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Title: Valley of the Crooked River - European Settlement on the Nambucca
Author: Norma Townsend
Details: ISBN 0 86840 205 2

INDEX

Aboriginal aggression, conflict 12, 15
Aborigines, abductions 15
accounts of 8
arrival in Australia 6
attacks on Europeans 13, 30
carved trees 9
children of and Europeans 15
clans, 6, 8
clans, conflict between 10
clans, Ngaku, Tanban 6, 7, 8, 9, 13
clans, Yarrahapinni, appearance of 9, 10
Clement Hodgkinson, attitudes to 13
crew of the Trial (ship) 13
dates for Macleay 7
depopulation 8
disarticulation 10
elders 10
European children 15
European raids 14
European use of words 16
European women 15
Europeans, murders of 14, 15, 30
food 15, 16
initiation 9
Kamilaroi 10
Kumbainggiri, kinship groups, territory 6, 10, 33
labour 77
linguistic evidence 6
marriage 10
massacre of 15
migrations 6
Nambucca Valley 8
New England Plateau 6, 7
numbers 7, 8
oral history 6
pastoralists attitudes to 9
R.H.Mathews8
radiocarbon dates 7
sacred crystals 10, 11
sawyers 14
sequence of occupation 6
shell middens 7
smallpox 8
social structure 10
society, destruction of 7
surveyors, attitudes of 8
Toby 10
tribal boundaries and distribution 6, 7
tribes 6
tribes, Dainggati 15
ulitarra 10
ulungarra clever men 10
venereal disease 8
abortion, spontaneous 180
accents and dialects 52
accidents 189
timber-getting 190
agricultural labourers, decline in living standards 45
shows, origins 144
Ainsworth family, origins and background 162, 163
Charlotte 172
Eliza 162, 172
Eliza, first child 181; marriage 181
Gertrude, marriage to John Williams 44
Isaac 44, 74
Isaac and Charlotte 173
Isaac, early life 59; marriage to Charlotte Smith 169; tenant farming 62
James 18
John (sen) 162, 163; bankruptcy 163; career 42; death 164; 
marriage to Ann Bowen 162, 163; pastoral leases 163
John Bowen 42, 143, 162; Macleay River 169; later life 164, 165; 
marriage to Eliza Smith 162, 176
John Thomas, marriage to Susannah Argent 174; selection 173
Walter 79
Ainsworths, golden wedding 162
settlement on Nambucca 164
Allan, Ann, marriage to James Taylor 106
James Henry 44, 48, 87, 100, 133, 138, 139, 140, 194, 195, 196, 197; 
Star Hotel 138, 139, 140; character 139; death 140; estate 140, 149; 
financial dealings 141; marriage to Lois Trees 61, 153; 
origins and background 60, 140; selection 70; selector, tenant farmer 61; 
trial 146; attitude to schooling 105.
Alldris, Edward 28
Allen, George, selector 58
Presbyterian catechist 157
Allgomera Creek 30
Argent family, conversions 174
marriages 173
Argent, Allan cedar getting 70, 71
origins and life 45, 67
tenant farmer 67
Emma, estate 149
Argent Joseph, marriage to Agnes Smith 172
Joseph, son of Allan 67
Matilda 172; marriage to Charles Churchill 68
Phoebe, children 181, 182; death 182
Rebecca 172; marriage to Frank Grace 67
Susannah 172; marriage to John Thomas Ainsworth 173
William, marriage to Isabella smith 172; son of Allan 67
Argents Hill 58, 66, 67, 69, 170
marriage ties 172
school 102, 104
school, conflict 109
Ashmead, Rev. J., Primitive Methodist 156
Atherton, Thomas, selector 56, 61
William, carpenter 135
auctions, land 132, 133
Austral Eden 40. 61. 62, 162, 164, 173
cedar 169
clearing leases 169
floods 170
tenant farming 62
tenants 169
Ayling family 93
Thomas, uncle of Anne England, 73

babies, causes of deaths 187, 188
Back Street, Nambucca heads 119
bacon and ham, production 88
bakers 131
Bale Edward, marriage to Ann Dornan and selection 60
William, origins 45
Ballard family 172
Claude, pupil-teacher 113
Hepzibah, reminiscences 173
Luther, marriage to Sarah Walker 67; ordination 174; origins 45; selection 67
Lydia, marriage to Charles Loving 169
Sarah Ann, midwife 184
Balli Valley, pastoral boundaries 31, 32
Balmain, links with Nambucca 121
baptisms, sawyers' children 27, 28
Barber, Charles, selector 106
Bardsley, Warren 81
Barrett, George 143
Barry, William, publican 127
Bartrim, James, selector 57
Bathurst, settlers from 87
Batterson Edith, marriage to George Grant 153
Henry, sugar cane 83
William, Macksville, land 129, 130
Baxter, Annie, affair 21
diet 30
husband's treatment of 21
living conditions 30
marriage 21
views of pastoralists 21
Beaton, Theresa, midwife 131,184Beer, Robert 87
Berkshire breed 88
dairy farm 86
Behan (Bain) family 47, 66
Catherine, marriage to William Sheridan 66
James 66 
John, marriage to Margaret Dillon 66
Mary, marriage to Francis Cook 51, 168
Beilby, George, background and marriage 43
Bellingen 117, 134
Bellinger Heads 94, 95
Bellinger River, marriage partners 170
route to 123
Bellinger bar, crossing of 14
Bellopine 31
Bellwood 43
Belmore river 40, 170
Bench, credibility 139
Benson, John 28
Bertha, (ship) wreck 120
Best, Thomas, selector 106
Bethel 143
Birdsill, (Mary) Harriet, convict 164
marriage to Thomas smith 164
birth control 182
interval, average 182
Blackbutt Creek 50, 56
cemetery 117
blacksmiths 44
Blackwell 33, 34
Board, Peter, reforms 112
boarding houses 128, 131, 132, 135, 148
Boat Harbour 34, 57
Bolt, Samuel, death 190, 191
Bonny, John death 190
Bookallil, Amin, storekeeper 136
Borger, Nicholas 50
Boulton, Ann 184
Ern, description of sugar mill 83
Thomas, selector 43, 68, 101, 128
Walter, carpenter 135
William, birth of daughter 35, 122
bourgeoisie, petite 131
Bowen, Ann, marriage to John Ainsworth (sen) 162, 163
William, convict 164
Bowra
earliest uses 122
origins of name 30
parish of 56, 57
Bowra Brush 57, 58
Hill 122
Hotel 125
River 3, 50, 56, 57
Bowra Street, Nambucca Heads 119
Bowra scrub 33
Bowraville 170
advantages of site 123
bridle trail 123, 124
cedar brush 47
church reserve 124
description or 126
disadvantages of site 123, 124
early years 124
economic foundations 127
first Crown auction 125
focus for village life 124
functions 126,. 131
George Street 124
High Street 124
Irish Catholics 177
land auctions 127
marriage market-place 177
navigation to 123
population 1891, 116
post office 123
proclamation of 57, 122
racecourse site 122
school 98, 108
school residence 111
school, problems with discipline 112
selections around 57
settlement around 47
site 123, 133
slow development 125, 126
stores 126
subtropical brush 124
survey 133, 134
survey of 1871, 123, 124
teacher 107
town reserve, proclamation of 123
Wesleyan chapel 152
Wesleyanism 153
wharf 124
Bradley William (sen) selection 60
family, colonial origins 38, 39,40
marriage network 60
movement to Macleay 48
Angusena, marriage to James Chambers 60
Elizabeth, death 191
James , Convict schoolmaster 39, 40
James, marriage to Mary Dornan 60; selector 126; son of William 58
Jane, marriage to James McGillvray 39
John Robert 176
Kate, daughter of James 40
Robert and Mary Jane 189
Rowley, scholarship 113
William (sen) marriage to Elizabeth McKay 38, 60; at Dungog 40; attitude to J,H. Allan 140; first 
evidence of 39; later life 40; tailor 48
William Charles 189, 195; arrival on the Nambucca 30, 57; attitude to pork 88, birth 38; 
marriage to Catherine Dornan 60; move to the Nambucca 38; reminiscences 40
William, First Fleet 38
William 154
bridegrooms, choice of brides 167
bridle trail, Bowraville 123
Macleay to Nambucca 170
route 128
Brisbane Water 41, 44, 45
sawyers 29
Brouggy, Daniel, conditional purchase, transfer of, 64; marriage to Mary Moss 177
selector 57
tenant farming 62
Brown, Maria, midwife 184
Patrick, 43
William, cedar-dealer 26, 33
Buchanan family 65, 74
house 96
Buchanan, Andrew, background 82, 96; death 96
Frank, selector 58
Nathaniel, overlander and pastoralist 58, 96
William, pastoralist 96
Buckley, Edward, sawyer 30
Buckman family 41, 42
Ben 132
Benjamin, convert 175
Hanna, marriage to James Simmands 42; 
Jabez, bankruptcy 120. Marriage to Margaret Albury 42; 
mill 120, 132; origins and background 120; sawmill 43
Jesse, bankruptcy 132
Rachel, marriage to Nicolai Christensen 121
William 121,. 132, 142
Buckrabendinni (sometimes Buccrabendinni) 57 68
parish of 60
school 162
selections 58
building materials 134
Burch, William, background 137
Burns, Tom, labourer 78
bush barbarians 116
businessmen 137. 143. 144
Butlin, Noel, on Aborigines 7
butter, production and sale 86, 88
Byland, Jonas 126, 169
Byrnes family, marriages 176
Byrnes, Charlotte, marriage to Thomas Simpson 177
Christina, postmistress 147
Clara, marriage to Robert Simpson 177
Cornelius, marriage to Sarah McCristal 176; son of Patrick 33
Elisha, son of Patrick 66, 176
Ellen, marriage to David Cooper 176
Emma, marriage to William Gaddes 170
James, policeman 119. 135 
John, son of Patrick 126, 147, 176; marriage to Christina Gaddes 170
Mary Ann 176
Patrick 128; Congarinni 57; burial 176; daughter 122; selection 56; 
selector and sawyer 34, 35; store 128
Thomas, marriage to Emma Cooper 176; son of Patrick 131

