Pioneers
Civil Government
Officials
Land Owners
Sandusky
Elton
Societies
Schools
Churches
HISTORY OF CATTARAUGUS COUNTY, NEW YORK

Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers.
Philadelphia:
L.H. Everts, 1879, Edited by Franklin Ellis

CHAPTER ON THE TOWN OF FREEDOM
Transcribed from pages 390-399 by Samantha Eastman

Note:  There are no photographs or portraits in this chapter.

    Freedom is the northeast corner town of the county.  The surface is a rolling or moderately hilly upland.  Its principal water-courses are Clear Creek, which takes its rise from Fish Lake, and flows northwest through the central part, and the south branch of Cattaraugus Creek, which flows in the same direction across the southwest corner.  Fish Lake in the east part, Beaver Lake in the south, and Scum and Laws Lakes in the centre, are small bodies of water.  The soil is of good quality, of clay and gravely loam, well adapted to grazing, dairying, fruit-culture, and all other pursuits of agriculture.  Several quarries of good building-stone are found in different parts of the town.  Stock-raising and the manufacture of cheese engages the attention of the agricultural classes.  The three cheese-factories of Mr. J.B. Lewis, and the two controlled by Mr. John G. James, use the milk of 2500 cows, and manufacture about 700,000 pounds of cheese yearly.  At the Sandusky factory are nine cheeses, made the present year, which weigh from 1200 to 1500 pounds each.  Sales are made monthly, and the products shipped to New York and the markets of Europe.
    The town contains a total area of 25,998 acres, of which 18,125 acres are improved, and in 1875 had a population of 1341 inhabitants.

