmaster was C. B. Fletcher, father of Gov. Fletcher; his succesors have been William North, Frank Smith, and the present incumbent, J. W. Clarke.

After the close of the Civil War the town improved quite rapidly and on the 12th of February, 1869, it was incorporated by the county court under the name and style of "The Town of De Soto." Early in 1872 negotiations were opened with the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway Company, in regard to securing the location of their main machine shops at De Soto, resulting in a proposition by the company, made May 7 of that year, conditioned that if the town would donate to the company a certain tract of land within its corporate limits, and by legal process exempt it and their improvements made thereon from town taxes, the company, on their part, would erect and maintain upon it the principal machine shops of their Northern Division.

This was accepted by the town authorities subject to a vote of the citizens, and in order to comply with the requirements to exempt the donated property from taxes, on petition the town of De Soto was disincorporated August 12, 1872, by the county court, and reincorporated under the same name, with the boundaries so fixed as to exclude the lands intended to be donated, and to include a large body of land, not platted into town lots, and being in large part farming lands, not included within the limits of the former town. Under this corporation an election was held August 31, 1872, which resulted in authorizing the board of trustees of the town of De Solo to purchase and donate to the said railway company the lands agreed upon. Bonds to the amount of $25,000, bearing 10 per cent interest, payable semi-annually, were issued October 1, 1872, and were used to purchase the lands desired.

In March, 1878, the town of De Soto was merged under the general laws of the State of Missouri into a City of the fourth class, and April 2, following, the officers were elected. Steps were immediately taken to adjust the existing debt by issuing new 6 per cent funding bonds, and exchanging them for the 10 per cent outstanding bonds. Six per cent bonds were then issued to the amount of $9,300, and exchanged for $8,000 of the old bonds and the accrued interest thereon, the latter being canceled and destroyed, leaving $16,000 of the 10 per cent bonds, and the new issue of the $9,300, 6 per cent bonds, making a total of $25,300 outstanding. In May, 1882, on quo warranto proceedings brought by C. C. Fletcher, George Rathbun and others in the circuit court of the county, a judgment was rendered declaring that the city of De Solo, as then incorporated, had no legal existence whatever by virtue of the fact that when the incorporation of the town of De Soto was declared, the boundaries thereof included farming lands, and therefore no legal corporation in fact had been formed. This was equivalent to a decree that the corporation that issued the bonds had no legal existence. The officers of the city then ceased to exercise their functions, and all machinery of corporation stopped. Up to this time the interest on the bonds had been paid, and a sinking fund was being created, but since then no interest has been paid or provision made for its payment. On the 10th of February, 1883, De Soto was incorporated as a fourth class city, and Herman Hamel was appointed mayor, and William C. Huff, marshal. Aldermen were also appointed for the several wards, and on the first Tuesday of April, following, a full set of officers was elected bv the people at the first annual election.

Suit has been brought in the United States Circuit Court, and judgments rendered against the present city for interest coupons due on some of the bonds referred to. The present city, however, has no debt of its own creation. It has a surplus of $2,000 in its treasury, and is financially sound. The disposition of the citizens generally is to pay the debt outstanding, but it is claimed that to levy a tax and collect it, to pay the interest on the bonds as they now stand, with the judgment in the circuit court of the county as rendered, would be almost an impossibility. The city seems to have no recourse but to refuse payment, except judgments, until a mutual agreement resulting in a funding of the debt is reached. The present officers of the city of De Soto are as follows: H.N. Jenkins, mayor; D. M. Park, city clerk, W. Dearing, marshal.

The Railroad Car Works and Machine Shops. --The buildings of these shops, which are very extensive, covering several acres of ground, were erected in 1879 and 1880, and were put in full operation in 1882. In the "car works" department 150 men are employed, and the pay roll amounts to $8,000 per month, and in the "machine shops" department 250 men are employed, and the pay roll amounts to $14,000 per month, thus making the total number of men employed 400, and the total monthly pay roll $22,000. In addition to the men employed in these works there are about 150 road engineers and firemen who reside in the city. In these works passenger and freight cars of first-class workmanship are built from the ground up. From twelve to fifteen passenger cars and from five to six hundred freight ears are run through the car shops for general repairs each month, entailing an expenditure of about $5,000. The principal work in the machine shop consists in repairing locomotives, entailing an expenditure of from $10,000 to $12,000 per month. A great many of the employes have their homes in De Sots, and are interested in the welfare of the city. The officers in charge prefer to employ such men as come to De Soto to live instead of the transient class.

