CITY, VILLAGE AND TOWNSHIP HISTORIES, JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP.
BY REV. B. C. MEGIE, D. D.
THIS township is situated in the northwestern corner of Morris county and contains 25,000 acres. It is bounded on the northwest by Sussex county and Lake Hopatcong, on the northeast by Passaic county, on the southeast by Rockaway, and on the southwest by Roxbury township. In shape it is nearly a parallelogram, about twelve miles long and of an average width of four miles.
The census returns of population for this township from the first have been as follows: 1810, 1,281; 1820, 1,231; 1830, 1,551; 1840, 1,410; 1850, 1,358; 1860, 1,471; 1870, 1,430; 1875, 1,740; 1880, 1,792.
The statistics of valuation, taxes, etc., for 1881 were as follows: Acres, 24,647; valuation of real estate, $475,175; personal property, $152,525; total taxable property, $596,100; debt, $31,600; polls, 406; State school tax, $1,517.43; county tax, $1,416.56; road tax, $1,200.
The surface of the township is broken and rugged, and the scenery is, in many places, wild and almost grand; in all beautiful and picturesque. The Rockaway River runs through almost the whole length of the township between two ranges of hills, whose height varies from 400 to 600 feet above the river bed. The valley thus formed, which is very narrow, rarely exceeding a mile in width, contains most of the arable land in the territory.
The evidence of the action of a large body of water or ice upon the sides of this mountain is evident to an ordinary observer, in the rounded appearance of detached stones of all sizes that abound along the entire course of the river, as well as in the gap or break in the mountains in the neighborhood of Berkshire Valley, which has the appearance of having been torn out by the force of a vast flood. To a practiced geologist, however, there are many proofs to this end entirely convincing. The following account is condensed from the State geological report:
Throughout the greater part of the valley is a glacial drift of considerable depth. At Milton wells sunk to the depth of forty feet do not go through it. Between Petersburg and Russia the drift partly covers the slate strata except on low, long outcrops which range with the valley. The flat bordering the river is from twenty to sixty feet lower than the general level of the drift hills and benches. The gravelly terrace formation is half a mile wide on the line of the Sparta turnpike, and the same width is continued southward. Cuttings in the Longwood road and also at Berkshire Valley disclose strata of land gravel, cobble stones and a few small boulders. The thickness as shown by a well at F. W. Fichter's place is at least sixty feet. "The uniform height of the terrace formation in this long and narrow valley, rising but forty feet from the terminal moraine at Berkshire to the watershed northeast of Milton, a distance of eleven miles, and then descending thirty feet in four miles to Newfoundland, leads us to infer the existence of a long and comparatively shallow lake, which formed the terminal moraine, and which was connected with the waters of West Milford and Greenwood Lake basin. The outlet was at first at the southwest, by the Rockaway and through the terminal moraine. The retreat of the glacier northward opened the Pequannock and permitted a part of the waters to escape eastward. The small pond holes and the Little Mooseback Lake are the undrained parts of the old lake."
The earliest settler of whom we can obtain any information was Humphrey Davenport, or Debenport, as the name was then written, who came from Devonshire, England, and purchased land at Newfoundland. His arrival was probably about the year 1720. His son was also named Humphrey, and he and his son Captain Cornelius Davenport lived on the homestead at Newfoundland. The place still remains in the possession of the family. Captain Cornelius Davenport married Rachel Davenport, a member of another family of the same name. Their children were Captain Enos Davenport, who enlisted in the war of 1812, John C., Nathan, Charles, Cornelius, Phoebe, Julia Anne, Jane, Fanny and Mahala. Enos Davenport married Fanny Keepers, who was a near relative of the famous Captain John Paul Jones, and their family was large; but only two of them now reside in Jefferson township, namely: Charles, who married Affie Spencer, and Jane, who married William Winterbottom.
John C. Davenport married Delilah Turner, and their two daughters--Mary Ann, who married Mahlon Jennings, and Lavinia, who married Thomas K. Norman--both reside in the township.
We have no definite information of any other settlements after the Davenports until the time of the Revolution. The tradition is that seven or eight hunters and trappers came to the township between 1775 and 1778 and established themselves there. Whether these traditionary forefathers came together, or at intervals, does not now seem to be very well known. Slack was the name of one, and he owned a farm near Little or Bleachley's Pond, now a portion of Lake Hopatcong. It is stated that William Headley was also one of these early settlers, and that he lived on the land where Joseph Headley now resides. He came from the Wyoming Valley, in Pennsylvania, where he was living just previous to the massacre of the whites by the Indians. He was warned by a friendly Indian of the impending disaster, and had just time to escape with his family before the blow descended. He at first settled in the mountains immediately north of the township, but ultimately removed to the spot which we have mentioned.
The arrival of the Normans was also about this time. Peter Norman was a Hessian, and at the close of the war settled on the mountains behind Milton and Sparta, perhaps in Sussex county.
It was not far from this time that Captain Cornelius Davenport built his stone house at Milton, which is one of the oldest houses in the township.
It was a custom for these early settlers to meet once a year at the house of one or another of them, to compare notes and relate their adventures. At one time they assembled at Slack's house, when the latter is stated to have declared that he was accustomed to eat a piece of the meat of every animal that he shot. Not long before he had killed an otter. He selected the choicest looking piece of the meat and had his wife cook it with care, and then proceeded to eat. "There ain't no kind of meat that I can't eat," Mr. Slack concluded, to the amusement of his friends; "but otter meat is just about a leetle the darndest meat I ever put into my mouth."
Philemon Dickerson, the brother of Gov. Mahlon Dickerson, of Mine Hill, was a frequent visitor at these social gatherings and was said to be one of the most successful in the athletic games practiced on such occasions. One exercise was to put the toe through the ring of the old fashioned 56-pound weight and throw it to as great a distance as possible with the foot. Mr. Dickerson could cast it farther than any of the others.
On one occasion there was some writing to be done, and Mr. Dickerson called for a pen and ink, which were promptly furnished him. After trying the pen he declared it to be the worst one that he had ever seen. "I shouldn't wonder if it was," retorted his host, Captain Davenport, "for it's the same one you left here last year."
Among other of the early settlers were the Dows, Stanburroughs, Hulmes, Coopers, Chamberlains and Sewards.
The Hurd family originally came from Randolph township, near Dover. Two brothers, Joseph and Daniel Hurd, moved to Hurdtown about the year 1800. Joseph married Miss Long, and their children were David B., James L., Uel, and Mary, who married Charles F. Randolph. David B. married Eliza Condit, of Morristown. Their children were Mary, Edward C., Lewis and Phoebe A. Other children were born to them, but they died young. Mary Hurd married Dr. William B. Lefevre, and their surviving children are Eliza C. (married to Harlan W. Cortright, at Nolan's Point) and William J. Lefevre, an artist of distinction now resident at Dover. Edward C. Hurd married Rebecah Wright, and now resides at Dover. Lewis Hurd resides at Hurdtown, in the house formerly occupied by David B. Hurd. Phoebe A. married. William A. Wood (since deceased), and resides at Dover.
William Wood, the first of that name in the township, moved to Hurdtown about 1804 or 1805. He married Susannah Berry. Their children were: Freeman, who married Mary B. Jackson, and is now a judge of the court of common pleas for Morris county and resides at Dover; Maria Wood, who married John M. Losey, and Willaim A. Wood, who married Caroline, daughter of James L. Hurd, and after her decease Phoebe A., daughter of David B. Hurd. His daughter by his first wife married Mr. McPherson, a brother of Senator McPherson, and is now resident in Chicago.
The children of Freeman Wood were: William F. Wood, who married Miss Frances P. Howe, was a paymaster in the army with the rank and pay of major, and resides in Hartford, Conn.; Susan, who married N. P. Neff, of Cincinnati, O., where they now reside; John F. Wood, who married Irene Bright and resides in Dover; Florence, who married A. C. Smith and resides in Dover, and Clement Wood, M. D., who resides at Haverstraw, New York.
The children of Maria and J. M. Losey were Edward, deceased; Susan, and Ella, who married R. B. Livermore and resides in New York.
Colonel John H. Stanburrough came to the township about 1806. He married Miss Lum, a sister of Squier Lum. Their children were: Albert H. Stanburrough, county clerk during two terms, and long prominent in the county in political and business affairs, who now resides at Milton, and furnished much valuable information regarding the township; John D. Stanburrough, who also resides at Milton; Nancy Stanburrough, who married Albert R. Riggs, of Succasunna Plains, where they now reside; and Elizabeth, who married Mr. Dalrymple and now lives in Sussex county. None of the other children live in the State at the present time.
A SPORTSMAN'S REMINISCENCES.