PIONEER SETTLEMENT

    Contracts for land in township 6, range 4, of the Holland Purchase, were entered into by Aquilla Robbins, Joseph Edminster, Jr., Seth Pratt, Elihu Daggett, and Joseph Franklin, in the year 1809, and by Warren Stanley, Enoch Howlett, Ezekiel D. Runals, Rufus Metcalf, Earl Sawyer, and Jonas C. Irish, in 1810, for land in township 6, of the third range.  It has not been learned that either Robbins, Edminster, Pratt, or Franklin ever became actual settlers.  The remainder did, and located as follows: Elihu Daggett, from Vermont, on lot 37, in the west part of township 6, range 4; Enoch Howlett on the west part of lot 21; Rufus Metcalf on the west part of lot 13; Earl Sawyer on the east part of lot 13; Jonas C. Irish on the west middle part of lot 5; and Stanley and Runals in the vicinity of Fish Lake, - all of the last named were in township 6 of the third range.  But little Is known of Messrs. Daggett, Stanley, and Runals, - and that little by a few old residents, - as they removed at quite an early day, and, we believe, have no representatives here at the present time.  It is related of Mr. Daggett that during a time of great scarcity - probably the year following the cold season of 1816 - his family were obliged to dug up and eat the potatoes just planted.  He was the first freeholder in the town.
    Stanley and Runals were from New Hampshire.  Enoch Howlet came from Bradford, N.H., and settled first of the farm now cleared by Alonzo Osman in 1811; soon after he contracted for the farm of 200 acres now owned by his son, John Howlet, and remained there until his death, which occurred at the age of sixty-seven years.  Mr. Howlet was a prominent man in the early days, and at the first town-meeting was elected to the offices of assessor, overseer of the poor, commissioner of common schools, and poundmaster.  He was one of the first justices of the peace appointed, and the second supervisor of the town.  He also opened the first tavern, in 1823; was the second postmaster, and held the office for a quarter of a century.
    Colonel Earl Sawyer, Jonas C. Irish, and Rufus Metcalf came from Vermont, and settled here the same year, viz., 1811.  Mr. Sawyer was the first town clerk, one of the first justices, and in all his business and social relations a popular and prominent citizen.  He built the first frame house in 1822, introduced the first improved agricultural implements, and was ever to be found among the foremost in all matters looking to the advancement of the interests of his townsmen.  The homestead is still owned by his children, all of whom are of the most eminent worth and respectability.  Mr. Irish remained a resident of the town until about 1866, when he removed to the State of Tennessee.
    Rufus Metcalf acquired considerable notoriety during the Mormon excitement of 1835 as a zealous adherent and believer in that faith, and, we believe, continued with the faithful when they migrated from this vicinity to Kirtland, O.  His brother, Gregory Metcalf, settled on the northwest part of lot 3, in the southeast part of the town, about 1812.  In 1816, John G. Ensign, one of the first constables, was in the west part, near Elihu Daggett.  Nathan and Daniel Cole, brothers, who were active and prominent citizens during the early settlement, were at Cole's Settlement in the southwest in 1817; also Seth Makepeace, the first surveyor, and his sons Jarvis and Elijah, on and near the site of Sandusky village; and Zadock Randall, Amos P. and James Randall, south of the central part.  The year 1819 found Nathan Holmes in the south part, on lot 10, range 4; Gillet and David Hinkley on the west part of lot 38, third range; and Oliver and Truman Alger just north of Cole's Settlement.  William Price, the first surveyor, was on lot 40, in the extreme northwest part.  From this time forward settlers came in rapidly.  In 1820, Frederick Beekman, a veteran of the Revolution, and his son, Christopher Beekman, were on lot 40 of the third range.  The elder Beekman was of Dutch parentage, and himself and wife, as regards longevity, have but few parallels in the world's history.  He died at the age of one hundred and nine years, and his wife, who died two years previously, was one hundred and five years of age.  Very many of the present residents of Freedom remember the old veteran and the words of his patriotic toast.  It was his custom to shoulder hus "howling-piece" early on Fourth of July mornings, and awaken his sleeping neighbors by a salute from his heavily-loaded piece, which was discharged at arms' length, held high over head, and then he would repeat the following words: "Hurrah for Washington, Gates, Putnam, und Lee; und all de brave men who fought for libertee!"  Through some irregularity in his papers or muster, he received no aid or pension from the government until a short time before his death.
    John Blocker was a resident in 1820; also Lot Crowel, one of the first justices and assessors, who was located on lot 36, third range; Bicknal Cole in the Fish Lake neighborhood; Dr. Elihu Cruttenden and Hurlbut Cruttenden on Clear Creek.  Dr. Cruttenden was the first resident physician, and built the first grist-mill, in 1822.  It stood where the present mill of Thomas Dornan now stands.  Wycum Clark, Jonathan Cook, Sullivan Drew, James T. Drew, Lewis Daggett, Delinus Daggett, and Reuben Daggett, supposed to be brothers or other relatives of Elihu Daggett, were also here, and Robert Daniels, who kept the first tavern in Sandusky, in 1824.  Austin Daniels was located at the same place, - Stephen Hollister in the west part.  Willard Law, who afterwards gained an unenviable reputation, built the first saw-mill in town, on lot 20, in 1820.  John Marricle in the central part, Simeon Magoon in the western, Joseph Pasco in the north part, James D. Sischo in the west part, Nehemiah Sparks on lot 4, third range.  He was a zealous Mormon, and called "the Prophet."  Joseph Wait, on lot 6, third range; Mark and Thomas White, on lot 20, third range; and Israel Runals and Jonathan Stow, whose exact location is unknown. 
    Charles Beebe, a native of Vermont, and for some time a resident of Madison Co., N.Y., removed to Genesee County in 1815, and settled in China, near Arcade.  He remained there until 1820, when he removed to this town and settled on the farm now owned by his sons, Wellington and Charles Beebe.  He was accompanied here by his sons Hiram and Charles.  Mr. Beebe was elected an assessor, commissioner of schools, and fence-viewer, at the first town-meeting held in Freedom.  He was a successful farmer, and highly respected as a citizen.  Died at the age of eighty-six years.  His wife still survives, aged eighty-three.  Of a family of eleven children, six are living.  The sons located as follows: Hiram and Charles, in Freedom; Willington and Clinton, in Arcade; and Darius, in Kalamazoo, Mich.
    Among those here in 1821 was Barnes D. Bixby, on lot 24, fourth range; James Cahoon, on lot 8, fourth range; Dr. Warren Cowdery, and early physician, in the Fish Lake Settlement.  He built the first brick house in 1828, and was the first postmaster in town; the office was established about 1824.  Enoch and Ephraim Cheney, Elbridge Demming, Samuel Gibbs, Henry and Jacob Hitsman, ----Henry was on lot 6, fourth range, and is still living; Caleb Lamb, Eliphas Lafferty, in the southwest part; Jesse and Philander Murray, Orange Powell, in the north part; Benjamin E. Taft, A.B. Wadsworth, David D. Wells, were on lot 37, third range; and Roswell Webb, location unknown.
    Elam Ellithorpe, accompanied by his sons, Samuel, George D.,  William T., Elam, Jr., Chauncey, Charles, and Jacob, came from Monroe Co., N.Y., and settled here in 1822.  He established the first tannery near Hayden's Woolem-Mills.  Other residents in 1822 were Josiah Cheney, who, with Heman Hyde, established the first fulling, wool-carding, and cloth-dressing works, near Dr. Cowdery's, in 1822; Aaron Cheney was on lot 12, and Benjamin Cheney on lot 19, in the third range; Henry E. Denio, near Sandusky village; Sardis Davis, in the same locality; Heman Hyde, Heman T., and Josephus Hyde, in the Fish Lake Settlement; John S. and Peter S. Johnson, on lot 28, third range; Robert Nicholas, on lot 3, fourth range; James and Moses Parmelee, location unknown; Henry Treat, on lot 39, third range; John Treat, on the same lot.
    Francis Crane, from Fabius, Onondaga Co. (formerly from Vermont), with his sons Ulysses P., Lockart B., Ira P., and Squire D., settled on lot 8, in the third range, in 1823.  His son, Hon. Ulysses P. Crane, one of Freedom's most worthy and respected citizens, who has held many offices of trust and honor, and represented Cattaraugus County in the State Legislature in 1860, occupies the homestead at the present time.
    Previous to 1825 the following-named settlers were here and located as follows:  David Austin, in the south part; David Alton and Elliott Alton, on lot 1, in the third range; James R. and Edward Ball, on lot 7, third range; Gideon Baker, on lot 3, third range; Reuben and Nathaniel Brown, on lot 26, of the fourth range; Charles Baldwin, on lot 40, of the third range; Isaac Crawford and his son, Isaac Jr., on lot 18, third range; Chauncey I. Calkins, on lot 3, fourth range; also Isaac R. Calkins, same vicinity; Robert and Alvah Durkee, on lot 9, fourth range; Benjamin and Joseph Farley, on lot 18, fourth range; Abel Gordon, lot 8, fourth range; Abram and John Harwick, on lot 31, third range; Elisha Leonard, on lot 18, fourth range; Peter Marble, on lot 20, fourth range; Joseph and William Marsh, in the west part; Delevan Nelson, on 36, of third range; Elijah Oakes, in the northwest corner; Elijah Oakes, Jr., on 32, fourth range; Lane Rounds and Isaiah Rounds, on lot 2, fourth range; John Selfridge, of 15, of third range; Charles E. Stewart, on lot 33, fourth range; John Thomas, lot 2, fourth range; William Thomson, a surveyor, and town clerk for many years, on lot 5, third range; David Wild, at Sandusky,  He was a hotel-keeper at an early day. About 1825, and built the present Sandusky Hotel in 1833.  His daughter was married to Judge Sanford E. Church.  Amos Wright, on lot 25, fourth range; Hartley Weld, near Enoch Howlet's, where he sold the first goods in town, in 1821.
    Others who were here during the years before mentioned, i.e., from 1823 to 1825, but whose location we are unable to ascertain, were Aaron Armstrong, John Aiken, Joseph Bradish, William and James Cooper, John Champlain, Jr., Aaron Clark, George Dunn, Peter I. Toland, David Franklin, Peter Huggerboom, David Hillman, Noah C. Howe, Jehiel Kibbe, John King, John Knowlton, Abram and Henry Keller, Barber Lawson, John W. Leonard, Christian Myers, John Martin, James McKey, Lemuel Rounds, John Richmond, Garrabrant Spear, Aaron Seavey, Earl Seaman, S.R. Thornton, Ashbel W. Treat, David Van Buskirk, Chauncey D. Webster, Wm. W. Ward, Seth Winslow, John Willis, and John Welch.
    Eber Holmes, a native of Vermont, and a soldier of 1812, accompanied by his wife and children, viz., Myron, Milo, Julia, Hannah, and Martha, came from York, Livingston Co., N.Y., in 1827, and settled on lot 38, of the third range.  He became quite and extensive land-owner, built a saw-mill on Clear Creek soon after his settlement, and was engaged in mercantile business at an early period.  Mr. Holmes was prominently identified with all the public interests of his town, and served as supervisor for a period of ten years.
    John I. Weir, with his sons, Daniel, Samuel, and Ambrose, came from Washington Co., N.Y., and settled on the farm now owned by David D. Davis, in 1833.
    From 1832 to 1835, Alexander Vallance, Daniel Lammie, William Mitchell, Andrew Mearns, and their families, came in from Ayrshire, Scotland, and settled in the northeast part of the town.  James McKerrow, from the same place, settled in 1844.
    In 1841, Robert Williams, John Higgins, Thomas Rees, Daniel Morgans, H.O. Roberts, John Lewis, and others came in from Oneida Co., N.Y., and formed the nucleus of a Welsh settlement, which has prospered and increased in numbers until there are found in this and the adjoining towns of Farmersville and Centreville a population of at least 500 of these thrifty, law-abiding, enterprising people.
    Rufus Metcalf and Earl Sawyer were the first cheese manufacturers, and thereby hangs a tale which Samuel Weir and other old residents can unfold.  The first child born was Rufus Metcalf, Jr., Dec. 24, 1812, and the first death of an adult was that of Peter Davis, Dec. 17, 1816.  The first marriages were those of Elihu Daggett and Sally McKee, and Sylvester Davis and Miss Daggett, all of whom were married at the same time, in 1817.  Jemima Clark taught the first school, in 1816.  The first school-house was built in 1819, in District No. 1.
    The pioneers of Freedom, as in many adjacent towns, were mainly from the States of New Hampshire and Vermont.  They brought with them and practiced here in the wilds of Cattaraugus all their habits of thrift, economy, and industry, so eminently characteristic of the transplanted New Englander.  That those habits and teachings have been inculcated to good purpose to succeeding generations is amply testified to by the appearance of the well-improved lands and neat farm-houses of the present inhabitants.