Camden, Wesleyanism 152
mixed marriages 176
cane growing, history 82, 83
canting ground, Bowraville, 124
Capebarrow Hill, school 98,100
capitalists, attitudes to 35
Carbin, Patrick 196
selection 124
selector 57
Carrol Jackson, death 92
Casey, Matthew, blacksmith 131
Catholic Church, convent school 112
Australia 150
bequests to 150
Bowraville 150, 176
building at Bowraville 177
Catholic bishops, mixed marriages 176
convent school 112
death 149
devotional revolution 150
lack 151
Macksville site 129, 134, 150
parallels with Ireland 150
post-Famine Irish 150
Catholic churches, building of 152
Catholic culture 152
Catholic priests, investment in land 129
Catholicism, Germans 168
ignorance of 151, 152
impact of religious sisters 151, 152, 160
Irish marriages 177
Nambucca 150
Catholics, Camden 151
children's names 151
concentrations of 152
Irish 167
Irish and Bowraville 177
cattle, wild 87
cedar licences, discontinuation and reintroduction 19
cedar trade, organisation and transport 25
cedar, export of 24, 32
abandonment of Nambucca 25
accessibility 18, 19
areas 18
commercial exploitation 20
cost of transportation 20
dealers, control of trade 24
Enoch Rudder's visit to Nambucca 20
exploitations of 28
Fitzroy Falls 19
Illawarra 19
illegal trade 26
John Ferrier's visit to Nambucca 20
loss of 24
lure 18, 67
Macleay River 19
Manning River 19
Nambucca 32
Patrick Byrnes 34
phases of exploitation 13, 14
price of 18, 32
problems of trade 26
resources of Macleay 20
resources of Nambucca 20
Richmond River 32
river hopping 18
rush to Nambucca 25
sawyers 12, 13, 24, 32
sawyers as employers 24
sawyers as landholders 29
sawyers from Port Macquarie 28
sawyers on the Macleay 29
sawyers ' attitudes to Aborigines 13
sawyers' dependants 29
sawyers' movements 28
sawyers, failure 25
sawyers, independence of 24
sawyers, movement of 18
sawyers, settling permanently 29
settlers and pastoralists 20
transportation of 20, 24, 34
cedar-dealers
debts 26
depression 25
losses 20
methods of 25
opinions of 25
profits of 25
reasons for leaving Macleay 26; Nambucca 25
Charles Steele 21, 25
Thomas Small 25
William Wright 25, 26
cedar-getters 56
location of huts 122
mobility 163
cedar-getting, spread of 18
Census, 1891, 116
Nambucca Heads 133
centralisation 155
Chambers (McKay), Margaret, marriage to Augustus Raymond 60
Chambers family 60
Chambers, Angus, death 60
James 126
James (sen) policeman, marriage to Margaret McKay 48
James, marriage to Angusena Bradley 60
Channells family, emigration 45
Channells, Catherine, midwife 184
Frances 45
Jacob, sawyer 44, 45 William (jun), sawyer 44, 45
Chapman family 54
pastoral runs 31, 71
charity, neighbourly 96
child-bearing 181, 182
childbirth, Camden 186
death of Annie Hall 148
deaths 186, 187
forceps, use of 187
labour 187
mortality 185, 186
puerperal fever 186
children, attitudes to 80
average number 183
behaviour 112
depression years 183, 184
destinies 196
disadvantaged 112
illegitimate 180
labour 79, 88, 112
schooling 111, 112
selection 62, 63
spacing of 182
Christensen, Lauris 168
Nicolai 142, bankruptcy 121; marriage to Rachel Buckman 121
Church of Christ 159, 174
Church of England, Eungai 158
Kempsey disputes 159
latecomers to Nambucca 159
Nambucca Heads 158
number of adherents 158
Church sites, Bowraville 124
Churchill family 172
Churchill, Charles, origins and life 45, 68, 69
selector, marriage to Matilda Argent 68; 
petition against teacher 109
civil status, occupations, relations to 23
civilisation, agencies of 116
Clear Ridge 101
clear title, explanation of 63
clearing leases 62, 164
clergymen 154, 155, 156, 158, 166
Presbyterian 98, 116, 137, 157
closer settlement 116
clothes 94
coastal shipping run 197
Coffs Harbour 93
Colombatti 7
Collins, Edward, teacher 126
Colonial Sugar Refinery Company 83
Commercial Hotel 126
commercial activity, indicators of 121
common culture, schooling 52
communication, lines of 65, 98
communities, divided 147
competition 197
complaints, teachers 109, 110
conditional purchase, transfers 64
conditional purchases 62
conditions, living 193
Conen, Joseph 100, 102, 147,
marriage 166
selection 124
selector 47
Louisa, death 166
confinements, attitudes to 183
Congarinni 56, 57, 58
meaning of name 34
parish, selections 64
schooners at 34
consumer demand 92, 137
convent 151
schools 150, 151
convict taint 39
convicts, bolters 12
respectability 23
Cook family 35
sugar cane 83
Cook, Francis (Franz Kock), selector, assisted emigrant, 49, 50, 51
marriage to Mary Behan 168
Henry, birth of daughter 34
James, maritime explorer 3
nephew 126
first land purchase 123
hotel 125
publican 127
sawyer and selector 33, 34, 35
selector 123, 124
John, sawyer 45
Mary Ann 170, 183, 184
Michael, father of James 34
Mountford, accidental death 35, 191
Cooper family 176
Cooper Emma, marriage to Thomas Byrnes 176
George, sawyer 30
Copenhagen, sawmill 121, 131
corn cultivation 77, 84
acreage yield, 84
export from Nambucca 85
Cory, Edward Gostwyck 31
Coulton, William selector 46
Council of Education 99, 101
Cox, James, timber-dealer 34
Craig, Alexander 48; marriage to Sarah Craig, 167
Sarah, marriage to Alexander Craig 167
credit 141
Cricket, Deep Creek team 81
True Australians team 81
village teams 81
Crispin, Susan, selector 57
Crooked River 198