The following is a directory of the business of De Soto, aside from the car and machine shops, at the present writing (March 1888):
General merchandise--Henry Moehlman, W. P. Graham, H. Stall, B. Manheimer, H. Hoenthal, F. Aubuchon & Son;
dry goods--C. Ostertag;
groceries--William Walker, Chapman & Freeman, Thomas & Son, Charles Biesbarth, John Freeh, Fauber & Son, F. Kelm and Mrs. Manion;
drugs--Miller & Co., Dr. W. H. Farrah, Hamel & Son;
dry goods, groceries and millinery-Mrs. K. T. Taylor;
millinery--Mrs. Kate Primm;
boots, shoes and gents furnishing goods--Maguire Bros.;
hardware--Hamel & Cunningham, N. Slawson & Co.;
clothing--A. & H. Lederer;
harness and saddles--H. Hamel, John Klenn;
furniture-Lewis Rieber, Turner & Co., R. Coxwell & Son (the latter are also funeral directors);
jewelry--A. Pecaut, E. Donaldson and William Lackey;
restaurants--C. W. McDowell, Turner & Bogard, J. R. Cunningham and J. W. Jones;
meat shops--M. Nolen, F. Kelm, Otto Rohlfing, J. Whitney and P. Steinman;
feed stores--Henry Lepp, Joseph Walter, A. L. Freeh, E. P. Morgan;
boots and shoes--Fred Walther, F. Mohrer, Z. A. Gierth, H. Jahnsen, M. V. Schuman and Frank J. Knapp;
agricultural implements--Randle Kempe;
tailors--Jacob Miller & Son, H. P. Decker, Peter Berg;
bakeries--B. Charpie, John Theobald;
confectionery--George Mahn, D. F. Richards;
news dealers--W. L. & G. D. Stone, J. R. Serrin;
hotels--Rankin House, Commercial House, De Soto House, Jefferson House, City Hotel;
livery--Watt Staples, T. O. Smith and William Thomason;
flouring-mills--Hopson & Sherlock, J. Coleman (both steam power);
manufacturers--Gust Hamel is the proprietor of Hamel's School Desk Factory, and has a lumber yard, sawmill and planing-mill in connection therewith. He does an extensive business in the manufacture of school desks and reclining chairs, both of his own invention, and of which he is the patentee. Fred Haeke does an extensive business in the manufacture of wagons. A. Pecaut runs the electric light machine by which the city is lighted. E. Hirsch is the proprietor of the De Soto Marble Works, and does a good business in his line. S. A. Thomas is the proprietor of the cigar factory, and does a very satisfactory business. The De Soto Bottling Works, in which ginger ale, sarsaparilla, lemon and strawberry soda syrup, etc, is manufactured and bottled, is owned and operated by William J. Mauther.

Physicians--James Keaney, William Keaney, T. A. James, F. A Brickey, William H. Farrar, D. H. Miller, J. S. Deaderick; dentists--C. H. Williams and H. E. Zorn. P.C. Zollmann is a dealer in stationery, a notary public, insurance agent and justice of the peace, and W. L. Stone is a real estate and insurance agent, a notary public and justice of the peace. In addition to the foregoing business enterprises there are a number of barber shops, two picture galleries, a number of mechanic's shops and other industries, and six saloons. The town a contains a fine large brick opera house, in the upper story of which is the Masonic Hall, and in the basement story the W. C. T. U. reading rooms. There are also a large number of boarding houses in De Soto. The churches are Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Episcopal South, Presbyterian, Episcopal, Roman Catholic, Congregational, German Methodist and Evangelical; also two colored churches--Methodist and African Methodist. The large and commodious public schoolhouse on the western heights is a structure of which the citizens may well be proud. De Soto has a lodge of each of the following secret orders: Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, Knights of Honor, Grand Army of the Republic, Ancient Order of United Workmen, Chosen Friends, Locomotive Engineers and Fireman's Brotherhood. The A. O. U. W. has two lodges.