CIVIL GOVERNMENT

    Freedom was formed from Ischua by an act of the State Legislature, passed April 13, 1820, and at that time contained a population of 320 inhabitants.  The act describes the territory as "being all that part of the town of Ischua known and distinguished as townships number six, in the third and fourth ranges of townships, be and the same is hereby erected into a separate town by the name of Freedom; and the first town-meeting shall be held at the dwelling-house of Gillet Hinckley, in said town, on the first Tuesday of March next."  The west tier of lots was annexed to Yorkshire in 1844.

    "At the town-meeting held at the house of Gillet Hinckley, in the town of Freedom, the first Tuesday in March, 1821, the following-named town officers were elected:"
    Supervisor, William Price; Town Clerk, Earl Sawyer; Assessors, Enoch Howlet, Charles Beebe, Lot Crowel; Collector, Daniel Cole; Overseers of the Poor, Lot Crowel, Enoch Howlet; Commissioners of Highways, Elihu Daggett, Nathan Holmes, Nathan Cole; Constables, Daniel Cole, Israel Runals, John G. Ensign; Commissioners of Schools, Enoch Howlet, Charles Beebe, Nathan Cole; Inspectors of Common Schools, Earl Sawyer, Wycum Clark, Nehemiah Sparks; Poundmasters, Gillet Hinckley, Daniel Cole, Enoch Howlet; Fence-Viewers, Earl Sawyer, Nathan Holmes, Nehemiah Sparks, James D. Sischo, Jonathan Stow, James T. Drew, Charles Beebe, Delinus Daggett, David Hinckley; Overseers of Highways, Willard Law, Earl Sawyer, David Hinckley, Israel Runals, Lot Crowel, James T. Drew, John G. Ensign, Simeon Magoon, Reuben Daggett, James D. Sischo, Jonathan Cook, Oliver Alger.
    At this meeting other matters relating to the affairs of the town were voted upon as follows: "Voted, to have the two roads layd out by Nathan Holmes last year recorded.  Voted that swine should be free commoners if they ware yoked and Rung with a good and sufficient yoke and Ring.  Voted, to raise $250 Road Money.  Voted, to raise double the amount of school money received from the State.  Voted, to raise $10 on every bear killed by actual residents of the town.  Voted, to raise $20 on every Woolf and Panther killed by actual residents of the town.  Voted, to raise fore Dollars to buy a Town Book."
    Signed by William Price, Moderator; Enoch Howlet, Clerk.

    The following is a list of the supervisors, town clerks, and justices of the peace from 1821 to 1878:

Supervisors.
1821 William Price
1822 Enoch Howlet
1823-26 James Parmelee
1827 Enoch Howlet
1828-30 William Price
1831-32 David Wild
1833-35 Eber Holmes
1836    David S. Barrows
1837-39 Eber Holmes
1840   John G. Wook
1841-43 Eber Holmes
1844-45 Jarvis Leonard
1846    John R. Knowles
1847 Myron Holmes
1848 Reuben M. Jameson
1849 Henry Crandall
1850 Eber Holmes
1851-52 Daniel Lammie
1853    William V. Smith
1854-56 Hugh H. Jones
1857 Daniel Lammie
1858 Reuben M. Jameson
1859-60 John Higgins
1861    Harrison Cheney
1862 William V. Smith
1863-66 Daniel Lammie
1867 Warren J. Sawyer
1868 J.D. Colborn
1869-70 Oliver R. Knight
1871-72 John W. Rees
1873-74 Harrison Cheney
1875-78 John Lammie

Town Clerks
1821-28 Earl Sawyer
1829 David Wild
1830-31 James Sherwood
1832-34 Lyman Scott, Jr.
1835  Albert Seaman
1836  Thomas White
1837-38 Chester W. Williams
1839-40 Ralph Lewis
1841-44    Daniel Warner
1845-47 Benjamin Hillman
1848 Joseph Hinckley
1849 Milo Holmes
1850 Benjamin Hillman
1851-56 William Thomson
1857-60 Benjamin Hillman
1861          Leroy W. Brown
1862-63 C. Mason
1864-65 Martin Hayden
1866-67 Maynard W. Lanckton
1868-69 Eugene Haskell
1870          L. W. Baldwin
1871-74          T. H. Crandall
1875-76 M. J. Crandall
1877          Marcus P. Beebe
1878 B. B. Lewis
       
Justices of the Peace *
Enoch Howlet
Lot Crowell
Earl Sawyer
Amos Wright
Jonathan Cook
Eber Holmes
James Parmelee
William Price
1830 Leonard Mason
1831 William Price, Stephen Schutt
1832 Lyman Scott
1833 Lyman Scott, Jr.
1834 Stephen Schutt
1835 William Price
1836 Lyman Scott, Denison Ashley, Nathaniel Brown
1837 Nathaniel Brown
1838 Stephen Schutt
1839 Denison Ashley
1840 Henry Foot, Thomas White
1841 Nathaniel Brown
1842 Henry Foot
1843 Lyman Scott
1844 Luther Cummings
1845 Ulysses P. Crane
1846 John G. Wood
1847 Thomas White
1848 Stephen Schutt
1849 Ulysses P. Crane
1850 John G. Wood
1851 Thomas White
1852 David H. Olney
1853 Ulysses P. Crane
1854 John G. Wood
1855 Thomas White
1856 Reuben Brown
1857 Aaron G. Hovey, Alexander Mitchell
1858 Isaac T. Wheeler
1859 Alfred Lewis
1860 Aaron G. Hovey
1861 Alexander Mitchell
1862 R.E. Jameson
1863 Alfred H. Lewis, Thomas White
1864 Daniel Brown, Isaac T. Wheeler
1865 Alexander Mitchell
1866 Harrison Cheney
1867 William Charles
1868 Daniel Brown, Thomas White
1869 Alexander Mitchell
1870 Thomas White
1871 Reuben Ball
1872 Daniel Brown
1873 Alexander Mitchell, Isaac T. Wheeler
1874 Isaac T. Wheeler
1875 David D. Morgan
1876 Daniel Brown, John Mitchell
1877 John Mitchell
1878 Perry Merrill



PROCEEDINGS OF BOARD OF EXCISE, 1824.