daily life 92
Dairy Co-operative, Bowraville 143
Macksville 143
dairy co-operatives, establishment 86
dairy farmers, origins 87
dairy, description 86
dairying 197
acceptance 86
advantages 88
cash flow 86
children 88
daily routine 88
herd numbers 88
history on North Coast 87
import of stock 87
numbers involved 87
pasture 87
resistance to mechanisation 88
restrictions 88
Richmond and Tweed 87
separators 88
stock improvement 86
workers in 87
Daley, John, sawmill 57
Dalton, J. F, teacher 107
Done, Richard, 131
Darling Downs, German settlement 49
Darling Harbour 33
Daughters of the Sacred Heart 151
Davis family, origins 44
sawmillers 120
Davis' Mill 131
Davis, Abel, bankruptcy 121
Bertha, marriage to Robert White 44
Edward 44, 132, move to Nambucca 120
John shipwright and publican 135
Tom, move to Nambucca 120
Day, Patrick 196
death, attitudes to 193
causes 179, 192
deaths, accidents, rate of 189
childbirth 148
tuberculosis 192
Deep Creek 58, 79, 96
dairying 86
early community 74
orientation 95
school 102
Wesleyanism 154
Denison Goldfield 58
Denmark 51
denominations, proportions of marriages 159
Devir, Dominic 102, 196
marriage to Julia Dooley 166
origins and background 166
selector 57
diet 92, 93, 192
Dingo Creek 67, 100
diphtheria 111
discovery of Bellinger 12
diseases 189
domestic life, ordering of 91
domestic servants 166
domestic service 146, 147, 177, 178, 179
placement of servants 166
Don, David, courting of Mary England 81
illness 95, marriage to Mary England 80
Mary 94
Donovan, Mary confinement 185
William, sawyer 43
Dooley, Julia, marriage to Dominic Devir 166
Dornan family, Pola Creek 48
Dornan, Ann, marriage to Edward Bale 60
Catherine, marriage to William Charles Bradley 60
Charles 46
Mary, marriage to James Bradley 60
Double corner 30, 95
Dowle, R.M. shire council 144
Doyle, Bishop, Lismore diocese 151
dreams, 197
drought, 12
drownings, 189, 190
Druitt Street, Sydney, 32, 33
Drysdale, Dugald, 48
Ducat, Charles, cedar-dealer and pastoralist 25, 26, 31
Duffy, Polly, abduction of 15
Durkin J.J., priest 151

Eckford, William 11
economic diversification 140
economic foundations, villages, 127
Education Act 1880, 101, 112
1866, 98
education expansion 105
popular 142
Egan, John, storekeeper 137, 143
Eggins, Samuel, marriage to Jane Johnstone 106
teacher 107
Wilfred, pupil-teacher 113
Eichmann family 84
Eichmann, Florence, marriage to Henry Fox 106
pupil-teacher 113
John, mill owner 121, 122, 132, 142
electric light 196
Elias, John, death 192
Eliza Allan (ship) 140
Ellis Brothers, Nambucca Heads 137
emigrants, assisted 45
independent poor 48
working passage 48
emigration, German, reasons for 168
Emporiums, Hammond and Wheatley 134
England boys, work 81
England family, illnesses 93
purchases 94
England selection, visitors 95
England, Alf, outside work 79, selection 179
Anne 72, 77, 93, journeys 94, mental world 94
origins 94, social activities 94
Annie 159
Emily 80, 93
Frank 79, 81
George, 74, 79, 81
John, 74, 79, 81
Kate, marriage to Andy Pomroy 80, social life 94
Margaret, marriage to William Robertson 79
Marmaduke, 116, 159, 179, 196
Marmaduke (jun) 74, 79, 95, rented farm 179
Marmaduke, Liverpool Plains 73, aims 78, attitude to Emily 80,
business transactions 95, capital for selection 73;
crops 83; death 93; diversification 78, 79; 
establishing a selection 74, 75; export of maize 84; 
first crop 78; Nambucca 72; kitchen 92; living expenses 76; 
milking cow 87; neighbourly charity 96; 
orchard 76; origins and early life 74; physical endurance 95; 
physical horizons 95; record of farming activity 88, 89;
recreation 79; rental of farm 78; sake if vegetables 78, 79; 
school 95; School of Arts 142; seasonal activities 81, 82; 
selection 65, 72, 74; social life 94, 95; sugar cane growing 82, 83; 
supplementary income 76; trips 80,95; Valla school 101; 
working schedule 81
Mary 179; marriage to David Don 80
Willy 79, 81
England, agricultural labourers 45
emigrants 45
emigration from rural counties 45
northern agricultural labourers 45
Englands, friends and social life 96
English, emigrants and family networks 45
Enright, W.J. anthropologist 11
Enterprise sawmill 121
entrepreneurs 122, 124, 197
Essex 67
estates, women 149
Eungai 88
European children, Nambucca 32
European settlement 197, 198
early births 122, 123
oldest site 122
Evans, Herbert, surveyor 133
Ezold, William donation for Macksville church 158.

Fagan, Charles, 143
families, private lives 93
family enterprise, tenant farming 63
family networks 59, 60
family ties 42
family tree, McKay, Bradley, Chambers 61
Fairleigh, significance 91
farmers, small 54
farming, wages 76
Fenn, Dorothea, marriage to James Bradley 39
fertilisers 84
Field, George, selector 83, 96
Fig Tree 162
Fleming, Thomas, sawyer 29
Flinders, Matthew 3
floods 85
Foley, Daniel, teacher 107, 111
forests, hardwood 119
Fortune, convict ship 39
Foster, Robert, paspalum 87
Fox, Henry marriage to Hannah Eichmann 106
teacher 107
Frank Buckle and Company 140
Frank, Charles, arrival at Moreton Bay 50; assisted emigrant 49; 
complaint against teacher 110; movement from Queensland 50; 
selections 50; selector, 105, 117, 168; tenure of land 50; 
Frank, Grace 196
Margaret 168
Frederickton 40, 44, 59
free selection, changing pattern 58
concentration of settlement 58
conditions of residence 55
differences from pastoralism 58
families and mutual help 58
isolated areas 58
laissez-faire paternalism 55
origins on the Nambucca 56
relationship to tenant farming 54, 70
sawyers 56
selections 1869, 58
waterways 57
free selectors, choice of portion 58
freehold estates 67
freehold title 50
frontier, native-born 23
single men and women 27
fruit, range grown 93
Fuller, William, sawyer 23