Banks.--" The Jefferson County Bank" was established May 3, 1885, by Bakewell & Munroe, its present owners. It is a private bank, with a capital stock of $5,000. The "People's Bank of De Soto" was also established in 1885. Its first president was E. N. Carver. Its present officers are as follows: L. J. Rankin, president; Charles Beisbarth, vice-president; John L. Ruggly, second vice-president; Henry Lepp, cashier; M. S. Coxwell, assistant cashier. The capital stock of this bank is $10,000. Both of these banks do a general banking business.

The railroad machine shop and the business portion of De Soto and some of the residences are located in the valley, while the schoolhouse and the churches and the greater portion of the finest residences are located on the heights west of the main business street. On the whole the location of the city is romantic and pleasant. Standing on the heights, by the schoolhouse, one obtains a magnificently grand view of the city in the valley beneath: and of the residences and native forests on the hills surrounding. De Soto, with its population of from 3,500 to 4,000, is certainly a pleasant place in which to live.

Crystal City and The Plate Glass Works. --Some time in the thirties a few capitalists formed a company in New Haven, Conn., called the "Missouri and Illinois Mineral and Land Company" to look out and enter such mineral, agricultural and timber lands as might become valuable as the country improved. It was composed of John Tappins, W. H. Bidwell, Charles Stoddard, James A. Smith, John S. Cavender and others. They sent out Forrest Shepherd, a mineralogist and geologist, to find, examine and locate such lands in the West as he might believe would be valuable. He located Shepherd's Mountain (named in his honor), the Muddy coal diggings, a large amount of lead and pine lands, as also the silica or sand rock on the east side of Plattin Creek near its mouth. After some thirty-five or forty years, when the company had disposed of nearly all of its property, the stock was put up and sold to Dr. W. H. Bidwell (editor of the Eclectic Magazine, N. Y.) as the highest bidder. Late in the fall of 1868, Bidwell, Shepherd and Prof. Vincent, of London, England, came west to examine the different properties, first visiting Iron, St. Francois and Ste. Genevieve Counties, and lastly Plattin Rock, in Jefferson County. On viewing the sand banks here it was proposed to build two plate glass factories forthwith. Prof. Vincent, on viewing the crystals sparkling in the sun, thought they were the most beautiful he had ever seen, while Shepherd said that ".it was only a question of time when a great industry would spring up here." How true the prophecy! Prof. Vincent started the next morning to England, after which Mr. W. S. Jewett, who resides near the sand banks, shipped, by request, two casks of sand to the Thames Glass Works in England, where it was tested and found to be of superior quality.

During the winter following Dr. Bidwell proceeded to get up a stock company in London of some $400,000 capital--having the charter duly recorded, etc. A manager, Obed Blake, and a number of skilled workmen were then engaged to come over the next spring to help build the works, after which they were to have regular employment in their several vocations. Meanwhile, some of the London stockholders learned from correspondents at St. Louis that the Drake Constitution required that a person investing a dollar in manufacturing should give security for two more under the "double liability clause." Learning this, the Englishmen left Dr. Bidwell and his sand banks severely alone. The years 1869 and 1870 passed away with nothing accomplished. In 1871 the St. Louis "Board of Trade" undertook to assist the Doctor, but failed to do so. The scheme was then brought to the attention of Capt. E. B. Ward, of Detroit, Mich., a man of large capital and much enterprise, who bought Dr. Bidwell's claim and other available adjoining lands, and at once organized the "American Plate Glass Company," of Detroit, Mich., with a capital of $150,000. In May, 1872, Capt. Theodore Luce, as superintendent, commenced operations, and by the 4th of July had one house nearly completed. There were many obstacles to overcome, the brush to be cleared off, plans to be made, houses to be built for the men, and supplies of all kinds to be obtained. The company being envied by St. Louis, did all their business in Detroit, and drew all their supplies and machines from that city, and employed Detroit mechanics as much as possible. They even named the new city "New Detroit," but at their first annual meeting at the main office in Detroit, in answer to the question of how the natives liked the name of the new town, it was replied that they had a name of their own, "Crystal City," which seemed so appropriate that it was at once adopted, and "New Detroit" was dropped.