The following anecdotes of old times in Jefferson were furnished to the Iron Era by the late Guy M. Hinchman, of Dover:
"About the years 1818-20 Mr. James L. Hurd, deceased, was the proprietor and genial host of a most excellent public house at Hurdtown, or New Partners, as the place was then sometimes called. At that time a forge, manufacturing bar iron by the blooming process, was in operation. Water power was supplied from a pond of large dimensions, lying north and east of the turnpike leading to Sparta. This place was the resort of many sportsmen during the hunting season, and many deer were captured in and about said pond. The mountainous region lying south and east between Upper and Lower Longwood and Berkshire Valley abounded in game. The method of hunting was to hound the deer with dogs, forcing them to take water in said pond. Their routes or runways were so well known that a greater number were captured on land than of those reaching the pond. A party of eight gentlemen from Newark and Belleville arrived there, intending to have a week's sport. Of the company was a brother of Commodore Stephen Decatur. The writer then resided at Mt. Pleasant, and, learning that after several days' hunting the party were unsuccessful, and having the acquaintance of two of the gentlemen, resolved to pay them a visit. After listening to the whys and wherefores for their ill luck (they asserting that although deer were started every day, none had taken water) the writer ventured to suggest that probably the fault was attributable to their dogs, at which one gentleman became indignant, remarking, `Sir, are you aware that our hounds are the pick of the Newark pack? No truer or more staunch dogs exist.' `Granted, sir; but your hounds are of the beagle breed, short in the legs, just the kind for chasing the fox on the marshes and meadows in the vicinity of Newark; but permit me to tell you, sir, here in our mountains deer will play before your dogs, browse on the way, sir, and get fat. To induce them to take water they must be pursued by fleeter dogs, that push them, which your beagles cannot do. Why, sir, I have a brace of dogs, a cross between the fox hound and stag hound, now only 15 months old, that can put a deer into the pond in 30 minutes from the time he leaves his lair.' Suffice it to say that, after mutual explanations, the writer received an invitation to join the party on the following day, and prove his assertion in regard to his dogs, On parting, I remarked, `Gentlemen, to-morrow at 6 o'clock A. M. I will cause my dogs to be unleashed in the "Dark Hollow," and it will not be long before you will hear from them; therefore guard well the runways through Gravel Hill field and Laurel Point, for that will probably be the course of the game to the pond.'
"At the appointed time next morning I parted company with my driver and dogs at the foot of Seward Mountain, with instructions to the driver to keep the dogs in the leash until he should have fairly penetrated the hollow, fearing they might cross the trail of fox or rabbit and thereby delay the sport. Being mounted on a fleet horse, rifle in hand, I had just reached the summit of the mountain when I heard the sharp, continuous cry of the hounds, leading off in the direction of Lower Longwood. Knowing full well from the eagerness of the dogs that the game would soon be compelled to double and make for water, I gave rein, and made full speed for the north side of the pond, knowing it to be my only chance should the deer escape in running the gauntlet in his course to water.
"Having reached my position, I had barely time to dismount and tie my horse when the exhilarating cry of the hounds became audible. But a few moments elapsed before a fusilade commenced from those guarding the runways. Half a dozen shots or more in quick succession were hurled at the deer, but he came safely through, dashing fearlessly into the water, dashing the spray ten feet high and making a bee line for the place of my concealment. At the proper moment the sharp crack of my rifle reverberated from mountain to mountain, and the noble animal lay lifeless on the water. No boat or other appliance being at hand, having verified my promise, and wishing to perform my part with alacrity, perceiving a gentle wind was wafting the deer farther from shore, with more zeal than discretion I resolved to take to the water. Having divested myself of part of my clothing I heedlessly plunged in, notwithstanding it was a November morning and the ground was white with frost. I succeeded in swimming to the deer, but was so cold and benumbed that I was in doubt whether my limbs moved with the effort I made in swimming. Fortunately the deer was in his winter coat, and very buoyant. I immediately placed my breast upon his body, which, imparting a genial warmth, alone enabled me to make my way safely back to land. My driver, aware that the reputation of himself and dogs was at stake, was in at the death, highly elated with the success, exclaiming `Them am the pups that can do it!' Some one remarked, `My man, can you do it again?' `Sure I can; I seed three deer get up where I started that one, and them are pups will take the trail sartin.' And, true to his promise, at 11 o'clock A. M. he sent another, a noble doe, nearly over the same route; but it was not as fortunate, and was secured by one of the party before reaching the water. The beagle hounds continued their baying in the mountains all the morning without any result, which was very annoying to some of the party.
"Permit me to describe a curious relic then on exhibition at Mr. Hurd's. A person chopping cordwood felled a tree of about 15 inches diameter, and having severed the first cut of four feet attempted to split it, but found it difficult to accomplish. After repeated blows, it having yielded for half its length, one more well directed blow of his axe severed the obstruction, and on exposure it proved to be the antler of a deer. How deposited was a mystery, but there it was, surrounded by wood perfectly sound though a little gnarled and showing a trifling enlargement of the log at that point. The antler, like the wood, was in perfect preservation, as shown by skillfully dissecting the wood at several points. It was certainly very curious and worthy of being preserved. Should time have dealt as kindly with others of that party as with the writer, and this shall meet their gaze, it will be to them a pleasant reminiscence.
"The writer is in possession of a fowling piece in a good state of preservation, that did excellent service in those days, although it lay in the bottom of Mt. Pleasant mine, in eighty feet of water, from 1817 to 1828, having been stolen and to avoid detection thrown into the mine. Subsequently, in draining that portion of the mine, it was recovered.
"At the time of which I write many interesting scenes transpired on Lake Hopatcong. Many deer were driven into the lake by hounds and captured. None but those who have witnessed it can conceive the power of those little animals in the water. I have seen them almost walk upon it. In being approached by a boat the method of capture was to row up to them, seize them by the hind leg--no other hold could be retained for an instant--and dispatch them; they were never shot unless they were about to escape. Although by their capture was gained the huntsman's ardent wish, yet I was always moved to pity, and half inclined to doubt man's right to slay so innocent a creature of God's creation. The severe winter of 1835 and 1836 exterminated them in this region. Many starved, not being able to obtain food in consequence of the great depth of snow; more were wantonly slaughtered that were emaciated and worthless. One man near Sparta killed fourteen that came to his premises seeking food. I cannot learn that they have ever located this side of the Delaware since.
"I have in my possession a magnificent pair of antlers, once worn by a buck that in the hard winter of 1836, when the deer of this region were forced to go to the doors of people for food, strayed into the barnyard of a Warren county farmer, who branded his ears with the mark he applied to his cattle, fed him, and let him go. Twenty years later I was at Milford, Pa., and at the hotel where I was stopping came a boy, from a Delaware river raft, bearing with him the head of a deer that had just been killed. Attracted by the size of the horns, I purchased the head, and found it to be that of the deer that had been branded by the Warren county farmer."
The following incident is from Mr. Hinchman's autobiography, elsewhere quoted:
"At the time when I resided with my uncle on the Plains and while living at Mount Pleasant deer and small game were very abundant in this region, particularly on the Sussex county side of Lake Hopatcong, that part of Succasunna Plains called the Shrub Oaks, about the duck pond on the `Big Meadows,' in Mount Hope woods, and at Hurdtown. The method of hunting deer was to drive them with hounds into the lake and at Hurdtown into the forge pond, on the Plains and on the Big Meadow over runways. It did not involve the loss of much time from business in those days--a day in the chase, and for small game a couple of hours sufficed to bag a half dozen partridges. While residing at Mount Pleasant I kept two splendid hounds, and a couple of hours were sufficient to have a chase on the meadows. A young man living at Berkshire Valley came desiring me to accompany him to the meadows, as he had seen deer that day. Accordingly I went with him and placed him on a stand where it was almost certain the deer would run. I proceeded to put the hounds on the scent; they at once put up the deer, and away they went for the stand occupied by the young man. In due time I heard the report of his gun. I was making my way through the thick cover, bordering a main ditch through the meadow, which carried the Denmark and Middle forge stream through it--being twelve to fifteen feet in width, and where the water was in places three or four feet deep--when I discovered that the hounds were approaching me and the young man in close pursuit, and I spied the deer coming up the stream swimming, occasionally touching bottom and bounding in tremendous leaps. The cry of the dogs in his rear and I confronting him so frightened the timid creature that he came to a stand and endeavored to hide in a bush of alders, that overhung the ditch. To make sure of the game I raised my rifle, when the young man exclaimed, `Do not shoot! he is mortally wounded already by my shot.' Of course I desisted, and together we reached him, and pulled the timid, frightened creature out; when it was found he was untouched--he had yielded from fright alone."