Gabriel, Louis, medical doctor, 184
Gaddes family 60, 147
Gaddes, Christina, marriage to John Byrnes 170
Duncan, blacksmith 44
William 126
William (sen) marriage to Jane McKay 60 147
William, cedar 67; marriage to Emma Byrnes 170;
selection 60, 67
Gaelic 52, 158
Gallagher, Rose Ann, selector 57
Gard, William. Cedar-dealer 25, 26
Gellatley, Isabel, marriage to Matthew Wallace 106
teacher, complaints against 110
general stores 132
Gentle, Ernest, teacher 107
George Street, Bowraville, 124
German emigrants 49
German immigrants, Nambucca 50
farmers 50
German selectors 50
German, settlement, Darling Downs 49
Germans, Catholicism 168 
assimilation 51
emigration 168
marriage 168
selection 168
Gersbach family 49
Anton 168
Gill, David, marriage to Alice Wright 153
Ernest, drowning 189
Silas, Wesleyan, 152, 153, 154
Gillon family, marriages 177
John, marriage to Ellen Owens 177
Gipps, George, governor, pastoral expansion 116
gold rush 51
goldfields, California 96
Good Templar Lodge 109
Good Templars 142
Goodwin, Edward teacher 109
James, selector 58
Gordon Park 120
Gordon, Robert, publican and storekeeper 121, 136, 137
Gorecki, Maria, death 96
Grace family, origins 48
Grace, Elizabeth, marriage to James McKay 48
Frank, attitude to schooling 106; marriage to Rebecca Argent 67;
origins 67; selection 68
Graham, Louisa, marriage to Joseph Conen 166
Grant, Arch, description of clearing 78
George, Macksville land 129; shipwright and selector 43; sugar cane 83
Grant, Richard John, selector 59
grasses, introduction 87
Grassy Head 25, 170
Grays Crossing 68, 105
Great Dividing Range 3
Green, Mr, Primitive Methodism 155
Greer family 74; sawpit 89
Colin, butcher 79
Isaac 157, 158
Griffin, Michael 11
Gumma Gumma Creek 57

half models 119
Hall family, problems 147, 148
Annie, death in childbirth 148, 187; literacy 148; 
postmistress 148; will 148
Joseph., Macksville land 128; farmer 63; marriage 128; 
marriage breakdown 148
Mary Ann 134
William, selection 128; selector 63
Hamilton, Edward, marriage to Margaret Sheridan 170
Hancock, C. J., bank manager 131
Hansey, Mary, marriage of 28
harbours 12
Hardaker, P.C., teacher, complaints against 108,109; 
marriage to Fanny Hare 106
Hare, Fanny, marriage to P. C. Hardaker 106
Harris, Alexander 24, 26
Hart, Rev Samuel, visit to Nambucca 155
Hayter, Reuben S, teacher 108
health 93
Helena Davis (ship)190
Henderson, George, application for village 117
selector 48, 100, 101, 147, 158
Henderson, John, pastoralist, Aborigines 8
Herbon, Ernest, survey of Nambucca 57
survey of Nambucca Heads 119, 133
surveyor 56, 117
surveyor, Bowraville 123
Bowra Brush 57
Hibbard, Henry, selector 68
Hicks, Freda, midwife 184, 185
William, accoucheur 80, 93, 185
Hickson, Jane, marriage to William Miles 59
Sarah, marriage to Thomas Arthur Jarrett (Jerrett) 59
High Street, Bowraville 124, 137
history writing, survivors 127
Hitchcock, Solomon 45
Hitchins, Edward, auctioneer 131
Hodgkinson, Clement, Aboriginal tribes, identification of 7
Hodgkinson, Clement, Aborigines, account of 8
Aborigines, initiation 9
European murders of Aborigines 30, 31
Nambucca, survey of 9, 20
opinion of cedar-dealers 25
pastoralism 32
place of birth, career 8, 9
surveyor 2, 122
view of Aborigines 6
Hodgson, Benjamin, sawyer 28
Hoffman, John 168
John (sen) selector 50
John, marriage to Mary McNally 170
Magdalene, estate 149
Matthew 168
Hohn, Alf, baker 44, 131
Holm Mathias, shipwright, selector 52, 119, 120, 132
shipbuilding 140
home missionaries 156
Honeymoon Terrace 132
Hooker, John, death 192; selection 56
Hope of Macksville Lodge 16
hotels, Nambucca Heads 121
demographic patterns121
growing sophistication 136
household goods, average value 92
households, domestic arrangements 77
houses, kitchen 89
types 89, 90
housing, health problems 90
Howell, Emma, marriage to Patrick Byrnes 33
Mary Ann, marriage to James Cook 33
Thomas, selection 56
Hughes, Susannah, emigration 45
William, selector 32, 57, 128
Hult, Charles, marriage to Harriet Stuart 169
Hunter River, tenant farming 54
'Hurrah for Australia' 54
husking 81

Illawarra 41
tenant farming 54
illegitimacy, attitudes to 180, 181
immigrants, independence 59
state intervention 167
independence, dream of 97
innovation, resistance to 86
intestate, reasons for 148
inventories 92
Irish Church, Romanisation of 150
Irish, Protestants 46
chain emigration 46
concentration in agricultural areas 167
domestic service 166
emigrants, origins 46
pattern of settlement 47
pre-Famine 151
settlement on Nambucca 47, 48
isolation 107
teachers 106

James Moran (ship) 48
Jarrett (Jerrett), Margaret 183
Thomas Arthur, selector 59
William 123; sawyer and selector 35
Jerseyville 40
Johnson, Charles 51, 169
Johnstone, Jane, marriage to Samuel Eggins 106

Kafer, Jacob, marriage to Annie Baker 168
selector 49, 50
Kelly, Gertrude, marriage to John Moran 177
Kelsey, Ern, reminiscences 85
Kemp Pinnacle Mountain 6
Kempsey 40
dispute within Church of England 159
Kennedy, Patrick, marriage to Ellen Ryan 177
Thomas , marriage to Bridget Quinn 177
Ketelghay 69
Kinchela 40
Kinsley, Henry, local dispute 109; teacher 107
kitchens, cooking 92
Knott, Albert, brickmaker 134
Koenig, Joseph (sen) selector 50, 117, 168
Joseph (jun) 50, 51, 168
Kritsch, Bernard, [purchase of Star Hotel 146
labour, see childbirth
labourers, itinerant 76, 77
Lahiff, Thomas, selection 124
Laird, David, selector 48
William, selector 85
laissez-faire 197
laity, importance of 154, 155, 157
spread of Wesleyanism 155
Lamph, Phillip, storekeeper 126
Lancaster, William selector 45
land acts 116
amendments 63
auction, disadvantages 70
auctions 119, 127
availability 69
clearing 75, 77, 78
flood prone 68
price 70
tenure 197
landscape, changing of 134
idealised 115, 116
Lane Cove, sawmilling 33
Lane, Frederick, dairy farmer 144; shire council 144. 145. 146
Henry teacher, selection of land 107; 
Sunday School superintendent 156; teacher 131
Lane, the ferryman 118, 119
Lauden, Robert 87
Laun, Louis, selector 50, 168
Laverty, Catherine, married to Charles Dornan 46
Michael, selector, origins 46
Lawson, Henry 93
life, material fabric 195
limitations, mental horizons 96
limits of location 12
Lismore diocese 151
Liverpool Plains 72
living conditions, description of 90
teachers 111
lodges 160
Log Hollow 121, 131, 132
Long Reach 40
Long, Ben, labourer 78
Loving Charles 51
convert 175
marriage to Lydia Ballard 169
lower classes, marriage and baptism 28
middle-class views of 28, 29
Lumsden, Richard 48, 132