The $150,000 having been exhausted, the capital was increased $100,000, and when that was absorbed bonds to the amount of $200,000 were issued and mostly spent. In the summer of 1874 they had a small box furnace in operation, and made glass, but it was off color and was not a success. In the meantime Capt. Ward died, and their glassmaker was sunstruck so as to be incapable of business, and it was hard to fill their places. In consequence of this and the financial panic of 1873 the glass works had to succumb, and finally the trust deed which had been given to secure the bonds issued was foreclosed, and the property sold for $25,000 to a new organization called the Crystal Plate Glass Company. [For the history of this enterprise, to this point, the publishers of this work are indebted to Mr. W. S. Jewett, of Crystal Heights, who has lived there and been familiar with it from its inception.]

The Crystal Plate Glass Company, under the presidency of Ethan Allen Hitchcock, of St. Louis, resumed operations under the able management of Supt. George F. Neale. The machinery was overhauled, and the works enlarged until they are now the largest and most extensive in the country. The capital stock of this company is $1,500.000, and it owns 760 acres of land, of which 200 acres represents a deposit of sand, inexhaustible in quantity and absolutely pure in quality, there being over 99 per cent of it pure silica. The buildings cover an area of fourteen acres, the main line being 1,200 feet long, and 120 feet wide. The company has in operation four 16-pot Siemen's regenerative gas furnaces, and a fifth of 20-pot capacity. The combined capacity of these five furnaces represents over 8,500 feet of glass per day, to receive which there are 94 annealing ovens. For preparing the glass for market after it leaves the ovens there are 20 grinding machines, 48 smoothing machines and 36 polishing machines. The company has 20 steam boilers and 20 different steam engines, and a complete machine shop for repairs to the engines and machinery, also an iron and brass foundry in which they do their own casting. The company retains absolute ownership and control of Crystal City, and has provided over 300 suitable cottages for its operatives, at an average rental of $6 per month for three rooms, while from its general store supplies of all kinds are furnished to its employes at St. Louis prices, it being optional with employes to purchase at the company's store or elsewhere. The company also contributes to the maintenance of two schools, one for the children of the white and the other for the children of the colored people. After the State has run these schools six months in the year the company runs them four months longer. The company also has a large and handsome two-story frame building, containing a library and gymnasium for the use of its operatives. The store building is a large two-story brick structure, over a basement story, and contains, beside the general store, the superintendent's offices on the first floor and a hall on the second. George F. Neale is the postmaster.

A railroad, three and a half miles long, owned and operated by the glass company under another corporate name, connects Crystal City with the Iron Mountain Railway at Silica. The company also operates a railroad one and a third miles long, which connects the works with a coal landing on the Mississippi. The railroad to Silica was completed as a narrow gauge road in 1878, and has since been changed to a broad gauge. The glass company employs about 1,200 men, and its pay roll runs from $24,000 to $30,000 per month. There is no church in Crystal City, but a foundation is laid for a brick and stone edifice large enough seat 300 persons, and the building will soon be completed. It will be free for all Christian denominations. Meanwhile, religious services are held in the hall over the company's store. The residence portion of Crystal City is beautifully laid out on an elevated tract of land overlooking the glass works, and the valleys of the Plattin and the Mississippi, and the streets and all are fenced in from the public. The company employs more men than they can as yet supply with houses, consequently many of their employes live at Festus and on Crystal Heights: About 1,100 inhabitants reside in Crystal City proper. There are two secret societies in this young city-- the "American Legion of Honor," with 142 members, organized in 1881, and the "Order of the Sons of St. George," open only to English and Welsh. The latter society was organized in 1886, and has about fifty members. Both officers and operatives of the glass works belong to these societies. The great success of the Crystal Plate Glass Works has given an impetus to improvement throughout the country, and where but a few years ago the wild animals of the forest and mountain were a terror in their depredations, the roar of immense machinery is now heard, and all is progress in the busy hum of human industry. The company, having absolute control of Crystal City, allows no saloon or dramshop to exist therein, but it has been considerably annoyed with saloons which have been established "just beyond the border."