    "At a meeting of the board of the commissioners of excise for the town of Freedom, in the county of Cattaraugus, held at the house of Enoch Howlet, innkeeper in said town, on the 3d day of May, 1824, present: James Parmelee, Supervisor and Commissioner; Enoch Howlet and Robert Daniels, having made application to the said commissioners, now convened, for a license to keep an inn or tavern at their present dwelling-houses and stands in said town, and the said commissioners having satisfactory proof that the said Enoch Howlet and Robert Daniels are of good moral character and of sufficient ability to keep and inn or tavern, and that they have accommodations to entertain travelers; and the said commissioners being of the opinion that an inn or tavern is absolutely necessary at the said houses for the accommodation of travelers, therefore the said commissioners have, in pursuance of an act entitled an act to lay a duty on strong and spirituous liquors and for regulating inns and taverns, passed April 7, 1801, Resolved, and do hereby resolve, that a license, according to the applications aforesaid, be granted to the said Howlet and Daniels from the date hereof until the first Tuesday of May next.  In testimony whereof we, the said commissioners, have respectively subscribed this resolve, this day and year aforesaid.
            "James Parmelee, Supervisor and Com'r.
            "Lot Crowel, Justice of the Peace and Com'r."

    The following is an alphabetical list of resident land-owners, town of Freedom, for the year 1835, showing the number of acres owned and improved by each:
Name Owned Imp.
Austin, Jonathan 1/2 1/2
Angle, Wm. P 98 10
Ashley, Denison 108 10
Applebee, John 42 8
Alger, Oliver 156 8
Alger, Truman 155 8
Alger, Searl 51 1
Alton, David 98 30
Ball, Alvin 146 1/2 22
Ball, James 102 16
Ball, Edward 98 16
Ball, Reuben 119 7

*Appointed by State authorities since 1821 and prior to 1830.  No means of ascertaining when appointed.
 
Name
Owned
Imp.
  
Name
Owned
Imp.
  
Name
Owned
Imp.
Baker, Gideon 132 1/2 29
Holmes, Lester 88 7
Reed, Jacob 49 8
Baker, Almon 49 9
Hitsman, Henry 98 30
Ruby, Horace 1/4 1/4
Baker, Ira 198 1/6 60
Hinckley, Gilbert 124 14
Robeson, Robert 49 4
Beach, C.R. 60 ---
Hill, Frederick B. 79 5
Rounds, Lemuel 49 ---
Ball, Elisha 48 8
Holmes, Eber 292 39
Rounds, Isaac 49 2
Bixby, Luther 82 3
Holmes, Ezra 170 60
Rounds, Isaiah 49 15
Brown, Reuben 88 16
Hooker, Jonathan 94 5
Rounds, Lane, Jr. 20 7
Brown, Nathaniel 131 9
Hooker, J. & J.C. 98 85
Rogers, Nathaniel 52 20
Beekwith, Nelson 50 5
Hooker, Jonathan & Sanford 46 30
Randall, Zadock 126 25
Barrows, John 95 15
Hooker, Sanford 78 30
Rounds, Lane 65 15
Bishop, George 49 5
Harmick, Abram 79 10
Reynolds, Luther 50 8
Brown, James 47 3
Holland, Simon 102 7
Rounds, Cyrel 40 ---
Bushnell, Norman 382 35
Howard, Franklin 84 9
Rounds, Jacob 50 10
Bixby, Barnes 57 12
Hopkins, David 66 8
Ramsdell, Joseph R. 158 20
Bump, Moses 49 12
Howlet, Enoch 199 50
Rogers, Alexander 49 5
Barnes, Wm. B. 100 6
Hatfield, Wm. 160 40
Richardson, Isaac 112 ---
Bliss, Eleazer 94 ---
Howard, Talcott 15 2
Selfredge, John 99 4
Baldwin, Charles 145 34
Hawkins, Ezra 55 5
Shattuck, Calvin 39 5
Beekman, Christopher 122 40
Havens, Rex 125 5
Sparks, William 148 40
Beebe, Charles 160 55
Hancock, Zina 94 5
Sawyer, Earl 113 40
Beebe, Hiram 67 5
Irish, Jonas C. 71 25
Sparks, Nehemiah 48 20
Bartlett & Cole 9 6
Jenkins, Amasa 37988 37988
Sanborn, Enoch S. 102 15
Barrows, D. L. 10 4
Jackson, Henry 145 25
Smith, Hiram 8 3
Burleson, Owens 35 5
Johnson, Peter 48 12
Showerman, John 269 68
Bushnell, John 75 ---
Jaquish, Hazen 64 10
Sparling, --- 50 6
Bushnell, James 79 ---
Jaquish, Daniel 49 7
Streeter, Elias 1/4 1/4
Bartlett, Wilder 49 3
Johnson, Pomeroy, Jr. 39 1
Smith, Hiram 119 18
Cheney, Simeon 132 17
Joslin, Lyman 129 8
Schutt, Stephen 100 38
Cahoon, James 42 15
Jackson, Cyrus 89 6
Stimson, Jeremy 57 8
Cheney, Nathan 3/4 3/4
King, Elijah, Jr. 98 15
Smith, Ebenezer 78 2
Cheney, Alexander 50 ---
King, Cyrus 70 ---
Scott, Lyman, Jr. 1/4 1/4
Cheney, Josiah 91 1.75
Knight, Milo 50 3
Spencer, Seth, Jr. 122 41
Congdon, James W. 99 12
Kellogg, Calvin 42 8
Selfridge, Susannah 174 36
Congdon, Joseph 156 37
Knight, Gordon 158 12
Scott, Lyman 50 7
Congdon, John 316 30
Knight, Wm. 145 15
Steward, Charles 130 15
Cheesman, Abner 49 12
Lewis, Ralph 20 1
Shaver, Philip 99 ---
Crowel, Lot 15 9
Law, Wm. 82 20
Sherman, Justus 97 8
Corwin, Nathan 49 3
Letson, Wm. C. 20 4
Steele, James 104 3
Calkins, Chauncey J. 189 3
Letson, Freeborn 29 5
Spoor, Nicholas 10 ---
Crossman, Amos 158 20
Lake, Conrad 50 ---
Taylor, Asabel 46 1
Cleveland, Thomas 57 3
Lyman, Huntingdon 50 ---
Twomley, Luther 111 20
Cole, N.W. 60 8
Lammie, Daniel 98 12
Tallmage, Asa 75 20
Crawford, Franklin 100 6
Lewis, Laban 62 9
Treat, John 100 18
Cornell, Thomas J. 258 65
Law, Willard 169 20
Treat, Henry 163 25
Cagwell, George 50 3
Law, Chauncey 48 8
Thomas, John, Jr. 121 30
Carpenter, Isaac 99 ---
Leonard, Elisha 98 20
Thomas, John 22 6
Cheney, Hurd 50 6
Lafferty, John 77 5
Thayer, Elijah 113 20
Cheney, Aaron 113 20
Langmade, Stephen 99 5
Thomson, William 57 16
Cheney, Benjamin 20 8
Mead, Guy C. 106 14
Thomson, Henry 77 10
Chamberlin, Levi 131 20
Mason, Washington 120 20
Taylor & Howard 423 90
Crawford, Isaac 303 18
Mason, Henry M. 48 16
Turner, L.H. 60 4
Crane, U.P. 115 13
Mason, Leonard 187 47
Van Duzer, Abram 114 15
Crane, Francis 97 10
Martin, Benjamin 72 3
Van Duzer, John B. 98 20
Cole, Asabel 150 18
Mason, Isaac 157 20
Vallance, Alexander 77 10
Cole, Nathan 60 25
Marsh, Ira 30 ---
Van Epps, Abram 80 15
Colby, James, Jr. 98 5
Mitchell, Wm. 76 8
Vrooman, Peter C. 99 8
Cobb, David 100 ---
Metcalf, Rufus 102 55
Van Acher, Malachi 99 ---
Cheney, Daniel 65 12
Miles, Samuel 64 18
Wood, Elias 97 10
Cheney, Wells 49 1
Martindale, Elisha 2 1
Williams, Chester W. 37988 37988
Davis, James M. 1
McIntyre, Royal 49 3
White, Thomas 133 40
Denio, Joseph 1 1
Moore, John C. 70 5
White, Horatio 6 ---
Depew, Nicholas 30 2
Moore, Oliver 99 8
Wing, Vespasian 3/4 3/4
Dort, Silas 98 12
Marble, Peter 170 30
Worthington, John 63 3
Dailey, Sam'l C. 76 4
Marble, Jesse 88 ---
Wetherbee, Milo D. 67 15
Durkee, Robert 45 3
Martin, Isaac I. 99 3
Wells, David 48 7
Dibble, John C. 120 6
Marsh, Wm. 99 5
Worthington, Thad's. 48 2
Dresser, Lewis 98 1
Newman, James 124 13
Weeks, Ruth 97 9
Demming, David 99 12
Norris, Edward 125 34
Worthington, Samuel 59 4
Dresser, William 95 20
Nichols, Samuel 143 30
White, Joseph 94 5
Dibble, Asabel 271 20
Nelson, Delevan 98 15
Wing, Vespasian, Jr. 70 5
Daggett, London & Leeland 147 1
Nichols, John 49 6
Wait, Cook 34 4
Daggett, Danford 185 10
Nelson, James R. 149 20
Wait, Joseph 50 15
Ellithorp, Elam 52 6
Nelson, George 51 6
Weir, John I. 111 40
Ellithorp, Elam, Jr. 1/4 1/4
Nicholas, Robert 99 18
Wood, John G. 50 20
Ellithorp, Wm. T 37 1/3 8 1/33
Nichols, Jacob 176 2
Ward, P.M. & Co. 229 20
Ellithorp, Geo. D. 79 8
Nichols, John 92 10
Wood, Charles W. 50 ---
Eddy, Almon 49 12
Nurse, Silas 99 5
Wedge, Joseph 56 10
Eddy, Moses 198 11
Nurse, Wm. 100 2
Whitney, Nathaniel 80 25
Ellis, Heman 58 12
Owens, Uriah 70 8
Watson, Jacob 61 15
Ellis, Elias 49 6
Oakes, Elijah 70 8
Watson, Jerry 75 10
Fisk, Sheldon 69 12
Oakes, Elijah, Jr. 134 12
Watson, Benjamin 97 10
Frink, Samuel G. 98 10
Oakes, Nicholas 16 1
Wheeler, Oliver 1 1
Fisk, Weaver G. 128 25
Powell, Samuel 140 20
Whitcomb, Edward 69 8
Fersons, Marion 56 8
Pickett, Asabel 80 12
Whitcomb, Ebenezer 54 ---
Freeborn, Holder 100 ---
Preston, Joshua 60 3
Wilson, Alva 49 1
Fox, Chauncey 75 9
Putney, Asa 29 14
Winters, Daniel 49 3
Findlay, Francis 149 26
Porter, Amasa 100 15
Winters, William 49 9
Fox, Rodolph 83 15
Page, Josiah 49 14
Winters, John 49 9
Fox, Willis 79 14
Phillips, Jonah 55 2
Williams, Proctor 50 3
Farley, Benjamin 39 5
Peck, Joseph 49 3
Weeks, Obadiah 59 3
Fox, Luke W. 99 3
Peck, Joseph, Jr. 48 3
Wright, Amos 70 10
Gordon, Benjamin 35 10
Pixley, John 49 5