Macguinness, Patrick Joseph, priest, Macksville land 129, 130, 134, 150
Mackay, Alexander, emigration 48
John, marriage to Joanna McKay 48
Mary Jane 80, 183, 185, 193
Robert 158
Robert and Mary Jane 189
Macklin, H.P. journalist 143
Macksville 88, 95, 170
attractions for settlement 58
changing face of 143
early selections 47
functions 131
German settlers 50
hub of settlement 65
Methodist church 156
name, earliest use 130
origins 127, 128
population 1891, 116
Presbyterian, Scottish support 158
school residence 111
school, dispute about site 101
selections 128
subdivisions 127, 128, 129, 130
teacher 107
village, early years 127
Wesleyanism, 154
Macleay River 6, 57
Macleay River upper, European settlement on 14
1864 flood 38,57, 60, 61
Aborigines, murder of 14, 15
attractions for settlement 29
European and Aboriginal conflict 20
freeholders 61
Irish servants 46
Kunderang 15
Methodist families 153
movement to Nambucca 40
Oxley's investigation 12
pastoral runs 20
Pee Dee Station 15
Primitive Methodism 154
spread of Wesleyanism 152
stepping stone for Nambucca selectors 59, 60
sugar cane growing 83
tenant farmers 61
Towel Creek 15
wages 38
Yarrawal pastoral run 26
Maher, Tom, selector 123
Majors Ford 30
Maloney (sometimes Moloney), Bridget 149, 151
James 102; selection, transfer of 64; selector 57
John 64
Manning River 41
land shortage 67
marital fertility, completion of family 183
high level 182
marital status, problems of 27
markets 84
Markham, Amos 174
marriage networks, Argents Hill 172
marriage partners, Bellinger river 170
marriage patterns 176
marriage ties, Bowraville and Missabotti 177
Macleay and Nambucca 169
marriage, Camden 178
age at 178
attitudes to formal ceremony 181
Catholic Church 27
choice of partners 170
Church of England 27
colonial adult males 27
comparison with Camden 180
de facto 23
differences between men and women, 179
distance and opportunity 171, 172
economic considerations 178
engagement 179
escape for women 179
formal ceremony 180
Germans 168
importance to free selection 59
Irish 47
legal age for 179
market demand 177, 179
moral commitment 27
parental opposition to 180
patterns 170, 171
popular attitudes to 27, 181
prolonged child-bearing 181
reasons for 27
role of affection 179
Scandinavians 168, 169
Scots 167
sexual imbalance 27
sexual relations 179, 180
social rituals 181
teachers 106
timing of 181
women 178, 179
marriages, English 166
Irish 165, 166
number 169
proportions of denominations 159
religious affiliations 166
married couples, Germans 168
birthplace 165
Irish 166
number of 72, 164
places of marriage 165
Marshall family 43
Marshall, Catherine, marriage to William Donovan 43
William, home missionary 157; marriage to Rachel Trees 157; 
ordination 157; shipowner 119
Martin, Alf, postmaster 142
mass, private houses 150
Massie, R.G. Aboriginal aggression 14; ability 22;
Aborigines, numbers of 7, 8; Commissioner for Crown lands 7; 
de facto relationships 27; licences 21; TRY Station 31
material success 196
Mather, William blacksmith 44; marriage to Mary Ann Stace 44
Mathews, R. H. surveyor and anthropologist 
Aborigines 8
Matilda Street, Macksville 134
May, George, shipwright 43, 119, 120
John, marriage to Mary Smith 176
McAlpine, Mr, home missionary 156
McAteer, Phillip, marriage to Mary Ann Willis 135
origins 135, 136
McCarthy, Richard, selector 57
McCristal, Sarah, marriage to Cornelius Byrnes 176
McDougall's Hotel 95, 136
McDougall, Colin, publican 136
McGregor, David J, teacher, petition for removal 108, 109
Dugald 131
McHugh, Patrick, storekeeper 126
McKay Street, Macksville 134
McKay family 48, 60
subdivision 134
Alexander, dairying 86; son of Donald 67
Angus (sen) 48; Gaelic speaking 52
Angus, Storekeeper 126, 130, 158; credit 130; dispute 130; selection 60
Angus, son of Donald 67
Angus, storekeeper 85, 109, Bowraville 126
Donald, cedar getting 70, 71; marriage to Jane Walker 48; move to the Nambucca 68
Donald, origins and life 67; tenant 67 
Elizabeth, marriage to William Bradley, (sen) 40
Jack 158
James, son of Angus (sen) marriage to Elizabeth Grace 48
Jane, marriage to William Gaddes 60, 147
Jane, midwife, 184
Joanna, midwife, will 149
John, Pola Creek 48
John, marriage to Joanna McKay 167
Louisa 126, 137; Macksville land 129, 130; postmistress 148
Margaret 60; marriage to James Chambers 48; selector 63
McKenzie, John, death 189
McLardy, John 43, 48
McMaugh, Caroline 15
John 23; Aborigines 15
Mary, reaction to Aboriginal abduction 15;
reminiscences 14, 15
McNally family, emigration 46, 170
McNally, Alice, marriage to Andrew Moran 90, 170
Henry 90, 128, 129, 130, 170, 186
Hugh, Macksville land 128, 129, 130; bankruptcy 141; 
cordial manufacturer 131; purchase Macguinness land 141
Mary Ann,131, 186, 187
Mary, marriage to John Hoffman 170
Patrick, 170; marriage to Alice O'Donnell 59
meat, consumption 92
medical doctors, accoucheurs 185, 187
puerperal fever 186
medical treatment, attitudes to 80
medicine, growing professionalism 185
men, escapism 194
wills 148
Methodism, Primitive 154
Macleay 155
Warrell Creek 155
lack of support 156
services on Nambucca 155
structure 154
Methodism, changes in 152
church at Macksville 156
respectability 156
Methodist church, Bowraville 135
Methodist families, 153 
Sunday School 156
clergymen 160
Methodists, Primitive, census 1891, 155
friction with Presbyterians 156
midwifery, traditions 185
midwives, 131, 149, 183, 184, 185
Mrs Fisher 35 
apprenticeship 184
care of patients 184
cooperation with medical doctors 185
criticism of 185
expertise 184
professional 184
migration, internal 43
reasons 38, 44
Miles, William, selector 59
milk, skimmed 88
mill owners, social control 142
millhands, housing 131
milling, economics 132
mills 131
Minimum Standards of Attainment 111
Missabotti 69, 170
school, petition for 105
Irish 47
school 102
selection 58, 66
selectors and marriage 177
Mitchell, Thomas, surveyor general 116, 137
mixed marriages 168, 176
Mohr, Christopher, selector 50
molasses 83
Moore, George, builder, Bellingen 134, 135
morality, marital status 27
Moran family 47
Moran, Andrew and Alice 91
Andrew, marriage to Alice McNally 170, 
selector, marriage to Alice McNally 90
Benjamin, death 190; death, effect of 193
Hugh 85, 90; family connections 66; marriage to Anne Supple 66; 
origins 66; selection 66, 70; selector, Missabotti 47
John, blacksmith 44, 126; marriage to Gertrude Kelly 177
William, blacksmith 44
Moruya 43
Mosely, Clifford, auctioneer 144
Moss family, dispute with bailiff `149
Moss, John, estate 149; marriage to Theresa Murray 46; 59
Mary, marriage to Daniel Brouggy 177
Theresa, death and estate 149
Mud Island 40
Murphy, Denis, death 190
Murphy, James, Bishop of Maitland 168
Theresa, emigration 46; marriage to John Moss 60;
William, teacher, selection 107
Myall Creek, trial 14