Festus. --The town of Festus was established on the Crystal City Railroad, about one mile west of the glass works, in 1878. The first lots, about twelve in number, and embracing the east central part of the present town, were laid out by W. J. Adams, and called "Adam's Subdivision of United States Survey No. 315." The northeast part of the town was afterward laid out by D. McAlister. Subsequently W. J. Adams surveyed and platted all that part of the town lying south of Main and east of Mill Streets. Another part of the town was laid out in May, 1883, by Alfred F. Sherlock, and named "Derby City." On the 8th of February, 1887, a petition signed by John V. Haefner and 121 others, was presented to the county court, whereupon the whole town, including Derby City, was incorporated as a fourth-class city, under the name and style of the "City of Festus," and the following officers were appointed: Zeno La Rose, mayor; John Davis, marshal; and H. E. McClanahan, James Brierton, J. V. Heafner and F. W. Brickey, Jr., aldermen. By common consent the town was originally named "Tanglefoot' on account of the whisky that was sold to certain parties, who, in consequence, got their feet tangled in the brush returning to their homes. As the town became populous the inhabitants disowned the vulgar name of "Tanglefoot" and named the place "Limitville," this name being suggested by the fact that the eastern boundary of the town was the western boundary of the lands of the Crystal City Plate Glass Company, and, consequently, its expansion toward Crystal City was limited. By the latter name the town was known until it was called Festus.

The first house in this town was a log cabin built by a colored man named Charley Conners. It stood just back of the Adams House. The next house was erected on what is now the corner of Adams and Haefner Streets, by Nicholas Bearing, who commenced business therein as a baker, to supply bread for Crystal City. The next was a dwelling house erected by David Stewart, the original proprietor of the land on which the town is principally located. T.J. Lovelace opened the first store in 1876 or 1877.

These improvements were made before any town lots were platted. Lovelace was charged with selling the liquid that caused the men to get their feet tangled. As a store keeper he was succeeded by J. V. Haefner & Co., and they by the present merchants, Brierton & Aubuchon. S.T. Waggener was the first postmaster. The roller flouring-mills of Brickey & Co. were put up by Alfred Sherlock, their first owner. In the few years of its existence the town has grown until it contains a population of about 1,200, and the following is its business directory:
General stores--S. T. Waggener & Co., H. C. La Rose, Patrick Gorman and Brierton & Aubuchon;
gents' furnishing store--B. Sweitzer;
millinery--H. Singer and Miss Jennie Holmes;
groceries--William Boyer;
drugs--Mitchell & Cape;
tinner-- Joseph Palmer;
restaurant and boarding house--Charles Gray;
hotel--W. J. Adams;
livery--Peter Rosengrant and W. J. Adams;
bakeries--Nicholas Bearing and Henry Daniels:
blacksmith shops--J. O. Johnson and Philip Myers;
meat shops--J. F. Hague and Charles Miller;
undertakers--Charles Whitehead and J. I. Branch;
brickyard--Charles Miller;
saloons four in number and also a brewery depot kept by parties in St. Louis: boots and shoes--Richard Sherlock;
barber shops--Herman Poesch, W. J. Adams and E. Gorbach;
lumber yards--James Brierton and S. T. Waggener;
flouring-mills--Brickey & Co.;
physicians--L. Cape, T. R. Bruce and Cyrus Brooks.
The town contains four frame church edifices, all of which have been erected since 1880, viz: Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, Christian and Methodist Episcopal. It also contains a public schoolhouse with three rooms. The Knights of Labor and Good Templars each have a lodge. There are only six or seven brick buildings in Festus, and the others are made of wood. All have a neat modern architectural appearance. The town is very pleasantly located, but the streets are uncomfortably narrow. S.T. Waggener is the postmaster.

Crystal Heights.--Crystal Heights, the home of W. S. Jewett, is a pleasant village of residences, situated on the high bluffs overlooking the great Mississippi and the surrounding country, and is nearly one mile north of Crystal City. It has a population of about 100.