William H. Seward, President Lincoln's Secretary of State, was born at Newfoundland, although not on the Jefferson township side of the line, and lived in the neighborhood until he was a young man, when he removed to Orange county, New York. He was a schoolmate of Rev. Gabriel Van Duser.
There is an old graveyard in Berkshire Valley, not far from Charles Davenport's store. But few graves are found here, however, and these are marked by common field stones without inscription.
Among the names of Revolutionary soldiers living in this township are Joshua Phillips and Swaim Parcels. Captain Cornelius Davenport was also a soldier in the war for independence, and his son Enos was a captain in the war of 1812. The sword of the former, after peace was declared and most swords had been beaten into plowshares, was not treated in that way exactly, but it actually was used as a hay-cutter.
There was formerly an Indian encampment about a mile northeast of Milton. A great many arrow heads, axes and other relics have been found there.
About the year 1800 there was a tremendous freshet in the Longwood Valley, which did much damage to property and among other things carried away the Upper Longwood forge. Mrs. Rose was at that time living with her family at the house of John De Camp, near where Frederick Fichter now lives, and she was the first in that neighborhood to see the coming flood. She endeavored to cross the bridge over the Rockaway, to warn others of the impending disaster, just at the time the water reached it. She barely succeeded in crossing, and as she placed her foot on the opposite shore the bridge parted from its piers and went whirling down the valley.
ABOUT LAKE HOPATCONG.
The following regarding Lake Hopatcong is taken from a manuscript history of the lake by S. C. Shafer, who reserves the right to reprint and copyright the same:
"Lake Hopatcong is situated in the Hopatcong Mountain range between Sussex and Morris counties. The surface of the lake is 920 feet above Newark Bay, and 720 feet above the Delaware at Easton. Various interpretations are given to the name of the lake. Some say it means a place of very deep water, others that it means stone water, but I am inclined to believe its true meaning to be pipe water. The Indians frequently used the word in a symbolic sense to express crookedness, in reference to the form of a lake or river shore. The word was probably so used here and at Hoboken, opposite New York, prior to its settlement by the Europeans. Hopocong was the name of an Indian chief belonging to the Lenni Lenape confederacy at the time of the American Revolution. His name translated into English signified pipe, and he was known to the Americans as Captain Pipe. He did all in his power to induce his countrymen to decide for the American cause. He failed in his efforts, however, for White Eyes, the rival chieftain, prevailed in council and they joined the English.
"The account in the New Jersey Historical Collections (edition of 1852, p. 401) of an Indian wharf or causeway between Bertrand's Island and the Sussex shore is probably a mistake. I have examined the locality carefully when the water has been at the lowest point, and have not found the slightest trace of any such work or the least appearance of there ever having been any. But on the opposite shore there was an Indian settlement of some pretensions, judging from the great number of arrow heads, broken jars and bowls of beautiful shapes that have been collected here by the curious in such matters.
"The Indians who lived about the lake were the Nariticongs, a branch of the Wabingas, a tribe of the Lenni Lenapes. Their principal village was located near and around Halsey Island, and on land (now covered with water) between that island and Hurdtown. In the latter district they had their cornfields. This village contained probably more than fifty lodges, and thirty years ago the location of every one of them was distinctly fixed by a circle of stones several feet in diameter, strongly marked by fire. In the searches made for relics these stones have been displaced, and would no longer fix the site of the lodges. I have in my possession a number of stone implements, such as axes, arrowheads, pestles, hoes, tomahawks, needles and other articles, of some of which it is impossible to tell to what use they were applied. Many of these articles are in a very perfect condition, and betray evidence of much skill in the workmanship which gave them their perfection of form and polish. Besides these, I have at various times picked up pieces of pottery (of undoubted Indian workmanship) whose outline is so true that they were in all probability formed on a wheel.
"There were a few other lodges on the beach in front of Mr. Hedenberg's cottage and on Tempe's Point. The Nariticongs dwelling in the vicinity of the lake numbered in the time of the nation's prosperity between two and three hundred persons.
"The following is a list of settlers living on the lake prior to and about the year 1800: Turner and Bellerford, on Nolan's Point, 100 years ago; Peter Marcelle, on Halsey Island; Mott Van Dyne, on the farm known as the Williams property; one Bishop, on or near Bishop's Rock; George Shongon, on Elba Point; Jones, on what is now known as Bertrand's Island; Israel Youngs, on the Jayne place; Obadiah Seward, the proprietor of the once faous Seward tavern; Abraham Seward, near the lake on a spot now known as the Morse place--the house is entirely removed; one Trainor, one hundred yards south; Raymond, east of Callahan's, near the line of the Ogden Railroad; William Carnes, on the place now known as the Luke property; Joshua Thompson, near the residence of Ephraim Long; Samuel Burrill, half a mile southeast of the Lake View House; one Jameson, near Woodport, 100 years ago; Laffles, on Laffles's Island--there was a bridge across the stream at this place; Joseph Hurd, of Hurdtown, the owner of a tract of land on which is the Hurd mine.
"The building of the Morris Canal rendered a lock at the lower end of the lake necessary. In removing the earth the workmen discovered the skeleton of an Indian, the arm bone of which from the wrist to the elbow was eighteen inches, and from the elbow to the shoulder the same. The remaining parts of the skeleton were of the same proportions. These bones would imply a height of nearly eight feet to this man of the forest.
"Between 40 and 50 years ago an Indian with his squaw came from Phillipsburg to visit the former home of his ancestors at the lake, and was so delighted with the situation that he determined to remain. He built a wigwam near the residence of Mr. Van Every, and spent the summer in fishing and making baskets. It is said that he was not treated very well by the old settlers, and finally went away with his houshold gods to find a more congenial dwelling place.
"There is a tradition that when the whites first settled on or near the lake shore there lived in the lake a singular animal, which was occasionally seen on land. But the settlers could never get near enough to it to form a very satisfactory idea of its appearance. It was said to have a head somewhat like a horse's. It was was probably a deer that swam the lake to escape from the wolves; although it might have been some large animal that had strayed from its native place and lived about the lake, or perhaps the last of its race. Horace Cook found at low water some very singular teeth, which are in his possession at the present time. They are three inches long, curved and fluted, and rather flat than otherwise. I have one, found in the same locality, which would have been when entire four inches long.
"Mr. Van Guilder informed me that when he and his sons were drawing out muck upon the upland from a small hollow or depression, not over 50 feet in diameter, they threw out, as they supposed at the time, a large crooked root. Their dog, which was with them, seized it and ran away with it in the bushes. One of the sons, wondering what peculiarity in the root attracted the dog's interest, went in pursuit, and he found it to be the rib bone of some huge animal. They worked with care and succeeded in exhuming five entire skeletons of the mammoth, except the toe bones. Three of the skeletons were those of full grown animals, and two those of calves, in a good state of preservation. They were exhibited at Morristown and Newark, and afterward sold to a museum.
"Brant, the Mohawk chief, occasionally paid this place a visit prior to the commencement of hostilities in the American Revolution. He succeeded in his design of seducing the Nariticongs to the British interest and led them in his battle with the inhabitants of Minisink, on the 20th of July 1779. His forces consisted of the Indians and royalists disguised as Indians. Bonnel Moody was with him on two or three occasions, and remained hidden under a rock near Bonaparte's landing, in the neighborhood of Bishop's Rock, until sunset, when Brant crossed from the Indian village near Halsey Island and rejoined him. They were furnished with canoes, and they paddled to Byram's Cove, at the northwest side of the lake, to the cliff of rocks that have the appearance of rude steps and have since been known as the Devil's Stairs. They traveled westward, and near Andover, in Sussex county, they separated, Brant going to the Delaware Water Gap, and Moody to his den near Newton, called the Big Muckshaw, a wild and dreary place, where he could see all that was going on for miles around and still be secure from all attacks. He and his band of desperadoes kept the country in a state of perpetual alarm by their bold and daring acts, until a few men determined to take Moody at all hazards. They hunted him and his band so keenly that he fled to Goshen, in the State of New York. They pursued him and recovered some silver plate that he had stolen from Mr. Ogden of Sparta. There is a tradition that he and his comrades were taken in attempting to cross the Hudson to reach the city of New York, and that they were brought to Morristown and tried as traitors and spies, condemned as such and hanged, to the joy of all the sons of liberty.
"Jayne's Cove, in the upper part of the lake, takes its name from the Jayne family, one of whom was the celebrated Dr. David Jayne, of Philadelphia, concoctor of the patent medicines that go by his name, and who lived here when a boy.
"Van Dyne's landing is in this neighborhood. It is an ore dock, whence thousands of tons of iron and zinc ore have been shipped to Newark and other places.
