Chapter 34
Morris Co. Up


CITY, VILLAGE AND TOWNSHIP HISTORIES, ROCKAWAY TOWNSHIP.

BY JAMES H. NEIGHBOUR.

THIS township lies in the northeastern part of the county and embraces more territory by over 3,000 acres than any other township in the county. Its length from Newfoundland to Shongum is about twenty miles, and its width from Powerville to the Jefferson township line near Lxuemburg is about twelve miles. It was erected in 1844 from parts of Pequannock and Hanover townships, by an act of the Legislature, and made the eleventh township in the county. The principal part was taken from Pequannock, or from "Old Pequannock" as it is frequently called because Pequannock has existed since the year 1740 as a separate and distinct township. The history of Rockaway township prior to 1844 will naturally apply to those parts of Pequannock and Hanover up to that date.

This township was settled principally by the Hollanders; at least there were many families of that nationality in the lower or eastern part of the township, who came there about 1715.

In the act of 1844 creating the township of Rockaway the boundaries are given as follows:

"Beginning at the bridge over the Pequannock River, at Charlottenburg iron works, and thence running a straight line to the north end of the county bridge first above Elijah D. Scott's forge at Powerville; and to include all that part of Hanover that may lie to the north and west of said line; thence a straight line to the center of the natural pond in Parsippany woods called Green's Pond; thence a straight line to the corner of the townships of Morris, Hanover and Randolph, on the top of the Trowbridge Mountain; thence on the lines of the townships of Hanover and Randolph to the mouth of Dell's Brook, where it empties into the Rockaway River at the corner of the townships of Jefferson and Pequannock, to the place of beginning."

The causal reader of this description does not detect any error in it; but when we come to locate its bounds on a map it will be discovered that our Legislature has omitted the last two lines of boundary, viz.: the Jefferson line, which follows the top of Green Pond Mountain to the Passaic county line at Newfoundland, and the Passaic county line from Newfoundland to the said place of beginning.

The commissioners to set off and locate the lines of the township were John Grey, Benjamin Crane and Freeman Wood. Mr. Wood, then a prominent citizen of the village of Rockaway, but at the time of this writing a resident of Dover and one of the judges of the county, is the only survivor of this commission. The township embraces, according to the United States census of 1850, 31,204 acres of land, of which 9,822 are improved, and 21,382 unimproved. The unimproved portions consist of hilly, broken and wooded lands, containing in many places rich and extensive veins of iron ore, which traverse the township northeasterly and southwesterly. An account of these mineral deposits, and their development for over one hundred years, is given in full detail in the general history of the county; and any mention of the same made in this branch of the work will be merely incidental, and for the purpose of preserving the connection with persons, places and events, as they may be from time to time referred to.

POPULATION AND PROPERTY.

We have no means of ascertaining the population of the township at the time of its erection, but from the census before mentioned we learn that it contained on the 1st of June 1850 3,139 inhabitants, which made it the tourth in rank of the eleven townships. The taxable value of the real and personal property in the township was then $695,999. In 1855 the State ordered a census to be taken that year, and every tenth year thereafter, so that from the United States census and that of the State we have gathered information showing the growth and increase of the township to the present time. The State census of 1855 shows a population of 2,931, which is a decrease of 208 in five years.

At the next census, which was that of 1860, taken by the United States, the population is given at 3,551, showing an increase of 620 in a period of five years, and making the township the third in population. Dr. J. W. Jackson, of Rockaway, assistant United States marshal for the census of 1860, gives the number of dwellings in Rockaway township at 645; families, 660; inhabitants, 3,552; deaths, 31; births, 120; inhabitants in Rockaway village, 802; houses in village, 392; iron mines in operation, 12.

The ninth United States census made the population 6,445 in 1870, showing that the township had very nearly doubled in that respect in ten years and contained the largest population of all the townships in the county, and we find the total taxable property assessed at $1,469,350. When we come to the census of 1875, taken by the State, the population is given at 6,826, showing an increase of nearly 400 since 1870; but, owing to a greater increase in Morris and Randolph townships in that period, Rockaway falls back to the third place in population; its taxable valuation of real and personal property at this time was $1,606,150. The township valuation by the town assessor is given at $1,376,725, a falling off of over $225,000 in one year.

This brings us to the last census, that of 1880, giving the township a population of 7,366 (an increase of 540 in the last five years, which makes Rockaway the second township in population in the county) and an assessed valuation of $1,017,950. Village populations are given as follows: Beach Glen, 195; Denmark, 134; Denville, 384; Greenville, 429; Lower Greenville, 20; Lower Hibernia, 943; Lyonsville, 141; Meriden, 99; Middletown, 144; Mount Hope, 537; Powerville, 35; Rockaway, 1,052; Upper Hibernia, 750.

The valuation of 1880 is that which was made by the township assessor, and shows a falling off of over $500,000 since that of 1875. This is accounted for by the general shrinkage of valuations in real estate, owing to the long depression in the business interests of the country, which commenced in 1873 and continued to the close of the year 1879. This is demonstrated by reference to the local assessments made by the townships in the years 1874, 1876 and 1879; these three years being taken simply for the reason that we happen to have them.

In 1874, when the stagnation of trade and the dull iron market began, the total taxable valuation of the Rockaway property is given at $1,592,050; and in 1879, when the discouraging experience of five years had added its weight of depression to the business outlook, the total valuation went down to $1,112,700. The same condition of things existed when the assessments of the year 1880 were made; and hence the still further decrease in valuation reported for that year, as before given. But in 1881 all branches of trade, business and industries took a new lease of prosperity, which, following the signs of the times, will in the next decade show a larger increase in population and wealth than in any ten years preceding it.

SURVEYS AND TITLES.

In this branch of the work the writer was greatly assisted by William Roome, a resident of Pequannock, who has recently devoted much time and labor to gathering statistics, ancient and modern maps, surveys and records. Mr. Roome is a practical land surveyor, and with his own information and the aid of his father, Benjamin Roome, a surveyor of over fifty years' actual field work, has compiled a very valuable record of the early days and early surveys of New Jersey, which includes a chapter devoted to the "Indian Titles."

New Jersey was divided into East and West Jersey, and each part was owned by certain proprietors, who had a right to locate lands and sell them, or to sell a right to locate. In many instances a settler would make his own location of unsurveyed or unlocated lands and then apply to a proprietor for a deed; and whenever several surveys were required, either by the settler or by a proprietor, the surveyor general would visit the places and make the surveys. William Roome has procured extracts from the journal of a Mr. Reading, kept in 1715 and now in manuscript form in the library of the New Jersey Historical Society. Reading appears to have been a surveyor, and made several surveys in "Old Pequannock," and in Rockaway township. His first name is not given; but in the diary reference is made in several places to his "father." The "father" was, in all probability, John Reading, who located several tracts of land in his own right, not only from the Indians but also from the proprietors. In this journal several references are made to Rockaway. One of Mr. Roome's many extracts reads as follows:

"17th April 1715 John Budd, James Bollen, John Chapman, Jonathan Lad and I went out from father's about three in the afternoon for Sol Davis, upon the south branch of the Rarington River, where we arrived just at 9 of the clock the 18th." We must keep in mind that these surveying parties always traveled on horseback ; the only roads in many instances were mere bridle paths, and very often they had not even that accommodation to their journeys. Leaving out the journal record of events of the 18th, 19th and 20th, we find the party at one Jeremiah Osbourn's on the night of the 20th. On the 21st "John Budd, Bollen, Chapman and a guide and I went to look out for land. We crossed Wippening [the Whippany River] and went by a great meadow [Troy Meadow] lying upon said river, and crossing we went to Rockaway River, where we met Joseph Kirkbride, George Ryason and others. We all sought the forks of the Rock. and Wyr. [abbreviations for the Rockaway and Whippany rivers], and so went back through the woods to Osbourn's, where we slept that night. 22nd, surveyed, and on the 23d went to survey William Penn's lot; but the water being out and otherwise being very difficult, we could not survey the same; returned and lodged at Mawris Mawrison's." On the 24th of April the party visited Passaic Falls; on the 25th Reading finished Governor Penn's survey, and on the 26th a lot was surveyed for William Penn; "and returned to Osbourn's, where met father and Samuel Groom, who came from upper parts of Delaware; this night likewise came the Indians on the way to our house." It appears from another part of the journal that these Indians came to get their pay from Reading's father for the last Indian purchase, and it is also a fact that the proprietors often made purchases of large tracts of land from the Indians.

Joseph Kirkbride located several tracts of land in Randoloh township, Succasunna and other places, and a part of the Dickerson mining property. This accounts for a recital in one of the Indian titles hereinafter referred to. April 30th, Reading's journal says, "Thomas Stephens having gone towards Pequannock, and Mahlon Stacy being but newly come, * * * their lots not being fixed, we surveyed none this day. Cox, Buell, Haywood and I went for Ryerson's; we met with Stevenson and George Ryerson at H. Davis's, upon the Rockaway River, where Stephenson seemed to fix upon a lot, but by reason of his unreasonable demands we did not proceed. We then went along with Ryerson that night to his house and there lodged." Each day's proceedings and surveyings are given in the journal. We will make but one more reference thereto, and then dismiss it: "May 12th.--Went into the woods upon the Rockaway * * *; lodged by the Rockaway River." The surveying party now leave the Rockaway River, and continue their surveys in the neighborhood of Budd's Lake.

We have said that in many instances locations of land were made by a purchaser's own selection; and in such a case the natural result was that the best part of the land would be taken up, and the lean or barren part around it left, to the loss and disadvantage of the proprietors. The proprietors trusted the surveys to local deputy surveyors, and of course they would be influenced by the person who desired to settle on and improve the land, and would include the most valuable and accessible portions. The proprietors in course of time became aware of the condition of their lands and the method of location, and to remedy the evil for the future appointed a committee in 1772 to visit certain portions of Morris county and report to the proprietors the result of their investigations. Mr. Roome has made several extracts from the journal of the proprietors. We will give one illustrating the subject now before us, from the "journal and report of Courtland Skinner and John Johnson of the view of the land in Morris county, pursuant to the orders of the proprietors:"

"Friday October 22nd 1772 we set out from Morristown to view the land in the valley, and passed through the land sold to Mr. Faisby, which we viewed on both sides of the road to Mount Hope. From thence we proceeded to Middle forge, and passed the mountain about one and one-half miles to the westward of the forge. In passing the hill we found it accessible from the valley, and that the road had been made part of the way up, and a great deal of wood had been cut and carried away. * * * We then proceeded to Kenney's forge, passing John Young's house, * * * and went on foot and viewed Young's 91-acre tract, * * * along the South or Green Mountains. This last tract takes in much valuable timber, by which the mountain is rendered almost useless to anybody else. Had these locations been carried up the mountain, as they ought to have been, the general interest would not suffer, as it must and has by these irregular surveys. * * *

"We then proceeded up the valley on the north side, and there we found the same practices--the surveys approaching to or running at a greater distance from the mountain as the land was more or less timbered and good. By this means the sides of the mountains that are accessible are of little or no value, and will never be worth any man's while to lay rights on. We then returned and got a man to conduct us over the South Mountain, which we found very high and rugged.

"We then returned to Hibernia furnace, and next morning proceeded to view the land to be taken by Lord Stirling. * * * We then went northeasterly, following the Charlottenburg road, and found the same very mountainous; and, that we might have a view of the whole,went with Millage (deputy surveyor) up to the top of a high mountain which overlooked the whole tract. * * * We then turned westerly and met with an improvement and a field of wheat, but no house. This land looked well and the timber around it good; but whose the improvement we could not tell. We then proceeded toward the hill to the southward, and here was another improvement on a small location."

The Indian title to all the soil of New Jersey was acquired by purchase. In all grants and concessions to the early proprietors a provision was embodied that land was to be purchased from time to time, "as there shall be occasion, by the governor and council, from the Indians, in the name of the lords proprietors, and then every individual person is to reimburse the lords proprietors at the same rate it was purchased, together with the charges." The Indians conveyed the northern part of the State in the year 1758, the southern portion having been disposed of prior to that time. This conveyance appears to be a ratification of all prior sales made by the Indians--as well to individuals as to the lords proprietors--and was executed by some of the chiefs. This deed of 1758 is dated at Eastern Pennsylvania, on the 23d day of October, and is between Egohopoun, chief of the Minsis, Lapink, Nepkas, Mackakamee, Cockkala, Laman Lanykaman, and others, of the one part, and his excellency Captain Benard, Esq., captain-general and commander-in-chief of New Jersey, Hon. Andrew Johnson and others, commissioners, etc.; the preamble is as follows:

"Whereas, the proprietors of division of the province of New Jersey, and the purchasers under them, have heretofore bought divers large tracts of land from the Minisink or Minsi Indians, and the Oping or Pompton Indians, and other native and original possessors of the north part of this province, but as the bounds of said tracts have not been sufficiently ascertained, and divers disputes between the native Indians and the English inhabitants * * * have arisen, to put an end to which the Mingoes and United Nations have permitted their nephews the Minisinks or Minsis and Oping or Pompton Indians to settle on their lands on the branches of the Susquehanna and elsewhere, to which they have for better conveniences removed. * * * Now all Indians bearing claims release to said commissioners * * * beginning at the station point * * * between the province of New Jersey and New York, at the most northerly end of an Indian settlement on the Delaware known by the name of Casheitong, being about 32 miles in a straight line from the mouth of Machhackomack Creek, near Cold's Fort, thence on a line nearly southeast * * * through Pinback to the drowned lands, * * * then crossing the northeast end of Mount Eve, north of Warwick in the State of New York, to the mouth of Tappan Creek, where the same enters the North or Hudson's River; thence down said river through the Narrows to Sandy Hook; from thence to the mouth of the river Raritan; thence up the same to the forks thereof; thence up the north branch to the falls of Alamattunk[Pottersville, Hunterdon county]; thence on a straight line to the Pasqualin Mountain [supposed to be the Delaware Water Gap], where it joins on the Delaware; thence up said river to Casheitong where it began; which said lines from Sandy Hook to Pasqualin Mountain aforesaid are the northeastern boundaries of the land lately granted and released by the Delaware Indians to the said governor and commissioners the 12th of September last, and by the first above mentioned Indians is hereby ratified and confirmed."

This was signed by George Croghan, deputy agent; Henery Montour, king's interpreter; Conrad Weiser, provincial interpreter, and eighteen Indians.

The earliest locations of lands in the territory embraced in the present bounds of Rockaway township which we can identify with any degree of certainty were made by William Penn. The first of them was located on the 23d of August 1715. There are two surveys returned to him under that date; one containing 2,500 acres, and the other 1,250 acres. These two tracts adjoin on the south the Mount Hope tract (of which mention is hereafter made), and lie west and south of the village of Rockaway, embracing part of Randolph township and part of Rockaway township. We have every reason to believe that these two surveys were made by William Reading and his party, who, as appears from his journal, were in the months of April and May 1715 surveying in other parts of the township, and in parts of what is now Pequannock and Hanover. That part of Rockaway included in these surveys may be designated as Franklin, John O. Hill's farm, Pigeon Hill, the property known as the General Winds farm (now owned by Thomas and Robert F. Oram), the John Dickerson farm, and the farms of Charles C. De Hart, C. A. McCarty and others.

About this time smaller surveys had commenced to be made in different parts of the township, ranging from two acres to 300 acres; these have continued down to the present time, so that very little if any unlocated lands can now be found in the township. The first of these smaller locations were, as we have before shown, choice spots: lands on a stream of water for meadow or water power, mineral lands, good locations for forges, or valuable for wood and timber. These surveys very often had no reference to each other, and sometimes lapped on former surveys, or caused large strips of unsurveyed lands to intervene; so that about the year 1740 the proprietors commenced to make and superintend for themselves sweeping surveys, as they were called, embracing all these earlier and smaller ones, and then excepting these from the larger survey. Nearly all the territory of Rockaway township is included in such large surveys, which we have grouped and designated by name and locality so as to cover nearly the whole of the township.

Lying next and directly north of Rockaway village is a tract known as the "White Meadow" tract, containing 1,532.28 acres, which was located on the 21st of June 1774 and returned to Courtlandt Skinner and John Johnson. This tract begins at a stone heap on the north side of the road leading from Hanover to Mount Hope furnaces and about thirty rods northwest of Rockaway meeting-house, and includes the White Meadow mines, and the Colonel Muir and other farms. The Colonel Muir property is about two miles northeast of Rockaway, and is now the homestead of Mahlon Hoagland.

West of the White Meadow tract, and still north and west of the village of Rockaway, lies the Mount Hope tract. This tract was surveyed and returned to William Burnet and John Johnson, on the 9th of September 1772, and contains 6,271.66 acres. The westerly line of this tract has been the source of considerable controversy in the courts of Morris county, owing to its crossing two or three rich veins of iron ore; the most recent of which is the suit brought by the Thomas Iron Mining Company against the Allentown Iron Company for taking out a large quantity of ore in one of the veins claimed by the Thomas Iron Company. The whole tract was surveyed and resurveyed by expert engineers for each party, and the dispute was finally compromised. The line was also definitely settled by this suit. The Mount Hope tract includes several valuable iron mines, the most extensive and celebrated of which are the Mount Hope mine property, the Hickory Hill mine, the Teabo mine, the Allen mine, and the Richards mine; and extends west so as to include the farm lately owned by James King, in Rockaway township, on Mount Hope avenue, and east of the corporate limits of Dover.

On the northeast of the Mt. Hope and White Meadow tracts, and adjoining them, lies the Hibernia tract, which was surveyed between the years 1772 and 1774, but not returned until the 31st day of August 1791; and on that day recorded in the Perth Amboy records in Book S 10, page 60. This tract was returned to John Stephens; it contains 5,222.44 acres, and includes all the mines of iron ore at Hibernia. These mines are now owned principally by the New Jersey Iron Mining Company, and are worked by the Glendon Iron Company, the Andover Iron Company and others as lessees. It extends from the Egbert corner, near the late residence of Peter D. Henderson, on the northeast of the village of Hibernia, to the Mt. Hope tract on the west, and adjoins the copperas mine property, on which the Green Pond Iron Mining Company has been operating.

Lying west of the Mt. Hope and Hibernia tracts, and east of the Green Pond Mountain, is that known as the Denmark tract, containing 6,231.28 acres, returned to Courtlandt Skinner and John Johnson on the 21st day of June 1774 and recorded in the surveyor general's office at Perth Amboy in Book S 7, page 130. The northeasterly line of this survey runs through the lower end of Green Pond, including in this tract about one quarter of the pond. The southwesterly lines of the tract extend to Washington forge and the Randolph township lines, and it includes Washington forge, Luxemburg, Mount Pleasant, the Huff, Barker, Moses Tuttle, Moses Phillips, and Spicer properties, and the Middle forge and Denmark lands. The Huff and Mt. Pleasant mines are located on this tract, and other mineral attractions indicate iron ore at various places on the property.

Green Pond--or the part of it to the east of the Denmark tract--was located by Judge Andrew B. Cobb, and now belongs to his estate. The entire area of the pond is 600 acres.

The land which lies to the northeast of the Hibernia and Middle forge tracts and Green Pond is made up of a large number of original surveys, made by Lemuel Cobb, John Rattoon, James Dunham, Abraham Ogden, Azariah Dunham, Andrew B. Cobb, Tunis Ryerson, Edward Condit, Elias Boudinot and others, who were either proprietors or owned shares of proprietors' rights. None of these parties lived upon their lands in this part of the township; and some of them, we may safely infer, never saw them.

This last tract of surveys extends to the tract hereinafter designated as the Charlottenburg tract on the northeast, and to Newfoundland, which is the extreme northerly limit of the township; and embrace the Split Rock forge and the Durham forge properties, the village of Greenville, Timber Brook, Copperas mine and the southerly slope of Green Pond Mountain.

The Split Rock and Durham forge properties and also the larger part of the surveys in this location are now owned by the estate of Andrew B. Cobb. The Split Rock tract proper was located by James Parker and Andrew Bell. Mr. Parker was the grandfather of the Hon. Courtland Parker, of the city of Newark.

The earliest survey in this part of the township appears to have been made on the 10th of May 1751, when a return was made to Thomas Young of a tract of 2.13 acres, recorded in Book S 3, page 179, at Perth Amboy; this land is now a part of the pond at Split Rock.

The name Split Rock is supposed to have originated from the character of the rock or bed of the stream called Beaver Brook at this place, where it passes between two rocks apparently cut or split for the passage of the brook; but by reference to a survey made on the 30th of November 1774, for two tracts of land to Abraham Ogden, at request of Ebenezer Farrand, and recorded in Book S 7, page 218, we are led to the opinion that it takes its name from a rock described in the return of this survey as the beginning corner thereof. The return reads: "For two tracts of land in the mountain about four miles to the southward of Charlottenburg furnace, at the upper end of Beaver Brook Swamp [the first lot being the place John McCloud now lives on]; beginning at a split rock lying at the head of a spring at the edge of said swamp, which rock is S 48 E 162 from the northeast corner of an old log house belonging to said McCloud; the said rock is on the side of a footpath that leads from Charlottenburg to the widow Demouth's." This information was furnished by Benjamin Roome, who has seen this split rock and McCloud and his log house many a time; and he says the rock is now under the water of the pond, and that the pond takes its name from this split rock, and not from the rock through which the brook passes.

The tract of land which lies to the northeast and southeast of the above named surveys is a part of the old Charlottenburg forge tract, which lies partly in Rockaway township and partly in the county of Passaic, and was returned to Oliver De Lancy, Henry Cuyler jr. and Walter Rutherford on the 25th day of October 1765. It contains 6,475.08 acres, and is recorded in Book S 5, page 265. About one thousand acres of this tract is in Rockaway township. This one thousand acres extends from the village of Charlotteburgh, in Passaic county, up and down the Pequannock River, which is the dividing line between these two counties.

Lying to the south of the said Cobb lands and Split Rock property is the Meriden tract of 669.30 acres, returned to Lemuel Cobb and John Salter on the 17th day of April 1789, and recorded in Book S 8, page 206. This tract includes the present village of Meriden and adjoining properties.

To the west of Meriden lie two large surveys of 2,745.54 acres, returned to Skinner and Johnson, at request of Benjamin Beach and John Munson, on the 21st of June 1774.

Adjoining the above surveys is a tract of 422.70 acres returned to Samuel Neville and John Burnett on the 30th of April 1748, and recorded at Perth Amboy in Book S 2, page 209. The David Beaman farm, lying between Rockaway and Beach Glen, east of the Hubbard Stickle homestead, and on which James Ackly built a house and barn about forty years ago, is part of this last survey, and no doubt the said Stickle farm was called in 1800 the Francis McCarty farm, from the father of the late Morris McCarty and Judge Cummings McCarty.

The land lying south and east of the Meriden tract, including Lyonsville and part of Rockaway Valley, is part of a 1,250 acre tract returned to William Penn on the 22nd of August 1715 and recorded at Burlington in Book B, page 39.

Adjoining the last mentioned tract on the southwest is one of 1,420 acres, returned to James Bolland on the 8th of March 1720 and recorded in Burlington in Book B, page 198, &c.

Southwest of and bounding on the last two tracts is a survey of 421.10 acres, returned to Frederick Miller on the 17th of May 1788 and recorded in Book S 8, page 165; it lies on a small branch of the Rockaway River called Stony Brook. This survey includes lands in Rockaway Valley, the homestead farm of the late William M. Dixon, deceased, and adjoining lands, and also a survey of 551.33 acres returned to Jacob Taylor April 18th 1789. On the southeast of the above mentioned 1,420 acres, 421.10 acres and 551.33 acres lies the Boonton tract, containing 3,656.97 acres, returned to William Burnet and Courtlandt Skinner on the thirteenth of October 1765 (recorded in Book S 5, on page 282) and by them conveyed to David Ogden. This survey includes part of Rockaway Valley, Powerville, Boonton and the mountain west of Powerville known as the "Torn" or "Steeple", and extends west from Powerville about two miles toward Denville.

Southeast of the White Meadow tract lies a survey of 776 acres, returned to the heirs and assigns of Hugh Hartshorn and David Barkley, at the request of Samuel Neville, on the 10th of June 1748, and recorded in Book S 2, page 226, etc.

On the southeast of the last mentioned survey lies a tract of 1,741.76 acres returned to Courtlandt Skinner and John Johnson, at the request of Benjamin Beach and John Munson, on the 21st of June 1774, and recorded in the Perth Amboy records in Book S 7, page 134, etc. The two last named tracts cover Beach Glen, formerly called Horse Pond, and a large part of Rockaway Valley, west of the village of Rockaway.

The village of Denville is located upon a tract of 1,250 acres returned to William Bidleon the 21st of February 1716; and south of it and adjoining lies a tract of 1,666 acres returned to Joseph Kirkbride and William Cant on the 21st of February 1716.

West of Denville and taking in Franklin and the farm of John O. Hill was a large survey made to John Bellars. We learn this from a recital in a deed to David Garrigus, made the 23d of December 1800, for 494 acres of land (said to be a part of this large survey). David Garrigus formerly owned the Hill farm and worked the Franklin forge. The deed was given to Benjamin Chew, of Philadelphia, as attorney in fact for Sir John Bridger of the county of Surrey, Great Britain, knight, and Dame Rebecca his wife and others, and is recorded in the Morris county clerk's office in Book D, 252.

Robert Hunter Morris also had lands returned to him in this part of Rockaway township and on Pigeon Hill. We find a deed in the Morris county records (Book D, page 250) from Richard Morris of Westchester, N. Y., executor of Robert Hunter Morris, to David Garrigus, dated December 31st 1793, for 117.13 acres of land returned to said R. H. Morris December 5th 1761.

These surveys carry us to the Randolph and Hanover lines, and complete, in a general way, locations for nearly all of the Rockaway territory. From them we can infer that settlements of from one to ten families commenced about the same time in different parts of the township, in the neighborhood of Rockaway Valley, Beach Glen, Denville, White Meadows, Rockaway and Mount Hope, where the land was level and adapted to agricultural purposes; but the remainder and greater part of the territory north of the above named places, being hilly and mountainous, and in many instances quite rocky and almost inaccessible, offered no inducements to agriculture, and its growth in population was, in consequence, very slow. There are many large sections of this territory still remaining uninhabited, owing to the character of the country; and not unfrequently a ride of two or three miles will not discover a sign of a dwelling of any kind. The primitive hut or log cabin occasionally meets the eye in some secluded spot, and around it a few paternal acres or the "clearing," as it is called, furnish pasture for the cattle and vegetables for the family. To the eye there was nothing to tempt the settler who was in search of broad acres and green fields; and wherever from choice a settlement was made we can still meet with the third or fourth generation of the settler's descendants, who were obliged to remain for the simple reason that their limited means would not admit of their getting away.

It very seldom happened that the owners of these surveys or original locations occupied them in person; they were either too aristocratic to cultivate and improve the soil, or too rich to need even rents, issues and profits thereof. It was a matter of pure speculation, and the gain was in selling in parcels to actual settlers. But, while all these apparent obstacles in the way of bringing settlers into this part of Morris county existed, the pure air of the mountains and the many never failing streams of water were conducive to health; and to one accustomed to the place threw a charm over the secluded life that rendered it one of contentment.

SOME OF THE PIONEERS.

Among the settlers in Denville we have the name of David Broadwell, whose house and blacksmith shop stood where the Menagh hotel now is. Job Allen's house was on the Glover farm. William and Joseph Hinchman were also residents of Denville. The Garriguses, Ayers, Hills, Coopers and Smiths lived at Franklin and Pigeon Hill. Below Denville and down the valley came the Peers, Samuel and David, John Husk, John P. Cook, Peter Hiler, Adam Miller, Joseph Scott, David Smith, William Ayer, Aaron Miller, Frederick Hopler, Peter Hopler and Jacob Kanouse, the great-grandfather of Judge Kanouse of Boonton.

The old David Peer place, owned lately by Mr. Smith, was originally an Indian settlement. David Smith, elsewhere referred to as now living near Green Pond, who was apprenticed to David Peer, says he recollects the last old Indian of a tribe formerly living in Rockaway Valley. His name was Jonathan. The Indian and his squaw would occasionally come to Peer's place. David says he has heard John Peer, father to David, say that these Indians belonged to a southern tribe. They had settled there long before the war, and took sides with the British, and after the war were obliged to leave. John Peer was in the army. He was quite an old man when David Smith was a boy. Jonathan and his squaw lived at Bald Hill, near the Kitchel place at the Cranberry Pond. Smith says he was at their wigwam very often. Martin Hiler was the father of Peter Hiler, and lived in Rockaway Valley. The old stone house on the left side of the road after crossing Peer's lock toward Powerville was built by Martin Hiler before the Revolution. David Peer was justice of the peace over fifty years, and died about 1830. Mr. Smith says that when he was a boy the old men were John Cook, grandfather of John P. Cook, John Husk, William Auger, Aaron Miller, Jacob Demouth, Frederick Hopler, Peter Hopler, Jacob Kanouse, Conrad Kanouse and old Jacob Bastedo, who was a preacher, as he called him, holding meetings occasionally at different houses, but was not settled over any church.

Frederick Miller lived further down the valley, on the property owned by William M. Dixon at the time of his death. Part of the Miller house is yet standing. William Dixon, son-in-law of Miller, also lived in that neighborhood. Frederick Demouth, or Demoth, as it was originally called, lived further down the valley, and was a farmer of considerable means and style for those early days.

A man who exercised a large influence in the township in the latter part of the eighteenth century was John Jacob Faesch, of Mount Hope, the "smart little Dutchman," as Miss Agnes Walton calls him. He came to this country about 1766 and in 1772 purchased the Mount Hope property, in part from Colonel Jacob Ford jr. and part from Burnet and Johnson, and about this year built the Mt. Hope furnace.

He was a liberal supporter of the Rockaway church, and held several local offices in the county. He took sides with the colonists on the breaking out of the Revolutionary war. Large quantities of cannon balls for the American army were cast at his furnace, and on a visit to Mt. Hope by General Washington, Faesch had the honor of entertaining him at his house. Jonathan Wiggins, the grandfather of William F. Wiggins, now of Succasunna, was one of Faesch's foremen about his works. Wiggins was the driver of a four-mule team for Faesch, and one of his exploits was to amuse Faesch by cutting off the heads of chickens with his cartwhip whenever poultry was needed. Whether this was done on the occasion of Washington's visit we could not ascertain with any degree of certainty. A Captain Freesburgh was partner with Faesch during this time, and according to a statement of William F. Wiggins built the present stone Mansion House at Mt. Hope. Ephraim Burwell, Reuben Walton and Jonathan Fordham (grandfather of William F. Wiggins on his mother's side) were also among Faesch's men--all of whom are buried at the "Walton" burying ground.

Faesch built several houses at Mt. Hope, some of which are standing at this time. A large corner cupboard built by Faesch for one of his houses is now in the possession of Miss Walton. She also has a chair over one hundred years old, formerly owned by Adam Miller, who lived on the Uhel farm at Middle forge. William F. Wiggins is the owner of a pair of spectacles and their case used by Faesch when at Mt. Hope, and the writer of this sketch of the former owner used them in getting it up, these glasses having been loaned by Mr. Wiggins for that purpose. They are quite a curiosity, and who knows but the former owner wore them while he entertained General Washington, on the occasion mentioned?

The object of General Washington's visit to Mount Hope was partly to arrange with Faesch about taking some Hessian prisoners to board for their work in chopping wood in Faesch's coaling job; at least we know that Faesch took 250 of these prisoners from General Washington, and erected five log houses for them. At the close of the war the British had a certain number of days to gather up these hired soldiers, as they were required to pay for every one they did not return to the old country. Among the 250 men was Leopold Zindle. When the British officer visited Mt. Hope for the purpose of getting these men he commanded Zindle to go with him. Zindle replied, "Me no go; me can die first." This so aroused the officer that he drew his sword and struck Zindle in the breast, breaking the weapon in three pieces--one remaining in Zindle's body, one in the officers hand and one falling to the ground. Zindle still persisted in saying "Me no go, me die first." This occurred in the presence of a large crowd, and seeing the resistance which Zindle made, and the many friends he had, the officer was obliged to retreat to save his own life. Zindle ended his days at Mt. Hope about 1820, a very old man. William F. Wiggins, who relates this incident, knew him very well, and was at his funeral. Zindle's children were Abraham, George, Charles, Mary, Margaret, Catharine and Sarah, the last named and youngest of whom is Mrs. William F. King, now living in Dover and the mother of Dr. Joseph D. King.

The Mt. Hope Pond, back of the furnace site, was supplied entirely by springs in its bed, as no stream ran into it. It is now a meadow bottom and last summer yielded a fine crop of hay. Besides the Mt. Hope lands Faesch also owned the Jackson mine lot in Irondale, purchased of Moses Tuttle November 27th 1772. About 1790 he removed to Morristown, and became one of the proprietors of the Morris Academy lot, as we find a deed to him and others from the trustees of the Presbyterian church, dated August 1st 1792. From Morristown he removed to Old Boonton, where he died in 1799; he was buried at Morristown.

Moses Tuttle was among the earlier settlers at Mt. Pleasant. He came there in 1760 to manage the forge property of his father-in-law, Colonel Jacob Ford sen. His mansion stood on the west side of the turpike, near the present residence of Jesse S. Langdon, until within ten or fifteen years back. It was a long, low structure, with a porch on the front, and was one of the landmarks for surveyors, as we find several surveys referring to the chimney of Moses Tuttle's house, which was a prominent point, and could be seen from different localities. This is the same house elsewhere referred to as the Mt. Pleasant Hotel.

Descendants in the sixth generation of both Colonel Ford and Moses Tuttle are still living in the county of Morris.

Dr. Jonathan Hunting was the first physician who lived within the bounds of the township. He owned part of the Pond meadow, lately the property of S. B. Halsey, opposite the present rolling-mills. He was also a pew-holder in the church prior to 1774, for it appears that after his death, which occurred in that year, his son Matthew occupied the same pew which his father had occupied.

Dr. Ebenezer H. Pierson came next as resident physician, and lived near Franklin, on the Palmer farm, having bought the lot used by the parish church as a parsonage, near Henry B. Palmer's new residence. Dr. Pierson graduated at Princeton College in 1791. The parsonage deed is from Job Allen, Josiah Beaman, Thomas Conger, James Kitchel, David Broadwell, David Peer and Benjamin Beach, trustees of the First Presbyterian congregation at Rockaway, to Ebenezer H. Pierson, and is dated December 28th 1795 (Book O, 343). The lot contains 47.50 acres, and is described as being on the road leading from John P. Losey's to Rockaway and adjoining lands of James Kent, Richard Dell, and John Clark.

Bernard Smith, whose name is closely connected with the early history of Rockaway, was a German and a particular friend of John Jacob Faesch. He kept a store in the village in the old Gaston house, now owned by John F. Stickle. He was the owner of White Meadow and the Guinea forge. His children were six sons and four daughters. Beman, the eldest, was a member of Congress from this State; James was an officer in the United States army; John was a printer; the history of Samuel is unknown; Frederick entered the navy, and William was killed under Wilkinson in 1812, while serving as an officer in the army.

Gilbert Headen (Hedden or Heddy) in 1753 is described as being of Morristown, in 1762 as of Pequannock, and 1778 as of North Carolina. He was the owner of the first grist-mill, which was standing below the present rolling-mill, and the site of the rolling-mill was in all probability the bed of the mill pond.

There are other persons whose descendants still occupy the land, of whom honorable mention could be made if space permitted. Suffice it to say, their records are clear, and, whatever imperfections and shortcomings may have been visible in a few instances, the general tone of the people in those early days was an honest one. James Kitchel is known to have said, many a time, that in his business transactions notes were never taken, or at least very seldom; a man's word was as good as his note. Samuel S. Beach, father of S. S. Beach of Rockaway, gave his note for about $80 to an old lady in payment for some land which she had sold him. The note was allowed to run nearly twenty years without ever being presented for payment or any interest asked; after so long a time the holder of the note called upon Mr. Beach with some doubts as to the payment of it, and admitted it outlawed, and so forth, but Mr. Beach said his notes never outlawed, he had not forgotten it, and paid it at once, principal and interest. That was not the age of "smart" cashiers, confiding bank officers, and superficial government officials.

Others of the early inhabitants are noticed in the history of the Presbyterian church of Rockaway, and in other connections.

THE NAME ROCKAWAY.

The name Rockaway at present designates several distinct places and things immediately connected with the history in question, viz., the village of Rockaway, the Rockaway River, Rockaway Valley, Rockaway Neck, "Old Rockaway" and Rockaway township; and all without doubt originated from one and the same source. Surveyor Reading's journal of 1715 clearly show that the name Rockaway was then used by the pioneers to designate the stream of water now known by that name in Rockaway township, and also to designate some of the land in its vicinity. We have no reason to conclude that the name originated either from the English or Dutch settlers; on the contrary, all conjecture was placed at rest upon that question when among the many original surveys which were shown us by William Roome we came across one made November 20th 1745 for George Ryerson, for 425.25 acres, described as lying "near to a brook called by the Dutch Rotegeval, a branch of the Rockaway River, which it falls into by an Indian field called Rockaway, from which the river had its name;" and also another survey, made the 14th of August 1749, for Abram Balding and others, containing 120.44 acres, which was located "at a place called by the Dutch Oullekill [near Montville] and by the English Rockaway," the English settlers, of course, taking the Indian name as before recognized. From this evidence in reference to the name of Rockaway it must be conceded that the Indians were the first to use the word, and gave it to the settlers; and that the river is so called from a field or Indian encampment beside it. The question naturally arises, where was the Indian field called Rockaway? There are two surveys which refer to "Old Rockaway." One is a survey returned to Frederick De Mouth on the 5th of April 1748, covering 32 1/2 acres lying to the north of "Old Rockaway;" and the other is a survey returned to John Miller on the 15th of May 1748 for 82 acres, lying to the north of "Old Rockaway." The 32 1/2 acre tract is known to lie east of the homestead of the late William M. Dixon, in Rockaway Valley, about three miles northwesterly from Powerville; and the 82-acre tract is a part of the original John Miller farm in Rockaway Valley, and near said Dixon's farm. These references indicate very strongly that the Indian field called Rockaway was the whole or at least a part of what is now known as Rockaway Valley, in Rockaway township, and more particularly that part of it in the immediate neighborhood of the junction of Stony Brook with the Rockaway River, northwest of Powerville; and that the Indian field was called "Old Rockaway" in 1748 by the settlers to distinguish it from the village of Rockaway.

THE IRON MINES.

In the early days of these locations the hills were well covered with a primitive growth of timber, and several discoveries of iron ore before the war of the Revolution induced a few capitalists to embark in the iron business along the mountain streams. Iron was then mined and manufactured on a small scale, and the business opened a market for wood and charcoal. In the absence of all agricultural inducements the iron business became the leading interest, and brought in many families of miners, bloomers, colliers and teamsters. But as it is to-day so it was then; there existed a marked contrast between the forgemen and the ironmasters; the former were thriftless working but for to-day and not troubled about the things of to-morrow, while the latter were exclusive, and in many instances lived in a style luxurious and elegant at home. Yet while the workmen in these mountain forges saved nothing, and barely subsisted on the "store" trade allowed them for their wages, they did not grow any poorer. The ironmasters, however, as a general thing not only lost the capital which they had invested in the business, but struggled on against the tide until many of them became involved in debt and were obliged to quit and give way to their creditors. One of those ironmasters who was able to stem the current of loss is the exception. The proceedings in our court record the names of several of these forge owners whose property was struck off under the sheriff's hammer.

The greater portion of this hilly territory of Rockaway township was, as we have said, of very little value for farming purposes; and the discovery of iron ore opened up an industry of a very different kind, and, as the sequel has proved in our times, a much more productive source of wealth. In the early days and early discoveries of the iron deposits the facilities for mining were rude indeed. In those early times there was no market for iron ore; the forge and mine, as a general thing, belonged to the same party, and there was no motive to mine in excess of the ability to manufacture. The work was done with the least possible expense--all by man power, and without the shafts, drifts, props, stoops, sinks, pillars, whips, engines and underground engineering now thought so necessary in mining operations.

If we take the Hibernia mine, about four miles east of Rockaway village, for an illustration, we find that a furnace was located there as early as 1765, and the mine was worked during the Revolutionary war and earlier. Yet during these many years no developments to any extent were made until within the last fifty years. The ancient workings were all at the foot of Hibernia Hill, where mining was easy, and where the soft top ore could be procured. In 1873 the Hibernia Underground Railroad Company was incorporated by the laws of New Jersey, and it has constructed a mile of railroad in the mines following the vein, and is operating the same with two locomotives, and carrying out for different parties about 100,000 tons of ore per year.

Rockaway township may well be proud of the rapid increase in mineral wealth and growth in population and manufacturing interests which her own rough-hewn hills have given her in the past thirty-five or forty years, and of the new developments which are constantly made in her iron deposits. To give the reader an idea of her mineral wealth we cite the purchases made between the years 1865 and 1868 by Conrad Poppenhusen, of the city of New York. He bought a part of the Hibernia mine, and undeveloped lands adjoining, embracing between six and seven hundred acres. In these purchases Mr. Poppenhusen invested about half a million of dollars; yet in this large tract there was not a building suitable for a dwelling place, nor an acre of land under cultivation, and very few susceptible of any profitable tillage without immense labor. We also cite a fact well known to many who were then interested in the Hibernia mining operations, that a mineral lease on ten acres of the Hibernia vein of iron ore, made about the year 1870, fixing the royalty at one dollar per ton for the ore, sold in open market to the highest bidder at a premium of over $35,000 for the lessor.

It was truthfully said in the United States in years gone by "cotton is king," and to-day "coal is king" in the commonwealth of Pennsylvania. May we not also with like assurance say iron is king in Rockaway township?

CHURCH HISTORY.

The church history of Rockaway township centers principally in that of

THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH AT ROCKAWAY VILLAGE,

which is one of the oldest church organizations in the county. The labor of collecting the material for this part of the history has been greatly lessened by the valuable researches of Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, D. D., president of Wabash College, Indiana, and also by the historical manual of the church compiled by the Rev. H. E. Platter, and published in 1880.

The Rockaway Presbyterian church was for many years the only church in the township, and its history dates back to the early part of the eighteenth century, although no church organization or building was in existence until about the year 1758. We get this last fact from the first known subscription paper for the erection of a church. On the second day of March 1758 two papers were drawn up and signed by those interested in the church, and it may not be out of place to refer to them here to show the primitive style of such papers and the importance of the undertaking; we will give them literally:

                                 March 2d 1758, 
We the subscribers do by these mannerfest it to be our desier to Joyn with Porsipaney to call and settel a minnester, to have the one half of the preachen at porsipaney and the other half at rockaway, and each part to be eakwel in payen a minnester. Job Allen, Seth Mehuran, David Beman, gilbard hedy, Andreu Morrison, Isak ogden, John pipes, Samuel Shipman, John Minton, Samuel Whithed jr, Joseph burrel, wilyam wines, nethanel michel, Jasiah beman, James losey, abraham Masacra, henerey stag, John Harriman, Jonah Austen, Samuel Burwell, John gobbel, Abraham Johnson, John Cogswell, John huntington, Gershom Gard, John kent, Amos Kilburn, william Danels, Samuel Moore.

                                 March 2d 1758, 
We the Inhabitants of rockaway, pigen hill and upper inhabitence at the colonals forges and places agesant, being met together In order to consult together about a place to set a meting hous, and being all well agreed that the most sutable place for the holsetelments Is upon the small plain a letel above bemans forg, which is below the first small brok upon that rode up to Samuel Johnson, and we the subscribers a blig ourselves to pay toward building a house at that place the sums to our names afixed: Job Allen, 5; Gilbert Heden, 5; Andrew Moreson, 5; David Beman, 5; Isaac Ogden, 1 10s.; John Pipre, 1; Samuel Shipman, 2 10s.; Seth Mehuren, 2 10s.; John Minthorn, 2 10s.; Samuel Whithed jr., 2 10s.; Joseph Burwell, 10s.; William Winds, 3; Nathaniel Mitchel, 1 10s.; Josiah Beman, 2; James Losey, 10s.; Abraham Masacra, 7s.; Henery stag, 15s.; John Harriman, 3; John Johnson, 3; Samuel burrel, 10s.; Jonah Huston, 4; John Gobel, 10s.; abraham Johnson, 5; John Cogswell, 1; John Huntington, 2; Gershom Gard, 1; John Kent, 1; Amos kilburn, 2; henery Tuttel, 5s.; Joseph Beach, 5s.; John stag, 15s.; William Danels, 1 10s. 10d.; Samuel Moor, 1 5s.; Jacob Garrigues, 1; James Milege, 1 10s.; bil walton, 3s. 6d.; Jacob W. thorp, 6s. 6d.; Obadiah Lum, 2; Benjamin Corey, 4s.

The following is a list of pastors of the Rockaway church:

Rev. James Tuttle, joint pastor of Rockaway and Parsippany, ordained and installed at Parsippany in April 1768, died December 25th 1770; Rev. David Baldwin, installed in April 1784, dismissed May 14th 1792; Rev. John J. Carle, installed in January 1793, dismissed in 1801; Rev. Barnabas King, ordained and installed December 27th 1808 (having preached as supply since October 1807), died April 10th 1862; Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, installed as copastor with Mr. King April 26th 1848, dismissed April, 1862; Rev. Samuel Pierson Halsey, installed July 8th 1862, dismissed in April 1865; Rev. Oliver H. Perry Deyo, installed April 30th 1867 (after having preached nearly one year as supply), dismissed October 20th 1872; Rev. David E. Platter, ordained and installed July 22nd 1874, dismissed to take charge of Presbyterian church at Canton, Ohio, January 31st 1881.

The pulpit is supplied at present by Rev. J. O. Averill.

The following is a list of the elders of the church, as compiled by Rev. Mr. Platter (the words ordained, died, resigned, are designated by the letters o, d, r):

Job Allen sen., o 1758, d 1767; John Huntington, o 1758; Obadiah Lum, o 1758; Jacob Allerton, o 1758; David Beman, o 1758, r 1789; William Ross, o 1768 (?), r 1789; John Cobb, o 1772, d 1779; David Beaman (re-elected), o 1793, d 1802; Job Allen jr., o 1793, d 1798; John Clark (deacon 1809), o 1793, d 1813; William Ross (re-elected), o 1797, d 1807; David Peer (deacon 1809), o 1797, d 1824; David Garrigus, o 1798; John Garrigus sen. (deacon 1832), o 1809, d 1850; Rev. Peter Kanouse, o 1809, d 1864; Benjamin Lamson, o 1809, d 1824; Samuel Hicks (deacon 1832), o 1818, d 1833; Thomas Conger, o 1818, d 1831; John Garrigus jr., o 1824, d 1878; William Jackson, o 1824, d 1872; Joseph Jackson, o 1824, d 1872; Silas Hamilton (deacon 1832), o 1824; Josiah Hurd, o 1824, d 1841; John Mott, o 1832, d 1866; Jacob Powers (dismissed 1860), o 1832; Henry Beach (deacon), o 1832, d 1864; Samuel B. Halsey, o 1841, d 1871; Samuel S. Beach sen., o 1841, d 1859; David Wiggins (dismissed 1845), o 1841, d 1854; George Rowland, o 1841; Alexander Morris (deacon), o 1843, r 1878; David Hamilton, o 1861; Samuel S. Beach jr., o 1861; Joseph H. Beach (deacon), o 1861; Charles C. De Hart, o 1861; James H. Bruen, o 1874; Nathaniel R. Mott, o 1874.

There does not appear to be any list of trustees of the church prior to 1787; but on the 24th of August 1762 Willis Pierson and Job Allen (1st), of Pequannock township, and Obadiah Lum, of Hanover township, took a deed as trustees for the meeting-house lot. In this deed these men are designated as "men indiferently chosen trustees by the Parrish of Roccaway to take this deed." The first regular board of trustees was elected under an act of the Legislature passed in March 1786. It consisted of seven persons, and the board has been composed of the same number since that time. We annex a list of the trusteees since March 6th, 1787, with the years of their service:

William Winds, 1787-92; Stephen Jackson, 1787-92; Abram Kitchel, 1787-92; Benjamin Beach, 1787-98; Job Allen (2nd), 1787-98; David Beaman, 1787-92; David Baker, 1787-92; Moses Tuttle, 1792-94; Josiah Beman, 1792-1802; George H. Brinckerhoff, 1792-94; Chileon Ford, 1792-94; Silas Hatheway, 1792-94. 1798-1802; David Broadwell, 1794-1802; James Kitchel, 1794-1812; David Peer, 1794-1802; Thomas Conger, 1794-98, 1802-10, 1812, 1813; Daniel Lewis, 1798-1805; Joseph Jackson, 1798-1819; Job Talmage, 1802-12; Benjamin Lamson, 1802-05, 1812-14, 1820-22; Benjamin Jackson, 1802-10, 1812-14; David Hill, 1805-10; Benjamin Beach, 1805, 1806; Job Allen (3d), 1805-12; Henry W. Phillips, 1810-12; George Stickle, 1810-12; John Hinchman, 1810-12; May 26th 1812 it was resolved to elect a new board of trustees annually thereafter on the first Monday in November in each year; Ford Kitchel, 1812-18, 1833-38; Peter Kanouse, 1812-18; Jeremiah Baker, 1812-14, 1825-28, 1830-32; Daniel Ayres, 1813-18, 1822-25, 1830, 1831, 1839-43; Stephen Congar, 1814-18, 1822, 1823, 1827-29, 1837-43; Joseph T. Hoff, 1814-16, 1829, 1830, 1832-39; Isaac Pierson jr., 1814-18; Josiah Hurd, 1816-18, 1824-27; Samuel S. Beach, 1818-22, 1830-33; Henry Minard, 1818-20; Abijah Congar, 1818, 1819; Chilion F. De Camp, 1818-21; Milton Scott, 1818-22; Lewis Phillips, 1818, 1819; William Jackson, 1819-30; Samuel Palmer, 1819-22, 1825-30, 1833, 1834; Joseph A. Kinney, 1819, 1820; Isaac Hinds, 1820-22; Silas Hamilton, 1821-52; Chileon Beach, 1822-30; Thomas Muir, 1822-25; William Ford, 1822-24, 1827-29, 1832-34; John H. Jackson, 1823, 1824; Timothy Douglas, 1824, 1825; Joseph Jackson, 1825-28; Timothy P. Gardner, 1825, 1826; William H. Wiggins, 1825-27; Stephen Hall, 1826-30. 1832, 1833; Ira Crittenden, 1828, 1829; James Ford, 1829, 1830; Daniel Lamson, 1829-31; Asa Berry, 1830-45; Henry Beach, 1830-44; David Anderson, 1830-32, 1851-56; Samuel Hicks jr., 1831, 1832; John Garrigus jr., 1831-39; Stephen J. Jackson, 1833-39, 1845-47, 1851-53; Silas S. Palmer, 1834-37, 1843-47; Charles Hoff, 1837-43; Matthias Kitchel, 1838-47, 1852-56; Jeremiah M. De Camp. 1839, 1840; Nathaniel Mott, 1840-43, 1849-53; David Menagh, 1843, 1844; Joshua M. Beach, 1843, 1844, 1846-49; Jonathan Benjamin, 1843, 1844; Freeman Wood, 1844-49; Charles H. Beach, 1844-46; George Rowland, 1844, 1845; Columbus Beach, 1844-49, 1856; Samuel B. Halsey, 1845-49, 1856-59, 1864, 1865; Lyman A. Chandler, 1847-51; Alexander Morris, 1847-49, 1851-53; Abijah Abbott, 1847-49, 1851, 1852; Samuel S. Beach jr., 1849-55; Jacob Powers, 1849-55; John Mott, 1849-55; Francis Lindsley, 1849-63; Barnabas K. Stickle, 1849-51; Selee Tompkins, 1850, 1851; Edward J. Benjamin, 1853-59; James H. Bruen, 1853-59; John Hoagland, 1853-55; Cummins McCarty, 1855, 1856; Eliphalet Sturtevant, 1855-59; Jacob L. Fitcher, 1856-64; Jedediah B. Bassinger, 1856-64; Samuel S. Bassett, 1859-63; Charles C. De Hart, 1859; Henry Tuttle, 1863, 1864; Thomas B. McGrath, 1863, 1864; Stephen B. Cooper, 1864-78; Mahlon Hoagland, elected 1864; Joseph J. Marsh, 1864-67; Henry D. Tuttle, elected 1865; Edmund D. Halsey, elected 1867; Matson Williams, elected 1878.

An alphabetical record of members of the Rockaway parish previous to 1808 contains the following names:

Job Allen sen, and jr., Mary (two) and David Allen, Zachariah Allerton, Jacob Allerton sen. and jr., William Alger, Cornelius, Eliakim and Sarah Anderson, Margaret Arnold, Robert and Jackson Ayers, David Baker, David Baldwin jr., Rev. Prudence Baldwin, John Barn, Ephraim Bates, Benjamin and Joseph Beach, Stephen Beach and wife, Sarah, Abner and David Beach, David Beaman (elder), Mary, Josiah, Huldah, Anna and Joseph Beaman, Nathaniel Bend, Titus Berry, Gideon Bishop, Aaron, Jonathan, Daniel and Josiah Bigelow, Zephaniah Bogles, Lemuel Bowers, George Brinkerhoff and wife, David Broadwell, Rachel Briant, Ezekiel Brown, John and Ephraim Burwell, Susannah and Joseph Casterline, Joseph Cathcart, Israel Canfield, Samuel and Patience Churchill, John, Reuben, James, Benjamin and Samuel Clark, John Cobb, Nicholas Cobbett, Abigail Conklin, Zenas, Stephen, Joseph, Thomas and David Conger, Jane Cook, Sarah, Benjamin, Ichabod and John Cooper, John and Mary Cory, Samuel and Benajah Daniels, Rosel Davis, John Day, Joseph De Camp, Richard Dell, Daniel Dickerson, Stephen Dodd, Moses Doty, Jacob Drake, Anna Earl, Jabez Estill, Conrad, Margaret and David Estler, John Jacob Faesch, Jacob and Charity Farris, George Ferror, Chilion Ford, Jacob Ford jr., Aaron French, John Gadden, David Garrigus, Abigail Garrigus, Jacob Garrigus sen. and jr., Robert Gaston, David Gordon, Josiah Goldsmith, Seth Gregory, Silas Haines, John, Josiah and Joseph Hall, Sarah Halbert, Dennis Hartley, Samuel, Silas, Prudence and Dency Hatheway, Elisha, Aaron and Samuel Hedden, Jacob, John, Lois and David Herriman, John Hiler, David Hill, James Hinds, Cornelius Hoagland, Joseph, Charles and John Hoff, Moses Hopping, Harriet C. and Samuel Howell, John, Elizabeth, Simeon and Gilbert Huntington, Jonathan Hunting, M. D., Matthew Hunting, Josiah, David and Daniel Hurd, Catherine Inness, Stephen, Joseph, Daniel, Benjamin and John Jackson, Rev. Peter Kanouse, Mary Kanouse, Josiah Kern, Helmer, Jacob and Sarah Kent, Abraham Kitchel and wife, Hannah and James Kitchel, Thomas, Andrew and John King, Eleazer, Moses and Thankful Lamson, Elizabeth, Lazan, Elijah and Stephen Leonard, Matthias Lerg, Edward, John, Joseph, Daniel and Samuel Lewis, Amos, Ebenezer, Samuel and Moses Lindsley, James and Charity Lockwood, James P., Jacob, John and Joseph Losey, Samuel and Thomas Love, Enos Lymus sen. and jr., Hannah and Jacob Lymus, William Ludlow, Matthew Luke, Obadiah and James Lum, Abraham, Absalom, Catherine, Eliphalet and Jonah Lyon, Patience Matthews, Thomas Mann, Francis McCarty, John McGibbons, John and Samuel Merritt, Frederick, Jacob and Thomas Miller, Samuel Miller and wife, William Mills, James, William, John, Hannah and Urania Minthorn, William Mitchell, Joshua, David, Francis and Samuel Moore, Samuel Morse jr., Nathaniel Morse jr., Abram Morgan, Captain John Munson, Jonathan and Abiel Nichols, John O'Hara, Oliver Ogden, Thomas, Abram, Nehemiah, Catherine and Isaac Osborne, Mrs. Elizabeth Osborne, Ziba L. Owen, Samuel and Jacob Palmer, John Parkhurst, Eleazer Perkins, Willys and Eben Pierson, David, Elizabeth, John, Betsy, Jacob and Joanna Peer, Joel Phelps, William Ray and wife, John N. E. Ricts, Jonathan and Thomas Riggs, Nathaniel Rogers, William Ross and wife, Enoch, Isaac, Moses and Phebe Ross, Newton Russell, Susan Schidmore, Joseph Scott, Penina Searing, George Shawger, Phebe Shores, Isaac Southard sen. and jr., Benjamin and Timothy Southard, Mrs. Stagg, George Stickle and wife, Peter, Elizabeth, Jacob and Edward Stickle, Thomas and Betsy Stiles, John and Henry Smith, Job Talmadge, Mrs. Nicholas Teales, Mrs. Jane Ford Tuttle, Moses, Daniel, Eleanor and Henry Tuttle, Frank Van Dyne, Mark Walton, Edward Wells, Joseph Wheeler, Joseph Whitehead, Samuel Williams, Jonas William, Ruth Williams, Bethuel Willis, General William Winds, Ruhamah Winds, Joshua Winget, William Wallox, Joseph Wright, Arthur Young (two), Matthias Zeek.

The manual of the Rev. Mr. Platter gives an alphabetical catalogue of the members of the church from the beginning of Mr. King's ministry in 1807 to 1880. It is too lengthy to insert in this history, as it contains over 1,150 names.

Rev. Dr. Tuttle says that, after a careful examination of the subscription papers before referred to, he is satisfied that Job Allen is the scrivener of each of them; his name heads both subscriptions, and he is one of the largest contributors and takes an active part in matters connected with the church in later years. This Job Allen was the ancestor of the Allens in this part of the county. We infer this from the facts that in the list of elders of the church we find the name of Job Allen sen., ordained in 1758, and that he died in 1767; in 1793 Job Allen jr. was ordained an elder, and died in 1802; in a list of the trustees of the church the names of Job Allen 2nd and Job Allen 3d appear. The original Job Allen was a housekeeper and may have resided at Denville, on the property known as the "Glover place," now occupied by the Denville Catholic Protectory School. He was probably the father of Job Allen jr., whose name appears as elder in 1793. During the Revolutionary war Job Allen jr. raised and commanded a company, and engaged in actual service in the war. The junior Allen was no doubt the owner of the Glover farm. We find a deed on record for this farm of 240 acres, made March 17th 1800 by the sheriff of Morris county to Thomas Osborn, on an execution against Mary Allen as administratrix of Job Allen. There is no will nor letters of administration on the estate of Job Allen in the county records. This same deed also conveys a lot of land known as the "copperas mine lot," and says the description and boundary are unknown.

Job Allen the elder or senior, after helping to build the first meeting-house, is known to have put in the galleries, and to have finished the house with walls and seats. He was a man very much esteemed in the parish. In 1748 there is a return of land in Rockaway to Jacob Ford jr., covering the water power which includes "Job Allen's iron works." At the time of his death, which occurred in 1767, he was somewhat involved, and letters of administration were granted on his estate to Jacob Ford jr. Job Allen jr., who is the same person designated in the church record as Job Allen 2nd, did not confine his business enterprise to the villages of Rockaway and Denville; but from information furnished by James L. Davenport, of Green Pond, it appears that during the war of the Revolution he was operating the copperas mines at Green Pond, and made red paint, or Venetian red, and copperas, and also kept a store, and had the only trading post for all that part of the county. This is consistent with the deed of the sheriff to Thomas Osborn for the "copperas mine" lot above referred to. Job Allen 3d made a power of attorney in 1814 (on record in county records), appointing Jacob Allen of Newark his attorney to pay his mother, Mary Allen, the interest of $700 during her lifetime, from which it appears that Job Allen 3d was the grandson of the first Allen named in the parish records.

Gilbert Hedden, or Heddy, as he is called in one of the subscription papers, built a grist-mill in Rockaway (probably the first one), about the year 1760, a short distance below the present rolling-mills.

David Beaman, whose name appears upon both subscription papers, was considered one of the leading men in this church movement. He was then what we call an old settler, and owner of a forge, grist-mill and sawmill. His neighbors describe him as a man very quick in his movements; being engaged in his three branches of work, he would fill his mill hopper with grain, and start the mill; then run to the saw-mill, adjust a log, and start the saw; then on a double-quick get to the forge, and commence to hammer out a bloom or a bar of iron. Besides these occupations, he was chorister, sexton and deacon for the congregation; represented the church in presbytery, and looked after supplies when no regular minister was present. Yet, while he was so lively in most things, his singing must have dragged "its slow length along," to the disgust of some part of the congregation, because we are told that some new comers in the congregation introduced a new method of singing, by discontinuing the reading of lines. This was about the year 1786, while the Rev. Daniel Baldwin was pastor. Mr. Beaman was very much disgusted with this innovation. This new method of singing was introduced by Benjamin Jackson, and, although opposed by Beaman, he finally yielded "for the peace of the church." Later subscription papers show that he was among its liberal supporters for nearly fifty years. It is said that he was buried in the graveyard belonging to the church; but no stone now marks his grave. He died about 1803. He was the grandfather of Hubbard S. Stickle, to whom further reference will be made. One of his residences was the old Berry house near the Mt. Hope iron ore dock, at the west end of the village. His wife was Mary Stanburrough. The children were Josiah, Samuel, Lydia (who married Tommy Conger), Joanna, Sarah (who married George Stickle, father of Hubbard) and Rahama. David Beaman had a brother Josiah, who was a brother-in-law of Gen. Winds and grandfather of the late Thomas Green, of Denville.

William Winds, whose name is on the subscription papers, is known to us as General Winds of Revolutionary fame. He owned a farm on the road from Dover to Morristown, and lived on it for many years. The farm has been divided--part being owned by Robert F. Oram and part by Thomas Oram. General Winds was a prominent man, both in matters of church and State--a true Christian, patriotic and liberal.

John Huntington, another signer of these papers, resided about a mile south from the union school-house in this township, and was engaged as a workman in connection with the forges of Colonel Jacob Ford at Ninkie and Shongun. When he died he left a good name and example.

Obadiah Lum, or Deacon Lum, as he was more familiarly called, is on the second paper. His name appears on all the subsequent subscription papers of the church for several years. He lived in Franklin, on part of the farm now owned by John O. Hill, below the Palmer House.

Another name closely connected with the early history of the church is that of Jacob Allerton, also a deacon, although his name does not appear among those who were considered the founders of the church. From the records of the church it appears that he was considered a prominent man, and for many years filled the office of ruling elder in a sincere, consistent and Christian manner. His residence was at Denville, on the property lately owned by Thomas Green. It is said of him that he was very conscientious and truthful; in the government of his children he did not spare the rod, yet he always deferred the punishment until after the excitement of the occasion had passed away.

In those days the elders took part in the church services, and were always in their seats under the pulpit; of the four above named Deacon Beaman led in singing, Deacon Huntington and the others alternating in the reading of the psalm line by line, as the singing was done.

It is not known who first began the labor of preaching the gospel in the Rockaway parish, nor the time; but it is probable that Rev. Timothy Johnes, pastor of the Presbyterian church at Morristown, and the Rev. Jacob Green, pastor of the Hanover church, preached there occasionally before the church was organized. Abner Beach and Job Allen were members of the Morristown church, and in all probability were interested in having Mr. Johnes preach at Rockaway.

The efforts of the congregation to secure the privileges of a church building were not successful at first. The subscription before given amounted to nearly 200; a loan of 100 from Colonel Jacob Ford sen., of Morristown, gave the society sufficient funds to erect a frame church in 1759, and in 1760 it was inclosed and the floors laid. There was no ceiling, plastering, stove or fireplace, and the only seats were planks supported on blocks of wood.

On the 24th of August 1762 Benjamin Prudden conveyed to Willis Pierson, Job Allen and Obadiah Lum, as trustees, "for the use and benefit of the Presbyterian church of Roccaway," "ten acres and thirty perch" of land, which is the old church lot.

On the 2nd of March 1758, when the first subscription paper was made, the people recorded their desire to "joyn with pasipaney to call and settel a minnester," and ten years later this desire was realized in the settlement of the Rev. James Tuttle jr. as the first pastor of the church. This was in April 1768, at which time he was installed pastor of the Rockaway and Parsippany churches. The congregation appointed five persons to represent the church at the installation and receive the minister, namely: William Winds, Obadiah Lum, Jacob Allerton, David Beaman and Benjamin Prudden.

Mr. Tuttle remained pastor of the church for two years and seven months, at which time he died, in the 29th year of his age, and was buried at Hanover. He was a son-in-law of Rev. Jacob Green, the pastor of the Hanover church, and brother of Moses Tuttle, an old resident of Mount Pleasant and an influential man in the Rockaway parish. The parsonage was on the "Tom Mann lot," near the lot and residence of Mr. Cortright. Some time prior to this Lord Stirling gave the parish one hundred acres of land within one mile of the church, for parsonage purposes. Mr. Tuttle's salary was 60 for one half of his time, which was raised by an assessment on the property of the members of the parish and a tax according to the assessment, for the collection of which regular appointments from the parish were made. This method continued until 1801.

The church remained without a pastor over thirteen years, during which time the war of the Revolution intervened, and of course the community was in uncertainty and confusion. At this time pastors were scarce, and as the field was not a very inviting one the church was unable to secure regular preaching.

Rev. Timothy Johnes, of Morristown, preached April 15th 1770; Rev. Mr. Lewis, of Mendham, in October 1770; Rev. Mr. Chapman, of Orange, in January 1771; Rev. Mr. Horton, of Bottle Hill, April 9th 1771; Rev. Mr. Kennedy, of Basking Ridge, July 11th 1771; Rev. Mr. Simpson, July 25th 1771. Mr. Simpson preached twelve Sabbaths during the year 1772. Rev. Matthias Burnet preached three times in 1773. The church had made calls to Mr. Simpson and Mr. Burnet to become its regular pastor. Each call was declined.

There were several temporary engagements with ministers, for six months or shorter periods, from this time to February 1784, when the Rev. David Baldwin accepted a call, and was duly installed by the Rev. Jacob Green, of Hanover. The church was then under charge of a Presbyterian association of Morris county, of which Mr. Green was the leader. The salary of Mr. Baldwin was fixed at 80 per year, parsonage and firewood found him. The parsonage was then near the present station of the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad.

The historical manual of the church, published by the Rev. D. E. Platter, on page 10 says:

"Mr. Baldwin was a good man, but a very ordinary preacher. He took charge of the church at a time when its spiritual life was at a very low ebb. The members were few and mostly women, the congregations were small, and there was a widespread laxity of manners and morals. Society was suffering from the demoralization of the long war. In addition to the widespread infidelity of the times, and the general indifference to religion, there was internal dissension, which neutralized, in a large measure, the efforts of the faithful pastor. The trouble arose out of the singing. The custom had long prevailed of reading the psalm line by line while singing--a custom which arose when there were no books for the people to sing out of. David Beaman had long led the singing in the old way. A party, presumably of the young people who had an ear for good music, attempted a change; Beaman and his supporters stoutly resisted young Benjamin Jackson, the new candidate for the honor of chorister, and his party. The matter was compromised at first by allowing Beaman to line out the psalm and sing in the first service, and Jackson to sing without lining in the second service. But this was not the end of the matter. The quarrel smoldered for years, occasionally breaking out with fury. In 1789 feeling ran so high that William Ross and David Beaman resigned their eldership. But, after hindering for a long time the prosperity of the church, the matter was finally settled in 1792 in favor of the new and better way. During his ministry Mr. Baldwin purchased a farm on the south side of the Denville road, near Savage Corner, and, moving upon it, supplemented his meager salary by the pursuit of agriculture, dividing his time between his crops and his sermons."

The church was regularly incorporated on the 6th of March 1787, when William Winds, Stephen Jackson, Abraham Kitchel, Benjamin Beach, Job Allen, David Beaman and David Baker were elected "the trustees of the first Presbyterian Congregation at Rockaway, in the county of Morris."

On the 14th of May 1792 it was voted to extend to Rev. John J. Carle an invitation to supply the pulpit six months, which on the 18th of June 1792 was made into a call to become the pastor of the church. The call was accepted, and in January 1793 he was duly installed. His ordination is said to have been the first ever witnessed in Rockaway. Mr. Carle soon put new life and energy into the temporal and spiritual concerns of the church, and the people commenced an improvement in the church building, by putting on a ceiling, constructing galleries, and in many respects making it more comfortable.

The first record of elders was made in February 1793, although the office of elder existed prior to that time. The church met at the house of David Beaman, and there were present Rev. Mr. Carle, David Beaman, Job Allen, John Clark, James Farris, William Ross and Samuel Beaman. David Beaman, Job Allen and John Clark were nominated as candidates for the office of ruling elder, and directed to be "propounded the three ensuing Lord's days." David Beaman was nominated at this meeting for deacon.

It appears that the congregation had hard work to keep the salary of Mr. Baldwin paid; on one occasion in 1788 a sale of part of the parsonage lands near the depot was made to pay his salary, and in 1792 the balance was sold, a parsonage lot was procured and a new parsonage built near the present residence of Henry B. Palmer at Franklin. The building which Mr. Palmer removed about four years ago to make room for his new house was the parsonage. Mr. Carle did not live in the new parsonage very long, but purchased a house of his own in Rockaway, and moved there, and in 1795 the parsonage was sold to Dr. Ebenezer H. Pierson for $1,100. After Mr. Carle moved in to his own house his salary was raised from 100 per year to 180 "and to find himself in firewood." Mr. Carle's usefulness was very much weakened by his indulgence in intoxicating drinks, which became so frequent and open that he was released from his duties in the spring of 1801. He died about 1808, and is buried at Basking Ridge.

Six years later the Rev. Barnabas King came into the congregation. During these six years there were occasional supplies, who were paid $5 a Sunday for their services. Among these supplies we find the names of Revs. Lemuel Fordham, Mr. Cram, James Richards, Amzi Armstrong, Aaron Condit, Matthias Burnet and Mr. Keys. It is said that at this time the moral condition of the community was at a very low ebb, and that Deacon John Clark was the only of prayer in the congregation.

In October 1807 Rev. Barnabas King was installed pastor, and for 55 years thereafter, until the 10th of April 1862, the time of his death, a steady work of growth and grace was kept up in the congregation. There are many persons now living who can testify to his faithful preparation for the pulpit and all the duties of his position as pastor to a large and scattered congregation, which extended over a territory at least ten miles in diameter. Soon after his charge commenced the people began a fresh effort at repairs to the church, and November 5th 1821 it was resolved "that Joseph Jackson have leave to remove the canopy over the pulpit and lower the breastwork in front as low as Mr. King shall direct, and all to be done at his expense."

In 1768 a resolution had been passed "that a stove be allowed, and that if it may be found parnitious that then on Complaint that it may be so parnitious by any one ['supposed to be a person of sense' erased] that then, in such case, it may be removed from thence by a future meeting, if proper." But no plan for warming the church was carried out until 1820, when a large stove was purchased from McQueen & Co., of Mount Hope, and put up in the church, with the stovepipe running out of the window.

November 1st 1830 it was resolved to build a new meeting-house. The farm of General Winds, having been devised to the church, was sold about this time, and the proceeds paid into the treasury. The "new meeting-house" is the brick structure now standing, and was dedicated in 1832. The old church was on the small elevation about fifty feet back of the new one.

In September 1847 Rev. Joseph F. Tuttle, who was a son-in-law of the Rev. Mr. King, was called as his assistant or colleague, and on the 26th of April 1848 was regularly installed as such. The larger part of the work of the church fell upon Mr. Tuttle, although Mr. King preached frequently. The work of Dr. Tuttle speaks for itself. His people were attached to him, both old and young, and no one in the congregation wished him to resign his charge, which he did formally in April 1862. He had declined several calls to larger and more lucrative fields of labor, and his work of fifteen years at Rockaway was finally ended by a pressing invitation to accept the presidency of Wabash College. This change in his field of labor was due partly to the death of his father-in-law, Rev. Mr. King, who died at his post in April 1862.

In the biography of Rev. Dr. Finley, page 95, mention is made of Rev. Barnabas King, of Rockaway, N. J., as being one of a number of the brethren in the synod of New York and New Jersey who had expressed themselves upon the subject of universal emancipation, and had been agitating the matter in 1807 and 1812.

On the 8th of July 1862 Rev. Samuel P. Halsey was ordained and installed as pastor of the church, at a salary of $600 per annum, which in September 1864 was raised to $1,000. On the 17th of January 1865 his relation to the church was dissolved at his request, that he might take charge of a church at Stamford, Conn.

The Rev. William E. Honeyman was employed as stated supply on the 11th of April 1865, and remained until the 1st of April 1866. Up to the time of Mr. Honeyman's coming "Watts's Select Hymns" had been used, the choir selecting the tunes, but not after the Deacon Beaman style. Mr. Honeyman improved the singing by the introduction of the "Songs of the Sanctuary."

On the 7th of March 1867 the Rev. O. H. Perry Deyo was called. He was pastor until the 20th of October 1872. During his pastorate several improvements were made to the church property, including a new slate roof to the church, painting, partial new seating, lowering the galleries, erecting the present parsonage, and grading and improving the grounds, at a total expense of about $8,000.

On the 14th of April 1874 the Rev. David E. Platter accepted a call to become pastor, and remained an efficient and acceptable worker until February 1881, when he left to take charge of the Presbyterian church at Canton, Ohio.

The interval between Mr. Deyo's and Mr. Platter's pastorates was filled principally by the Rev. O. S. St. John, of the New York Witness, and the Rev. Pearce Rodgers, of Mine Hill.

On the 12th of June 1881 Rev. J. O. Averill, of Flushing, L. I., was called to this church; on the 19th of the same month he accepted the call, and he is now in charge of the congregation as its pastor.

MT. HOPE BAPTIST CHURCH.

The next oldest church erected in the bounds of this township appears to have been a Baptist church, a log structure which stood a short distance north of Mt. Hope. The information about this church comes from Agnes Walton, a maiden lady of 88 years, who resides on the "Walton farm" between Mt. Hope and Middle forge; and from Michael Dolan, residing in the same neighborhood. Miss Walton recollects seeing the church many times when she was a child, but does not remember when it was taken down or disappeared. She remembers her father, Reuben Walton, going to this church. It stood on the northeast corner of the crossroads on the hill north of Mt. Hope, where the Middle Forge road leaves the Denmark road. The old road bed at this point is seen a short distance to the east of the present road; and from the best information the church it is thought must have stood in the cleared field east of the crossroads. A graveyard was by the church, but at present no indications can be seen of either.

There are other circumstances besides the memory of Miss Walton which point very strongly to the belief that a Baptist church was there. Miss Walton's grandfather, John Walton, lived on the Walton farm, and had a son John, who was a Baptist minister and who died in 1770, while pastor of the Baptist church at Morristown. Old John Walton was a strong Baptist, and had used every exertion within his limited means to prepare his son John for the ministry of that church. The son was the second minister over the Morristown Baptist church, from 1765 to 1770, the time of his death. The name of Rev. John Walton appears several times in the book of "Minutes of the Philadelphia Baptist Association from 1707 to 1807," which was shown to us by Samuel H.Hunt, of Newton, whose library of over 2,000 volumes abounds in rare and valuable books. On page 115 an entry in the minutes reads as follows: "We feel chastisement from Heaven by the death of our beloved brother Rev. John Walton, and pray that God will not suffer that church with whom he resided to be like sheep without a shepherd." This entry was made at the October meeting, 1770. Mr. Walton is buried in the Baptist church yard at Morristown. The Mt. Hope Baptist church is the only one that was ever erected in the bounds of this township.

METHODIST CHURCHES.

The center of Methodism in Morris county was at Flanders, in Roxbury township. The society there was the first in East Jersey to erect a church, which is supposed to have been built in 1785, under the leadership of David Moore, who was born in Morristown, N. J., November 25th 1749. Prior to 1771 there were not over fifty Methodists in all New Jersey. Bishop Asbury arrived in Philadelphia in that year, and in his journal (Vol. III, page 121) says, "In 1771 there were about 250 Methodists in Philadelphia, and 300 in New York, and a few in New Jersey." The next circuit formed after Flanders was the Chatham circuit, and between Flanders and Chatham there is no doubt that itinerant preachers of that society had visited Rockaway some time prior to 1810, and held preaching services from house to house wherever the door was opened to them.

The Methodist society was early in this field with its preachers, and no doubt good Bishop Asbury was among the pioneers to establish preaching services in our bounds.

The Oldest Methodist Church organization in the township is that of the Rockaway Valley Methodist Episcopal church, which is now the Denville church. In Book A of Religious Societies, in the Morris county records, page 29, is a record as follows: "We, Benjamin Lum, Samuel K. Wilson and John P. Cook, appointed by the Methodist Episcopal church in Rockaway Valley, having been sworn as the 5th Sec. of the law to incorporate religious societies, passed the 13th of June 1799, do certify that we have taken to ourselves the name, style and title of the `Methodist Episcopal Church in Rockaway Valley.'" This record is dated the 23d and was entered the 25th day of January 1810.

The society at this time or in a year or so afterward had a church erected, and a regular minister. The church building stood about a mile below Denville, on the left side of the road leading past the Catholic Protectory to Boonton, at a place known as Cook's Corner. It was a small building and was called "Cook's church," in all probability after the man who built it, as a deed is recorded from widow Mary Cook, John P. Cook and Mary his wife, of Hanover, to the trustees of the Methodist church, for a quarter of an acre of land. The deed is dated January 13th 1825. This was nearly twenty years after the congregation was formed.

On the 1st of April 1841 William Hiler, of Denville, made a deed to the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal church at Denville (William E. Hinchman, Jacob Peer, Stephen Dickerson, Eliakim Anderson, Samuel D. Wood, Charles H. Gardner and James N. Clark) for a lot there. In April of the same year the trustees of the church resolved to take down the church building on the Cook lot and move it to the Hiler lot, near the school-house in Denville. This was done and the new church was rededicated.

It appears that the trustees of the new church had no knowledge of the act of incorporation of January 25th 1810, and on the 23d of February 1880 Joseph A. Righter, Joseph Hinchman, J. D. Cooper, Edward C. Peer and Stephen Dickerson associated themselves into a church as the "Methodist Episcopal Church at Denville;" or, if the former organization was known to the society, they may have taken it to be the church at Rockaway Valley, near Powerville, which was then called the "Methodist Episcopal Church at Rockaway Valley." At all events the fact was discovered that there were two acts of incorporation for the same church organization, and two names. To remedy the confusion to which this would lead, a very elaborate and comprehensive resolution was passed by the Denville society in January 1880, accepting the latter incorporate name, and confirming all that had been done by the trustees.

Prior to this a deed had been given by John Hinchman and Mary his wife to "the Methodist Episcopal church and the trustees thereof, for the time being and their successors in office, of the village of Denville, in the county of Morris and State of New Jersey" for a parsonage lot.

The known membership of the Denville and Rockaway Valley churches is given in the minutes of the Newark conference at 103. The Rev. Mr. Chamberlain is the present minister.

Joseph Casterline, formerly Joseph Casterline jr., who resides on the old turnpike between Rockaway and Mt. Pleasant, and from whom many interesting facts have been gathered, recollects going to meetings in "Cook's church" in 1812. It was a small frame building, and quite an old structure at that early day--the oldest and in fact the only church in the neighborhood, except the Rockaway and Whippany churches--and he recollects its being moved up to Denville. His first church membership was with this old society. Some of its early preachers were Rev. Messrs. Kennard, Long, Kennedy, McCombs, Page, Atwood and Wenner. He was at this time living at Rockaway in the employ of Colonel Joseph Jackson. Job Allen owned and lived on the Glover farm, now the Catholic Protectory farm.

The Methodist Church in Rockaway was incorporated the 20th of April 1833. David Stickle, James Eakley, David Cole, Abraham L. Clark and Joseph Casterline jr. were the trustees at the time. The first church building was erected in the fall of 1833, on the spot now occupied by the building which was erected about ten years ago. Mr. Casterline in 1833 was living near the union school-house, and was called on by Rev. James Ayres, who was the presiding elder for this circuit, to get a meeting together for the purpose of forming the Rockaway Methodist church. Mr. Casterline took hold of the work and the result was the organization of the church. The first minister in charge was Rev. Mr. Shepherd. Among his successors were the Rev. Messrs. Dunn, Downes, Hewes, Paul, Wilson and Wyath and others, whose names are not remembered.

The land on which the church was built was donated by Joseph Righter, a resident of Rockaway. The membership of this church is given at 161. Rev. Mr. Conklin is the present pastor.

The next church of the Methodist denomination was that of Rockaway Valley, which stands on the road leading from the homestead farm of the late William M. Dixon to Powerville. The society was incorporated on the 5th of June 1842, under the name of "the Trustees of the Methodist Episcopal Church at Rockaway Valley," with John Decker, Jacob Van Winkle, William M. Dixon and Caleb W. Edwards as trustees. The preaching services are under the charge of the pastor of the Denville M. E. church.

Miners' Churches.--A Methodist church was built in February 1873, a short distance east of the Welsh church, for the Allen and Teabo mine families, on land given by the New Jersey Iron Mining Company. The title for the church lot is held by the Andover Iron Company. Its cost was about $1,000. This church was burned about a year after its erection, and was rebuilt on the same spot in 1874 with the insurance money of the first building. H. O. Van Nostrand, of New York, donated the organ for this church. Teabo and Port Oram together report a membership of 145. This society is now under the charge of the Methodist pastor at Port Oram, who has a preaching appointment for it once a month.

In 1870 the Mount Hope Iron Mining Company erected a church at Mount Hope, for the benefit of any society of Christians that might desire to worship in it The Methodist society, being much more numerous than others in that locality, has used it regularly since its erection, and now has a minister of its own. The present pastor is the Rev. C. W. McCormick, son of the Rev. W. H. McCormick, of the Second Methodist Episcopal Church of Dover.

The title to the church lot is in the Mt. Hope Company. The basement of the church edifice is used for school purposes. The society reports a membership of 68.

On the 26th of October 1869 a Methodist Episcopal church at Hibernia was dedicated. It was built with funds contributed chiefly by the Andover Iron Company, the Glendon Iron Company, the mercantile firm of Richards, Beach & Co., of Hibernia, Adolph C. Poppenhusen, of New York city, Richards & Tippets, Hon. C. Beach and others; it cost about $8,100. The church lot was donated by Mr. Beach, and is held by the Andover Iron Company. The first trustees were elected May 20th 1871, and were C. Beach, H. Lumsden, M. Prisk, W. Polland, M. S. Hiler, T. H. Whitford and W. Hanschka.

In the spring of 1871 a parsonage was erected at a cost of $2,200. The mining companies of Hibernia above named, together with several members and friends of the society, joined in defraying the expense. The house was furnished at a cost of $325, and the parsonage library was added. The library contains the "Comprehensive Commentary," presented by Mrs. Dr. Beach.

The pastors have been as follows: In 1868, J. W. Folsom; 1869-71, George Miller; 1871-74, A. M. Harris; 1874,1875, W. S. Galloway; 1875, 1876, A. H. Bekes; 1876, W. C. Buckman; 1877-80, A. S. Hiller; 1880, 1881, J. W. Barritt; 1881, G. T. Jackson, the present pastor. This society reports a membership of 86.

Other Methodist Enterprises.--In 1852 a Methodist class of forty members was formed at Greenville, by the Rev. Mr. Cross, a member of the Newark Conference. In 1861 Greenville was made a preaching appointment, and it is now under the charge of the Hibernia church. No church building has been erected, and all church services are held in the school-house.

At Lyonsville school-house also the Methodist society has been holding preaching services.

The most successful religious enterprise of the township has been the Denville Camp Meeting Association, which commenced in 1870 by purchasing, for $10,000, the homestead farm of Stephen Dickerson, near Denville, a part of which was laid out in avenues and plats and opened for camp meetings of the Methodist church. It is now a handsome village in a splendid grove of timber, and a popular resort for families during the summer season. Lot owners have leasehold titles, with all the necessary restrictions for good government and the police arrangements of a city.

WELSH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

In May 1857 Welsh services were commenced at the Richards mines between Mt. Pleasant and Mt. Hope, and a nucleus for a church was formed, services being held at Mine Hill and Mt. Pleasant every other Sunday, under charge of the Rev. John R. Jenkins, a Welsh minister, who was also connected with one of the mining companies. Soon after this Mr. Jenkins went to Ohio and remained there eight months. In the meantime the members joined with the Presbyterian church at Dover, but on the return of Mr. Jenkins he commenced to preach for the Welsh people at the Richards mines. In 1863 this society built the frame church edifice now standing near the Richards mines, at a cost of $1,200. The land is owned by the Thomas Iron Company, of Pennsylvania.

In October 1863 the Rev. William Roberts, D. D., of New York, and Rev. E. B. Evence, of Hyde Park, Pa., preached the sermons at the dedication of the church. This church was a branch of the Dover Presbyterian church and came under the care of Morris Presbytery. In October 1869 the Dover church and the presbytery decided that it should be called the "Welsh Presbyterian Church of Richards Mines."

The Rev. John R. Jenkins was ordained pastor of this church November 2nd 1869, and at the same time Richard Jenkins, John Bellis and Morgan Jenkins were ordained elders. The death of John R. Jenkins, which occurred in January 1876, left the congregation without a pastor, and no one has succeeded him. Preaching services are held occasionally by the pastor of the Dover Presbyterian church. The church is out of debt.

ROMAN CATHOLIC INSTITUTIONS.

On the 29th of September 1875 St. Bernard's Roman Catholic Church of Mount Hope was duly incorporated, with Rev. Michael J. Connelly pastor, and John Burke and John Finnegan lay members of the church. About 1840 the Roman Catholic society built a church on a lot donated by Barnabas Galliger, on the corner of the Mount Hope and Mount Pleasant roads, near Michael Galligan's. The land was donated for the uses of a Roman Catholic church only, but after the church had been erected it was also used for a school. This being a violation of the terms of the deed Mr. Galliger brought an action of ejectment, and recovered possession of the land and building. This church was very soon afterward destroyed by fire, and another was erected by St. Bernard's parish, near the Teabo mine, on the road leading by Matthew Kerney's; it was called the Mount Hope Roman Catholic Church.

St. Bernard's parish has within a very short time purchased the hall of the Mount Hope Temperance Society, at Middletown, on the Mount Hope and Rockaway road, and also a lot of land of John Snyder at the same place, and erected thereon an expensive parsonage and school-house (the school under charge of the Sisters of Charity), which was completed and consecrated on Christmas day 1880. The grounds are large and commodious, with fine buildings and improvements.

Father McGann is the present pastor. This parish is now agitating the subject of a new and substantial church, of brick, at Mount Hope, in place of the small frame building now used by St. Bernard's society.

About 1865 a Roman Catholic church known as St. Patrick's was erected at Hibernia, or rather at Upper Hibernia; and about 1876 a similar church, designated as St. Cecelia's, was built at Rockaway, near the Righter pond. The former belongs to the Roman Catholic parish of Boonton, and the latter to that of the protectory at Denville.

The last named institution is located on the property known as the Glover farm, near Denville (once occupied by Job Allen, as before stated), and is under the care of the diocese of Newark, N. J. It has been in existence since 1871, and is one of the charitable institutions of the Roman Catholic church. The Glover farm is worked in the interest of the protectory, by those who are under its care.

GRAVEYARDS.

Rockaway township has several burying grounds, both public and private. The principal public ground is the Rockaway cemetery, connected with the Rockaway Presbyterian church, and its history is that of the church. The land title is the same as that of the church proper, and the ground contains about 13 acres. The location is all that could be desired in a cemetery--convenient, retired, undulating, with glens and r vines to break the sameness, and forest trees and shrubbery to ornament it; and dry graveled avenues and suitable lot enclosures have been constructed. A stroll through these ample grounds will disclose many time-worn headstones, with inscriptions entirely effaced, or so dim with age that a stranger cannot ascertain the occupant of the grave. Although among the oldest, yet the slab which marks the resting place of Gen. William Winds is very distinct in its lettering, and in a good state of preservation. It is composed of red sandstone, and bears this inscription: " Gen. Wm. Winds, died Oct. 12 1789, in the 62d year of age."

Besides the graveyard at the place where the Baptist church at the Mt. Hope crossroads formerly stood, as before mentioned, we find a burying ground known as the "Walton yard," a short distance north of the Baptist ground, and to the right of the road from Mt. Hope to Berkshire Valley, which undoubtedly has been used for over a hundred years. There is no enclosure at present, and it is used by the old families in the neighborhood. A few scattering headstones mark the graves, some of them having inscriptions, but many without, and nothing to designate a grave except the rough mountain stone of the locality. The headstone of one of the early settlers in this neighborhood is plainly distinguished by this inscription: "John Walton, died July 30 1787, 87 years of age." He was the grandfather of Agnes Walton, and father of Rev. John Walton. The grave of his wife, Anne, who died August 20th 1791, aged 73 years, is by that of her husband. Peter Doland, father of Michael Doland, and his wife Elizabeth are buried in this yard; the latter died in 1852, aged 97 years.

There were several graveyards in Rockaway Valley or adjoining localities besides the public cemetery at the Methodist Episcopal church. The Martin Hiler place contains many old headstones, yet to be seen close by the upper road. This was first used over one hundred years ago, judging from statements made by David Smith, of Greenville. Martin Hiler was the great-great-grandfather of Mr. Smith on his mother side, and Mr. Smith is now 84 years of age. He also speaks of a graveyard on the Scott place between Denville and Powerville, evidences of which still remain; one on the Demouth road, near Stony Brook, and one on the John P. Cook place, near where the "Cook" church stood. The Cook graveyard is the principal one for Denville.

Another very old burial place exists on the Alexander Egbert farm (now on the Cobb farm), on the road from Hibernia to Green Pond, better known as "Egbert's Corner." It is unenclosed, in an open field, and contains over fifty graves. There is no deed for the site. It is kept up by two or three old families in the neighborhood.

The "Winters" burying ground is about half a mile south of the Greenville school-house, and is an old one, the Winters family being among the very early settlers; it is unenclosed. The land is now owned by A. B. Cobb's estate. An occasional interment is made here, among the last of which was Peter D. Henderson, an old resident. There is no charge for lots; the friends prepare the ground by clearing off the brush, stones, etc., and open the grave. The "Zeek" graveyard near Greenville is also in the same open condition.

The "Cuff" burying ground is on lands owned by Theodore Brown, near Newfoundland. It is one of the oldest, judging from the date of an old stone house, given on a stone over the door as 1773.

There is a burying ground--not used at present--at Hibernia, near the Green Pond Road, on lands belonging to the Barton farm. St. Patrick's cemetery at Hibernia adjoins the Catholic church, and was consecrated for its purpose about seven years ago.

At the Durham forge, between Greenville and Charlotteburgh, a plat of ground was formerly used for a burying place, and also one on the old Shawger farm, on the road from Michael De Graw's to Green Pond.

On the farm of John O. Hill, at Franklin, a family graveyard exists; although it was originally private, interments have been made for persons outside of the Hill family, by the courtesy of Mr. Hill.

The "Harriman" graveyard is used by the public, and is an old location, a short distance east of William Lathrop's farm, between Rockaway and Denville.

The cemetery of St. Cecelia, at Rockaway on the road to Mt. Hope, was first opened for interments by the Catholic church at the time the church of St. Cecelia was erected at this place.

ROADS AND BRIDGES.

Nearly all the present roads in the township were originally bridle paths or by-roads, and in many localities, being in a rough, hilly and broken territory, were not susceptible of any great degree of improvement. Even now some of the oldest mountain roads are in use by the public, but not laid out, or under the township authorities.

The first road record in the county is in Book A of Roads, page 9, and refers to a public road from Rockaway to Dover. It will be interesting to give the return of the road entire, as follows:

"We the commissioners of Morris county, being legally called and mett, have agred and laid out a three rod road, and beginning at Rockaway Meeting House, and then Running just to the west of David Beaman's Meadow, strat to William Jackson's house; thence to kep along the cleared road until it coms near to a Hill; then to turn to the right hand of Said road, to continue a strait to the head of the Hollow, leaving the Hills upon the right hand; then down into the hollow to a white oak tree, upon the right hand; then to continue a straight corse, just to the west of the low land in Amos Lindsley field; thence to Continue a Straight Course down to the Riding place in Rockaway River near William Ross's; then to keep its Cors to the grate Causeway that is on the King's Road in Captain Wind's land, near the East Side of his field that adjoins to his house. The above road is all laid out in Morris county and in Pequannock and Mendham townships, as witness our hands this 16th day of September Anno Dom. 1761: William Winds, Peter Young, Ichabod Case, Jacob Gould, Hartshorn Fitz-Randolph, Nathaniel Horton."

"David Beaman's meadow," referred to in this record, is now the Halsey meadow, near the race-course; "William Jackson's house" was near the Wiggins house, by the canal; "William Ross's" is now the John Dickerson place. The house of Captain Winds stood at the west end of the site of the lower barn of R. F. Oram, on the Winds farm, on the north side of the road from Dover to Morristown, referred to as "the King's road." The Winds well is to be seen there at this time.

Surveyors were appointed by the court to lay out a public road from Hibernia to Newfoundland, on the 5th of October 1803, and made their return on the 26th of October 1804, over a year after the proceedings to lay the road were commenced. This road began on a course S 5 W 290 from Hibernia furnace stack, in the old road, and continued to George Shawger's dwelling house. This is the road leading from Hibernia, by the Barton and Scott farms, Egbert's Corner and the Shawger house, over the Green Pond Mountain, by the hotel of James L. Davenport, to Newfoundland. The Shawger dwelling is standing on the farm of Frederick Mathews, and is pointed out as the large log house on the left side of the road after leaving Egbert's Corner, toward the Mathews house. George Shawger was a German, and one of the first settlers in that part of the township. Tradition says the log house is over a hundred years old, and to appearance it looks good for another century. It is not occupied at this time.

In a survey of a lot of land on Green Pond Mountain made August 12th 1793 (Book S 10, p. 240) one of the courses is described as beginning at a small white oak tree "standing 1 chain, 55 links northwest from where the path leading from Newfoundland over the Green Pond Mountain by the edge of the pond crosseth a brook at the outlet of a bog meadow." This path is no doubt the public road crossing the mountain from Newfoundland.

The road leading from Rockaway to Hibernia followed the present road bed until it came to the David Beaman house, east of the homestead farm of the late Hubbard S. Stickle, where the present road to the White Meadow mine leaves the Hibernia road; from which point it followed the mine road some distance and kept to the rear of the Beaman house, through the woods, and came out on the Hibernia road north of the barn on the farm of Dr. Columbus Beach, at Beach Glen. Benjamin Beach, the grandfather of Dr. Beach and Samuel S. Beach, was in 1780 living at Beach Glen, operating a forge, a gristmill, a farm and other business enterprises, and was using his influence to get a shorter and better road from Beach Glen to Rockaway. He made many efforts to open a road over the present road bed from the Beaman house to the Glen; but was vigorously opposed by the owner of the land and others (among whom were James and Matthias Kitchel), on the score of expense and taxes. Mr. Beach offered to build the road, and went so far as to agree to purchase a right of way for the road and open it, and give it to the township; but failing in all these plans, finally purchased the Beaman farm and opened the road. David Beaman died about 1800, or before that; he devised his farm to his two children, Samuel and Joanna Beaman, and they in May 1803 conveyed the property to Benjamin Beach, who then opened the road and dedicated it to the public.

Rockaway township lay in the track of public communication with Newark and Sussex county, and several turnpike companies were chartered to construct roads and support them by toll-gates. The first turnpike within the bounds of the township was located by virtue of an act of the Legislature for facilitating communication from Morristown, through Dover and Mount Pleasant, to Sparta, in Sussex county, passed February 23d 1804; this road was afterward built. Elias Ogden, Joseph Hurd, Jacob Losey, Edward Condit and John De Camp were incorporators named in the act, and the corporate name was "The Union Turnpike Company." This company is still operating the road, keeping it in repair and maintaining toll-gates between Dover and Sparta. It was successful for many years and paid large dividends to its stockholders, who were a fortunate few; but the competition of railroads has diverted the travel from that as well as from other like thoroughfares, and it is now barely self-sustaining. No stages have been on the road for several years.

On the 27th of February 1806 an act was passed incorporating Joseph T. Baldwin, Nathaniel Beach, Isaac Pierson, Hiram Smith and Joseph Jackson as a company to be called "The President and Directors of the Newark and Mount Pleasant Turnpike Company," with power to lay out a turnpike road, beginning not more than 12 rods south of Peck's bridge, over Great Meadow Brook near the town of Newark, and running as straight as the nature of the ground permitted to intersect the Union turnpike at or near Mount Pleasant. The road was not to pass through any burying ground, place of worship, or dwelling house, without the consent of the owners. This road was built, but the part from Rockaway to the Union turnpike, which it intersected near the Baker homestead, was not used as a turnpike, and was very soon abandoned. That part as it leaves the village of Rockaway crossed the Morris Canal west of the present Mt. Hope ore docks and is very hilly; and Col. Joseph Jackson, who was one of the corporators, opposed locating the road over these hills and advocated the route around the head of the old pond on the Mt. Hope road and so out to Mt. Pleasant; meeting with vigorous opposition he finally withdrew from the company. This company's charter was surrendered in 1872.

On the 15th of November 1809 the Legislature passed an act to incorporate the Parsippany and Rockaway Turnpike Company. Tobias Boudinot, Israel Crane, Benjamin Smith, Lemuel Cobb, John Hinchman and Joseph Jackson were named as corporators. The road was to begin at James Van Dyne's lands in Morris county, at the end of the branch of the Newark and Pompton turnpike road; thence to run through Parsippany near the meeting-house to the village of Rockaway near the post-office; thence to intersect the Union turnpike where the public convenience and the interest of the stockholders would be best promoted. The corporators were known as the "President and Directors of the Parsippany and Rockaway Turnkpike Company." This turnpike was built through Denville and was of great convenience to the traveling public for many years, but was finally abandoned. A toll-gate was maintained at Denville. In July 1822, on application of Dr. John D. Jackson, of Rockaway, this road was made a township road over its entire length.

The next turnpike road originated from an act to incorporate the "Mount Hope and Longwood Turnpike Company," which was passed on the 11th of February 1815, wherein John De Camp, William Jackson and Lewis Phillips were made the incorporators, and empowered to build a turnpike, not to exceed four rods wide, beginning at the Rockaway and Parsippany turnpike road at or near Rockaway, thence running to Mount Hope and across the Green Pond Mountain, till it intersected the Union turnpike road at or near Berkshire Valley. The parties above named as corporators were required to give security to the governor of the State to pay the subscription moneys which they might receive to the treasurer of the turnpike company. They were to be known by the name of "The President and Directors of the Mount Hope and Longwood Turnpike Company," and were to have their first meeting at the house then kept by Stephen Dickerson in Berkshire Valley. On the 7th of February 1820 a supplement was passed extending the time for completing the road to the first of January 1825, and empowering the company to limit the road bed over the Green Pond Mountain to twenty feet in width, and also in such other places as would not admit of a greater width. This road was constructed as far as Mount Hope, but soon fell into the hands of the town committee. Parts of the old road bed were used in the construction of this turnpike.

Another road built before the Revolutionary war was the one called the Mine road, leading from Hibernia to Charlotteburg, and passing the present residence of Michael De Graw near Greenville.

There were two roads leading from Powerville and Rockaway Valley to Rockaway Village; one by Beach Glen, near the late residence of Dr. Columbus Beach, now residing in Dover, and one by the Matthias Kitchel place, called the Bald Hill road by reason of its going on the top of that hill.

The original roads from Rockaway to Dover were by Franklin and by Swedes mine--the former located nearly the same as now, but the latter turning to the right near the present farm of Charles A. McCarty.

The road from Mt. Hope to Middle forge at the time Colonel Ford, John Jacob Faesch and others were working the forges passed through the Walton farm instead of going to the east of it as it now does. In going from Middle forge to Denmark forge the road led up to the head of the pond, on the southerly side, and then crossed the brook and came out below the Denmark forge dam on the Green Pond side.

The road from Mt. Hope to Denmark lay to the left of the present road after it had passed the house of Michael Doland, and in some places was half a mile from the road bed as now used. The course of this old road can be very plainly traced through Mr. Doland's swamp, not only by the surface indications on the ground, but by the wear of the wagon wheels on the rocks.

As a matter of course the facilities for travel were very rude in the early days in this part of the county; an occasional "gig" was the only light-wheeled vehicle that any of the early settlers indulged in, and this was almost exclusively used by the doctor or the minister. Heavy farm wagons and such as could be used to transport iron ore or manufactured iron through the mountains were the next best conveyance. Traveling on horseback was the most convenient and expeditious.

The construction of roads created another public necessity which came under judicial authority, namely bridges. This branch of road construction was under the care of the justices and the freeholders of the county, and reference to the proceedings of this body, retained in the county clerk's office from 1760 or about that time, shows how the art of building bridges and spending the public money was conducted in those days; one thing is quite certain--there were no extras, nor raising of vouchers, nor favoritism, as in the modern dark ways of building and paying for bridges. The earliest record for Rockaway township is as follows: "1781, March 9th, bridge built across Rockaway River at house of Josiah Beman's, sold to Abraham Osborn; inspected and reported 4 feet short and 1 foot wider than contract, and think it no disadvantage, and order it paid. [Signed] William Windes, Eleazer Lampson. N. B. Our charges for inspection is 2s. 6d. a peace."

May 21st 1782 Abraham Kitchel, William Ross and John Jacob Faesch, justices, and Job Allen and Ebenezer Farrand resolved to build a bridge across the Rockaway River between Stephen Jackson's and Seth Gregory's. The contract specifies the size of timbers and other particulars of the work in detail, and is signed by the above named justices and freeholders. Seth Gregory agreed to build this bridge for 48 proclamation money, valuing a Spanish milled dollar at 7s. 6d. in hard money. The bridge was not built according to the contract, and on the 7th of October 1783 a committee appointed to inspect the bridge (viz., Stephen Jackson, Jacob Drake and Silas Hathaway) deducted 5 on account of timber not being according to contract.

November 2nd 1782 William Ross and Abraham Kitchel as justices, and Job Allen and Anthony Mandeville as two of the freeholders, ordered a bridge to be built over Beaver Brook near Francis McCarty's house. The job was sold to Helmer Kent for 19 10s. Helmer Kent is named as a member of the Rockaway parish in 1782. He died previous to 1802, as appears from a deed given to Benjamin Beach by his daughter Mary Kent in March 1808, for a lot of eight acres on Beaver Brook.

The Francis McCarty place was the late homestead farm of Hubbard S. Stickle, on the road from Rockaway to Beach Glen, and Beaver Brook is the stream coming down from Split Rock Pond, running through the meadows to the east of the said road.

SCHOOLS.

In recording the history of the schools of Rockaway township we will commence with the village of Rockaway, and embrace therein the valuable information procured by E. D. Halsey and published in the "Centennial Collections of Morris County." He says: The first mention we find of a school or school-house in Rockaway village is in a deed given by Jacob Mintun (Miller) to David Beaman for one-half of the grist-mill standing near "Rockaway old Forge," dated October 29th 1774, which describes the lot as "beginning at an elm tree standing on the bank of said river, about eight rods below said mill, and running a westerly course to a corner of Robert Gaston's land, near the school-house." Robert Gaston lived in and owned the house (now an old tenement house) owned by John F. Stickle, and the school-house stood about where now stands the kitchen of Dr. Jackson's house, to make room for which it was removed in 1800. Hubbard S. Stickle, who was born in 1783, recollected the building, but only knew from tradition of its being a school-house. It was a little frame building, used in his day as a sort of lumber room, and occasionally as a tenement house. We find another paper endorsed by Colonel Jackson, "This was the first school ever taught in Rockaway." It is in the handwriting of the teacher, and is as follows:

"The state of a school which has been taught by George Harris, at Rockaway, and ended on the 26th day of April 1784, is as follows: Scholars' names--Elizabeth Jackson, Agnes Jackson, Joseph Jackson, James Jackson, Margaret Jackson, John Jackson, Katherine Smith, Bernard Smith, James Smith, Elizabeth Smith, Elizabeth Wrights, Aaron Wrights, Zebins Williams, Robert Williams, Sarah Leonard, Moses Hoppin, Peter Parcel, William Jackson, Ziba Jackson, Isaac Jackson, Jacob Losey, James Conger, Rhoda Conger, Josiah Hadden, Daniel Hadden, Coon Stroke, Abigail Baker, James Baker. Proprietors--Captain Stephen Jackson, Bernard Smith, Godfrey Wrights, Jonas Williams, Elijah Leonard, Seth Gregory, Edward Jackson, Benjamin Jackson, Captain James Losey, Joseph Conger, Aaron Hadden, Henry Stroke, David Baker."

This paper is beautifully written, and opposite the names are the time and value of the tuition, amounting to 8 2s.9d. From Dr. Tuttle we learn that "Old Harris," as he was called by his pupils, first taught in the school-room by the grist-mill, and afterward in the old school-house on the Glen road. He was very cruel, and on one occasion was run over by the older boys, among whom were Bernard Smith's and Stephen Jackson's boys.

This old school-house on the Beach Glen road was on the hill where William Gustin now lives. Mr. Stickle remembered attending school there to his father, George Stickle, and others. It was a long building, with a chimney at each end, and was torn down about 1812 by William Jackson, to whom it fell in the division of his father's estate. Mr. Stickle's father was teaching school at Rockaway when he became acquainted with Sarah Beaman, whom he married in 1782, and he narrated incidents which occurred while he taught in the old church--showing that that also was used as a school-house.

The next documentary evidence of a school is an agreement with William Harris, signed by him and Stephen Jackson and James Kitchel, June 4th 1804, whereby Harris engages to instruct any number of scholars not exceeding forty in "reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and English grammar, according as they may be capable of learning," during the next six months, for which he was to receive $100 and to be provided with suitable board and lodging.

Of the same date is a subscription paper referring to this agreement, and in it the subscribers promise to pay Mr. Jackson and Mr. Kitchel "two dollars per quarter for every child we have subscribed." The names upon this paper are as follows: Stephen Jackson 4, Benjamin Beach 2, James Kitchel 3, Ashur Lyon 1, Thomas Conger 2, James Hyler 1, James Jackson 2, Tritstum Harriman 1, John Hall 2, William Harriman 1, David Gordon, Frederick Dormeyer 1, Mary Smith 2, Benjamin Jackson 1, William Ketchum 1, Daniel Lewis 2, David Conger 1, Jacob Hellar 2, Henry Berry 1 for one quarter, Francis McCarty 1 for one quarter, Samuel Cummins 1 for one quarter. The school was to be in the "old Rockaway school-house," no doubt the one on the Beach Glen road. On the back of the papers is William Harris's receipt for $100, dated November 24th 1804.

In 1806 or 1807 John Ford--afterward for so many years pastor at Parsippany, then studying for college under Rev. Mr. King and boarding with Colonel Jackson--taught school in the store-house nearly opposite the colonel's, the foundation of which is visible just east of the well.

The next written memorandum is a book which begins with "articles of an agreement for building a school-house in Rockaway and for organizing a school," which is dated January 26th 1813. The house was to be built on the meeting-house lot, to be one story, 8 1/2 feet high, 36 by 18, with a chimney at each end, to be divided into two rooms communicating by folding doors, have whitewood weather boards and oak shingle roof; and, though principally designed for the accommodation of a school, it was to be free for the use of the trustees of the parish or the church session, or any religious meetings of the Presbyterian church at any time, provided they did not interfere with the school; and religious services might be held in it on the Sabbath whenever it should be deemed most convenient. The articles then provided for the appointment of committees, etc., to build the house, for contributions in material, and for the organization of a school after it was built. The school committee was to be chosen annually; the ordained and settled minister of the First Presbyterian congregation at Rockaway to be ex officio chairman of the committee. Three hundred and fifty-nine dollars were subscribed, of which Joseph, William and John D. Jackson each gave $50, H. Berry $20, James Kitchel $12, and Noah Estile, Thomas Conger, Rev. Barnabas King, David Ross, Titus Berry, Francis McCarty and Benjamin Jackson, each $10. March 30th 1813 the subscribers met and appointed Noah Estile, William Jackson, Henry Berry, David Ross and James Kitchel as building committee; and this committee October 11th 1813 made an agreement with David Harriman and Daniel Harriman, carpenters, to build the house by Christmas day for $100, material and mason work to be furnished by the committee; November 9th 1813 an agreement was made with Joel Brown to do the mason work for $50. January 5th 1814 the subscribers met, received the house from the building committee, and voted nem. con. that the Rev. Barnabas King, Joseph Jackson, Ford Kitchel, Thomas Conger and Benjamin Jackson be appointed the school committee for the first year. Thus the old red school-house was built near where the present brick church stands, to give way to which in 1832 it was removed to the other side of the Mt. Hope road, and placed on the present school-house lot, where it stood till torn down in 1853, the present two-story building being then put up in its place. January 14th 1814 the school committee met and voted to engage Jacob P. Stickle to teach the school. He used the rod with a freedom that brought blood even on the backs of his girl pupils. October 10th 1814 John J. Derthick made to the committee the following proposals: To teach at Rockaway reading, arithmetic, writing, English grammer, and geography, "at $1.50 per quarter for those that write and spell, and $1.75 for those that write, study grammar, etc." The price was to be "reconded" for the time that the "schollars" went to school; Mr. Derthick must be boarded by his employers. This proposal was for one quarter at first; whereupon the committee agreed to accept the terms, and voted that the school be organized accordingly. On the 3d of the next month it was resolved that every person who sent to school should deliver at the school-house a quarter of a cord of good sapling wood for each scholar sent to school for each quarter's school from that date until the first day of May next, and have it cut off to a suitable length for the fireplace and piled up; notice of this regulation to be posted at the grist-mill, at the store of Joseph Jackson and the smith shop of Thomas Conger. Mr. Derthick taught until 1820, when he notified the committee that he intended to leave the school, and, Mr. Bishop Davenport having offered stisfactory testimonials of his character and ability to teach, it was agreed to employ him at $1.50 per quarter for reading and spelling, and $2 for arithmetic, geography and grammar, and Mr. Davenport to board himself. In Mr. Davenport's administration a violent scene occured in the school. He forbade the bringing of guns to school, and attempted to whip Cummings McCarty for disobeying. The latter attacked and beat the teacher, in the midst of the cries and the terror of the scholars. Mrs. Tuttle and her sister were both present.

September 22nd 1823 Silas H. Hazard offered himself as teacher and was employed at the same rates as Mr. Davenport for English branches, and $3 per quarter for each scholar instructed in Latin--Mr. Hazard to board himself, and firewood to be furnished by the employers as usual. The directors of the Rockaway school met at the school-house March 4th 1824 and resolved to employ a lady for the six months beginning the first of April following; to teach needlework together with reading, writing, spelling, geography and English grammar, and rhetoric and history if required. Mr. Hazard was to teach the Latin scholars at $3, $4 and $5 per quarter according to their advancement, and Miss Phebe Hazard was engaged at $1 per quarter for primary teaching and $1.50 for all the branches above, except rhetoric and history, which were left to be agreed upon thereafter.

This Mr. Hazard married Miss Delia Beach, daughter of Col. Samuel S. Beach, and died in the ministry out west. On the 19th of September 1825 Miss Phebe Hazard having finished her engagement, Joseph McCord, a graduate of Princeton (class of 1825) offered to take the school and was employed, being allowed to charge for those scholars instructed in Latin and Greek $5 per quarter; in history, geography, spelling and rhetoric, $2; in English grammar $1.75, and in spelling, reading and writing $1.50; he to find his own board and lodging, and the regulations as to wood to remain as previously established.

On the first Monday in November 1827 Cyrus M. Holley was employed, and we find no other record until 1830, when Samuel Bogart, William Jackson and E. B. Gains, school committee of Pequannock township appointed at town meeting, set off school district No. 3, and from that time the school was under State law to a greater or less extent.

About the year 1836 a school-house in the rear of Mr. Kaufman's residence was built, and school was kept there for some years, there being some dissatisfaction with the management of the old district.

In 1838 so much of the school district as then lay in Hanover township was made a separate district, since known as Rockaway, and in 1843 and 1844 the academy was built in it for the accommodation of a public and a select school. This building was private property until 1859, when it was purchased by the district.

Our limits will not permit us to pursue the full particulars of each school in the township, and we are therefore obliged to say generally, that the education of the children of this township in the early part of the present century, although it was not very extensive or ornamental, yet was so superior, when compared with other places in the State, that special mention was made of it in connection with Morris county. In 1828 the Legislature appointed a committee, one of whom was the Hon. Theodore Frelinghuysen, to examine into and report upon the condition of the common schools in the State. This committee reported that Morris county enjoyed the advantages of education more richly than any other in the State, and of the 69 schools then in the county seven were within the bounds of Rockaway township. In many localities children were obliged to go two or two and a half miles to school, and tuition was from $1.50 to $2 per quarter, paid by the patrons of the school. The teachers were generally persons without families and boarded around by the week, in the families sending the most children to school. One of the qualifications for a successful teacher was ability to make pens from goose quills. These pens required daily repairs, or "mending" as it was called, and with the hard rubs of a novice in writing kept the teacher at work every few minutes to keep them in good condition.

We find that in a neighborhood where a school was maintained from seventy to eighty years ago a school is still in operation; and by reason of the growth of population additional schools have been established, so that the present number is twelve.

The first school-house at Greenville stood about a quarter of a mile east of the present school building. It was burned in 1840, and the new building erected three years afterward. After the old building was burned the log house toward Green Pond from Post's blacksmith shop was used as a school-house two or three years.

Before the State law regulating public schools was in force the Greenville people had incorporated themselves into a school, and Greenville has the oldest school incorporation in the township, on record in the county clerk's office. It bears the date December 26th 1826, at which time Samuel M. Henderson, Gideon V. Boss, Christian Winters, Charles Treleaze and John Barton, trustees, took upon themselves the name of the "Trustees of the Greenville School Society of the Township of Pequannock, in the County of Morris," by that name to be forever thereafter known in law.

This was probably under the school law of 1794, or one of its supplements.

Matthias Zeek, who lives on the road from Beach Glen to Rockaway Valley, recollects a school-house standing above Lyonsville, near the Wingit or Farrand place; it was a log structure and stood in the woods. He then lived with Matthias Zeek at Durham forge, about three miles further to the northeast, and went to school in this old school-house over sixty years ago. The present school-house at Lyonsville was built about three years ago and accommodates Meriden and Split Rock.

Mr. Zeek also attended school at the old Beach Glen school-house, on the road from Beach Glen to Meriden. The old building stood on the opposite side of the road from the present one, which was built about 46 or 47 years ago but has been enlarged and improved since then. Miss Euphemia Kitchel, Electa Kitchel and Beaman Kitchel taught school there. At Rockaway Valley a school has been taught since schools were first established in the township, and it is among the oldest in the recollection of the early settlers. Mr. Zeek, one of our informants, attended school here. The original building stood where the present M. E. church is, and was torn down and a new building erected over forty years ago. Alexander Kanouse, of Meriden, now over seventy years of age, went to school in the old school-house at Rockaway Valley long before it was removed from the present church grounds to where it now stands, above Ockebock's, as he called it, or near Dixon's mills. The teachers were all Yankees. Newman Carter, James Curren, Dennis Dixon and Timothy Sarner were among them. As a general thing Yankee teachers had the exclusive charge of schools in many parts of New Jersey from fifty to twenty years ago; but now home talent more than supplies all demands of education.

Judge John L. Kanouse, of Boonton, informs us of a school-house at Powerville, in which he taught in 1832. It was an old log-house at that time and stood where Mrs. Charles Righter now lives. It was formerly the residence of a Mr. Vanhouten, who carried on a tannery near Hopler's mills. Capt. William Scott owned the building and fitted it up for school purposes sufficiently for summer accommodation, but not for winter.

Coming to Denville, we infer that the school at this place is nearly as old as that at Rockaway. Joseph Casterline recollects an old building standing in 1812 where the present building is, or very near it; and in 1815 or 1816, when Mr. Casterline was about 19 years of age, a teacher by the name of Downs taught in the old building. Downs was a clerk at the Mt. Hope furnace which had just been burned, and he took the Denville school for one winter. The building was open and very cold; the large fireplace with its ample supply of logs could not drive out the cold air, and Mr. Downs undertook to supply the lack of heat in the rear end of the room by introducing a large iron pot, cast at the Mt. Hope works, as a charcoal burner. This was a great temptation to the boys to throw bits of paper on the burning coal, to raise a smoke, much to the annoyance of Master Downs. On one occasion the spelling class was arranged on the floor in a row, and young Casterline, who stood close by the fire kettle, dropped on some chips and papers which he had smuggled into class with him; soon the smoke was so dense that the order and comfort of the school were completely destroyed, and Mr. Downs, who was very hasty, lost his temper and left the school. Of course the children went home, and the cause was soon known--also the name of the culprit. Next morning Joseph was sent back to school by his father very early, and found the teacher there ahead of him, engaged in building the fires. After getting many expressions of sorrow from young Casterline for the conduct of the day previous, Mr. Downs opened the school and administered a lecture to the children in general and to young Casterline in particular, in the interest of order and comfort, and then, without reference to his own shortcomings, assumed his usual duties in the school.

Mr. Casterline also attended school in the old red school-house at Rockaway (before referred to) while Jacob P. Stickle and John J. Derthick were teachers--both of whom he recollects very well.

From Joseph J. Ayres, who resides on the road from Dover to Morristown, we learn that he first went to school nearly seventy years ago, in a school-house near Franklin, on the south side of the road, by Henry B. Palmer's present residence. It was an old house then, and was abandoned about 1820, and a stone school-house built in its stead, where the present new school-house stands, south of the Dover and Morristown road in the union district. This stone house was destroyed by fire in 1870, and it is said to have been set on fire by some evil-disposed person. A neat wooden building now occupies the site. The early teachers to whom Mr. Ayres went were Charles Sammis, Daniel Lampson, Sylvanus Hance, Betsey Losey, and one Charles Jackson, who was a relative of the Lampson family. Abijah Conger taught the school occasionally, when the regular teacher was absent or sick, or no teacher was engaged. The children from the Franklin neighborhood went to the Denville school whenever the Franklin school closed. One of the Denville teachers was Anson Brown, who was proprietor of the Denville Hotel at the same time. Brown was very severe in his government of the scholars; on one occasion William Hinchman, one of the boys in the school, fell asleep, which so exasperated Brown that he and Hinchman had a hand-to-hand encounter in the school.

The first school-house at Mount Hope stood on the road leading to Hickory Hill. Agnes Walton says it was built by John Jacob Faesch, and that she went there to school in Faesch's time. After Faesch left Mount Hope Moses Phillips came there and had a new school building erected where the present house stands, near Michael Doland's on the road to Middle forge. Miss Walton went to school there, first to a teacher named Samuel Scriven. In 1824 one George Doland taught in this school-house. He was a brother of Michael Doland of Mount Hope. Robert H. Doland, a nephew of George, was an assistant teacher in this district from 1873 to 1880, and since then he has been principal of the school. This building was torn down and the present one erected about fifty years ago.

At Denmark, at the time the forge was worked by John M. Eddy, a school was organized by him and kept some time for the children living in that locality. There is no school at this time at Denmark. The Mount Hope district embraces it and Middle forge.

Under the State school law all these schools which we have named have become incorporated and numbered, and come under the care of the county superintendent of public schools. The first system of public instruction under the State law was organized in February 1829. On the 11th of June 1830 John Sherman, William Wheeler and Francis Lindsley were incorporated as the "Denville School Association." Mr. Lindsley is the only survivor of the three incorporators, and still resides at Denville.

In April 1836 George Rowland, Jacob Powers, John B. Kelsey, Benoni Whitehead and David Cole were incorporated as "The Trustees of the Rockaway District School-house No. 2," for the promotion of learning.

Prior to November 4th 1857 Rockaway Valley district was known as No. 9, and it must have been incorporated before that time, as we find a record of that date abolishing that district, signed by the trustees, and by J.V.S. Banta as township superintendent.

Rockaway East school district, No. 12, was incorporated April 7th 1859, by William Boyd and Freeman Wood, trustees, and Joseph F. Tuttle, town superintendent.

Union district Nos. 6 and 13, part in Rockaway and part in Randolph, was incorporated May 16th 1860, by Charles J. Lampson, John A. Casterline and Silas S. Palmer, trustees, James H. Neighbour, superintendent of Randolph, and Joseph F. Tuttle, superintendent of Rockaway.

No. 2 (Rockaway) was incorporated July 10th 1851, by Cummings McCarty, Barnabas K. Stickle and John Dickerson, trustees, and John O. Hill, town superintendent. This district was afterward altered by the trustees and town superintendent.

Beach Glen district was incorporated May 4th 1852, by Columbus Beach, Samuel S. Beach jr. and Abraham F. Kitchel, trustees, and Lyman A. Chandler, town superintendent.

The Mt. Pleasant district, No. 1, was incorporated by William F. Wiggins, Sylvester Kyner and Lewis W. Langdon, trustees, and A. D. Berry, town superintendent, on the 5th of May 1853.

There was also an incorporation of the Denville school district, No. 11, on the 24th of May 1854, with John Clark, Conrad Vanderhoof and Chileon Cook trustees, and A. D. Berry town superintendent.

Lyonsville district, No. 6, was incorporated October 9th 1854, by Daniel Lyon, John J. Crane and John U. Hendershot, trustees, and A. D. Berry, town superintendent.

On the 9th of March 1855 the Mt. Hope school district was incorporated as No. 3, by John E. Branin and George E. Righter, trustees, and A. D. Berry, town superintendent.

Greenville district was incorporated under the last law on the 27th of April 1875, by the trustees, Daniel Shawger and Abram Winters, and by Francis L. Davenport, town superintendent, as district No. 7.

Beach Glen district, No. 5, was altered on the 26th of November 1864, and Mt. Hope district on the 11th of March 1865.

On the 20th of March 1867, Hibernia school district, No. 4, was set off by L. W. Richardson, Aaron Van Buskirk and William Henderson, trustees, and F. Wadsworth, town superintendent.

The bounds of these districts are all given in the record of incorporation; but in many instances have been changed by the county superintendent of public schools, who has taken the place of the township superintendent, which latter office has been abolished. Lewis W. Thurber, of Dover, has been county superintendent of public schools several years, and is still holding that position with credit to himself and to the entire satisfaction of the schools, parents and teachers. All schools in the county are now numbered, from 1 upward, and the Rockaway schools at this time are named and numbered as follows: No. 10 Union, 11 Denville, 12 East Rockaway, 13 Rockaway, 14 Mt. Pleasant, 15 Mt. Hope, 16 Lower Hibernia, 17 Beach Glen, 18 Rockaway Valley, 19 Lyonsville, 20 Hibernia, 21 Greenville. Owing to the large number of scholars in districts 13, 14, 15, 16 and 20, a principal and assistant teacher have been employed in each.

At Lower Hibernia over $5,000 was expended in 1880 in a new and commodious school building, fitted up with steam heaters, and it has been under the supervision of J. Seward Lampson, of Dover, as principal since 1875. The new school grounds have been graded and very neatly arranged with walks, grass plats and flower beds--all the work of the children; so that they present an attractive appearance, entirely free from the usual unsightly character of school-house surroundings.

In 1874 the total value of school property in the township was rated at $23,550, and the total number of children between the ages of five and eighteen was 2,155. The average monthly pay of a male teacher was $59.44, and that of a female teacher, $39.74. In 1880 the value of school property was rated at $20,000 (no doubt the result of depressed valuations), and the total number of children was 2,307. The average monthly pay of male teachers was $48.60, and that of female teachers $34.04.

MILLS, DISTILLERIES, ETC.

There were several grist-mills in operation at convenient points in the early days of the township; in fact water power was so abundant that nearly every farm could get up a water supply of its own, and the "old mill" was to be seen a hundred years ago. We have not been able to learn which was the oldest of the many then existing; but at all events, wherever a settlement was made a grist-mill was as necessary as a bake-oven. A whole day was generally occupied in "going to mill," as the customer had to take his turn and wait for the "grist" and take it home the same day.

We find that Moses Tuttle, of Mt. Pleasant, and Isaac Winchill were in partnership in owning a grist-mill at Rockaway prior to 1761; because at that time they built a new dam across the Rockaway River, below the present rolling-mills, for their grist-mill, then already erected, which was located at the Pond Meadow, and is now part of the Halsey property, and used for a wagon house. The present mill property owned by E. D. Halsey was built by his father, Judge Samuel B. Halsey, in 1854 and 1855.

At Powerville the Hopler mill was known prior to 1800, and was located above the present mill. In April 1802 Conrad Hopler sold to Joseph Scott, in consideration of $950,19 acres of land and the mills (grist-mill and saw-mill), and on the 4th of March 1804 Joseph Scott sold one-half of this mill property to Benjamin Beach of Horse Pond, and the other half to his son John Scott. Benjamin Beach was the father of Dr. Columbus Beach, and was a large land-owner in and around Beach Glen, where he had a grist-mill. It stood in front of the present dwelling house on Dr. Beach's farm, and about the only visible evidence of its existence is the pond bed extending up the Glen toward Hibernia. This mill was the most convenient one to that part of the township which lies around Hibernia, Egbert's Corner, Greenville and Meriden.

Martin Hiler built a grist-mill on the small stream east of his house, which is the old stone house on the left side of the road after crossing Peer's lock, toward Powerville. This mill has been out of use nearly fifty years, and nothing now remains of the structure. After Martin died his son Peter Hiler carried on the milling business in the same place.

Aaron Miller owned and operated a grist-mill and saw-mill at Rockaway Valley. He lived in the old stone house where the widow of Cyrus Dixon now lives. This mill was lower down the stream than the present mill, which was built by Cyrus Dixon, and is known as Dixon's mills. The Miller saw-mill stood where the Dixon grist-mill is. Town meetings were held at the Miller residence for many years. Before the town was divided it required two days to vote at the fall elections, and one day was given for the Miller place, and one for Rockaway or Denville. The spring elections were held at Miller's every other year. No ballots were used at the spring election. The moderator mounted a dry goods box, or more frequently a cart, and decided the voting by counting the supporters of the candidates as the two groups stood on the opposite sides of a rail placed on the ground to divide them.

In 1820 Abijah Conger, who was a carpenter, erected a cider-mill and distillery on the north side of the road leading from Dover to Franklin, opposite the new dwelling house of Henry B. Palmer. The mill has gone down and no business has been carried on there for many years past.

A cider-mill and distillery was owned by Matthias Kitchel near Denville, about 1820, and was carried on by him many years. He was assisted by Mr. Glover, then living on the Glover farm near Denville, and was the builder of the large residence on the farm, now used as the Catholic protectory school. Mr. Glover found a market for the product of this distillery in the South principally, and died in one of his visits to that part of the United States. It is related of him that he was very fond of apple whiskey; he would occsionally call on Col. Joseph Jackson at Rockaway, who was a strictly temperate man and opposed to the drinking customs of the day, and on one occasion on leaving--not seeing the favorite beverage--asked the colonel what he should tell his folks he had good to drink, and was told to report indulgence in a drink of Col. Jackson's spring water as the best his hospitality afforded.

John Hinchman, who was first to open a store at Denville, also built a cider distillery west of his store, near the present brick store.

James L. Davenport put up a distillery on his farm at Green Pond a few years ago and is now operating it. Thomas Green's distillery at Denville was erected about 42 years ago, and is the principal one in the township at this time. It is worked by steam power. George Ayres erected one 14 years ago, on the farm of his father, William Ayres, east of Pigeon Hill, which is run by water power. These are the only ones existing in this township.

There were three tanneries: one at Denville, on the north side of the river near the Glover farm, worked by David Hill; one at Rockaway, near the old wheelwright shop of Beach & Son, opposite the Mount Hope ore dump, carried on by Henry Berry, father of Titus Berry, of Dover; and one near Mt. Pleasant, known as the Baker tannery, on the Jeremiah Baker homestead. Mr. Baker commenced his tannery in 1792, and carried it on personally nearly 70 years, when it came into the hands of his two sons, William H. Baker and Henry Baker. Jeremiah Baker died in 1861, aged 91 years.

HOTELS.

One of the first hotels opened in the township was erected in 1790 by Thomas Day, on the spot now occupied by the dwelling of James L. Davenport, at the upper end of Green Pond, and about an eighth of a mile from Mr. Davenport's present hotel. Mr. Davenport, who has kept the hotel many years, informs us that Mr. Day was not successful in his enterprise; in 1832 Enos Davenport, father of our informant, moved into the Day hotel, from Milton, intending to furnish it, but the next year moved back to Milton, owing to the many snakes infesting the premises, which rendered it necessary to keep a lookout wherever one went. Mrs. Davenport encountered in their yard a rattlesnake with nineteen rattles, which she dispatched. In 1833 John Allison, with the assistance of William Scott, opened this hotel. Scott was then working the Hibernia forge and mines, and coaling on several wood jobs in that neighborhood, and his hotel was made headquarters. In 1842 Allison built the Davenport hotel, near the lake, and remained until 1844, when James L. Davenport came there and enlarged it, and from that time to this he has been a popular and successful landlord, known far and near. In the summer of 1881 he enlarged the house and improved it generally, making it able to accommodate at least one hundred boarders. His principal guests are summer boarders, who are attracted there by the pleasant, healthy and retired location.

David Smith, now 84 years of age, residing near Green Pond, says that the Denville Hotel was built by John Hinchman in 1811, and that he assisted in the raising of the framework. The original Denville Hotel was on the site of the residence of the late Stephen B. Cooper; Samuel Ketchum was the first landlord. Company training day was observed there under the old militia law of the State; brigade training was at Dover or Parsippany. A toll-gate was kept across the Parsippany and Rockaway turnpike for several years in front of the hotel. David Menagh was proprietor of this hotel for many years, and was a kind hearted, obliging and popular landlord. He died in April 1871. His widow remained in the hotel until her death, about ten years later.

Moses Tuttle was licensed by the Morris county court, at the December term of 1771, to keep a tavern, and this was in all probability at Mount Pleasant, on a spot very near the present residence of Jesse S. Langdon. The Tuttle house was a long frame building, two stories high, with a porch the entire length, and stood on the east side of the turnpike. At the July term of 1773 Bernard Smith was licensed to keep a tavern at Rockaway. About that time he bought and lived in the Gaston house, nearly opposite the Dr. Jackson house.

The present hotel at Rockaway was not opened until after the Morris Canal was constructed. The first structure stood on the site of the present hotel, and was commenced by William Conger son of Thomas Conger, who with his three sons was a manufacturer of edge tools at Rockaway. William Conger progressed with the hotel as far as the raising of the framework, and then it came into the hands of Joseph C. Righter, who completed it about 52 years ago. The first landlord was Joseph, son of James Jackson, according to one informant; according to another authority a Colonel Reading was the first. David Menagh was proprietor for several years before taking the Denville hotel. Morris McCarty, and after his death his son C. A. McCarty, were successful and popular landlords at this hotel for many years. It was enlarged and improved under the last named gentleman.

SOLDIERS OF THE REVOLUTION.

Rockaway township had many patriots in the war of the Revolution. We have the names of some of them, and there were no doubt many whose names and acts are lost. First among them is General William Winds, of whom mention has been made in a previous part of this history. Jacob Ford jr. was appointed colonel January 13th 1776, and died of pneumonia at Morristown, January 10th 1777. Colonel John Munson, Lieutenant-Colonel Robert Gaston, Captain Stephen Baldwin, Captain Job Allen, Captain Elijah Freeman and Lieutenant-Colonel Benoni Hathaway were from Rockaway. The names of Munson, Gaston and Allen appear on the Rockway church records.

Daniel Dickerson, the grandfather of Stephen Dickerson, of Denville, was a Revolutionary soldier. He lived on the Stephen Dickerson farm, now owned by the Denville Camp Meeting Association, and died in 1830, aged 85 or 86. He was also a soldier in the French war. Besides operating his farm he was a bloomer for John Jacob Faesch at Old Boonton.

James Kitchel was a soldier in the Revolution, and drew a pension as such. He lived on the road leading from Rockaway to Powerville, opposite Hubbard S. Stickle's farm, in a stone house. The walls of the residence are still standing, all the woodwork being destroyed by fire about ten years ago. He was the father of the late Matthias Kitchel. Matthias Zeek says he was very fond of hunting and kept several hounds, and would often bring in a deer from the Hibernia Mountains. He saw him shoot a deer one morning very near the spot where the Hibernia store now stands. Kitchel rode up on a fine gray horse, and, seeing the deer, jumped from the horse and fired; by some unexpected spring of the horse one buckshot went through the horse's neck and the others brought down the deer. James Kitchel died about forty years ago.

Jacob Walton was a Revolutionary soldier. He was an uncle of Agnes Walton, still living and who gave this with other information. He was never heard from after he enlisted and went from home. He was the son of John Walton before named. Such men as the Kitchels, the Condits, the Beaches, the Dickersons, the Howells, the De Harts, the Jacksons, the Tuttles and others of like patriotism came to the country's rescue, and shared in its hardships and glories.

SECRET SOCIETIES.

The oldest society we have any knowledge of is that which was organized during the war of independence. Its name was "The Association of Whigs in Pequannock Township in 1776." It was a committee of safety organized by the freeholders and inhabitants of Pequannock township, and is further spoken of in the history of Pequannock.

Rockaway Lodge, No. 68, Independent Order of Odd Fellows was organized July 22nd 1852, under the act incorporating societies for benevolent and charitable purposes only. Freeman Wood was the first president, Thomas M. Sturtevant vice president, Jacob Powers secretary and treasurer. This is the only local secret society which is regularly incorporated under the laws of the State.

The Ancient Order of Hibernians is a benevolent association at Hibernia, which has been in existence for some time. A similar society was formed at Mount Hope about thirteen years ago. It owned a hall, and was in a flourishing condition for some time, but it being a secret society, and a majority of its members belonging to the Roman Catholic parish, the Catholic church opposed it, on the ground that, if it was not actually inimical to the Roman Catholic church, it was contrary to its spirit; the opposition led to the disbandment of the society, and St. Bernard's church took its property.

The Mount Hope Catholic Benevolent Society came into existence about six years ago, and The Mount Hope Temperance Society about twelve years ago; both are still in operation.

BUSINESS CORPORATIONS.

The Morris Canal, passing through Rockaway, and in fact traversing the whole township, from Powerville on the east to the John Dickerson farm on the west, was the making of Rockaway village. This is admitted by all who knew the place prior to that time. Rockaway was the headquarters of the iron interests of the county. Its rich mineral productions and manufactured iron had a slow and expensive process of getting to market, and at this time Rockaway was in danger of being obliged to abandon one of its most extensive branches of industry for this reason. The canal was constructed as related on previous pages, and about 1830 became the only medium of transporation to and from Newark for all kinds of merchandise, and Rockaway was one of the many places benefited by it.

The next enterprise was the construction of the Morris and Essex (now the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western) Railroad, which in 1848 gave communication to the seaboard by rail.

The Rockaway Manufacturing Company was incorporated on the 15th of February 1837, for the purpose of manufacturing iron, cotton and wool in all their branches, with power to negotiate with the Morris Canal Company for water to run the proposed mills. Joseph Jackson, Stephen J. Jackson and Samuel B. Halsey were the incorporators. Nothing was done toward putting the plan in operation. Not discouraged, however, the same parties, with an addition or two, procured another charter, in the name of Joseph Jackson, Stephen J. Jackson and John Mott as corporators, under a like corporate name, for the purpose of manufacturing iron only; and Joseph Jackson, Samuel B. Halsey, John Mott and Freeman Wood were appointed commissioners to open books and receive subscriptions to the capital stock. This charter was granted on the 14th of February 1843, to continue in force twenty years, and, like its predecessor, the enterprise was permitted to become extinct from neglect.

On the 12th of February 1855 a third company was incorporated under the same name, with Freeman Wood, George Hand Smith, Lyman A. Chandler, Theodore T. Wood and Nathaniel Mott as corporators, for the purpose of making iron and steel at Rockaway. The charter was to continue in force thirty years. This company was in operation several years, and enlarged the rollingmills, expending a large amount of capital; but was not successful, and finally closed the mills, and gave up to its creditors. These were the mills first established by Col. Jackson, but of course with larger facilities for carrying on the iron business in all its branches.

The American Swedes Iron Company, operating the "Judson steel and iron works," was incorporated on the 26th of February 1868, consisting of Adrian B. Judson, James L. Baldwin and George Neemus. This concern became the lessee of the rolling-mills at Rockaway and carried on its business for some time with more or less success in producing iron and steel, but at a loss of capital, and finally closed its fires, and for the last ten years has been practically out of existence. The works, however, have been operated during that time by various parties in the manufacture of both iron and steel. For the last two years the mills have been in charge of Joel Wilson, of Dover, who is the inventor of the "Wilson direct process" and has been enlisting the attention of some New York capitalists in the development of this process of making iron and steel. The company is called `The American Swedes Iron Company," and is at the present time perfecting its machinery, which will work a revolution in the manufacture of iron. Mr. Wilson, who is superintendent, informs us that the process is sufficiently satisfactory to induce the parties to invest quite a large capital to increase the product. He claims to have developed a furnace that will produce a superior quality of iron in bars direct from the ore, thereby saving the entire cost of making the ore into pig metal before making it into bars.

The company is now running four Catalan forge fires, making charcoal iron, and two puddling furnaces. The furnaces are for working the iron ore direct into wrought iron, and the fuel used in the manufacture of this iron is petroleum, which Mr. Wilson claims makes a better iron than mineral coal, and with a saving of at least 20 per cent. in fuel. All the iron thus made at the Rockaway mill is sold for the manufacture of crucible steel. The ore used is black sand from the ore beds, procured at present from Block Island and the east end of Long Island. It is separated from all impurities by a magnetic machine invented by C. G. Buchanan, of Rockaway; put in bags on the beach, and shipped to the Rockaway works. The Union foundry in Rockaway, owned by Mahlon Hoagland, is manufacturing these separators.

The Iron Bank of Rockaway was duly incorporated on the 20th of August 1855 under the general State law, with a capital of 3,000 shares of $50 each. All the shares were subscribed for, as follows: 2,000 were taken by George P. Williams, of Hoboken; 300 by Freeman Wood, of Rockaway; 596 by Charles Sanford, of New York; 100 by Nathaniel Mott, of Rockaway; and one share each by Elisha Mott, S. S. Beach jr., John Mott and Stephen Estile, all of Rockaway.

Freeman Wood was the first president of the bank, which did business three or four years at Rockaway and then, by an act of the Legislature passed in 1858, was authorized to remove its location to Morristown, where it has since done a prosperous business.

In May 1858, after the removal of the Iron Bank to Morristown, another banking association was formed under the State law, under the name of the Rockaway Bank, for the purpose of carrying on the banking business at Rockaway. The capital stock of 1,000 shares was subscribed, but the enterprise ended with the certificate, and no business was ever transacted.

"The Union Hall Association of Rockaway" was incorporated in March 1869, the incorporators being Barnabas K. Stickle, J. Mills Mattox, Stephen B. Cooper, John B. Lonsbury, Robert Richards, Samuel Tippet and Jacob P. Stickle, and the purpose being to erect a hall for the use of societies, lyceums, public meetings, concerts, etc.

Water Power Companies.--The Rockaway River has not been forgotton by our legislators, but has been the subject of several acts, in relation to the regulation of fishing, the removal of obstructions to the free course of its waters, and the creation of water power companies. This last class of legislation commenced about 1839, but we cannot learn that any capital was invested in these enterprises.

The Hibernia Mine Railroad Company was incorporated on the 18th of March 1863. Its corporators were Abram S. Hewitt, Edward Cooper, Dudley B. Fuller, George T. Cobb, Theodore T. Wood, Charles Jackson jr., George Richards, Thomas E. Allen, Joseph C. Kent, and Charles Hewitt. They had a capital stock of $25,000, with liberty to increase it to $100,000, and to build a railroad from the Hibernia mines to any point on the Morris Canal in Morris county; also to connect with the Morris and Essex Railroad and to build spurs to any adjacent iron mine in the county. The road was built and fully equipped for transporting iron ores from the Hibernia mines to the Morris canal by horse power. In March 1868, by a supplement to its charter, the company was authorized to use steam for the transportation of freight and passengers over the road, and the road has since then been in operation with steam power. In 1871 its capital stock was increased to $200,000.

In March 1866 the Mount Hope Mineral Railroad Company was incorporated, with a capital stock of $200,000, and power to build a road from the Mount Hope mines to the Morris and Essex Railroad and Morris Canal, and to construct spurs to other mines. This road was built, connecting with the Morris and Essex at Port Oram in Randolph township, and running to the Mount Hope mines in Rockaway township, taking in the Richards, Allen and Teabo mines, with a spur to the Mount Pleasant and Baker mines, all in Rockaway. The ores from these mines have since then been carried over this road. In 1867 the company was empowered, by an amendment to its charter, to extend its road to the Hibernia mines. This extension has not been carried out. Practically it was of no benefit to the company for transporting ore, as the Hibernia Railroad was then carrying all the product of the Hibernia and adjacent mines.

The Dover and Rockaway Railroad Company was organized in 1879, under the general railroad law of the State, and in the summer and winter of 1880 and 1881 built a road from Port Oram (then the terminus of the Longwood Valley branch of the Central of New Jersey), to Rockaway, and opened the same for passenger and freight traffic in May 1881.

The village of Rockaway is now the terminus of this new road, having its outlet by way of the Longwood Valley and High Bridge branches over the Central Railroad of New Jersey, and also connecting at Rockaway with the Hibernia, and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad. All the Hibernia ores are carried over this new road to the furnaces in Pennsylvania.

Piccatinny Powder Depot.--It is proper to mention in this connection the recent purchases of lands at Middle forge and Denmark by the United States government for powder works. The name of this establishment is the "Piccatinny Powder Depot," and it is about three miles from Rockaway, in the Green Mountain or Middle Forge Valley. Here in rural seclusion, with the Green Pond Mountains on one side and the Mt. Hope and Hickory Hills on the other, it is proposed to build large magazines for storage and mills for the manufacture of gunpowder. Nearly 1,900 acres of land, mountain and valley, wooded and cultivated, were purchased of different owners in 1880 and 1881. A beautiful lake 110 acres in extent occupies a central point, with Piccatinny Peak frowning down on it, and with the waters of Green Pond and Denmark Pond flowing through it.

In 1879 searches and surveys for suitable tracts of land for the above purposes were made in different directions around New York, and, none presenting the desired facilities and advantages to the degree presented by the Middle forge and surroundings, it was finally settled upon and purchase was made of several large tracts of land, including the John E. Kindred and Uhel H. Wiggins farms. Suitable buildings of brick and stone have been commenced, and as fast as the appropriations are made by Congress this picturesque place will be beautified and transformed into one of those trim military posts which are occupied as arsenals and depots of supplies of war material. About one hundred and fifty men are now employed. The whole work in all its branches is under the charge of Major F. H. Parker, Ordnance Department, United States army, who has his headquarters at Dover.

On the 22nd of November 1879 the Split Rock Forge and Mining Company was incorporated under the general act of the State, with a capital of $20,000 furnished by some New York parties. The company operated at Split Rock for a year or so, under leases from the estate of the late Andrew B. Cobb; but, becoming involved, the concern went into the hands of Frederick H. Beach, of Dover, as receiver. The works are now operated by William D. Marvel, of New York city, who was a chattel mortgage creditor and sold all the concern under a foreclosure of his claim.

The Denmark Land and Improvement Company, which was a New York enterprise, was started six years ago, with a view to purchasing the lands around Green Pond, building roads, laying out building lots, making improvements, and speculating generally. This company spent a large amount of money, and built a very expensive wagon road from Denmark Pond up the north side of the stream to Green Pond, and also constructed a railroad along the mountain to facilitate work, which shows considerable engineering skill and enterprise. Land went up to a high figure in that neighborhood during the time the company was in operation; but it proved an impracticable scheme, and was finally abandoned, and all the improvements are fast assuming the original wildness of the country.

ROCKAWAY'S UNION SOLDIERS.

From Hon. Edmund D. Halsey we have received all the information we present in relation to the war record of Rockaway in the late Rebellion. Mr. Halsey is historian of the Rockaway Soldiers' Association and has given the names of the soldiers for publication, and our part will be confined principally to the financial history of the township in relation to the war.

The rolls show that about one-third of the whole adult male population enlisted in the service, and of these one out of every three did not live to return. Money as well as men was liberally given. In the second year of the war, about July 1862, a subscription was started to raise a fund to distribute among the volunteers, to promote enlistments. It met with such success that $3,013.89 was soon subscribed. Part of this fund was paid to six men of Company H 11th N. J., part to six men of Company C 15th N. J., part to 16 men of Company F 15th N. J., and the balance to 92 men who enlisted in Company L 27th N. J. (entirely composed of Rockaway men). The ladies of the township raised on the 4th of July 1863 $300 for distribution among the families of the soldiers. Owing to the large number of men from Rockaway township who enlisted in other places the quota of the town under the call of 1864 was quite heavy. The town issued scrip to the amount of $33,600 to 96 men, by a vote of the people; and when, by the proclamation of December 19th 1864, it appeared that 300,000 men were required, and that the quota of Rockaway was 20, the people at once voted to give to these men the same as the former quota received. Before the quota was completed the war practically closed, so that $35,000 was the entire sum thus paid in scrip, and before the close of the year 1871 every dollar of this scrip, principal and interest, had been paid by the town.

The following is Mr. Halsey's record of the volunteers from Rockaway who lost their lives in the service:

Company L 27th N. J. Volunteers.--Nineteen members who were drowned in the Cumberland River, May 6th 1863, near Somerset, Ky., viz.: Joseph Class, Jesse De Mouth, Lemuel De Graw, James H. Fuller, Lewis O. Green, Barnabas K. Miller, John McCloskey, Edward Nichols, William Ocabock, William Weaver, Thomas Odell, James O'Neil, Gideon Bostedo, Ralston Peer, Wilson Pittenger, George Shawger, Eliakim Sanders, Samuel H. Smith and James Shaw.

Others of the same company: William Howell, died April 11th 1863, at Baltimore, of fever; John Tenike, died March 31st 1863, at Chesapeake Hospital, of pneumonia; Lewis Ward, discharged July 2nd 1863 with his company, died August 27th following, of disease contracted in the service; Sergeant James M. Freeman, died June 8th 1863, of typhoid fever, at Sherward Hospital, Hickman's Bridge, Ky.; James H. Collerd, died January 8th 1863, of typhoid fever, at Washington, D. C.; Joseph De Graw, died May 2nd 1863, at camp near Stanford, Ky., of dysentery; William De Mouth, died March 1st 1863, at camp near Newport News, Va., of chronic diarrhea; Thomas De Mouth, died January 26th 1863, in hospital at Washington, D. C.; William Haycock, died March 15th 1863, at Newport News.

Company B 27th N. J. Volunteers.--William Duly, died February 20th 1863, at Newport News, Va., of disease.

First N. J. Volunteers.--Clifton Peer, Company K, discharged for disability, August 15th 1864; died February 5th 1865, from disease contracted in the service.

Fifth N. J. Volunteers.--Charles Spencer, Company D, died June 14th 1864, at Fairfax Seminary, Va.

Seventh N. J. Volunteers.-William Thompson, Company K, killed September 26th 1864, by sharpshooters, before Petersburg, Va. George Wesley Peer, Company K, died May 13th 1862, at Yorktown, Va. Samuel Farrand Kitchel, Company C (transferred from Company K), died at Andersonville, Ga., September 12th 1864. Elijah D. Bruen, Company C (transferred from Company K), died at Madison while on furlough, June 7th 1865, of disease contracted in the service. George Washington Blakely, Company K, died July 28th 1862, at St. Luke's Hospital, N. Y. John Spear, Company C (transferred from Company K), died December 14th 1864, in hospital at Washington, D. C; had previously served in Company L 27th N. J. John R. Lyon, Company K, died September 3d 1862, of wounds received August 29th at Bristow Station, Va. Gilbert D. Blanchard, Company C (transferred from Company K), died August 13th 1864, of dropsy, at Andersonville, Ga.

Eighth N. J. Volunteers.--Henry Weaver, Company A, discharged on account of wounds August 15th 1865; died at home, December 27th 1866, from the effect of wounds. Anson R. Waer, Company A, killed July 2nd 1863, at Gettysburg, Pa. Jacob M. Kinney, Company A, taken prisoner at hospital at Fair Oaks, Va., June 28th 1862, and died at Belle Isle, Va., of privation, August 5th 1862. William H. Gard, Company I, died of fever at Yorktown, Va., June 5th 1862. John W. Palmer, Company A, died of fever at Bottom's Bridge, Va., June 23d 1862. Thomas Jefferson Huyler, Company A, killed in battle May 3d 1863, at Chancellorsville, Va.

Ninth N. J. Volunteers.--Hampton Whitehead, Company E, died at Brickyard Hospital, Newbern, N. C., March 17th 1862, of wounds received in action at Newbern. James Dougherty, Company C; enlisted September 10th 1861, died of dysentery, August 3d 1864, at Andersonville, Ga.

Eleventh N. J. Volunteers.--Sergeant Eliphalet Sturtevant, Company E, died at Gettysburg, July 13th 1863, from wounds received in battle July 2nd; Thomas Tinney, Company E, killed by a shell July 2nd 1863, at Gettysburg; Cyrus L. Talmadge, Company E, died September 2nd 1864, at Andersonville, Ga., of starvation while a prisoner; Joshua Beach, Company E, died August 1st 1864, at Andersonville prison; Daniel H. Palmer, Company E, died June 23d 1863, from wounds received at Chancellorsville May 3d 1863; Columbus M. Shawger, Company E, died of typhoid fever at Falmouth, Va., March 29th 1863; Abram Stickle, Company D, died at Trenton, August 20th 1862; Richard Henderson, Company H, died December 30th 1862, near Fredericksburg, Va., of inflammation of the lungs.

Fifteenth N. J. Volunteers.--Jeremiah Haycock, Company C, died May 9th 1864, at Spottsylvania Court-house of wounds received in action the day before; Alfred B. Jackson, Company D, enlisted January 2nd 1864, killed in action May 8th 1864; John Moran, Company D, died May 12th 1864, of wounds received on the 8th at Spottsylvania; Bernard Johnson, Company D, died May 20th 1864, of wounds received on the 8th at Spottsylvania; Felix Cash, Company F, lost an arm in battle May 3d 1863 at Salem Heights, and died from the effects of the amputation May 15th; George D. Foulds, Company F, killed at "the Angle" at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12th 1864; Benajah D. Waer, Company F, died May 9th 1863, at White Oak Church, Va.

Thirty-ninth N. J. Volunteers.--Abraham Earls, Company K, died May 6th 1865, at Alexandria, Va., of wounds received at Petersburg, Va.

First N. J. Cavalry.--Edwin Zeek, Company E, enlisted September 28th 1864, died of fever January 18th 1865, in hospital at Petersburg, Va.; William R. Shores, Company D, killed April 6th 1865, at Farmville, near Appomattox Court-House, Va.; Lemuel O. Smith, Company E, killed April 9th 1865, near Appomattox Court-House.

Second N. J. Cavalry.--Elijah Struble, Company C, died June 4th 1864, at White's Station, Tenn., of typhoid fever.

Third N. J. Cavalry.--John T. Heminover, enlisted December 5th 1863 in Company E; died while a prisoner of war at Salisbury, N. C., December 4th 1864.

Battery B 1st N. J. Artillery.--Mahlon Stickle, discharged August 1st 1862 for disability, died September 1st 1862; Jacob P. Stickle, discharged November 1st 1862 for disability; died at Boonton.

Belonging to Regiments of Other States.--Jabez Winget, Company D 70th N. Y., shot through the head at Williamsburgh, Va., May 5th 1862; William H. Stickle, Company D 70th N. Y., killed in battle May 5th 1862, at Williamsburgh, Va.; Edward L. Marsh, Company E 38th N. Y., captured at the first Bull Run battle, taken to Libby prison, and there suffered such hardships that he died at home May 30th 1862; Joseph E. Dickerson, Company A 2nd N. Y. cavalry, died February 3d 1862, at Arlington Heights, from sta??vation on Belle Island; Chileon Odell, Company A 101st N. Y., killed August 29th 1862, at Bull Run, Va.; Edward Smith, Company F 66th N. Y., died February 1st 1862; John Henry Beach, 135th Indiana, died June 30th 1864, at Bridgeport, Ala.; Edward Barnes, Company C 4th Wis. cavalry, died May 8th 1864, at Baton Rouge, La.

BIOGRAPHICAL.

HENRY BAKER.

The Baker family of which the subject of this sketch (as well as William H., whose biography appears elsewhere) was a member is of English descent. The earliest history of the family in this country dates from the settlement of Easthampton, on Long Island, where Thomas Baker, who had emigrated from England, first settled some time previous to 1700, and from which place he removed to Connecticut Farms (now Union), where he died.

Jeremiah Baker, the father of Henry, was born August 28th 1770, near Westfield, N. J., where his father, Henry Baker, resided. He learned his trade of tanner and currier and also that of shoemaker with his brother-in-law, Ziba Ludlow, at Mendham, N. J., and removed to near Mt. Pleasant (in what was then Pequannock township), near Dover, in June 1792. Here, having worked at his trade about two years, he bought the property of Josiah Beman, built a tannery, and carried on the business until he was succeeded by his sons Henry and William H. In addition to his tanning business he was a large landowner, owning at the time much of the site of Dover. He was also extensively engaged in iron manufacture. He was a man of great industry, very conscientious and just in his dealings with his fellow men. He was a liberal supporter of the Rockaway Presbyterian church, of which he was a member more than forty years. In 1798 he was married to Mary, daughter of Andrew King. She was born June 9th 1778. Their children were Andrew K., Henry, Elizabeth (who married James B. Carle), William H., Nancy W. (Mrs. William H. Spencer), Phebe H. (wife of John De Hart of Parsippany), and Margaret.

Henry Baker was born at the homestead near Dover, April 29th 1801. He was reared a tanner and shoemaker, but as he grew older he engaged extensively in other departments of business in partnership with his brother William H. They jointly carried on the business of tanning and currying, milling, and manufacturing iron, as well as farming. They were also joint owners of several valuable iron mines.

Mr. Baker was married October 30th 1869, to Lydia J. Jenners. They have no children. He has always been a resident of the town in which he was born, and by industry, energy and perseverance he has acquired an ample competency.

COLONEL JOSEPH JACKSON.

Colonel Joseph Jackson, of whom it may be said he was the founder of Rockaway village, was a son of Stephen Jackson and Mary Burwell, and was born March 8th 1774, in the log house on the north bank of the river a mile above the village, where his grandfather Joseph Jackson had lived and died. At his birth there were but five houses in Rockaway. His early education was conducted by George Harris, of whom mention has been made, who taught the first school in Rockaway. He was one of the six children of Captain Stephen Jackson, who headed the school subscription list. December 10th 1792 his name was entered on the roll of the Morris Academy (of which his father was a proprietor), and while at the academy surveying and French were part of his studies. He made practical use of his surveying, and became skilled in the use of the compass. Having left the academy in April 1793, he engaged in his father's business, at first as assistant and subsequently as his partner.

May 13th 1802 Colonel Jackson was married in New York to Eliza Platt Ogden, eldest daughter of Robert Ogden, of Sparta, N. J.

On the 29th of November 1796 he succeeded in getting a post-office established in Rockaway, and was postmaster until 1843, when President Tyler removed him. February 26th 1801 he was appointed major of the 1st battalion 3d regiment Morris militia, and in 1804 lieutenant colonel of the 3d regiment N. J. militia; as such he was ordered into service by the governor in the war of 1812, and did duty with his regiment for two or three months at Jersey City. He resigned his commission as colonel in 1817.

He was actively engaged in mining and manufacturing iron. The Swedes mines between Dover and Rockaway were worked by him for several years. He was also owner with his brother William of the Allen and Teabo mines. The Rockaway grist-mill and saw-mill, store and two forges were owned and operated by him, with other branches of industry.

In February 1813 he was elected by joint meeting judge of the court of common pleas of Morris county, and held this position until 1832, when he gave up the position of his own accord. He was elected ruling elder in the Rockaway Presbyterian church in 1818.

Part of his iron business he carried on at Paterson, in connection with his brother William, and they were the first parties who rolled round iron in the United States, which they did as early as 1820. In that year the government advertised for five tons of American round iron as a sample lot to be delivered at the Washington navy yard. The Jacksons forwarded the lot, which was found superior to that of their competitors, and the contract to furnish 200 tons at the New York navy yard was awarded to them, and filled to the satisfaction of the government, at 6 cents per pound. In 1820 Colonel Jackson and his brother William built the Rockaway rolling-mills, and they continued in joint business until 1826, when the colonel became sole owner, and until 1834 he carried it on very prosperously, having in the meantime many profitable contracts for iron with the government.

In 1828 he was elected a member of the New Jersey Legislature as a Jackson Democrat, and was returned for the two following years. He was a strong adherent of General Jackson, but in his later years was a Whig.

His wife, Elizabeth Platt Jackson, died in 1807, leaving one daughter (Sarah, who married Samuel B. Halsey), and two sons, Stephen J. and Robert Ogden; the latter died in infancy. The colonel died on the 28th of January 1855, in the 85th year of his age, honored and respected by all.

DR. J. D. JACKSON.

Dr. John Darby Jackson, the youngest son of Stephen Jackson and brother of Colonel Joseph Jackson, studied medicine under Dr. Pierson, and graduated from the old medical university on Ninth street, Philadelphia, in 1815. He was born in Rockaway, and practiced here all his life. He was the only physician in the village of Rockaway until his son, the present Dr. John W. Jackson, commenced his practice. He was married October 24th 1816, to a daughter of General Solomon Doughty, of Long Hill, a sister of Senator Doughty, of Somerset county, N. J. He was a Democrat in politics, a member of the Legislature in 1835, 1836, 1855 and 1856. With Judge Freeman Wood, now of Dover, he was one of the first freeholders after the formation of the township, and he held many town offices both before and after the division. He died November 17th 1859, aged 65. His widow, Mrs. Agnes Jackson, is still living in the old family mansion, enjoying life at the age of 85.

SAMUEL B. HALSEY.

Samuel B. Halsey was the son of Dr. Abraham and Mary Beach Halsey, and was born at Fishkill, N. Y., July 24th 1796. He entered Union College in 1811 and graduated in 1815. He commenced the study of law with Hon. James Talmadge, at Poughkeepsie, and in 1817 was appointed aid-de-camp by Governor Talmadge. He was licensed as an attorney by the supreme court of New York, October 30th, 1818, and practiced his profession from that time until 1834, when he removed to Rockaway. He was twice elected to the Legislature of New York from Dutchess county, once in 1826 and again in 1830. At one of these elections he was the only member of his party that was elected. On his removal to New Jersey he abandoned the active practice of the law, and engaged in mining and manufacturing iron, farming, etc., and in assisting his father-in-law, Colonel Joseph Jackson, in the management of his affairs. He was frequently engaged, as master in chancery, in the settlement of estates, and from 1846 to 1851 was one of the judges of Morris county. He was twice elected to the Legislature of New Jersey, first in September 1841, and again in 1843. At the second election he was made speaker of the house. He died in Rockaway, September 15th, 1871. His strict integrity and kindness of heart won the love and respect of all who knew him.

THE HOFF FAMILY.

Joseph Hoff emigrated to Morris county from Hunterdon in the spring of 1775, and took charge of the Hibernia works for Lord Stirling. His brother Charles Hoff soon succeeded him, and moved to Mount Pleasant. Charles was a son-in-law of Moses Tuttle. His descendants occupied the family homestead continuously until the death of Miss Harriet Hoff in 1878, aged nearly 80, when the last family link with former generations was broken. Her will was the subject of a long contest about a year ago in the courts of this county by some distant connections, who sought to set it aside by reason of undue influence and incapacity through age. But her mental clearness and sterling good sense were so strongly conspicuous in all she had said and done during her long life that her last will and testament was held good. She was the owner of the Hoff mine. The Hoff homestead is still standing, in a good state of preservation, nearly opposite the Tuttle homestead.

Charles Hoff was a man of prominence in his day, a good scholar and penman. He was appointed a justice of the peace in 1800, and his method of keeping his docket shows business habits of the first quality. This docket is in the county clerk's office, where it was deposited July 15th 1812, No. 40, a strong, well preserved book. The first page contains an acknowledgment from Robert Hays that Charles Hoff paid him $2.25 on the 20th of November 1800 for that docket, and says: "This docket contains the proceedings of Charles Hoff, Esq., which commenced 28th November in the year of our Lord 1800."

The first suit is that of Abraham Seward vs. Reuben Palmer, which resulted in a confession of judgment for $7.50. David De Camp was constable and Experience Turner was a witness. On page 5 is a suit in favor of David Howell against Aaron Broadwell, in trespass, for wounding, while shoeing, a certain mare on the 10th of October 1800, which plaintiff alleged was the cause of her death in a day or two afterward, and demanded $60 damages. Warrant was granted January 1st 1801 and given to David De Camp, constable. There was a jury of twelve men, and a verdict of $60 was rendered for the plaintiff, and $5.07 costs. The docket contains the following receipt as a settlement of this suit: "Received payment in full for the above judgment and costs from David Broadwell and his son Stephen Broadwell, in Cyder Spirits Carted by Charles Hoff. team. David Howell."

The docket also contains a long list of marriages performed by the 'squire from January 1801 to November 1805, and we recognize the names there of three or four persons who are still living in the county.

A dunning letter in the fine round hand of Mr. Hoff was also found in the docket, which reads as follows: "Captain Matthias Winans to Charles Hoff, Dr. January 1796, to balance on ore, 41s. 10d.; interest on ditto, 3s. 8d.; making 2 5s. 6d. Sir, please to pay the above balance immediately to Esquire Hoagland, as it has been of long standing. Your Humb. Serv't Charles Hoff."

WILLIAM H. BAKER.

Henry Baker, the grandfather of William H., resided about half a mile from Westfield church, in Union county, N. J., on the road to Springfield. He married Mary Hedges, of Long Island. They had six children--five sons and one daughter. His fourth son, Jeremiah, was the father of William H.

William Hedges Baker, the subject of this sketch, was born January 3d 1806; and was married June 15th 1848 to Clarissa, daughter of Thomas and Maria Dell. They had ten children--Jeremiah, William H., Mary K. (wife of Dr. Samuel B. Johnson), Anna M. (wife of Horace L. Dunham), Andrew K., David, Phebe H., Thomas, Henrietta and Lydia J.--of whom seven are now living. The oldest, who was a tanner and farmer, died in 1873. David died suddenly October 18th 1881, lacking only ten days of his majority, and Phebe November 1st following, in her 19th year.

Mr. Baker owned in connection with his brother Henry the Baker homestead, the Valley forge, a grist-mill, and two iron mines. The De Hart Baker mine, located on Mine Hill, was developed by the Baker brothers, and afterward, while under lease to S. T. Scranton & Co., was sold to the lessees and Messrs. Waterman and Beaver in 1873. It is now owned by the Lackawanna Iron and Coal Company, of Scranton, Pa. The other mine, also called the Baker mine, in the township of Rockaway and near the homestead, was leased a number of years to the Allentown Iron Company and was very productive. Two veins cross the property--the Mount Pleasant vein and the large vein which is extensively operated on the adjoining Richards mine lot of the Thomas Iron Company. At present it is not operated. They were also owners of other farming, mining and timber lands. Probably the most valuable timber land in the county was owned by them. Their business operations were extensive and varied. Mr. Baker died June 27th 1876, quite suddenly, of heart disease, as he was sitting in his house conversing with a neighbor.

In politics he was a Democrat. He inherited his father's industrious habits and good business qualities. He was an upright, honest, kind and obliging man, greatly esteemed in the community, and his loss was deeply regretted. He was strongly attached to his home and family and rarely went away from Mt. Pleasant, but left all outside business matters to be managed by his brother Henry.

It is a remarkable fact that the Baker homestead has been in the possession of the family nearly a century. It was located by Jacob Ford in 1757. Known as the "Jonah Austin" plantation in 1774, it was afterward the property of Josiah Beaman, the iron manufacturer of Dover, by whom it was sold in 1792 to Jeremiah Baker, who devised it to his two sons Henry and William H. in 1861.

HON. L. A. CHANDLER.

Hon. Lyman A. Chandler was born at West Greenville, New York, in 1821, and died at Rockaway, September 11th 1865. Having been graduated at Middlebury College, Vermont, he came to New Jersey, and engaged for a time in teaching. He then applied himself to the study of the law, in Morristown, and in 1845 was admitted to the bar. In 1858 he was elected a member of the House of Assembly. The next year he was re-elected. In 1862 he was elected to the State Senate, from Morris county, and remained in the senate three years. As a legislator his terms of service were marked by energy, ability and fidelity. He was a trustee of the State normal school from its foundation, and was one of its most zealous friends and advocates.

He resided in the village of Rockaway, having built the residence next to Dr. Jackson's. He was a Democrat in politics and his splendid natural ability enabled him to stand high in his profession as a lawyer, while socially he was genial and popular. He left two daughters. His widow, Laura, a daughter of Dr. John D. Jackson, of Rockaway, married Charles A. McCarty.

HUBBARD S. STICKLE.

The progenitor of the Stickle family in Morris county, Peter Stickle, came from Germany to America about the year 1760. He first resided in the State of New York, where he married Elizabeth Parliman. He soon afterward settled in Rockaway Valley, Pequannock township, Morris county. His children were George, Peter, Edward, James, Jacob, John, Anna and Elizabeth.

George, the father of Hubbard S., was born in Rockaway Valley, August 3d 1763. He was a farmer. About the year 1782 he married Sarah, daughter of David and Mary Beaman. Their children were Hubbard S., George, David, Peter, Parliman, Beaman, Maria and Washington (twins), Adams, Mahlon, Chilion, Sarah, and two sons who died in infancy. Of these only Hubbard S., Beaman, Maria, Adams, Mahlon and Sarah are known to be living.

Hubbard Stansbury Stickle, the eldest of this large family, was born in the village of Rockaway, September 4th 1783--the day following that of the acknowledgment of American independence. He often boasted that he was the first free man born in New Jersey. He lived in the county during his entire life. At the age of 25 he became the foreman of the old iron forge at Denmark, and about the same time married Sarah, a daughter of Francis and Charity McCarty, of Rockaway. From Denmark he went to Stony Brook, where he built a forge and school-house, and also formed a religious society and had it supplied with regular preaching services by ministers from different points. He enlisted in the war of 1812, but was not called into active service. From Stony Brook he returned to Rockaway, and engaged in the mercantile business as the head of the firm of Stickle & Rutan, on the site now occupied by the firm of B. K. & G. W. Stickle, his grandchildren. He lived in the residence now occupied by Mrs. B. K. Stickle. He sold out this business to B. K. Stickle, and lived for a while on a farm in Denville, afterward known as the Peter Freeman farm, and later removed to the Francis McCarty homestead, on the Hibernia road.

His children were: Francis, born November 12th 1808; George Parliman, August 5th 1812; Edward Allen, October 7th 1815; Barnabas King, October 12th 1817; John McDowell, May 7th 1820, and Harriet Newell, August 24th 1823. Of these all are living except the following, who died at the dates given: George P., September 28th 1821; John McDowell, September 9th 1821, and Barnabas King, October 7th 1875.

Mrs. Stickle died April 12th 1854, and Mr. Stickle was married January 4th 1863 to Mrs. Jane McGrath, widow of Isaiah W. McGrath.

Mr. Stickle was always prominently connected with the business interests of Morris county and accumulated a competency. He held a number of local offices, in which he was careful and competent. In politics he was a Republican. He said he "was born a Whig and had always been one." He was a member of the Presbyterian church more than seventy years. He always enjoyed the confidence and esteem of the community in which he lived. He resided near the old homestead, where he was born. At the close of his life he was undoubtedly the oldest native of the town, but he retained good health and perfect memory. His remarkable recollection of events of over four score years ago made him an entertaining conversationist. He managed his business personally, up to the last day of his life.

He died suddenly on the 18th day of June 1881, aged 97 years, 9 months and 14 days. With Mr. Stickle passed away one of the landmarks fast receding beyond the memory of man, and his death severed a link which connected us with the past century.


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