Nalla 105
Nambucca 3
Nambucca Central, Macksville's first name 128
Nambucca Germans, settlement pattern 50, 51
Nambucca Heads 3, 94
Hotels 121
Inner harbour 119
Log Hollow 121
Scandinavians 51
School of Arts 94
auctions 132, 133
bar 131
business and social centre 80
cemetery 93
economic vicissitudes 132, 133
importance of Royal Tar (ship) 120
population 1891 116
proclamation of reserve 118
school 102
survey 119, 133
teachers 107
transient population 133
usual crossing place 120
village 118
wharves 121
Nambucca Hotel 128
Nambucca Lower, school 102, 103
Nambucca Upper, school application for 105
school, teacher 110
Nambucca Valley, Aborigines, number of 8
Nambucca bar, dangers of 20
Nambucca, English-born 44
attractions for settlers 67
birth of European children 32
bridle trails 57
cedar getting, second phase 32
cedar, third phase 34
changing population 166
coastal margins 3
continuity of knowledge 30
cultivation of corn 84
disadvantages of 29
discovery of 11
early settlers on 35
economic development 35
estuary 3
Eucalypt forest 4
European settlement 18, 30, 32, 35, 40
expansion of settlement 58
forfeitures of selections 63
fresh water 57
geographical orientation 170
geomorphological history 3, 4
hardwood timber 43
land communication 57
landscape 3
life on 81
limitations 96, 113
movement to 42
name 2
native-born 59
Oxley's report on 11
pastoral runs 20, 32
pastoralist, James Taylor 20
pattern of settlement 57, 58
population 71
Primitive Methodism 155
problems for pastoralists 20
relationships with Macleay 60
river mouth 58
sawmilling 41, 43
schooling opportunities 112
sea level 4
selections in 1864, 57; 1865, 57; 1867, 57; 1868, 57 
sequence of settlement 65
shipbuilding 43
squatting failure 54
sugar cane growers 83
survey of, 9
teachers from, 113
timber trade, 33
valley flats 3
Valley, physical features 3, 4
vegetation and soil 4
villages, government initiatives 117
Warrell Creek 20
Nash, Louise 154
Margaret 154
Nassau 49
nationality, German 168
native-born 169. 170
movement 44
numbers on the Nambucca 59
ratio to bond 23
Nelson, Andrew 43
Nepean River, tenant farming 54
New England Plateau 3
new order 140, 141
Newburn, Ellen, teacher 106
Newee Creek 96, 189
Wesleyanism, 154
sugar cane growing 83
Newman, Joseph, blacksmith 44

Ngambugka, meaning of 2
Nimmo, Sarah, midwife 184
Nolan, Grace 104
Norman, George, death 189; sawyer 44
North Arm 58
North Coast Company 197
North Coast, exploration of 12
official policy on settlement 12
Norway, agriculture 51
Numerical ratio, men and women 169, 170
Nymboida river 6

O'Connor, Dennis, carpenter 126
O'Donnell, Alice, marriage to Patrick McNally 59
John, connection with Patrick McNally 59
publican 126; selector 46
O'Hare, A.B. teacher 110
O'Rourke, Frederick, accidental death 189
Patrick, death 189, 190
O'Ryan Brothers, Macksville 137
O'Sullivan, John, priest 150
Oakes, Major, comments on sawyers 23; commissioner of Crown lands 19; 
trip to the Clarence 30
outsiders, suspicion of 109
Owens, Ellen, marriage to John Gillon 177
Oxley, John, Aborigines, 12, 13
Macquarie's instructions to 11
journey from Walcha to Hastings 12
report on Nambucca 11
Pacey, George 43
Henry 43
Sarah, marriage to William Thompson 43
Palmer, Annie, stepdaughter of Marmaduke England 77
George 72
Parkins, George, wheelwright 126
parochialism 143, 197
Parry, John, blacksmith 44
Paspalum, introduction 87
pastoral worker, wages 76
pastoralism, lack of success 31
leases 12, 35
the Nambucca 31
pastoralists 13, 31
Aboriginal attitudes to 9
patent remedies 80
paternalism, old-world 95
Patterson, George 143
Pelican (ship) 95
Perry. Harry 77
perseverance 196
Peterkin, Emily, marriage to Joseph Reibel 168
Petrie, Andrew 48
physical labour, effects of 140
piety popular 150
pig farming 88
Pinkstone, Thomas, blacksmith 44
Pioneer, see also William Charles Bradley 38
pioneers 127, 195
Pleistocene Age 3, 7
ploughs, arrival on Nambucca 85
Point Lookout 6
point Plomer 6
Pola Creek 40, 60
Pomroy, Andy, marriage to Kate England 80
popular attitudes, marriage 181
pork, attitudes, 88
Port Macquarie 72
penal settlement 11
Porter, Christopher 48
post offices 98, 131
Bowraville 123
Macksville 147
opportunities for women 146
postmaster 147
postmistresses 146, 147
poverty 104
pregnancies, risk 185
rates 180
bridal 180, 181
pre-marital 179
Prentis, Malcolm 18
Presbyterian Church, Bowraville 158
Presbyterian, Church of Eastern Australia 157
Free Church of Scotland 157
clergymen 157
extension committee 157
problems on Nambucca 157, 158
Presbyterianism, Gaelic 158
spread on Nambucca 158
Presbyterians, financial difficulties 156
friction with Methodists 156
number of 156, 157
social status 158
Presbytery 156, 158
priests 150
marriage brokers 166
Princess Street, Macksville 130, 131, 134
Pritchard, Rev E.C. visit to Macleay 154
Primitive Methodist 166
privacy, lack of 90
probate 96
Progress Association 95, 96
provisional schools, disadvantages 103
Provost, John, selector 85
Public Instruction, Department of 104
public office, opportunities for women 146
public school status, requirements of 102
public school, Argents Hill, site 68
public schools, establishment of 71
public schools, influence 52
publicans 136
wives 146
puerperal fever 186
Pulsford, Thomas, Wesleyan layman 155
punts 95
Putland, Rev,. A. Methodist 160

Qualifying Certificate 112
Quilkey, James, pupil-teacher 113
Quinn, Bridget, marriage to Thomas Kennedy 177

Raahauge family, deaths 192, 193
Raahauge, Albert 43, 168
railway 117
Raleigh, County of 156
population 195
Rawdon Island 66
Raymond, Augustus 100; marriage to Margaret Chambers 60;
relationship to Dornan family 60; selection 60
Samuel, 139; butcher, 44
Re-organised church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints 109; 159; 169
chapel 174
conversions 174
Dingo Creek 68
membership 174, 175
missionaries 68
recreations 194
Regan, Edward, selection 64
Reibel, Frances 168
Joseph 168; marriage to Emily Peterkin 168
religion, opportunities for women 159
religious affiliations, variations 175
religious commitment 176
religious sisterhoods 151
rental of farms 78
respectability 28
retailing, philosophy 136, 137
Reynolds, John, policeman 138, 139
Rhones Creek 58
Richmond River, sawyers 25
Ridge Street, Nambucca Heads 133
Ringland, Ida 40
ritualism 159
rivalry, Macksville and Bowraville 144, 145
River Street, Macksville 131, 134, 135
river bar 131
river boats, limits of navigation 58
river crossings 58
road, survey 128
Robertson Land Acts, 1861, attitudes of contemporaries 54
historians' views of 54
exploitation of 64
Robertson, Alice, Star Hotel 138, 139, 146
George, Wesleyan 153; publican 131
John, freeholder in upper Hunter 54; view of selection 55
William, marriage to Margaret England 79; vicissitudes 79
Robinson, George, teacher 100
Rocky River Goldfield 58, 167
Rogate, West Sussex 94
Rollands Plains 6, 67, 100
Rosedale, wreck of 197
Rosetta (ship), search for Trial (ship) 13
Rowe, Thomas James 143
tenant farming 62
Royal Hotel, Bowraville 136
Royal Tar (ship) construction 119, 120
launching 43, 119
Rudder, Augustus, attitude to Aborigines 16; description of Yarrahapinni 9
Enoch 24; attacks on Aborigines 14; cedar licence 14;
comments on sawyers 27; founder of Kempsey 14
Rhoda 184
rural employment 87
rural life, diversity 189
rural living, myths 196Russell, Patrick, selector 58
Ryan, Ellen, marriage to Patrick Kennedy 177
Ryan, Patrick, selector 102, 196