Kimmswick. --This town, situated on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, and on the Mississippi River at the mouth of Rock Creek, was laid out in October, 1859, by Theodore Kimm, who built a number of houses, and sold them and the lots on which they stood on trust deeds, to induce mechanics and others to settle. The first building was occupied by Fred. Luechtemyer, who opened the first store therein soon after the town was established. A postoffice had previously been established and kept by Mr. Kimm, at his farm residence. The first hotel was also built by Kimm, and it was first occupied by Fritter & Warner. A flouring-mill was next built by Henry Nagle. After changing hands several times this mill blew up by the bursting of its steam boiler, on which occasion two sons of Frank Smith, who was then the proprietor, and a boy named William Baker, who had stepped in to warm, were killed by the explosion. This occurred about the year 1880. The mill has not been rebuilt. The Dozier Iron and Bloom Forge was established at Kimmswick, about the year 1873. The ore smelted in this forge was shipped from Pilot Knob and Iron Mountain. After two years of unsuccessful operations, Messrs. Dozier & Maharg took charge of the works, and ran them two years more with fair success, and then closed the business on account of the decline in the price of iron. After the works had lain idle about four years Edward Peckham, of New York, came and organized a stock company of St. Louis capitalists. This company resumed operations, and enlarged the works, built new patent furnaces, increased the capacity in all respects, built a number of tenement houses, employed about 100 men and opened up the works. This was done about the year 1879. After operating .the works three years, the business collapsed and the company sold the property to C. S. Greeley, of St. Louis, who still holds it.

Soon after the town was founded a brewery was established by ---- Harmann, and, after changing hands a number of times, it became the property of Gotlieb Meyer, who ran it successfully for five or six years, and finally it collapsed. Immense quantities of cord wood have been shipped from Kimmswick to St. Louis. The present business of the town is shown by the following directory: General stores--E. Bruenemann, C. Wuerz, Philip Meyer, Martin Meyer and Otto Rauschenbach;
groceries--L. K. Waters and F. D. Waters;
drugs--Dr. W. J. Kirk;
boots and shoes--Henry Wagner, George Marken and Philip Schad;
jewelry--M. Zeigler;
saloon--John O. Heim;
blacksmith--John Cook;
wagon-maker--John Wagner;
carpenter and builder--Florin Zogg;
dealer in wheat--John Winom;
hotel--G. Rauschenbach;
lime kiln--Johannas & Bro.;
lodges--Knights of Honor and Sons of Herman.
In addition to the foregoing there are the Riverside greenhouses of J. W. North, consisting of ten in number, requiring 22,000 feet of glass to cover them. Mr. North established this business in 1882. He has a floral store at No. 914 Olive Street, St. Louis, superintended by his wife and daughters, to whom he ships cut flowers every morning. He is doing a most extensive and profitable business. There are also the Montesano greenhouses, seven in number, requiring 14,400 feet of glass to cover them. These houses are owned by T. W. Guy, who also ships flowers to the city every morning, and does an extensive and profitable business. There is also a Catholic Church, besides two schoolhouses, at Kimmswick.

Windsor Harbor, located on the south side of Little Rock Creek, just opposite Kimmswick, was laid out in September, 1559, by Freeman D. Waters. It contains a number of fine residences and a Presbyterian Church.

Montesano Springs is a summer resort on Sylvan Heights, adjoining Kimmswick on the north. It was laid out on a picturesque plan, with curved streets, in October, 1881, by the Montesano Springs Company, and was intended for a company hotel and residences only. The hotel was built, and a cottage was erected by E. A. Hitchcock, of St. Louis. The place was used for a time as a summer resort, but the hotel burned down in 1886, and the cottage only remains. Picnic parties from the city continue to visit the grounds and the sulphur springs near by.

Sulphur Springs, on the Mississippi River, at the mouth of Glaize Creek, and on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, twenty-three miles from St. Louis, was laid out in May, 1860, by James Burgess, Jr., and Thomas Burgess, Jr. This place contains two general stores, kept respectively by N. W. Green and Robert Venn--the latter is postmaster. It is noted for its fine sulphur springs. It is the point on the Mississippi River where the iron ore from Iron Mountain is transferred from the railroad to barges, and shipped from there by river communication to Pittsburgh, Penn., and to other points.

Pevely, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, twenty-seven miles from St. Louis, was laid out in September, 1860, by Judge Charles S. Rankin. The first house, a hotel, was built by Jack Broughton. Judge Rankin opened the first store, and was the first postmaster, next John Herrington built a dwelling house and opened the first saloon. Louis Jeude was the first blacksmith. The town now contains two general stores, kept respectively by Charles E. Ellis and Louis Greve, a wagon shop by J. J. Englebach, a blacksmith shop by Louis Jeude, a meat shop by J. J. Englebach, a Methodist Church and a number of dwelling houses, and has a population of about 150. Dr. I. N. McNutt is resident physician, and Louis Greve is postmaster. Pevely is the greatest shipping point in the country for milk and butter. About a mile from this place are the Pleasant Valley Mills, where Squire William Mockbee keeps a general store.

