OF RED BANK CHAPTER'S NAME
Origin of Red Bank Chapter's Name | The
Battle of Red Bank
New Jersey Officers in the Red
A Brief History of Pitman, New Jersey
| DAR History Links
Red Bank Battle
Field is the site of Fort Mercer, named after Brigadier General Hugh Mercer who
died at Princeton January 1777. Two monuments mark this site: one is erected to
Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Greene who, with four hundred men, defeated two
thousand Hessian troops at Red Bank October 22, 1777; a second monument commemorates
the battle of Red Bank.
By an Act of the United States Congress, 20 acres of land at Red Bank, including
the fort, monuments, and site of the Whitall House, are now a public park under
care of the Gloucester County Board of Freeholders.
Fort Mercer is located in National Park, New Jersey, just south of Woodbury and
just a few minutes directly off I-295.
THE BATTLE OF RED BANK
Late in September 1777, Philadelphia was captured by British General William Howe,
with a serious disadvantage. Extensive American river defenses blocked the shipping
of food and supplies to the British army and citizens of Philadelphia. A major
attack was planned against the garrison at Fort Mercer. A British brigade of about
1,200 Hessians under Colonel Carl Emil Ulrich Von Donop was ferried over to Coopers
Ferry (now Camden), spending the night in Haddonfield.
On the morning of October 22, 1777, Colonel Von Donop and his brigade marched
on Fort Mercer. Young Jonas Cattell, an apprentice blacksmith, alerted Colonel
Christopher Greene that a surprise attack was imminent. Around 4 pm, the attack
began. Quickly gaining the old northern section of the fort, the Hessians faced
another 10 foot wall and abatis [a line of defense consisting of a barrier of
felled or live trees with sharpened branches toward the enemy]. The disordered
Hessians tried to move forward, but the Americans gained the advantage and held
the fort. Hessian casualties amounted to over 500, including the mortally wounded
Von Donop, while Americans counted 14 killed and 23 wounded out of 600. Many of
the wounded, including Von Donop, were taken to the Whitall House where they were
tended by American doctors and Ann Whitall, who had remained in her home. Count
Donop, the Hessian commander mortally wounded at the battle, was subsequently
removed to the farm house of Joseph Low where he died. He was interred with remains
of his brigade on the battlefield.
The Battle of Red Bank resulted in heavy losses to the British and was a much-needed
morale builder to Washington's army, giving new hope and rallying the spirits
of the soldiers. This victory, coupled with the British defeat at Saratoga, New
York, resulted in the French decision to enter the war against Great Britain.
in the Red Bank Campaign
~compiled by Colonel
C.E. Godfrey of the Adjutant General's Department at the State House in N.J.,
taken from the "Trenton Times" printed June 26, 1906~
Brigade: Brigadier General Silas Newcomb and staff; Major Robert Patterson,
County: Colonel Bowes Reed and staff, Captain Joseph Borden, troup of horse;
Captain Edward Thomas, troop of horse, Captain Albemarle Collins, Lieutenant Daniel
Hendrickson, Captain John Leak, Captain Robert Quigley, Captain Joseph Vandyke.
May County: Colonel John Mackey and staff, First Lieutenant John Cresse, Captain
Salathial Foster, Captain Henry Y. Townsend, Captain James Willets, Jr.
County: Colonel Elijah Hand and staff, Captain John Barker, Captain Jonathan
Beesley, Captain Elijah Davis, First Lieutenant Ephraim Foster, Captain William
Lowe, Captain John Peterson, Captain David Platt.
County: Colonel Joseph Ellis and staff, Captain Richard Cheeseman, troop of
horse; Captain Franklin Davenport, artillery, Captain Jacob Browning, Captain
Joseph Collins, Captain Joseph Conover, Captain Sawtel Elwell, Captain Felix Fisher,
Captain David Paul, Captain William Price, Captain Christopher Rape, Captain John
Stokes, Captain William Watson.
County: Lieutenant Colonel Benomi Hathaway, commanding and staff; Captain
David Bates, Captain Aaron Bigelow, Captain Ezra Brown, Captain Nathan Horton,
Captain Jeremy Slaight.
County: Major Edward Hall, commanding; First Lieutenant John Smith, adjutant;
First Lieutenant James Steel, quartermaster; Captain Jacob DuBois, Captain Joseph
Haywood, Captain Abner Penton.
County: Lieutenant Colonel John Seward, command and staff; Major Samuel Westbrook,
Captain George Allen, Captain Josiah Cole, Captain Benjamin Coykindall, Captain
Conrad Gunterman, Captain Thomas Hill, Lieutenant Abijah Hopkins, Captain Manuel
Hover, Captain Simon Simonson.
BRIEF HISTORY OF PITMAN, NEW JERSEY
Pitman Borough was formed
from land originally located in Mantua and Glassboro Townships, and is named after
Reverend Charles Pitman, D.D.
In 1871, land in this section of Gloucester County was chosen for a new Methodist
summer religious camp, as it was "convenient and desirable" land, which
included good sources of water.
March 17, 1872, under the sponsorship of Reverend Perry, presiding elder of the
Bridgeton District of the Methodist Church, the New Jersey Conference Camp meeting
Association was formally chartered. They had the authority to adopt ordinances
governing people within the bounds of this area, known as "Pitman Grove."
first, the only homes built on this land were for summer use, and were for the
use of Methodist ministers and their families. As time passed, these families
sold their buildings to persons not in the ministry.
time passed, greater numbers of people made permanent homes. Some of the summer
residents in the cottages began to stay year-round. By 1886 approximately 400
cottages were present within the Grove and in outlying areas. In 1890 the directors
of the Association voted to build a drugstore on the camp grounds, and made provisions
to open up additional areas for development. The permanence of the population
led to the establishment of the first public school in Pitman, in a new school
district, on July 17, 1884.
was officially incorporated as a borough on May 24, 1904. The Pitman Grove area
of Pitman Borough is on the New Jersey and National Registers of Historic Places.
of the National Society - Daughters of the American Revolution
of the New Jersey State Society
- National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution