Phelps Helps Newsletter
Holdrege Area Genealogical Society

For a full hard copy issue, email:
Holdrege Area Genealogy Club


Vol. 9-1
Spring 2000
The Holdrege Area Genealogy Club
meets at the Phelps County Historical Museum
on the first Monday of the month at 2:00 PM.
The public is welcome!

 



~ WELCOME NEW MEMBERS !! ~

Gorden Magnuson, Seward, NE 68934

Rogene Anderson, Columbus, NE 68601

Agnes Nuttbrock, Milwaukie, OR 97222. Email ­ nuttbrocka@aol.com
Researching information on Clarence, Mortimer, Lewis and Francis RETTIG who resided in Nebraska, Illinois and Pennsylvania and Germany. Other Related Surnames are THOMOPSON; PARKER; DEWITT; MERKER; STEWART; SIMMONS; EMERICK VANHOULTER; SESSLER AND EMERICK.


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QUERIES

Would like to share information with anyone researching these Phelps and Harlan County families: SKOOG; BERGSTROM; MCNIEL; LENEY; POWELL; LINDSTROM; MAGNUSSON AND HAINEY.

Also looking for descendants of John August Johnson (1834 Sweden -1915 Nebraska). Married 1st. ?; son: Carl Alfred JOHNSON. Married 2nd, 1880 Nebraska, Sophia Abraham; daughter Adla's half brother was Emil NELSON. Associated Surnames: BORG; MCNIEL; LENEY. Contact Sara Firehammer, 17108 Mayfair Court., Granger, Indiana 64530.
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MEMBER NEWS

AL ACHTERBERG PASSES AWAY
We were all saddened when long time member and past secretary, Al Achterberg, died January 11, 2000. Al gave many much enjoyment through his talent of photography, owning Nelson Photography from many years. When he retired, he took up the challenge of his new computer and learning more about his German genealogy. A memorial for the Genealogy Library at Nebraska Prairie Museum has been started in his name and can be sent to Holdrege Area Genealogy Club.

MARY LOUISE FREED
Long time member Mary Louse Freed, who suffered a stroke in November is now residing and Methodist Memorial Homes, 1320 11th Ave., Holdrege, NE 68949. I'm sure she would enjoy receiving a card from you.

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HOLDREGE AREA GENEALOGY CLUBS
OFFICERS FOR 2000

PRESIDENT ­ SANDRA SLATER
VICE PRESIDENT ­ PHYLLIS SCHRODER
SECRETARY ­ BEN BOELL
TREASURER ­ ADA HINSON

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PRESIDENT'S MESSAGE

Thanks to all you members who help make us a successful genealogy organization and all of you that help in the genealogy library at the Nebraska Prairie Museum. We have eight volunteers that work one or two afternoons a week in the library.

Many of our members may not realize that we have cataloged about 3000 Genealogy and History books. Our largest collection is geared to Phelps County but we also have quite a number of books from many counties in Nebraska and many states and have excellent resource books.

We have worked for several years to collect Census, marriage and newspaper microfilm. Our goal is to have a complete set of Nebraska Censuses, which we have achieved and are working toward getting a full set of Soundex microfilms.

Our library is open seven days a week with library staff available on Tuesday and Thursday afternoon and by appointment. Visitors are always welcome.

Our goal is to publish three more publications, updated publications of Phelps County Cemetery books and a Harlan County Marriage Book, Vol. 1. This would not possible without Dick Dyas and Ben Bole's efforts of getting our books publications ready, and all of you members, who have collected the information.

Your President, Sandra Slater
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~ WEEKLY PROGRESS NEWSPAPER ~

June 15, 1900
CENSUS FOR 1900
Enumerators for taking the 12th Census
Began Work June 1st
BE READY FOR ALL QUESTIONS
BELOW IS A LIST OF QUESTIONS THAT SHOULD BE LOOKED OVER .
DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

The numerators for taking the 12th census will begin work June 1st. In order to factualize their work and to render it as accurate as possible, the attention of the people in general is called to the following list of questions relating to the two principle schedules, one relating to population and the other to agricultural statistics. If upon reading this article, the heads of families will sit down in a family conference and write down the answers to these questions, to refresh their memories so that they can answer promptly when the enumerator appears, it will be greatly aid in the rapid and correct collection of statistics desired.

Following is a list of the enumerators for Phelps county and their respective territories: C. H. Roberts, Holdrege, E. E. Larson Westmark and Center; E. Barnum, Laird and Industry; O. C. Randall, Prairie and Lake; Fred Brown, Sheridan and Divide; J. R. Gainforth, Union and Rock Falls; F. E. Carpenter, Garfield and Westside; Chas Berkman, Williamsburg, Cottonwood and Anderson.

It is well to remember, if there are any who hesitate to give the information desired, that it will be received by the government in absolute confidence, and can be used in no way to detriment of the person giving the information. It cannot be made the basis for assessment or taxation. Nor will it be divulged in any manner except as a part of the computation of the general static's of the county.

1. Surname, Christian name, initial.
2. Residence, street, number of house if in city.
3. Relationship of each member to the head of the family.
4. Color and race.
5. Sex
6. Age at last birthday
7. Day, month and year when born
8. Are you single, married, widow
9. Number of years married
10. How Many Children of mother only
11. Number of children living.
12. Sex of those children living
13. Where were you born? If in the United States, give state or territory; if of foreign birth give name of county only.
14. Where was your father born? Your mother?
15. If of foreign birth when did you come to the United States
16. How many years have you resided in the United States.
17. Have you been naturalized? How many years since you became a citizen?
18. What is your occupation, trade, or profession? (This question applies to persons 19 years of age or over)
19. How many months during the year are you not employed? Farmers are supposed to work the year round.
20. How many months have attended school?
21. Can you read?
22. Can you write?
23. Give the main facts concerning your education.
24. Do you own the house in which you live?
25. Do you rent the house in which you live?
26. If you own the house is it free or mortgaged? The same questions apply to the farm.
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AGRICULTURAL SCHEDULE

In districts like this where agriculture in its various forms, is the basis of all business. The statistics of agriculture are of the first importance. There are forty-six question on the schedule relating to this branch of the census in tended to cover conditions as they exist in all parts of the country. Many are not applicable to farming in Nebraska so that we are not specially concerned with them. Farmers are requested to be prepared to answer the following questions; (Where no
book account is kept, consult with the wife and the big boys, and make as close an estimate as possible.)

1. Name of person conducting farm.
2. Post Office
3. Color or race.
4. Tenure-owned or rented.
5. If rented, name and address of the owner.
6. Total number of acres in farm, including pasture and wood lots. This is to include all land farmed under one management, whether owned by one or a number of persons.
7. Number of acres not under plow.
8. Number of acres not under cultivation.
9. Number of acres of this farm owned by occupant.
10. Number of acres leased June 1st, 1900.
11. Value of entire farm, including the improvements.
12. Value of farm buildings.
13. Value of all implements and machinery belonging to the farm.
14. Estimated value of all farm products, (sold, consumed or on hand for 1899).
15. Amount expended for fertilizers.
16. Amount expended in 1899 for farm labor, (exclusive of housework including the value of board furnished.).
17-18 Number of acres irrigated in 1899 from stream and wells.
19. Farm products--- acres harvested quantities produced. Value of products of the following crops: Corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, buckwheat, flax, kaffir corn.
20. Hay and forage acres harvested, and tons produced of wild grass, millet, and Hungarian alfalfa, clover, either tame grasses, grains cut green for hay, forage crops.
21. Acres, quantity and value harvested of tobacco, help, hops, broom corn, peanuts, dry beans, dry peas, potatoes, sweet potatoes.
22. Sugar---number of gallons of sorghum, and tons of sugar beets and sorghum cane, with the value of sugar beets and sorghum cane sold.
23. Value of farm products of 1899, which have been fed on this farm, to animals or poultry.
24. & 25 not listed.
26. Vegetables ---- acres harvested and quantities produced, of cabbages, tomatoes, sweet corn, onions, cucumbers, melons.
27. Small fruit---acres harvested and quantities of strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries and other small fruit.
28. Total number of acres planted to small fruit and vegetables in 1899.
29. Square feet of land under glass in propagating houses.
30. Value of vegetables and fruit raised in 1899---others than potatoes, sweet potatoes and sugar beets.
31. Value of all wood consumed at home or sold in 1899
32. Trees and Vines---Acres, Number of trees and vines and quantities produced of Apples, peaches, pears, plums and prunes, cherries, apricots and other orchard fruit.
33. Acres. Of grapes, number of vines, number of pounds produced.
34. Not available
35. Amount produced or made in 1899 cider, vinegar, wine, raisins, and dried grapes, dried or evaporated fruit.
36. Not available
37. Acres devoted to raising flowers, seeds, trees plants, etc. and the amount received from their sales in 1899.
38. Farm animals---Number and value of all animals on the farm, whether belonging to the occupant or farm or to others. Calves under 1st. year; steers one and under two: steers two and under three; steers three and over; heifers one and over; colts under one; horses one and under two; horses two and over; mule colts under one; mules one and under two; mules two and over; asses and burros, all ages; lambs under one; sheep one and over; swine all ages; goats, ages.
39. All pure blooded horses, cattle, Angora, goats, sheep and swine. 40. Amount received in 1899 from sale of live stock, raised on this farm.
41. Market value of meat consumed on farm or slaughtered and sold; also hides in 1899.
42. Quantity and value of milk cream; butter and cheese sold.
43. Total value of milk, cream, butter and cheese produced in 1899 and consumed on the farm.
44. Number of fleeces, weight and value of wool.
45. Number of chickens, turkeys, geese and ducks over three months old on farm June 1st. Value of all poultry on hand; value of poultry raised in 1899, whether sold, consumed or on hand; number dozen of eggs produced in 1899 and their total value.
46. Bees and honey---Number of swarms on hand June 1st. and their value; number of pounds honey and wax produced in 1899 and their value.