"One of the tributaries of the lake rises at the northeast of Hurdtown. Two miles beyond Hurdtown, in a very retired place, are the remains of a beaver dam, which can still be seen, although the dam is probably a hundred and twenty-five years old. At the lower end of the lake, near Shippenport, there is a somewhat singular small island, called Floating Island. The water of the lake rises and falls considerably at different seasons of the year, but this island always remains just about a foot above the water. There are trees on it of considerable size. Among the plants which grow on it is the `side saddle.' It is evergreen, and flowers in June. The flower is purple. In shape it is somewhat like a pitcher, and it has the capacity of a wine glass. The flowers are generally full of water, and a great number of drowned insects are often found in them. The stem is about fourteen inches in height.
"The common blue crane makes his home in different portions of the lake, and the blue heron also makes occasional visits, as well as the great egret heron. In the summer of 1873 four of these latter birds were shot in one day.
"The following is an Indian legend concerning the region of the river Styx, as it is called, nearly opposite the Lake View House: Quaquahela, a great sachem who lived many years ago, was employed to carry a message to a distant ally. He expected to be absent thirteen moons. He started on his mission at sundown, crossed in his canoe to Elba Point, and following the shore a considerable distance glided over to a point of land now known as Lemmedue Meadow; drew up his canoe and started for the lodge of his friend Comascoman, who resided on the banks of the Musconetcong, and was to accompany him in the mission. He had gone but a short distance before he was attacked by a bear. He endeavored to escape to his canoe, but in vain. Brought to bay a terrible conflict ensued between the man and the bear, in which the former was victorious, but at a ruinous cost to the victor, as might be judged from the fact that the club, the totem, and all the hunting gear of the chief were found a few days afterward beside the dead body of a bear. The members of his tribe looked for him a long time, and called him by name, but received only their own words by way of answer. They returned home, and the next morning on the side of a neighboring hill they saw a smoke ascending to the clouds, and wondered at the strange appearance. One of the young men was informed in a dream that Quaquahela had erected his spirit lodge there, and would remain as long as the hill stood, because he had killed the bear, that animal being his totem; but that he would accompany them in all of their expeditions, and when they retired to their wigwams he would go to his. The smoke ascending to the tree tops, and the answer `Quaquahela' when they called his name, would be the tokens of his presence; and to this day the smoke or thin vapor rises in curling wreaths over the spot, and if one calls the name of the ancient sachem he will answer to let you know that he is still there. The Indians called the hill Quaquahela Lodge."
IRON-WORKING AND DEPENDENT ENTERPRISES.
There were at one time eight forges in the township. They were all built, according to the best information which we can obtain, within a period of twenty years before and after 1800 (1790-1810). The only positive date which we have is that of the building of the Swedeland forge, at Milton, in 1797. This forge was erected by Captain Cornelius Davenport and John Dow, and was worked by them for a long time.
The Russia forge was owned and probably built by Thomas Keepers, the father-in-law of Enos Davenport.
The "Hard-Bargain forge," beyond Petersburg, on a stream running from the Little Mooseback Pond, was built by Captain Cornelius Davenport. This forge is abandoned, and the land about it is now owned by Stephen Strait.
The Woodstock forge was built, or at least conducted a long time ago, by James L. Dickerson and Stephen Adams. This forge is in little better condition than the preceding, and the land about it is occupied by Zophar Talmadge.
Below the Hard-Bargain forge is the Upper Longwood forge. It was built by John De Camp. The freshet of 1800 swept the first building away, and Mr. De Camp afterward quarried a site out of the slate rock, and built a second one, at a cost of several thousand dollars. We gather from the foregoing statement that this was probably the oldest forge in the township, with the possible exception of the Lower Longwood. This was built or carried on by Mr. Tuthill, in connection with Joseph Huff. It afterward went into the hands of John P. Losey, and thence into those of Blackwell and McFarlan, and it is now the property of John Hance.
The forge at Weldon was built by Major Moses Hopping.
The forge at Hurdtown was called the New Partners, and was built in 1804 or 1805, by Joseph and Daniel Hurd.
In addition to the men already named, who were prominent in the early development of the iron industry, there were John O. Ford, Joseph and Stephen Dickerson, William and Samuel Headley, Stephen Adams, Joseph and David B. Hurd and Colonel John H. Stanburrough.
Commencing at Berkshire, in the valley of the Rockaway, throughout the greater part of the township there is presented an appearance altogether singular in this thriving county of Morris. At various points along the road leading from Berkshire to Milton decayed and empty houses rapidly falling to ruin are visible. In some cases these houses still might easily be made habitable, in others the foundations are scarcely visible. Elsewhere in the township similar evidences of decay may be discovered, but the appearance is most marked and striking in the Longwood Valley. These houses were formerly the habitations of men connected with the work of the forges. The forests which covered nearly all sections of the township afforded an easy and ample supply of charcoal, the burning of which gave occupation to a considerable number of men. Before the building of the two main roads which traverse the township longitudinally (the Union turnpike and the Longwood road) all carrying was done on horseback. These roads were in their day works of public utility scarcely less important than the railroads of the present time. The Union turnpike, running through Dover, Mount Pleasant, Berkshire, Hurdtown, Woodport, and so on through Sussex county, was built about the year 1805, the charter having been obtained in 1804. John P. Losey was one of the persons engaged in the enterprise, and was an active and energetic business man. The Sussex farmers did not fully appreciate the advantages to accrue from an avenue of commerce which formed their first means of communication with the outside world. Much to Mr. Losey's disgust they insisted upon charging an extravagant price for the right of way over their lands, a practice which drew from him the energetic remark, "D--n 'em, they ought never to be dug out."
Unfortunately we can have no positive information of the population of Jefferson before 1810, since its organization occurred between that year and the last preceding census. In 1810, however, the population amounted to 1,281 persons. From 1804 to 1816 affairs in the township were very prosperous. What with the embargo and the interference with commerce occasioned by the European wars the price of iron was very high. It is stated that iron brought as much as $150 a ton in 1814. The producing capacity of the forges was not great at that time. Most of them had two fires, but one or two had only one. At one fire could be manufactured on an average one ton a week, and this seems to be regarded by those who were familiar with the business as the maximum. There were eight forges, and allowing for all two fires 1,600 tons would have been the annual iron product of the township. If the price of $150 a ton was ever reached it is not likely that it remained at that point for any great length of time. If it be called $100 per ton there would have resulted the very large income of $160,000 for the year, or an average of about $125 for each man, woman and child, from this one source.
This was a period of great prosperity. The ironmasters were rapidly growing rich. They built for themselves what at that time were considered handsome residences, and kept fine horses and carriages. This valley--not confined entirely to the township--is said to have been the center of the iron interest of the country at that day.
Moses Hopping, at the Russia forge, was famous for his handicraft. He made the best iron in the country, and drew it out himself into plowshares, mouldboards and harrow teeth, and sent them to Rahway, Paterson, Elizabethtown and other places for general sale.
In 1816, however, the termination of the war opened the ports to foreign commerce, and the markets were almost immediately flooded with English iron. The price fell at once, and nearly all of those engaged in the business in Jefferson township succumbed to the pressure. This state of things seemed to have put a stop to all growth and between 1810 and 1820 the population decreased from 1,281 to 1,231.
The persons engaged in the industry, however, recovered themselves before a long time and business again became active. Between 1820 and 1830 churches were built at Milton, Hurdtown and Berkshire. Enos Davenport in this period had established a post-office at Milton and Joseph Dickerson one at Berkshire.
One of the most prominent and perhaps the wealthiest of the early ironmasters was John De Camp. After the failure of 1816 he obtained an appointment in the customhouse in New York, where he continued until his death. He became a man of much distinction.
About 1837 the hot blast, as it was called, began to be introduced. Judge Freeman Wood, now of Dover, was at that time in charge of the iron works at Rockaway. He was the person chiefly engaged in the manufacture of the pipes used for this purpose, and for a considerable period he was overcrowded with work, running night and day to fill the orders for the hot blast pipes. After this new method was introduced it was found that it effected a saving on charcoal of about one-half; twice as much iron could be manufactured from the same amount of fuel as before. When iron began to be manufactured by means of stone coal the forges gradually ceased operations. There was a fitful revival of the industry during the Rebellion, but at the present time there is no torge work carried on in the township. Three of the forges, those at Swedeland, Petersburg and Lower Longwood, are still in some state of repair, but the others are ruins. The one at Hurdtown is so completely gone that even the foundation and the dam have disappeared.
Between 1820 and 1830 the population had been increased by 320 persons, making the number of inhabitants 1,551, a point which was not again reached until 1880.