Sacred Heart Missionaries, foundation at Bowraville 151
sailors 43
Sargent, George 131
sawmilling 56
sawmills 41, 43, 120
sawpits, Nambucca heads 119
sawyers 12, 13
baptism of children 28
Bowraville camp 122
Brisbane Water 29
civil status of 23
Clement Hodgkinson's view of 21
comments on 27
contemporary attitudes to 20, 21, 22
convicts 22, 23, 27
de facto relationships 27
dependants 29
diet 30
economic independence 26
family life 22
future life 23
income 24
intermarriages 29
John Henderson's view of 21
living conditions 29, 30
marriage 22, 27, 28
marriages in Sydney 28
morality 27
Nambucca 1
numbers of 22
occupations 23
pairs 33
Richmond River 25
river-hopping 18, 29
self-employed 24
stereotype of 22
Sydney 29
ticket of leave 23
Saxby, Amos, teacher, living conditions 111
Scandinavian, immigration 51, 52
assimilation 169
marriage 168, 169
occupations 51, 168, 169
Schaible, William 168
School Board, local 102
Valla 112
School of Arts, Macksville 143
aims 142
criticism of 143
land 143
Nambucca Heads 94, 95, 142
trustees 142
school, Macksville 101
demands for 101
disputes about site 100
failure of 100
inspectors 99, 110, 101, 102, 104, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 143
local committee 100
location at Bowraville 100
Nambucca Central 100
schooling, Scottish parochial 105
schooling, Valla 101
attendance 98, 99
attitudes to 105
centralisation of 102
children 112
clash of values 112
compulsory attendance 105
disadvantaged 114
educational ladder 112
elementary, benefits 147
lack of interest 99
lack of support 105
local involvement 101
local problems 112
moral enlightenment 104, 108
parents' role 103
personal disputes 109
problems 104
public school status 100
reforms 112
relation to selection 98
reminiscences 112
rhetoric 112
secondary 112
self help 100
state claims 105
state funding 98
underlying principles 104
Schools, Macksville 100
buildings 103, 104, 105
discipline in 112
dumping grounds 108
government aid 104
half time 101, 102
local disputes 102
petitions for 105
provisional 100, 102, 103
settlement patterns 102
superior primary 112
Scotland, potato blight 48
Scots, Clarence 47
clannishness 48
Dungog 48
Highland emigrants 48
Hunter 47
Manning 47
marriage 167
pastoral districts 47
Presbyterianism 158
Scott, George, cedar-dealer 25
Robert 154, 158
William, cedar-dealer, reports of attacks on Aborigines 14
Scottish emigrants 47, 48
Scotts Head 3, 4, 170
Scrivener family 172
Scrivener, William (sen) selector 108 
William and Emily 85
William, ordination 174; selection 67; shire council 144
Seargent, George, baker 44
Secombe, Edward 87
William, paspalum 87
sectarianism 47, 152, 176
marriage 168
selection, average size 63
a new beginning 72
abuses of act 71
additional conditional purchase 68
areas avoided 65
average acreage 63
capital 72
cashless economy 85
children, 62, 63
clear title 63, 64
conditional purchase 63, 64
conditions of residence 71
contribution to settlement 70
convenience to shipping 56
diet 76
disasters of 197
diversification 78, 79
division of labour 81
dummying 63
effect on families 96, 97
effects of Macleay flood 57
establishment of 74, 75
family enterprise 168
family ties 60
forfeiture rate in colony 63
forfeitures on Nambucca 63 
geographical limits 69
Germans 168
harvest 81
improvements 64
increase of rate 65
labour of children 77
lack of opportunities 79, 97
large holdings 68
liberal concessions 69
limitations of 71
living expenses 76
marriage and family ties 68
mortgages 64
number 70
numbers of families 72
outside work 84
preparations for 60
promotion of closer settlement 71
reasons for 60
relation to bridle trails 58
residential requirements 71 
seasonal activities 81
success of 70
survey problems 69
transfers 64, 69
selections, concentration of 68
decline in 64
forfeiture 68
number in 1870 64
number, 1880 to 1884 69
numbers of 57
pattern, 1870 to 1874 64, 65
visits between 79
waterways 65
selector families, Missabotti 177
selector, purchases 76, 77
stereotype 72
selectors, changing aims 58
diet 93
experience on Macleay 59
English 59
family men 70
family networks 59, 60
Irish 59
marriage 59
numbers, 1864 to 1869 62
occupational backgrounds 59
poverty 85
profile of 59
rural experience 59
separate spheres, definition 77
settlement, labour 35
men of capital 35
prosperity 35
settler, term 163, 164
sexual relations, attitudes to 180
initiation of 179
Shamrock Tavern 128
Sheridan family 66
Margaret, marriage to Edward Hamilton 170
William, marriage to Catherine Behan 66
shipbuilding 43, 119
shipping 5, 43
shipwrecks 190
shipwrights 119, 120
Shire Council, establishment 144
first election 144
chambers dispute 146
Shoalhaven 41
Shoalhaven River, tenant farming 54
shopkeepers 146
Simmonds, Edward, drowning 189
James 42, 142
Simpson, George, selector 48, 56, 61
Robert, marriage to Clara Byrnes 177
Simpsons Ridge, school 102, 103, 104
school residence 111
Singleton, Arabella 32, 35
Slippery Charlie (ship), wreck 190
Small, Thomas, cedar-dealer 25
Smith, Charlotte, marriage to Isaac Ainsworth 169
Eliza, marriage to David Welsh, 167
Eliza, marriage to John Bowen Ainsworth 162, 176
Harriet, selection 173
Harriet, wife of Thomas 172
Isabella, marriage to William Argent 176
Ken, death 172, 173, 190
Mary, marriage to John May 176
Robert, labourer 78
Sarah, marriage to Ashford Willis 176
Thomas and Harriet, baptisms of children 175, 176
Thomas and Harriet, marriages of children 175, 176
Thomas, background 164
Thomas, convict and sawyer 59, 169
Thomas, death 164
Thomas, marriage to (Mary) Harriet Birdsill 164
William Holt, selector 59
William, convict 11
social control 142, 143
mobility 113
South Arm 58
Spokes, John, sawyer 2 
spouses, beyond the Nambucca 170
birth place 169, 170
competition for 170
influences on choice 170
squatter monopoly 54
Stace family, movement to Nambucca 44
George, sawyer 43
Martha, marriage to Henry Pacey 43
Star Hotel 131, 141
Alice Robertson 146
changes to 136
freehold 146
history 135, 136 
Macksville rebuilding 135
sale to Bernard Kritsch 146
Willis family 146
Steele, Charles, cedar-dealer 21
Stevens, Henry, teacher 107, 108, 112
Stewart, E.T. shire council 144
Samuel, teacher 100
W.C., dairy farmer 143; teacher 103
Stewarts Point 95
storekeepers 84
stores, material fabric 136
Street, Thomas, shipowner 32
Stuart, Harriet, marriage to Charles Hult 169
John Campbell, shipbuilder 43, 48, 119, 146
stumping 78
subsistence 197
subtropical rainforest 57, 58, 134
sugar cane growing, Macleay River 82
sugar cane, frost 83
sugar, high consumption 92, 93
mills 83
Sullivan, Frederick (jun) death 191
John Henry, Macleay settler 164
Patrick, marriage 28; sawyer 23
William 147, 196; claims as pioneer 127; 
licensee of Bowra Hotel 126; sawyer 23; 
selector 100; shipwright 43
Summer Island 40
Sunday schools, Methodist 156
Supple, Anne, marriage to Hugh Moran 66
support networks 196
surveyors, Aborigines, attitudes 8
survival, diversification 86
survivors, history of 36
Sussex Street, Sydney 32, 33
Sussex, ranting stronghold 152
Sweeney, Denis, blacksmith 44, 126
Swift, Thomas, butcher 131

Tacon, William 154
Talarm 58
Tanban 54
pastoral run 30, 31
school 103
teachers 109
Tamworth 72
Taylor, James, Try Station 20, 31
marriage to Ann Allan 106
Taylors Arm 56, 57, 58, 105, 170
Taylors Arm Upper, school 103
teacher 106
Taylors Arm, origin of name 31
selections 64
teachers, accommodation 110
attitudes to Nambucca 106, 107
complaints 106
complaints about 108, 109
conditions of residences 111
conflict with parents 110
dissatisfaction 110
experience 106
from Nambucca 113
isolation 106
local affairs 110
marriage with locals 106
married 110, 111
morale 111
parents' attitudes to 108
poor conditions 110, 111
pupil 113
religious affiliations, 113
requirements for 113
retirement 107, 108
selections 107
social origins 113
transfers 107
vulnerability 109, 110
wives, expectations of 106
women 110
teamsters 131
teeth, decayed 192
telegraph 131, 147
telegraph office 197
temperance 109, 142, 143
Temperance Hall 143
tenant farmers 40, 71
tenant farmers, Macleay 6
proportions 72
tenant farming 41, 67, 164
Austral Eden 62
John Verge 61
clearing leases 62
economic advantages 196
family enterprise 63
main areas 54
relationship to selection 54, 61
security of 196
Tewinga 66, 68
Thompson, John, Anne, wife of 32
John sawyer 32, 33
Mrs 94
William, sawyer, marriage to Sarah Pacey 43; 
tickets of leave, behaviour of holders 25
Tilly Willy Creek 50, 57
timber 56
licences 35
prices 33
trade 33
yards 33
timber yards, Sydney 26
timber, colonial demand 43
timber-getters 120
timber-getting, deaths 190,. 191
income 191
Toby, 'King of the Missabotti' 10
Toohey, James, selector 58
tradesmen 126
trails, location 57
transfers, rejection of 10
travel, on foot 95
Trees, Lois, marriage to James Henry Allan, 61, 153
Rachel, marriage to William Marshall 157
Trial Bay 6
Trial (ship), seizure of 13
trustees, Presbyterian Church, Bowraville 158
TRY Station 31, 32
tuberculosis, causes 192
Tyson, Annie, midwife 184

Unkya Creek school, teacher 108, 111
Unterheiner, Adam, shepherd 50, 168; family 49
upper class, behaviour and drinking 21, 22
urbanisation, effects of 188, 189
Utungun Provisional school 110
Utungun, village 117

Valla 31, 173
gold mine 82
Valla school, application for 101
Valla, school board 112
Valla, teacher 107
Valley Valley 31
Parish, selection 58
isolation of 68
Van, Ernest 119
Julian, selector 83, 96
Samuel, selector 83
vegetables, range grown 93
Verge, John, Austral Eden 169
tenant farming 61, 62
Victoria Hotel, Nambucca Heads 135
village life, focus for 124
new demands 140
opportunities 160
village parochialism 143
villages 116, 197
buildings 134
creation of 116, 117
dominant men 141
government initiative 117
material fabric 134
new order 141
` outposts 134
patterns of human activity 117
proposed functions 116
social control 117
utilitarianism 137
viticulture 81, 82
voices 194

Wurttemberg 49
Wai Ora 66
Walker, Jane, marriage to Donald McKay 48
Sarah, marriage to Luther Ballard 67
Wallabadah Run 73
Wallace, Matthew 143, 158; land for school of Arts 143; marriage to Isabel Gellatley 106, 141; origins and background 141; president of show 144; shire council 144, 145, 146
Warboys, William and Mary 155
Warneton 59
Warrell Creek 25, 30, 31, 32, 57, 68, 191
Warrell Creek Lower 103
schoolroom 104
Warrell Creek school, petition for reopening 112
Warrell Creek, pastoral run 31, 32
Primitive Methodism 155
Warrell, parish, selections 64
waterways, dangers 189
use of 190
weaning, timing of 188
wedding breakfast 90
wedding, Mary England and David Don 90
weddings, social rituals 90
Welsh family 86
Welsh,. David, marriage to Eliza Smith 167
selector 58, 105
support for school 105
Werris Creek 72
Wesley, John 152
Wesleyan chapel, Deep Creek 154
Wesleyan service, Deep Creek 59, 160
Wesleyanism, Bowraville 153
Deep Creek 53, 154
English influence 152; split 154
Macksville 154
Nambucca 152
Newee Creek 154
Sunday school 154
baptisms 153
cal for support 152
cottage and camp meetings 152, 153
failure on Nambucca 154
formal structures 152
lack of support 153
lay participation 152, 153
local preachers 153
marriages 153
villages 154
Wesleyans 154
census 1891 155
chapel 152
union 156
visits from Kempsey 154
Whaites, Alice, postmistress 147
Sidney, pupil-teacher 113
William, pilot 43, 119, 122, 132, 142
wharf, Bowraville 124, 173
Macksville 131
wharves, Nambucca Heads 121
Whelan, James, death 192
white ants 134
White, James, blacksmith 44
Robert, master mariner 44, 45
widow-makers 191(2)
Wilkins, William 101
William Cossar (ship) seizure of 11
Williams River 60, 67
Williams, James, Arabella, wife of 32
James, selector 32, 33, 35, 56, 61, 102
John, blacksmith 44; marriage to Gertrude Ainsworth 44
R., teacher, complaints against 109
Willis, Ashford, marriage to Sarah Smith 176
origins 45
Charles, death 146; licensee of star Hotel 146; publican 135
Mary Jane, children 146; licensee of Star Hotel 135; 
marriage to Phillip McAteer 135
Willis, men 148
reasons for 149
women 148, 149
Wilson 98
Wilson river 40, 41, 67, 147
Wilson, Catherine, marriage to George Beilby 43
William, birth of daughter 35, 122; pastoral superintendent 43
Wilson, village of 35, 68, 128
failure of 117
Wiltshire, agricultural wages 45
Windsor 163
wine, market 82
Winslow, George, selector 46
Wirrimbi 35, 56
Wirrimbi Upper, school 106
Wirrimbi, Majors ford 30
Wirrimbi, school 104
women and men, death rate, comparison 192
women, accidents 191
choices 147
dairying 88
death rate 192
discriminatory land legislation 63
estates 148, 149
farm work 81
fertility 180
hotel licensees 135, 146
independent incomes 146
limitations on 159
literacy 147
marriage as escape 179
material success 149
medical obstetrical care 185
meeting place 125
movement to interior 116
opportunities for 159
options 195
postmistresses 146, 1`47, 148
relationships with husbands 147
religious sisterhoods 151, 152
responsibilities 138
schooling 147
selection 62, 63
separated from husbands 147
teachers 110
tenant farming 54
village life 146
voices 194
wills 148, 149
Woodgate, George and Mary, deaths 192
Woods, William 143
Woolford, Edward Osborne, selector 57
Workers, improvidence of 28
Wright, Alice, marriage to David Gill 153
William 25, 26, 33, 147; selector 59; sugar cane 83

Yarrabine 31
Yarrahapinni 30
Yarraman 72
Yarranbella parish, selections 58
Yarrowitch 72
Yeoman farmers 50

Contributed by: Jan Thomas

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