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~ OLD PHELPS COUNTY PIONEER ~ ~NEWSPAPER DONATED ~

Holdrege Area Genealogy Club wishes to thank Agnes Nuttbrock of Milwaukie, Oregon for contributing four fragile pieces of a May, 1879 Phelps County Pioneer. It is the only copy that I am aware of.. The reason this piece of history survived was because her relative, Mortimer F. Rettig's obituary was printed in this newspaper.

DIED: Thursday, May 1st, 1879, of typhoid fever, at their residence of his father near Sacramento, NE, Mortimer F. Redtig (incorrect spelling), aged 22 years and 6 months. The service took place on Saturday, Rev. ___________ officiating. Text 1st Samuel "As thy soul lives, it is but a step between me and death." The body was followed by a large concourse of people to Walker's Ranch where it was interred. The deceased leaves a wife, and small child and many relatives and friends to mourn their loss. He was a promising young man of excellent character and a faithful member of the Baptist church.
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BELOW IS A TRANSCRIPT OF THE MAY 1879 PHELPS COUNTY PIONEER NEWSPAPER
DONATED BY AGNES NUTTBROCK

THE PHELPS COUNTY PIONEER
Newspaper of Sacramento, Phelps County, NE
INCOMPLETE AD FOR THE PHELPS COUNTY PIONEER NEWSPAPER
"Being all printed at home, it will contain more news than any other paper, this side of Turkey Creek. The news will just suit the homesteader and all advertisements will be carefully selected. Such notices as "Marriage Guide", "Errors of Youth", "Quack Medicines", Lotteries, Etc, will be admitted under no circumstances, and honorable advertisers will be guaranteed that their ad's not be tucked in beside or classed with all the Quacks, Humbugs, cheap-cut-throats.

It is __________ to make the settler contented with his lot, encourage the thousands of young men who are struggling to make a Home of their own.

It will not only be entertaining and amusing, but instructive, as it will contain articles in regard to improve and make your homestead valuable.

Harry is a big genuine genius; oh it's a big story. The story will run two months, through eight numbers, and to introduce "The Pioneer" into every home in Nebraska, we will send it to any address during that time for only 25 cents, address, Bert O. Wilson, Sacramento, Phelps County, NE. (Next is the story Harry Ray or Working for a Home under Difficulties
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NOTES OF INTEREST

We beg pardon of our subscribers for being so behind in this paper, but you know how it is yourself, we are far from the market, and have to work, as it were, with axe and spade, and as we have so often promised before, we will get around after a while with a larger paper then we promised, in place of a smaller one.

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Elsewhere will be found the Minutes of Commissioner's Meeting, kindly furnished to us by T. M. Hopwood, Esq., a man who we believe is working to the best interest of Phelps County. If we had a man like him, and a paper to make public the doings of our County Officers years ago, Phelps County would have but little debt on her shoulders today.
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INCOMPLETE ARTICLE ABOUT FINANCING PHELPS COUNTY SCHOOLS

The district was organized as follows: John Doggett, Moderator; Thomas Downing, Chairman and Treasurer; James Sweeny, Director; with H. P. Miller, John Mintz and G. Ford as voter, and only two children in the district, according to reports as there are no schedule of scholars to be found until April 1875, then only eleven children, three of these are only eight years old today,

On May 21st 1874, the above six men voted three thousand dollars in bonds to build a school house. The law asked twenty five scholars before two thousand can be voted, yet there was not a child in the district, according to the books, at the time the bonds were voted.

The contract to build a school house 20x30 was let to J. McKanal for two thousand and ninety dollars, but there is no account to be found what become on the remaining nine hundred and ten dollars in bonds, although three thousand are recorded as being sold to C. J. Dilworth, another poor man.

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MINUTES OF COMMISSIONER'S MEETING
(Some of this article is missing)

Balance due to Thomas Downing on bridge over Spring Creek $20
Olof Hedlund; use of house for three elections $4
E. H. Krier, Plum Creek, for cutting prisoner's hair, 75 cents
Charles Manley for assessing, $47.67
John Johnson for assessing, $60.62
A. M. Carlson for assessing $67.98
Florlan Lauer for assessing $44.14
Albert Hansen for assessing $49.40
P.O. Hedlund, clerk of Election $2
State Journal Co., for blank assessor's books, etc. $110

April 23, 1879 Board met, present, with full board, deputy clerk and sheriff. Bills allowed. W. A. Dilworth, clerk's salary, $94, John Holms, tax for 1878 on account of an error in assessment was reduced $150. Olof Hedlund's taxable property for 1879 reduced $500 on ______ account, also W. N. Nag's (This is probably William Knagg) taxable property reduced $850.
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INDUSTRY NEWS

Mr. Editor: I will venture to write a few more items for this part of town as I see you request every reader of the Pioneer to become a correspondent.

Mr. C. S. Bradley and family have arrived from Seward and intend to make this their future home. Mr. J. C. Bradley and Mr. Fry have also arrived, but have not their families yet. They have our hardy welcome and we wish them success in their new homes on the Prairie.

Mr. D. H. Mason and family have come to homestead. We also wish them success.

Mr. E. R.Johnson received a telegram from Galesburg, Ill, that his wife was dead. She was their visiting friends, was taken ill and called away. Mr. J. and family have our sympathy.

Mr. J. D. Roland has been sinking a well, but failed and lost part of his tubing, he has not given up, he thinks "If at first you don't succeed, try again". We hope he will succeed this time. Mr. James Lukehart has his well complete.

Mr. D.F. Saylorand J. Jackson started their homesteads. (Mr. Jackson_______ as he has a family but Mr. Taylor _______________. (Here is where the paper was folded and some of the paper is lost.) The next thing we can read is something about ________ David's preemption. "But she seems to think there is plenty room on 180 acres for two. It appears that the man has one woman and she don't think two would get along very well. We don't consider him any part of a man to jump a lady's claim, especially if she is doing all she can to get on it, which she is.

We understand Phelps Center has quite a little store, which is an improvement to Phelps County.

We Understand they have organized an M.E. Sabbath school at the residence of C. S. Bradley, we hope they will have a good attendance and make advancement of the work commenced.

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We do not believe there is a young gentleman or lady but what has "A dear friend back East," who would be delighted to receive the Pioneer during the coming two months and read our continued story; then we have all the odd corners chuck full of descriptions of Nebraska so that they will get the western fever and come right out.
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MARRIED

At the residence of the brides parents, Sunday, May 4th 1879 by Rev. Josh N. McQuene, Mr. Jerry B. Sands to Miss Minnie Irons all of Sacramento. The happy couple has the best wishes of their many friends and the many thanks of the printer for an invitation to the only square meal we ever helped make lively. The bride was dressed "just lovely" and the groom was of the same color. There were twenty-five guests at the dinner. We have been to many, but a greater variety, better baked or greater quantity, we never before gazed upon. The day was beautiful, and the affair was a grand success from first to last.
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Miss Clara Clark will commence teaching school in District No. 12, three miles east of Sacramento, on Monday, May 5th, 1879. She is a first class teacher, and Director Lauer tells us that scholars outside of the district can attend the school by paying 50 cents per month.

A party of young folks met at the residence of N. C. Christensen on the evening of the 25th, and held a dance to the time of music. The kind host and hostess invited them to a fine supper of cake, pie, candy and _________.
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PLANS FOR THE FIRST COUNTY FAIR
(Part of this article is missing, but tell of plans for a the first fair.)

Of Course, we cannot have a $40,000 trot, or an amphitheater capable of holding 200,000 people, but we can have a nice collection of corn, wheat, pumpkins, farm machinery, horses, cattle, hogs, and poultry, ladies" fancy articles and in fact a thousand little things that'll cost comparatively nothing to the good derived, and it will be a start for a big fair a few years hence. We will offer fifty subscriptions to the PIONEER for one year, free of charge as premiums,
and there are dozens of others in the county that will be liberal. Let us call a meeting and go to work, decide where it shall be held, and get a lease on ten acres of land for ten or twenty years and pitch in.
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We would like to call the attention of the county treasurer to the delinquency of C. J. Dilworth and make returns. C. J. Dilworth has not paid any taxes since the county was organized and if the Atty. General does not pay his taxes, why should we? If the treasurer refuses to collect said delinquent taxes, we should be glad to have the Commissioners declare Treasurer's office vacant.---Not a Swede
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BASE BALL ___The young men of the various precincts in this county are requested to organize a Base Ball club, in order that we must have a grand match game at the coming fair this fall----which we're going to have---and to be in readiness to accept challenges, or to give the same to the "Dashaway" base ball club of Sacramento, which is partially organized and means business. This club, and all wishing to become members, will meet at Sacramento on Saturday, May 17th to complete the organization and have a good game. Be out promptly two at o'clock and bring all the bats, balls and boys.
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BLOOMINGTON, NEBRASKA, APRIL 26, 1879: Citizens as well as soldiers can take 160 acres in the railroad limits now, on even numbered sections of land. S. W. Switzer, Register

NOTICE: U.S. Land Office, Bloomington, NE., April 26th, 1879

Complaint having been entered at the office by Gust Lindquist against Andrew E. Sheldon for abandoning his timber Cultur, Entry No. 1320 dated December 21, 1876, upon the North west Quarter of Section 4, Township 7, North, Range 20 west, in Phelps County, Nebraska, with a view of the cancellation and said entry: the said parties are hereby summoned to appear at this office on the 11 day of June 1879 at 10 o'clock a.m., to respond and furnish testimony concerning said alleged abandonment.
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U.S. Land Office, Bloomington, NE., April 12th, 1879: Complaint having been entered at office by William R. French against Martin Battle for abandoning his homestead entry No. 4892, dated May 9th, 1878, upon the north west Quarter of Section 26, Township 6, north, Range 17 West in Phelps County, Nebraska, with a view to the cancellation of said entry: the said parties are hereby summoned to appear at this office on the 24th day of May 1879 at ___ o'clock a.m. to respond and furnish testimony concerning said alleged abandonment.
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U.S. Land Office, Bloomington, NE., April 1st. 1879: Complaint having been entered at this office by Andrew Logsdon against Charles Headland for abandoning his Timber Cultur, Entry No. 1061 dated Feb, 11 1876, upon the lots 9,10, 15 and 16 Section 18, Township 6, North Range 17 west, in Phelps Co., NE with a view to this cancellation of said entry: the said parties are here by summoned to appear at this office on the 16th day of May 1879, at 9 o'clock a.m., to respond and furnish testimony concerning said allege abandonment.
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U. S. Land Office, Bloomington, NE, April 4th, 1879: Complaint having been entered at Office by John P. Nelson against Peter J. Lion for abandoning his Timber Cuntur Entry No. 1145, dated May 3rd, 1876 upon the South west quarter of Section 12, Township 7, north Rage 19 west, in Phelps County, Nebraska, with a view to the cancellation of said entry: the said parties are hereby summoned to appear at this office on the 23 day of May 1879, at 9 o'clock a.m. to respond and furnish testimony concerning said alleged abandonment.