Perhaps this was in reality the most prosperous period of the township. Berkshire is said to have been the center of trade and the iron interest. In 1830 much more business was done there than in Dover. It is stated that when the Rev. Peter Kanouse preached at the former place the church was frequently so crowded that all persons who desired could not obtain seats, and that people stood at the doors and windows to hear the sermon.
Hurdtown was also at this time and before a lively place, and a considerable population was gathered about it. A Methodist Episcopal church was built in 1828, the land for which was given by David B. Hurd; and among the preachers who held service there were such men as Rev. Caleb Lippencott, Rev. Dr. Bartine, Rev. Manning Force and Rev. C. S. Coit.
John Seward kept the Seward tavern, and it became a center for trainings and other celebrations. Horse races were not infrequent, and it was the court-house for all the neighborhood, where what were called two-shilling lawsuits were tried. Polydore Seward, brother of Secretary Seward, was a frequent visitor. John Seward himself kept a slave. James L. Hurd had two. These slaves are the only ones, so far as we have learned, that were ever in the township, and they were afterward emancipated.
Joseph Hurd and after him David B. Hurd had a large distillery, as did also John Seward. The buildings of both have rotted down and disappeared. The tavern is now a dwelling house and is owned by the estate of Aaron Peck. There were also a store and saw-mill.
Milton was a place of much trade at this time, but perhaps with the exception of the forges there is more business transacted now than formerly.
It was many years after this before the forges generally ceased working, but the following instance is an example of their fate when the use of stone coal forced them to discontinue. The flume of the old forge at Weldon was made of the trunk of an immense tree, and carried the water faithfully for many years. It gradually became rotten, and at last fell down one day when the forge was in operation. The work stopped and was never resumed.
Probably the earliest and most valuable of the mines in the township is the Hurd mine in Hurdtown, the ore of which is very similar to that of the Governor Dickerson mine. It was opened about 1804 or 1805, when the Union turnpike was built. The original proprietor was Joseph Hurd, who worked it himself until his death, in 1818, and then it went into the hands of his son David B. Hurd, who had charge of it until about 1847, the time of his death. His executor, Dr. William B. Lefevre, leased it with the consent of the heirs to the Glendon Iron Company, who now have control of it. There have been three leases to this company, the last being made in 1877. The royalty named in this lease is one dollar per ton, with the condition of mining not less than 20,000 tons annually. The present owners of the mine are Mrs. Phoebe A. Wood, Edward C. Hurd and William J. Lefevre, of Dover; Mrs. H. W. Cortright, of Nolan's Point, and Lewis Hurd, of Hurdtown. Thomas Bright, now residing at Woodport, has been the efficient superintendent of the mine works for many years.
The following is a list of the mines of the township, taken from the State Geological Report for 1880: Ford, Dodge, Upper and Lower Weldon, Hurd, Hurdtown, Appetite, Nolan's, Davenport, Scofield, Frazer, Duffee, Shongum, Goble and Boss. Most of these fourteen mines produce abundance of ore of a good quality. The Ogden Mine Railroad has done much to facilitate the transportation of the ore, but the expense must still be considerable. As most if not all of the ore is carried over that road it would be fair to assume that the production of the township for 1880 was the same as the ore tonnage of that road, mentioned below.
The Ogden Mine Railroad was put in operation about the year 1865. It is ten miles long and is used almost entirely for the purpose of carrying ore from the mines in Jefferson township to Nolan's Point, on Lake Hopatcong, whence it is shipped by canal boats to various points on the Morris Canal. A steamboat belonging to the company tows boats from Nolan's Point to the lock of the canal at Shippenport. The ore stations of the road are at the Hurd, Upper Weldon, Lower Weldon, Dodge, Ford and Scofield mines, and Ogden Station, where the the principal mines are the Davenport, Old Ogden, Robert shaft and Pardee shaft. The ore tonnage of the road averages from 50,000 tons to 60,000 tons yearly. In the year 1880 the ore shipments were exceptionally large, and amounted to 108,000 tons. There are some repair and car shops and other necessary outbuildings belonging to the railway company at Nolan's Point, and about twelve houses built by the company for the use of employes, besides a few other dwellings. Harlan W. Cortright has been superintendent of the road from its commencement, and is much esteemed for the ability and care with which hs has discharged his duties in this office. In November 1881 it was announced through the press that the Ogden Mine Railroad had been leased to the managers of the Central Railroad of New Jersey for 999 years, and was to be connected with the High Bridge branch of the Central; the rental to be equal to 6 per cent. on the capital stock of the leased line.
STORES AND HOTELS.
Between 1800 and 1810 stores were established at Milton, Hurdtown and Berkshire. Captain Cornelius Davenport first kept the store at Milton, and after him his son Enos. During the time that Enos kept it Dr. David Jayne bought his "runaway suit" of him, but neglected to pay for it. Forty years afterward he sent Mr. Davenport a check for principal and interest, at that time amounting to quite a sum, the original debt being $40.
There are now three stores at Milton, the oldest being occupied by Simon Misel and Henry Misel, his son; it has been established since 1850. The second is kept by Edward N. Norman, and was established in 1870. Jetur R. Riggs has also a store. Joseph Hurd established the first store at Hurdtown, about 1806, and it was continued in various hands with some interruptions until 1872, when it was removed to Woodport. The last owners at Hurdtown were Richard Simpson & Co.
Joseph Dickerson had a store at Berkshire perhaps as early as 1810, and did a large business. He dealt largely in iron and shipped it by wagons to Elizabethtown.
Charles F. Davenport has had a store for several years at Berkshire Valley, but not in the same locality as Mr. Dickerson's, which was in the neighborhood of the hotel. The store at Newfoundland is an old establishment and is under the control of John P. Brown.
William A. Wood established the first store at Woodport, in 1831, and kept it until his death. In 1872 Clark D. Simpson & Co. moved into their handsome new building immediately across the stream from the old store.
One of the earliest hotels was that established soon after the opening of the Union turnpike at Hurdtown, and probably first kept by Colonel John Seward, and afterward by his son John Seward. The building was ultimately burned down, and another built upon the same spot.
Peter P. Brown first kept the hotel at Newfoundland, and it afterward came into the hands of his son John P. Brown, under whose management it has become famous as a summer resort. It is excellently kept.
William Wood went to Woodport shortly after the opening of the turnpike, to take charge of the tollgate at that place, and afterward built the hotel now standing. It is at present under the management of Thomas Bright. Its situation on Lake Hopatcong renders it an attractive place for boarders. Mr. Bright also owns the hotel at Berkshire. This was originally a frame building and was put up by Joseph Dickerson. The frame building was burned down and the present stone structure was erected in its place.
Captain Cornelius Davenport kept a tavern in the old stone house at Milton. This hotel was perhaps even earlier than that at Hurdtown. The present hotel at Milton has been kept by John K. Norman for about nine years past.
Captain Davenport also built the first grist-mill in the township, as long ago as 1800, at Milton. There is also a grist-mill at Petersburg, which has been standing many years. There are several saw-mills and three distilleries in the township besides those already mentioned, which have fallen into disuse.
We are informed that the date of the building of the church at Berkshire is the year 1820. It is a Presbyterian church and its first pastor was the Rev. Mr. Slater. Others were the Rev. Mr. Kanouse, Rev. E. A. Osborn, Rev. B. C. Megie, D. D., Rev. J. Kirby Davis, Rev. Josiah Fisher, Rev. Thomas Tyack and Rev. Pearce Rodgers.
The second building of the Methodist Episcopal church at Hurdtown was erected in 1870. The Methodist Episcopal church at Nolan's Point was built in the same year. The foundation of the latter church, however, was laid some time previously, in order to comply with the provisions of the will of the late John Cornine, who left a sum of money to assist in the erection of a house of worship, on the condition that it should be begun within three years after his death. The building cost about two thousand dollars. The Rev. Mr. Tamblyn is pastor of both these last named churches, as well as of the community at the Dodge mine. There are two churches at Milton. One is a Baptist church and was built in 1824. The Baptists were at that time the most numerous denomination in the vicinity, but the church was built by a subscription of all denominations. It is stated that the general understanding was that the church should be free to the various denominations that were represented on the subscription list. The land, however, was conveyed to the trustees of the Baptist church, and the building consequently belonged to them. After a time those in possession objected to its use by other denominations. Out of this unpleasant state of affairs William Headley found a way by the simple expedient of breaking open the door. This it is said was done on several occasions, when some other than a Baptist minister desired to preach.
The first settled pastor was Rev. Gabriel Van Duser. He was also a school teacher, and preached at Milton for many years, and continued to conduct the services until about 1850. He married Mr. Headley's daughter and passed the latter part of his life as a farmer in the neighborhood of Milton, where he died.
In 1878 a new house of worship was built on the old grounds, under the ministration of Rev. Conrad Vreeland.