Horine, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, twenty-nine miles from St. Louis, was laid out in August, 1868, by William L. Riley and others. It contains two small general stores, a postoffice, and a few dwelling houses; J. Blakie is postmaster.

Silica City, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, thirty-one miles from St. Louis, and at the junction with the Crystal City Railroad, was laid out in 1885 by S. W. Crawford. It contains a general store, hotel, postoffice and railroad station. Near it is the cement mill of the Glenwood Lime Company, and also an inexhaustible deposit of fine glass sand. From five to six car loads of this sand are shipped daily to St. Louis and elsewhere.

Hanover (Bailey), on the same railroad, thirty-two miles from St. Louis, contains only the railroad station. Near it is the hall of Shekinah Lodge, No. 256, A. F. & A. M., chartered October 1868.

Hematite, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, thirty-five miles from St. Louis, was laid out in August, 1861, by Stephen Osborn. It contains two general stores, kept, respectively, by James England and G. W. Byrd, a postoffice, blacksmith and wagon shop, and the gristmill of Donnell & Lee; also three churches --the Methodist Episcopal South, Christian and Congregational. It is surrounded with excellent stone quarries, from which a vast amount of building stone is shipped to St. Louis.

Victoria, on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, and on Joachim Creek, thirty-nine miles from St. Louis, was laid out in May, 1859, by Henry B. Belt. A gravel road connects the place with De Solo, three and a half miles distant, and with Hillsboro, the county seat, four and a half miles distant. The first hotel, the Victoria House, was erected by Hiney & Moss. It is now kept by Cornelius Marsden. The town contains four general stores, kept respectively by Cornelius Marsden, D. F. McKee, D. Shafer and H. Schmidt, and two lumber yards, kept respectively by D. F. McKee and W. F. Roberts. H. Rogers is the village blacksmith. There is also a Methodist Church, which was built in 1875. Victoria is pleasantly located, and is of the best shipping points for country produce in the county. The stages make four trips a day between this place and Hillsboro. The population of Victoria is about 150. Cornelius Marsden is the postmaster.

Vineland, a station on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, forty-seven miles from St. Louis, was laid out in January 1869. It has contained two stores and two baryta mills, but at present has only one store and the postoffice--both kept by Thomas Welch--and the railroad depot.

Jefferson, Glenwood, Bushburg and Illinois are also stations on the St. Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, the first being nineteen, the second twenty-four, the third twenty-five and the fourth twenty-six miles, respectively, from St. Louis. The last one is at the point where the railroad leaves the Mississippi River.

House's Springs, 14 miles north of Hillsboro, is one of the oldest villages in the county. It is the site of the settlement made in 1795, by James Head, after whom Head's Creek is named, and also of the settlement of Adam House, who was killed there by the Indians. The village now contains three general stores, owned, respectively, by Bowles & Price, Dr. T. E. De Bar and J. E. C. Wilson; a blacksmith and wagon shop by Gotlieb Sevier; a blacksmith shop by William Holsnagle, and two shoe shops, by Charles Bloomingburg and Charles Hagenmeister. There is also a Presbyterian Church, which was erected about the year 1870. The physicians of the place are T. E. De Bar and Charles Williams, and the postmaster is J. E. C. Wilson.

The following is a list of the postoffices and postmasters in Jefferson County aside from those in the towns and villages already named:
Antonia, Martin Zimper;
Avoca, Mathias Lepp;
Belew's Creek, Joseph Bechler;
Byrnesville, M. F. Byrne;
Cedar Hill, Fritz Reinemer;
Dittmer's Store, William Dittmer;
Frumet, W. R. Maness;
Grubville, David Perkins;
High Ridge, William Brackman;
Local, S. G. A. Medley;
Longview, Mrs. Mary Horan;
Maxville, William J. Kirk;
Morse's Mill, John H. Morse;
Plattin, William S. McCormack;
Oermann, Charles Oerman;
Regina, I. Mandle;
Rush Tower, B. F. England;
Sandy Bridge, Mrs. Virginia Hensley;
Seheve, B. Scheve;
Valle's Mines, Louis J. Rozier;
Ware, William T. Huskey.
Nearly all of these post-hamlets contain one or more stores, and usually a blacksmith shop, etc.

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