Nelson has filed in this Office his affidavit alleging that his witnesses in this case reside over 50 miles from this office, and requesting that Samuel Savidge, a Notary Public in Kearney, NE. Be appointed commissioner to take deposition of said witnesses in this case, which is accordingly done, and on the 20 day of May, at 11 a.m., at his office in said town of Kearney, said deposition will be taken.
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U.S. Land Office, Bloomington, NE., April 12th, 1879: Complaint having been entered at this office by Swan P. Bjorkman against Dwight R. Crowell for abandoning his homestead Entry No. 5286 dated August 13, 1878, upon the South half of Southwest quarter Section 24, Township 6, North, Range 19 West, in Phelps County, NE. With a view to be cancellation of said entry: The said parties are here by summoned to appear at this Office on the 13th day of June 1879, at 10 o'clock a.m., to respond and furnish testimony concerning said alleged abandonment.
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U.S Land Office, Bloomington, Nebraska., April 14, 1879: Complaint having been entered at office by Charles A. Young against Charles Josland for abandoning his Homestead Entry No. 4987, dated June 1st 1878 upon the East half of the southwest quarter of Section 18, Township 5 north, Range 18 west, in Phelps County, Nebraska with a view to the cancellation of said entry: the said parties are hereby summoned to appear at this office on the 19 day of May 1879, at 9 o'clock a.m., to respond and furnish testimony concerning said alleged abandonment.

 

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~Harlan County Nebraska~
NOTE:
The Phelps Helps Newsletter highlights Harlan County Nebraska in this section. With many of our subscribers interested in and from Harlan County, and since Harlan County is a connecting county to Phelps County, the Phelps Helps will publish history information on Harlan County.

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The story below was written by Jack Vaughn in the 1950s. Mr. Vaughn wrote a series of historical articles of Phelps and surrounding counties. This article starts with the area around Orleans, Nebraska before Harlan County was created.

UNORGANIZED TERRITORY

In the year 1870, General Victor Vivquin and twelve soldiers located the site for a stockade on the east side of the Republican River and a short distance west from the present town of Orleans. The site for the stockade was made and the twelve soldiers constructed a temporary fort. The fort was made of sod and enclosed an area of 100 feet by 150 feet. This was a safe place against the roving bands of Indians. In the winter of 1870-1871 James Duncan and his wife came to the stockade. Mrs. Duncan was the first white woman in Harlan county.

The first effort to establish a town in Harlan county, was to be built at a point about Midway between what is now Alma and Orleans, This town had the high sounding name of Napoleon and never materialized.

The stockade was the point, which insured safety against the Indians and the center of population of Harlan county, so that the first houses of a permanent character were constructed near the stockade. This became the center of what was to become the first town in the county. It was named Melrose.

In 1871 F. A. Bievon erected a small lot store, the first permanent building and the first store in the county. The next building to be erected was a log store built by Casey and Connelly. In 1872 Hooper and McKee erected a very pretentious building (two stories) and installed a large stock of goods. Melrose was designed as the county seat and began to grow rapidly and was soon to become the most important point west of Red Cloud in the Republican Valley.

At one time Melrose was quite a town but the removal of the county seat to Alma, be the decision of Judge Gantt in June of 1874, caused the town of Melrose to decline rapidly. Since 1876, there has been nothing left of the promising town.

ORLEANS, NEBRASKA
In the spring of 1873, D. N. Smith, of Lincoln, President of the Republican Valley Land Association, bought the homestead of W. M. Fletcher for the some of $800. The land was then platted in town lots and men and building material were bought from Lowell, NE. Four buildings were erected, one on each side of the public square. The town was called Orleans.

It was not long before the post office was moved from Melrose to Orleans, the same man serving as postmaster in both locations.

In 1873 George Downing moved to Orleans and started a hardware store, selling out to T. H. Manning in the following spring. George Webb built and operated the old Hollenback Hotel for many years. A Mr. Hungerford started the "Orleans Sentinel" newspaper about the same time. It was later sold to Tom Cleaver.

In 1874 Mike Manning moved over from Melrose and located a saloon on the north side of the square and by 1878 became known as one of the richest men in the county.

About the same time, John R. Kennedy moved from Melrose and opened a drug store on the north side of the square, the same year Dr. Hoyt opened his office.

George Downing, after selling his stock of hardware to T. H. Manning, put in a dry goods and grocery store and James McGeachin put in a stock of implements and on January 1, 1879, he bought half interest in the Downing store. Later McGeachin bought full control of the store. The store is still operated by Mr. McGeachin's son, James, Jr. on the same west side of the square.

The Manning Hardware is another business of these early days and is presently being operated by Harry Mitchell for over 30 years.

Many thousands of words would be required to name all of the business opened and closed in Orleans. Some of the present business can trace their history back to the origin of the town.



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