A Methodist church is now in procees of erection at Milton by the society to which the Rev. Mr. Rider preaches.
The first physician of whom we can obtain any mention was a certain Dr. Spellman, who resided in the neighborhood of Milton about the commencement of the present century. He was followed by Dr. G. I. De Camp, who afterward removed to Washington, D. C., and obtained much distinction in his profession. Dr. De Camp's son entered the U. S. navy, and gained the rank of captain. Dr. Jacob D. Roe succeeded Dr. De Camp in the Milton neighborhood, and went away about 1830.
Dr. John W. Jackson, now of Rockaway, also resided for a few years in the township.
Among the influential citizens of Jefferson the name of William B. Lefevre, M. D., deserves a prominent place. For intelligence, usefulness and weight of character he will long be remembered. His ancestors on both sides can be traced to an early date. The first of this name was Hippolyte Lefevre, who came to this country in the ship "Griffith" in 1675 and landed at Salem. For a long period the Lefevre family lived on the island of Tinicum, in the Delaware River, eleven miles below Philadelphia. From there Minard Lefevre, the third in descent from Hippolyte Lefevre, came to Succasunna about the year 1750. His son John married Elizabeth Day, a granddaughter of J. Jeff, who in 1750 came with his family from England and settled at Elizabethtown. This Mr. Jeff was a commission merchant, and the owner of several ships which sailed regularly between England and this country. His three children in 1775 moved to Succasunna Plains. Mary Jeff, the youngest of these three, married Aaron Day, a lieutenant in the Revolutionary war. Their youngest daughter, Elizabeth, married John Lefevre, the father of Dr. William B. Lefevre.
Dr. Lemuel Bright has gained a large practice in the neighborhood of Hurdtown and Woodport during the few years that he has resided there.
The following account of the former condition of the schools is taken largely from the "Centennial Collections of Morris County:" "Prior to the year 1800 there were no school-houses built expressly for school purposes. Yet schools were taught in various localities;" as Berkshire Valley, Longwood and Milton, but probably not at Hurdtown. "About the year 1800, or shortly thereafter, the people of Berkshire Valley, through the exertions of the members of the Presbyterian church, built a schoolhouse on the site of the present one," and in 1859 the present structure was built, at a cost of $350. An old "double" school house was the first to be built, and it is probably the oldest one in the county. Another was built on the same site in 1824, and rebuilt in 1873. The school-house at Longwood was built in 1812, the land therefor being given by Philip Losey. The house cost $150. A second house was built in 1847 of stone. The site for this building was given by Mahlon L. Dickerson, and the house cost $400. Charles McFarlan and Elias C. Talmadge were instrumental in causing its erection. "Following this was the school-house at Scrub Oaks, now Milton, a frame structure with seats for forty, which was built in 1830 and repaired about fifteen years ago. The Hopatcong school-house was built between 1840 and 1850;" that at Russia in 1852, and replaced, after being burned, in 1871. A school-house was rented at Hurdtown in 1831, and probably before. The present building was erected in 1855 or 1856. It seats one hundred and fifty. The school-house at Weldon was built in 1878 and seats seventy-eight.
"The township was regularly divided into six school districts in 1838, under the jurisdiction of a school committee of three persons. In 1849 the jurisdiction of the schools passed into the hands of a town superintendent. The first person elected to that office was" John W. Jackson, who held two years. After that time Charles McFarlan held it almost continuously until 1862. "No better school officer than Mr. McFarlan," who was a gentleman of much culture and refinement, and much given to literary pursuits, "could be found. He devoted his time, his talents and his money to promote the cause of education."
The condition of the schools of this township in 1880, as given in the report of the State board of education, is as follows: There were in that year eight schools. The total income from all sources was $2,717.12; the value of school property was $4,400; total number of children between five and eighteen years, 493; average time the the school was kept open, 8.8 months; number of children enrolled, 366; number of male teachers, three; number of female teachers, five; average salary of males, $43.33; average salary of females, $22.20.
Among the old teachers mentioned in the "Centennial Collections" were Messrs. Canfield, Dickerson, Sutphen and Wilson; others were Scarlet, Dalton, Sherman, who taught before 1820, and Rev. Gabriel Van Duzer.
FROM THE TOWNSHIP RECORDS.
The township was organized in 1804. The following is the record of the first town meeting, held April 9th 1804:
"This day being appointed by the Legislature of the State of New Jersey for the first annual town meeting of the inhabitants of said township; agreeable to the law incorporating them into a separate township, the inhabitants assembled at the house of Mr. John Seward jr., lately occupied by Mrs. Hilah Seward, and proceeded to business as follows (viz.): Between the hours of 11 and 12 the persons assembled and elected the following persons (viz.): John P. Losey their president and John Kelso their town clerk for the ensuing year; after which they proceeded and made the following appointments and entered into the(???)resolutions and by-laws as follows: $20 bounty on wolves headed; $2 on wildcats; 2 shillings per head on cattle drove into town and not owned by inhabitants thereof; $250 to be raised for contingent expenses; next town meeting to be held at John De Camp, Esq's; second day of election to be held at Capt. Cornelius Davenport's."
Shortly afterward the following entry was made: "Dr. James Boylan is to have thirty dollars for attending Michael Conoly while sick at Cornelius Davenport's, which sum the Dr. agrees to accept in full for his services. Cornelius Davenport is to have twelve shillings per week for boarding said Conoly, and attending him while sick, being thirteen weeks; amounting to $19.50."
In 1818 $600 was raised for the support of the poor and other contingent expenses; and it was "voted that the paupers be sold at A. Chamberlain's on the 10th inst.," the only notice of this custom that caught our eye on the town records. In 1827 it was "resolved that John H. Stanburrough, Joseph Dickerson jr. and David B. Hurd be appointed and are hereby constituted a committee on behalf of this township to purchase a lot of land called the Ogden farm, or any other convenient lot as to them shall be deemed proper, for any sum not exceeding $700; which said lot of land so purchased shall be kept for the use and support of the poor of this township." So far as can be learned no action was ever taken under this resolution. In 1831 a resolution was passed to the effect that "any sum not exceeding $50 be paid by the chairman or clerk of the committee to Clarissa Vansyckle for the purpose of attending the eye infirmary in the city of New York, and for other medical relief."
In 1832 it was resolved that the bounty of $25 for an old wolf and $10 for a young one "be given to an inhabitant of any other township, providing such township will [pay?] an inhabitant of this township the same bounty for the purpose above mentioned."
In 1837 it was resolved "that the chosen freeholders of this township are instructed to use their influence with the board of chosen freeholders of this county at their annual meeting, and to vote for a committee to be appointed who shall be required to purchase a county poor-house and farm, erect buildings, purchase stock, employ a keeper, and do all other acts that may be necessary for the reception of the paupers of the county; and that they be authorized to use from the second and third installments of the surplus revenue due the county any sum not to exceed $15,000 to carry the above resolutions."
It was "resolved by the inhabitants of Jefferson township," at a special meeting held August 14th 1864, "that the sum of $400 be raised by tax for each man who may volunteer, or be drafted in the next draft to be made, and which has been ordered by the President of the United States, to fill the quota of said township; to be offered as a bounty to volunteers, or given to each man who may be drafted and shall procure a substitute, or as a bounty for his personal service in the army of the United States; said tax to be raised one-half in 1865 and one-half in 1866, in part by a poll tax of $10 on each single and $5 on each married man annually in each year, and the balance to be levied on the taxable property of said township in the same manner as the other county and township taxes are raised." It was also resolved "that John P. Brown, Benjamin Hopper, and Tusten Van Duser be and they are hereby elected and appointed commissioners, with power to raise the necessary moneys to pay such sums as aforesaid or to issue the script of the township therefor, to be delivered to such drafted man or volunteer," and "that conscripts under the last draft who have furnished substitutes be exempted from the above tax."
Out of a total poll of 159 one vote was cast for a tax of $350 per volunteer, 50 for no tax, and 108 for a tax of $400 per man.
The officers of the township have been as follows:
Collectors.--Stephen Dickerson, 1804, 1808-27; John De Camp, 1806; William Headley, 1807; James L. Dickerson, 1828; George Allison, 1829; Squier Lum, 1830, 1831, 1837, 1838; Nathaniel Hopping, 1832, 1833, 1835; Freeman Wood, 1834; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1836; Ansolem H. Bounting, 1839, 1840; Stephen Cooper, 1841, 1842; John G. Mase, 1843; Jesse Babbitt, 1844; Frederick W. Fichter, 1845; Mahlon Mase, 1846; Elias C. Kemble, 1848; David S. Headley, 1849; David Allen, 1850; William C. Bounting, 1851; William W. Congleton, 1852; Andrew J. Allison, 1853; Peter Doland, 1854; Joseph W. Headley, 1855, 1860, 1861, 1876-80; Daniel Chamberlain, 1856, 1857 (none found in records of 1858), 1862; Mahlon Jennings, 1859, 1867; David C. Allison, 1863, 1864; Ira Chamberlain, 1865; Amzi Weaver, 1866; Henry Hopper, 1868-73; George W. Allison, 1874, 1875; William D. Norman, 1881.
Town Committee.--John De Camp, 1804, 1807-09, 1812-16; Daniel Hurd, 1804; John O. Ford, 1804; Joseph Hurd, 1804, 1813; John P. Losey, 1804, 1807-12, 1814, 1816; John Headley, 1806; John Dow, 1806; Timothy Jayne, 1806; William A. Hulmes, 1806, 1807; William Wallace, 1806; Stephen Dickerson, 1807; William Headley, 1807-11; Cornelius Davenport, 1808-12; John Dunham, 1808; John Kelso, 1809-13; John H. Stanburrough, 1810-13, 1815-17, 1821-28, 1835-38; George Turner. 1813-15, 1836, 1838-40, 1853; Samuel G. I. De Camp, 1814, 1816; Sylvanus Cooper, 1814, 1839-33; Joseph Dickerson, 1815, 1817, 1819-29, 1831-35, 1838; John Seward jr., 1815, 1820, 1821; John C. Doughty, 1816, 1817, 1819, 1821; Squier Lum, 1817, 1835; Samuel Chamberlain, 1817; Ephraim Adams, 1818, 1820, 1823-26; Samuel Tharp, 1818, 1819, 1822, 1829, 1832, 1840, 1850; Abraham Chamberlain, 1818, 1833, 1834; Stephen Freeman, 1818; John Jayne, 1818; William Wood, 1819; James L. Dickerson, 1819, 1827; George Allison, 1820-28, 1835, 1838, 1840-44, 1853, 1857, 1858, 1861; Elias Chamberlain, 1820, 1822-26, 1828, 1829; David B. Hurd, 1821-27, 1830-34, 1837; Lemuel Minton, 1828, 1830, 1831; James L. Hurd, 1829; Benjamin Chamberlain, 1829; Enos Davenport, 1831; Jacob D. Roe, 1830; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1831, 1833-36, 1840-42; Aaron Starr, 1832; Freeman Wood, 1833, 1834; Calvin A. Kanouse, 1836; Morris Chamberlain, 1836; William Allen, 1837, 1848, 1850, 1851; Mahlon L. Dickerson, 1837-40; Ephraim Lindsley, 1837; Horace Chamberlain, 1838, 1839; Gabriel Van Duser, 1839; Elias C. Talmadge, 1839; William Fichter, 1841, 1842; William W. Plumstead, 1841. 1842, 1844; Jesse Babbit, 1841, 1842, 1845, 1846, 1848, 1849; David Allen, 1843, 1844; Stephen Cooper, 1843, 1844, 1846, 1854; William A. Wood, 1843; David S. Headley, 1843; John Hardy, 1843, 1844, 1846; Paul Mandeville, 1845; Charles Munson, 1845, 1846; Charles McFarlan, 1845; John D. Stanburrough, 1846; William D. McCornac, 1848-51, 1863-65, 1874; Samuel D. Wolfe, 1849; William B. Lefevre, 1849-51; Peter Decker jr., 1850, 1851; Dennis Duffee, 1849; Richard R. Davenport, 1850, 1851, 1855, 1856, 1858; Simon A. Demarest, 1853-55; William H. Spencer, 1853; Frederick Matthews, 1853; John A. Hopper, 1854, 1855, 1857, 1858; William P. Norman, 1854; Joseph W Headly, 1854, 1859, 1862, 1866-68, 1871-73; Joseph McPeak, 1855; Charles Coile, 1855, 1856; Henry Furgeson, 1856-58; William C. Bounting, 1856, 1857, 1868 70; Lewis Chamberlain, 1856, 1860; Jacob Timbrel, 1857; William P. Winterbottom, 1858, 1862; Frederick W. Fichter, 1859, 1860; Marshal Mase, 1859, 1867; Jacob Talman, 1859-61; Levi Davenport, 1860; James Devore, 1861, 1862, 1872, 1873; Joseph Leighton, 1861; Jacob Talman, 1862, 1867, 1869-71, 1875, 1876; Jacob L. Coile, 1862, 1863; Albert S. Chamberlain, 1863, 1864, 1874; Zophar O. Talmadge, 1863-65; John D. King, 1863; Levi Talman, 1864, 1865; John A. Fichter, 1864, 1865; Levi McCornac, 1865; Albert R. Spriggs, 1866, 1868-71; Charles Davenport, 1866, 1872; Stephen A. Lindsley, 1866; Henry Lumadue jr., 1866; Charles S. Davenport,1867, 1871; Theodore Brown, 1867; Maurice Duffee, 1868-70; Alexander Goarke, 1868-70; William H. Fichter, 1871; William S. Fenton, 1871; Augustus Hartzough, 1872, 1873, 1875-77; John L. Temple, 1872, 1873; William R. Gordon, 1873, 1880, 1881; Moses B. Fichter, 1874; Simon Misel, 1874; John D. Stanburrough, 1874; Dennis M. Duffie, 1875-78; Jetur R. Riggs, 1875; Silas D. Rowland, 1875, 1876, 1880; James Gordon Case, 1876; M. L. P. Thompson, 1877, 1878; William G. Fichter, 1877, 1878; Albert Richards, 1877; Abraham Shawger, 1878; William D. Norman, 1878-80; Edward Hall. 1879; Maurice McCornac, 1879; Jacob Hopper, 1881; William Sedgeman, 1881.
Commissioners of Appeal.-- Moses Hopping, 1804; Daniel Hurd, 1804; John O. Ford, 1804; Cornelius Davenport, 1806, 1808-12; Samuel Headley, 1806, Stephen Freeman, 1806; Stephen Dickerson, 1807; William A. Hulmes, 1807-12; John Seward jr., 1812, 1821; George Turner, 1813-15, 1817, 1838; Samuel G. I. De Camp, 1813-16; William Headley, 1816, 1823, 1824, 1828, 1830-32, 1835, 1837; Jeremiah Fairchild, 1816, 1818, 1819; Samuel Tharp, 1817-22, 1840, 1850; William Wood, 1817-20; James L. Dickerson, 1822; George Allison, 1821, 1822, 1825, 1826, 1838, 1840-45, 1849; Joseph Dickerson, 1820; John C. Doughty, 1823 27; Elias Chamberlain, 1823, 1824, 1827; David Allen, 1825-27, 1829, 1833; John Keeler, 1828; Levi Harvey, 1828; John O. Davenport, 1829; John Henderson, 1829; Sylvanus Cooper, 1830-32; Moses Bounting, 1830, 1831; David B. Hurd, 1833, 1837; John Ruter, 1833; Elias C. Talmadge, 1833, 1836; William Fichter, 1834, 1835; Calvin A. Kanouse, 1834; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1834; Morris Chamberlain, 1835, 1836; John Hardy, 1837; Gabriel Van Duser, 1838; Thomas Stephens, 1839; Timothy Southard, 1839, 1840; Ansolem H. Bounting, 1839, 1848; Jesse Babbit, 1841, 1842, 1845; Samuel D. Wolte, 1841-44, 1846; Abraham Jennings, 1843, 1844; Mahlon Jennings, 1845, 1862, 1873, 1875-81; John G. Mase, 1846, 1850; Cornelius Talmadge, 1846; John W. Jackson, 1848; Joseph R. Dickerson, 1848; William B. Lefevre, 1849; William C. Bounting, 1850, 1867, 1873, 1880; David Hines, 1851; Benjamin Hopper, 1851; William A. Spencer, 1851; Cornelius D. Talmadge, 1853, 1854; John A. Hopper, 1853, 1866; Elias Green, 1853-56; David C. Allison, 1854, 1855; Richard K. Davenport, 1855, 1856; Garret Talmadge, 1856; Ephraim H. Long, 1857; Charles Davenport, 1857; David C. Ackerson, 1857, 1858; Henry B. Furgeson, 1858; David Estill, 1858; Abraham L. Estill, 1859-61; John D. Stanburrough, 1859, 1862, 1865; George Allison, 1859, 1861; Levi Davenport, 1860; Jacob Talman, 1860; Thomas C. Elston, 1861; Mahlon L. Dickerson, 1862; Josiah McPeak, 1863, 1864; Elias C. Talmadge, 1863, 1864; Johnson Chamberlain, 1863, 1864; Maurice Chamberlain, 1865; Zophar O. Talmadge, 1865; Jacob Talman, 1866, 1868; Marshal Mase, 1866; William Allison, 1867; Henry Hopper, 1867; William Fenton, 1868, 1869, 1872, 1876; David Jayne, 1868-75; Thomas Bright, 1869, 1870; Asa Berry, 1870, 1871; Garret Talman, 1871; William Search, 1872; Albert R. Spriggs, 1872; William P. Winterbottom, 1873; Horace Chamberlain, 1874; William H. Talmadge, 1874; Levi Talman, 1874; John Kevelin, 1875; James Devore, 1875, 1876, 1878; Charles Davenport, 1877, 1879; William D. Norman, 1877; Stephen A. Lindsley, 1878, 1880, 1881; Jacob Talman, 1870; Henry Lindeman, 1881.
Town Clerks.--John Kelso, 1806-08, 1810-13; William M. O'Harrel, 1809; Peter Freeman, 1814; John C. Doughty, 1815-21; David B. Hurd, 1823-25, 1830, 1831, 1833, 1834, 1837, 1838; Aaron Starr, 1826, 1827, 1832; Albert Stanburrough, 1828, 1829; Mahlon L. Dickerson, 1835, 1836; Gabriel Van Duser, 1839; Garret S. Demarest, 1840, 1842; John Hardy. 1843-45; Leo B. Hurd, 1846; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1848; David Hinds, 1849, 1850; John P. Brown, 1851, 1852, 1857; Amos Chamberlain, 1853-56; Jacob Timbrel, 1858-60; Lewis M. Chamberlain, 1861-65; Charles Allen, 1866-69; Theodore Brown, 1870; Jetur R. Riggs, 1871-73; George Chamberlain, 1874; William L. Allen, 1875; William R. Gordon, 1876; Walter B. De Camp, 1877-80; Silas D. Rowland, 1881.
Assessors.--John P. Losey, 1804, 1807-9; William Wallace, 1806; James L. Hurd, 1808-14, 1821, 1823, 1825, 1827, 1830, 1831, 1837-40; Sylvanus Cooper, 1815-20, 1822, 1824, 1826, 1828; Timothy Southard, 1829; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1832, 1833; D. B. Hurd, 1834; William Mase, 1825; Gabriel Van Duser, 1836; John D. Stanburrough, 1841, 1842; Gilman D. Corning, 1843; Garret S. Demarest, 1844, 1846, 1849, 1850; John P. Brown, 1845; Leo B. Hurd, 1848; Horace Chamberlain, 1851-55, 1858-61; Edward C. Hurd, 1856; John D. King, 1857; Abraham L. Estill, 1862, 1866-68; Maurice McCornac, 1863, 1864, 1874; Peter Decker, 1865; Joseph W. Headley, 1869; Charles Davenport, 1870; Amzi F. Weaver, 1871-73, 1875, 1877-81; W. R. Gordon, 1876.
Chosen Freeholders.--John De Camp, 1804, 1806, 1807-09, 1813-16; Daniel Hurd, 1804; William Headley, 1806-10, 1812; John P. Losey, 1807-12, 1814-16; Joseph Hurd, 1813; Sylvanus Cooper, 1817; William Wood, 1817-19; Stephen Dickerson, 1818-21; Joseph Dickerson, 1820-29, 1831-35; James L. Dickerson, 1822-26; James L. Hurd, 1827, 1840; Abram Chamberlain, 1828; Hiram Headley, 1829; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1830, 1831; Elias Chamberlain, 1830; Abraham Chamberlain, 1832, 1834; (none recorded in 1833); George Allison, 1835, 1848; David B. Hurd, 1836, 1837, 1845; John H. Stanburrough, 1836, 1839-44; Squier Lum, 1837; John Hardy, 1838, 1839, 1848; Abraham Chamberlain, 1838; Mahlon L. Dickerson, 1841-46; David Allen, 1846; Ansolem H. Bounting, 1849; John D. Stanburrough, 1849, 1850; William H. Spencer, 1850; John G. Mase, 1851; Clark I. Martin, 1851; John D. King, 1853-56, 1858 61; Elias C. Talmadge, 1853; Christopher Helmes, 1854; John D. Stanburrough, 1855, 1856; Benjamin Hopper, 1857-60, 1862, 1866-70; Peter Doland, 1857-61; William A. Wood, 1859, 1862-64; John J. Norman, 1863-65; Moses B. Fichter, 1865; James Devore, 1866 70; Jacob Talman, 1871, 1872; W. C. Bounting, 1871, 1872; John F. Wood, 1873; Edward N. Norman, 1873-75, 1878; Johnson Chamberlain, 1874, 1875; Theodore Brown, 1876, 1877; Clark D. Simpson, 1876; B. W. Gordon, 1877; Silas D. Rowland, 1878; Theodore Brown, 1879; Benjamin Hopper, 1880, 1881.
School Committee.--D. B. Headley, 1831; Joseph Dickerson, 1831-35; Sylvanus Cooper, 1831-33; John H. Stanburrough, 1831-33, 1835; Samuel Tharp, 1831-34; David B. Hurd, 1832-34; John O. Davenport, 1834; Timothy Southard, 1834; Elias C. Talmadge, 1835, 1836, 1838, 1839; John Hardy, 1836-38; Gabriel Van Duser, 1836-39; Ichabod Dean, 1837; Lewis M. De Camp, 1839; David Congleton, 1840, 1841, 1844, 1845; Timothy Southard, 1840, 1841; Peter Decker, 1840; William W. Plumstead, 1841; Albert H. Stanburrough, 1842, 1843; David Allen, 1842 44; Mahlon L. Dickerson, 1842-44; William Fichter, 1845; Richard R. Davenport, 1845; John G. Mase, 1846; Edward C. Rodjers, 1846; Gabriel Van Duser, 1846.
Superintendents of Schools.--John W. Jackson, 1848, 1849; Charles McFarlan, 1850 (none recorded in 1851), 1853, 1854, 1856 62; Peter Dorland, 1855; Daniel F. Lyon, 1863-65; John P. Brown, 1866.
Overseers of Poor.--Moses Hopping, 1804; John Jennings, 1804; William A. Hulmes, 1806, 1808, 1809; John Dow, 1806; William Wallace, 1807; Moses Ogden, 1807; Stephen Dickerson, 1808-10; Abraham L. Davenport, 1810; John Dunham, 1811, 1814-17; Cornelius Davenport, 1811, 1812; Jeremiah Fairchild, 1812; Joseph Hurd, 1813; George Allison, 1818, 1819, 1821, 1822, 1832, 1838; Enos Davenport, 1820-28; Samuel Tharp, 1823-26, 1835, 1836; Chileon F. De Camp, 1827; William Hinds, 1829; Elias Chamberlain, 1830, 1831 (none recorded in 1833); Abraham L. Davenport, 1834, 1837; John O. Davenport, 1839-46, 1848, 1849, 1851, 1853-56; William C. Bounting, 1850; Paul Mandeville, 1857, 1858; William D. Norman, 1859-62, 1866-69; William Wright, 1863, 1864; Jacob S. Coe, 1865; William D. Norman, 1870, 1871; Benjamin Hopper, 1872, 1873, 1875-81; Jacob L. Coile, 1874.
JOHN P. BROWN.
The Brown family were among the earliest settlers in Morris county. It is not positively known where they came from. Martin Brown was born in Pequannock, Morris county, October 10th 1764. His wife's maiden name was Hannah Post. Their children were John, Peter, Henry, Abraham, William, Eliphalet, Elizabeth H., Catharine, Jennie, Margaret, Hannah and Sarah Ann. He died August 23d 1850, at Newfoundland, Morris county.
Peter, the son of Martin, was born in West Milford, Passaic county, N. J., October 11th 1790. He was a farmer, a merchant and a hotel keeper at Newfoundland. He was married December 15th 1813 to Elizabeth, daughter of Elizabeth and Jacob Kanouse, of Bergen (now Passaic) county. Their children were: Eliza Ann, born August 14th 1814; Harriet, March 9th 1816; John P., August 24th 1817; Hannah, August 11th 1819; Susan, May 13th 1821; Julia, November 12th 1823; Lydia, June 19th 1826; Ira, September 7th 1828, and Chilian, September 14th 1830; all of whom are living except Eliza Ann, Harriet, Julia and Chilian.
Mr. Brown died February 14th 1864. His widow, at the advanced age of 88, resides at Newfoundland with her son John P.
In 1816 he commenced the business of hotel keeping at Newfoundland, in a small house which he erected. This was burned in 1840, but he soon built in its place a two and one-half story hotel. In 1844 he was succeeded in the business by his son John P., who has from time to time enlarged and improved the hotel, and it is now a popular and well patronized summer resort.
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