Green, Hiram 96 10
Pixley, Alonzo 50 2



Goff, David 99 3
Plucker, John 24 ---



Gleason, Samuel 97 2
Price, William 145 3



Garner, Gilbert 50 ---







Guild, Felix 53 8







Goold, Francis 98 ---







Greenfield, Behuel 92 30







Greenfield, Beth'l, Jr. 50 ---








    We give herewith a comparative statement of the number of acres improved and value of the same, amount of livestock, mills and manufactories, school statistics, etc., for the years 1835 and 1875:
1835.
Number of acres of improved land 6,600
Assessed value of real estate $72,095
      "           "    of personal estate 962
Number of cattle 2,106
    "         horses 484
    "     of sheep 3,952
    "     of swine 2,205
    "    yards of fulled woolens 3,270
    "       "    unfulled woolens 4,959
    "       " linens 3,612
Amount of county tax $430.02
    "            town tax $497.65
Number of grist-mills 2
   "            saw-mills 5
   "            fulling-mills 1
   "            card-machines 1
   "            asheries 2
   "            tanneries 1


1875.
Number of acres of improved land 18,125
Assessed valuation of real estate $773,881
    "              "         personal estate 237,000
Tons of hay produced 6,427
Bushels of buckwheat 1,072
    "          Indian corn 1,292
    "          oats 40,941
    "          spring wheat 580
    "          potatoes 28,623
    "          apples 12,096
Pounds of maple-sugar 26,738
Number of horses 445
    "            cattle 3,417
    "             cows whose milk was sent to factory 1,965
Pounds of butter made in families 62,775
   "           wool clipped 2,788
   "           pork made on farms 79,264


Pg. 395

INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS

    The first highway in the town of Freedom was surveyed Oct. 20, 1813, by order of Solomon Rawson and Elijah Gibbs, highway commissioners of the town of Ischua; and is described as beginning at the north line of township 6, in the fourth range, at a stake, being the end of the road laid in the seventh town, fourth range; thence running in a general southeast course until passing through the village of Sandusky, whence its direction is nearly east, reaching the east border of township 6, range 3, near the centre.  Or, in other words, the highway which follows the valley of Clear Creek.
    In scanning the work performed by the first board of highway commissioners of the town of Freedom, it is notable how many roads are described as beginning and terminating at and near the residence of Nathan Cole.
    The Rochester and State Line Railroad enters the town on the east border, north of the centre, and running in a southwesterly direction, passing Freedom Station, which is about two and one-half miles southeast of Sandusky, leaves the town on the south border, near the centre of range 3.  In enters the town again near the southwest corner.  This road was completed in the spring of 1878.  The town paid no money to encourage its building, but the citizens paid for the construction of the depot at Freedom Station with funds raised by subscription.

SANDUSKY

is situated on Clear Creek, a little north of the centre of the town.  It contains 2 church edifices (Baptist and Universalist), 3 religious societies, 1 hotel, 1 cheese-factory, 1 cheese-box factory, 1 carriage-factory, a woollen-mill, 1 grist-mills, 3 saw-mills, 1 tannery, district school-house with two departments, post-office, 5 stores of general merchandise, 1 drug-store, 1 hardware-store, 1 stove- and tin-store, 1 boot- and shoe-store, 2 shoe-shops, 2 meat-markets, 2 medical, 1 dental, and 1 clergyman's offices, and about 250 inhabitants.
    Seth Makepeace, Robert Daniels, and David Wild were the first owners of the village site.  Robert Daniels kept tavern in a small log house, in 1824.  He also sold goods at the same place and time, but failed in his business speculations.  The brick block of Hiram Beebe now occupies the site of his tavern.  David Wild erected the present hotel in 1833.  He also gave to the village the common in front of the same.  Elam Ellithop built a tannery in 1828.  Josiah Cheney established the wool-carding and cloth-dressing works about 1830.  Thomas White kept store here at the same time.  Eber Holmes was also and early merchant.
    The woollen-mills of M. & T. Hayden, in Sandusky village, were established, as before mentioned, by Josiah Cheney, in 1830.  In 1850, the works were purchased by Mr. M. Hayden.  Until 1864 the business had been confined to wool-carding and cloth-dressing.  The latter year the Messrs. Hayden began the manufacture of woolen yarn, and two years later they extended their business by the manufacture of flannel.  The mills give steady employment to 8 hands, and produce 20,000 yards of flannel and 5000 pounds of yarn annually.  The products are sold principally in Central and Western New York.
    The carriage-works of William E. Jones, in Sandusky, were established by himself in 1867.  All the leading styles of light and heavy sleighs and carriages are manufactured; 8 men are steadily employed, and the sales will amount to from $8000 to $10,000 per year.

ELTON,

on the south branch of Cattaraugus Creek, in the southwest part of the town, contains a church (Free-Will Baptist), store, cheese-factory, saw-mill, blacksmith-shop, about 15 dwellings, and 75 inhabitants.
    The first settlers here, and the original owners of the site, were the brothers Nathan and Daniel Cole, and the locality was known in the early days as Cole's Settlement.

SOCIETIES.

    Freedom Lodge, No. 127, A.O.U.W., was instituted Jan. 25, 1878, with 25 charter members, and the following board of officers:  Harrison Cheney, P.M.W.; J.D. Colborn, M.W.; R.O. Jones, Foreman; M.D. Scobey, O.; B.B. Lewis, Recorder; E.W. Earle, Financier; P.E. Merrill, Receiver; William M. Davis, M.B. Stone, E. Wilson, Trustees; Harrison Cheney, Representative; C.C. Wood, Alternate; C.C. Newman, Guide; F.R. Crowell, O.W.; G.H. Mills, I.W.  Present membership, 39.  Regular meetings are held every other Monday evening at their lodge-room, in Sandusky village.
    Sandusky Cornet Band was organized by O.C. Wood, the first leader, in October, 1875.  It consists of 12 pieces, as follows:  B.B. Lewis, 2d E-flat and leader; H.W. Davis, 1st E-flat; Richard Hooper, 1st B-flat; M.K. Darling, 2d B-cornet; Charles Lemmler, 1st alto; John Charles, 2d alto; Joseph M. Murray, 1st tenor; Willis Steele, 2d tenor; Geo. H. Mills, baritone; D.J. Law, E-flat tuba' John Edwards, tenor drum; David Hooper, bass drum.
    Freedom Lodge, No. 459, I.O.G.T., was organized at Sandusky village, Dec. 2, 1867, with 31 charter members, and the following named officers:
    Jacob Ellithorp, W.C.T.; Martha A. White, W.V.T.; J.B. Kendall, W. Chap.; Eugene Haskell, W. Sec.; Florence A. Beebe, W.A. Sec.; Hattie A. Hayden, W.F.S.; Calvin Haskell, W.T.; Theodore Hayden, W.M.; Ellen J. Jones, W.D.M.; Jane A. Lewis, W.I.G.; H.E. Cheney, W.O.G.; Louisa Beebe, W.R.H.S.; Elsie M. Peck, W.L.H.S.; A.J. Beebe, Past W.O.T.
    The present officers are R.H. Snyder, W.C.T.; Cora Preston, W.V.T.; John Thomas, W.S.; Miss McMurray, W.A.S.; Lucina White, W.F.S.; Wm. M. Davis, W.T.; John Charles, W.M.; Ida Roblee, W.A.M.; D.D. Newman, W. Chap.; Ada Law, W.I.G.; George Davis, W.O.G.; R.O. Jones, Past W.C.T.; E.W. Earle, Lodge Deputy.  This lodge has ever been in a prosperous condition, and has a fund of $200 in its treasury at the present time.

SCHOOLS.

    The pioneers of Freedom, true to the teachings and principles of their New England ancestry, took early and earnest action in regard to their schools.  The board of school commissioners, composed of Messrs. Enoch Howlet, Charles Beebe, and Nathan Cole, met Sept. 18, 1821, and established five school districts, described as follows:
    District No. 1 was to include 12 lots, viz.: lot 4, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 20, 21, 22, 28, 29, and 30 of township 6, range 3.
    District No. 2 was to include lots 37, 38, 39, and 40 of township 6, range 3, and lots 5, 6, 7, 8, 13, 14, 15, and 16 of township 6, range 4.
    District No. 3 was to be composed of 8 lots, viz.: 33, 34, 35, and 36 of township 6, range 3, and lots 1, 2, 3, and 4 of township 6, range 4.
    District No. 4 was to include lots 9, 10, 11, 17, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27, 33, 34, and 35 of township 6, range 4.
    District No. 5 included lots 7, 8, 15, 16, 23, 24, 31, and 32 of township 6, range 3.
    At the same meeting they revised their work and established but two school districts instead of five.  This fact is of interest, as it shows conclusively on what lots the first settlements began.
    District No. 1 remained as described above.
    District No. 2 included the northwest, northeast, and southeast quarters of 37, the whole of lots 38, 39, and 40 of township 6, range 3, and lots 6, 7, 8, 14, 15, and 16 of township 6, range 4.
    During the four succeeding years, 5 additional districts were formed.  These included three parts of districts connected with districts in towns of Wyoming and Allegany Counties.
    From the reports of trustees of school districts for the year ending March 1, 1825, are taken the following statistics:
Number of school districts in town................................ 4
Number of parts of school districts in town.................... 3
Number of children between the ages of five and
Fifteen years residing in the town................................... 220
Number of children attending school during the year........ 183
Average duration of time school has been taught in the
Several districts during the year, months......................... 6
Total amount of money received and disbursed for
School purposes.......................................................... $73.57
    In 1835 there were 13 districts and parts of districts.  The amount of public money expended was $237.  Number of scholars, 610.
    And the town then contained a total population of 1835 inhabitants, an excess of 494 over the census report of 1875.
    The following statistics are taken from the report of the county school commissioner for the year ending Sept. 30, 1878:
Number of school districts in town 11
Number of school-houses in town 11
Value of school-houses, with sites $3915
Number of volumes in library 186
Value of volumes in library $55
Number of teachers employed 11
Amount of wages paid teachers $1772.50
Number of children of school age 437
Average daily attendance 201 643/1000
Number of weeks taught 315
Amount of money received from State 1129.88
Amount of money received from tax $1767.70


CHURCHES

    It is stated that the first religious services were held at the house of Rufus Metcalf, in April, 1813, by Elder P. Root; that the first church was formed by the Methodists in 1820, and that the Free-Will Baptists held meetings in 1822.
    It is very reasonable to believe that, from 1812 to 1820, preachers of different denominations visited the settlers, and held meetings in their dwelling-houses.  But none of the churches, as they exist to-day, possess any records to prove that a church, or branch of a church, existed here prior to the formation of the South branch of the First Baptist Church in Concord, Nov. 4, 1820.

THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH IN FREEDOM, AT SANDUSKY.

    The earliest records of this society mention that, on Wednesday, Oct. 18, 1820, a meeting was held at the house of Silas Parker, in China, to take action for the purpose of having the privileges of the Concord Baptist Church extended.  The meeting was composed of people residing in the towns of China and Freedom.  Silas Parker was moderator, and Joseph Pasco clerk of this meeting.  After proceeding to take the minds of the people present, it was resolved that the Covenant meetings of this branch should be held on the first Saturday in each month.
    The first Covenant meeting was held at the house of Stephen Hollister, in Freedom, Saturday, Nov. 4, 1820, when the following-named members denominated themselves as the South Branch of the First Baptist Church in Concord:  Deacon Colby, Samuel S. Nichols, Silas Parker, Joseph Pasco, Caleb Calkins, Stephen Hollister, E.R. Wilbor, Sardis Davis, Samuel Upham, Hurlbut Cruttenden, and Isabella Clark.
    At a Conference meeting, held Feb. 4, 1821, the members of this branch took into consideration the expediency of becoming and independent church, and thereby resolved to invite the following churches in council, viz., Hamburg, Eden, Boston, Aurora, Sheldon, and Concord.  Ministers and delegates from these churches met in council at the house of Silas Parker, in China, Feb. 22, 1821.  Elder Thomas Barker was chosen moderator, and Elder Clark Carr clerk of the council.  Elder Jonathan Haskell delivered an appropriate discourse, and, after due consideration, this branch was received as an independent church to be known as the China Baptist Church.  Caleb Calkins and Deacon Colby were chosen first deacons, March 7, 1821.
    At a meeting held in the Fish Lake school-house, Nov. 12, 1825, it was proposed to form a new church, to be composed of those members of the China Church who resided in Freedom.  This proposition was voted down, but the name was changed to the China and Freedom Baptist Church, the meetings to alternate between the towns.
    At a meeting convened at the lower school-house (District No. 2), July 27, 1826, Hurlbut Cruttenden, moderator, it was voted that this church be hereafter known as the

FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH IN FREEDOM,

and the following members were granted dismission to Sardinia churches, viz., Samuel W. Pattison, Caleb Calkins, Samuel Upham, Samuel S. Nichols, Anna Hollister, Emma D. Hollister, Ruth L. Hollister, Marietta Finney, Elizabeth Calkins, Polly Upham, Sally Nichols, and Ann Oakes.
    This church was now well started on its way as an independent Freedom Church.  The members then remaining were 44 in number, as follows:  Hurlbut Cruttenden (sic), Ashbel W. Treat, Amos P. Randall, Rufus Metcalf, Sardis Davis, David Austin, David Hinckley, Samuel Ellithorp, William Ellithorp, Henry Treat, Leonard Mason, David S. Hollister, John Welch, Abijah K. Martin, Hannah Austin, Delia Randall, Anna Cruttenden, Sally Davis, Delia Metcalf, Ann Eliza Metcalf, Catharine Sweet, Lois Nichols, Hannah Ellithorp, Lydia Ball, Martha Sparks, Eleanor Law, Esther Knowlton, Betsey Hartshorn, Eliza Ellithorp, Elizabeth Treat, Patty Armstrong, Mary Lawson, Polly Sawyer, Minerva Hinckley, Laura Hartshorn, Sally De Long, Sally Calkins, Rollotia Mason, Olive Worthington, Miriam McPherson, Phebe Bump, Mary Parker, Anna Wilbor, and Rachel Hodges.  The early pastors, prior to 1826, were Elders Blake, Harmon, Thomas Baker, and Eliab Going.  Elder Whitman Metcalf was employed in 1826 to preach one-fourth of the time, and Elder W. Freeman the following year for the same amount of time.  An effort was made at about this time to obtain a licence for Hurlbut Cruttenden to preach, but it failed by a unanimous vote of a council of ministers.  We find no records from 1827 to 1857.  Since the latter date the pastors of this church have succeeded each other as follows, viz., Revs. B.H. Card, --- James, R.D. Hayes, N.F. Langmade, A. Morrill, J.S. Everingham, and A.S. Kneeland, the present pastor.  The present house of worship was erected about 1847, and will seat 300 persons.  Present membership, 127.  Number of pupils in Sabbath-school, 160.  Theodore Hayden, superintendent.

THE FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH AT SANDUSKY

    The oldest records possessed by this society state the fact that, on the 6th day of October, 1827, there was granted to Lot Crowel, Joseph Wait, Asa Putney, Alva Durkee, and Aaron Cheney, trustees of this church, by Wilhem Willink and five others, acting for the Holland Land Company, 50 acres of land, "Being the northwest part of lot 28, township 6, range 3."  This lot was sold by the society, in 1867, for $1200, of which amount they now have invested in good securities the sum of $1100.  The early meetings of the society were usually held in the Fish Lake school-house.  Prior to 1835 they were strong in numbers, and in a flourishing condition, but the Mormon excitement at about that date split and disrupted the church to such an extent that it has since lived a precarious existence.  At an early period they were connected with the Franklinville Church, and among their pastors were Revs. John E. Gulick and A.D. Wilbor.  For the last ten years they have formed part of the Sardinia charge.  Revs. G. Delamater, J.H. Freeland, and O.C. Goodrich, pastors.  Meetings are held in the Universalist church semi-monthly.  Present membership, 8.  H. Jones, J.B. Lewis, and D.D. Newman, present board of trustees.  Rev. O.C. Goodrich, present pastor.

THE FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH AT SANDUSKY

was organized with 25 members, May 24, 1845, by Rev. Gideon S. Gowdy, their first pastor.  The first meetings were held at the house of Elias Wood.  The church edifice was erected the same year, at a cost of $1500, and has sittings for 200 persons.  Among the original members were Elias Wood, David Olnes, Henry Crandall, Walter B. Smith, Eber Holmes, Lot Crowel, Enoch Howlet, Samuel Norton. 
    There are about 40 members, but the society it without a pastor.

EBENEZER BAPTIST CHURCH (WELCH)

was organized with 42 members, March 2, 1843, by a council composed of ministers and delegates from surrounding churches.  B. Cherryman was chairman, and B. Palmer, of Centreville, D.B. Corbyn, of Freedom, secretaries of the council.  The first pastor, Rev. Richard Morris, was ordained March 16, 1843.  There were present at the ordination ceremonies, Revs. M. Fuller, B. Cherryman, W. Metcalf, E.S. Smith, E.W. Clark, and J.M. Purinton.  The first church edifice was dedicated in November, 1844, and cost $500.  It was named the Ebenezer Church at the time of its dedication.  Deacon John Lewis gave the land upon which it was erected.  The present church edifice was erected in 1870, and dedicated in June, 1871.  Its dimensions are 40 by 60 feet, cost $5000, all paid, and has sittings for 400 persons.  Aneurim Jones was the architect, William and Thomas Davis builders.  Among the first members of this church were Robert Williams, John Higgins, Thomas Rees, John Lewis, Daniel Morgans, H.O. Roberts, and Thomas Higgins, who came here from Oneida Co., N.Y., in 1841.  Among the most prominent members of the church may be mentioned Robert Williams, who died in 1871, aged eighty-four years.  Deacon John Lewis, who died, 1877, aged seventy-six years.  He was a member for thirty years, and collected $1000 for the church edifice.  John W. Rees, Daniel Rees, John H. Owens, Evan Owens, Mrs. Ann Morgans, Thomas Evans and wife, Wm. Thomas, and Stephen James, have also been prominently identified with this church.  The first deacons were Robert Williams, John Lewis, and H.O. Roberts.  The present deacons are Daniel Morgans, John Higgins, H.O. Roberts, and J.W. Williams. 
    The pastors have been the Revs. Richard Morris, who came in 1843, and remained two years; Wm. F. Phillips, from 1845 to 1850; D. Jenkins, two years; Thos. Roberts, came in 1852 and remained six years; J.P. Harris, 1860, and remained four years; J.W. James, came in 1864 and remained two years; John P. Harris, again in 1866 and remained eight years; W.M. Evans, came in 1875, and is the present pastor.
    John C. Williams, a member of this church, is a student at Hamilton University.  This church has always been in a prosperous condition, and possesses, in addition to the church edifice, a parsonage valued at $800.  Present membership, 193; number of pupils in Sabbath-school, 70.  Samuel Morgan superintendent, and D.H. Evans secretary of Sabbath-school.

SALEM CHURCH (WELSH CALVINISTIC METHODIST)

    The first meetings of this church were held in the school-house, near Mr. Powell's, Centreville, Allegany Co., in 1851, and Rev. Edward Rees preached the first sermon.  Among the first members were Joseph Parry, David Powell, and Wm. W. Thomas.  They soon after held their meetings in the "Sand-Bank" school-house, and during the years 1852 and 1853 Rev. John D. Jones preached to them.
    In 1854 the church was regularly organized with about 30 members by Rev. James Lamb, now of Liverpool, England.  Among the first members of this later organization were David Charles and John G. Jones, deacons; David Powell and wife, John D. Jones and wife, David Jones and wife, Mrs. Margaret Thomas, Wm. W. Thomas, John Thomas and wife, Evan Morgan and wife, Hugh Jones and wife, Wm. J. Williams and wife, Benjamin Parry and wife, and David P. Hooper and wife.
    The church edifice was built in 1855 at a cost of $900, and has sittings for 250 people.  The pastors since 1854 have been the Revs. Mr. James, John Williams, Joseph Rees, Richard F. Jones, and Benjamin D. Davies, who is the present pastor.  Number of present members, 66; number of pupils in Sabbath-school, 60.  John Parry superintendent, Isaac W. Morgan secretary.

THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF FREEDOM AND LYNDON.

    In 1840, William Mitchell, Alexander Vallance, James McKerrow, John Gillmore, Stephen Findlay, and others, representing Scotch families residing in the towns of Freedom and Lyndon, formed a religious association called the Associate Reformed Church.  The meetings were held in the school-house, now known as District No. 1, and Rev. William Howden was the first preacher.  He had been followed by Revs. D.C. McVean and R.G. Campbell, present pastor.  About 1858 the name was changed to that of the United Presbyterian Church of Freedom and Lyndon.  Present membership, 30.

THE FREE-WILL BAPTIST CHURCH AT ELTON

was organized at the school-house of District No. 25, of Freedom and Yorkshire, in the town of Freedom, by Rev. A.C. Andrews, their first pastor.  The society was incorporated March 20, 1834.
    Among the first members were Nathan Cole, Jabez B. Hancock, Oliver Algar, Amos Wright, Elisha Manwaroine, Lyman Algar, and William Felch.
    The first church edifice was erected in 1833; the present one, which will seat 350 persons, in 1873, at a cost of $2200.  The present members are about 80 in number.  Rev. C. Cook, pastor.

THE FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF FREEDOM

was organized in 1827, and was incorporated January 20 of the same year.  The first board of trustees was composed of Jonathan Hooker, Heman Hyde, Joseph Braddish, John W. Leonard, Henry Jackson, and William Sparks.  This church was disbanded many years ago.

THE MORMONS.

    In concluding these historical sketches of the churches in the town of Freedom, it may be proper to add in the same connection some facts in regard to the Mormon excitement of 1835, and the success attending the labors of the Mormon leaders in their efforts to obtain proselytes.
    At the time mentioned, the quiet precincts of Fish Lake neighborhood were invaded by Joe Smith, Sidney Rigdon, John Gould, and Parley Pratt.  They made their head-quarters at Rufus Metcalf's and Dr. Warren Cowdery's.  Meetings were held, daily and nightly, in barns and dwelling-houses, and a prodigious excitement pervaded the minds of many people in that immediate vicinity.  Among those residents who were conspicuous as believers in the humbug, were Dr. Cowdery, Rufus Metcalf, Nehemiah Sparks, Orrin Cheney, Hurd Cheney, Capt. Heman Hyde, Heman T. Hyde and wife, and Barber Lawson.  As a result, 30 men and women were induced to join the Mormons, and emigrated with them to Kirtland, Ohio.  Some came back and renounced their faith in Mormonism, while others continued with them to the end of their lives.

MILITARY RECORD.

    At the taking of the sixth census (1840), the following named revolutionary pensioners were residents of the town of Freedom, viz.: John Nichols, eighty years of age; Zera Norton, aged seventy-six years; Betsey Fuller, aged eighty-three years; and Susanna R. Champlin, seventy-eight years of age.  Frederick Beakman was also a veteran of the Revolution, and Eber Holmes a soldier of 1812.
    During the war of the Rebellion the town paid in bounties to her soldiers the sum of $16,434; the county paid to the same soldiers, $5400, making a total of $21,834.
    The town received credit for 100 men, whose names, and the remarks opposite each - as found in the town records - are given in the soldiers' list in the general history of the county.
   
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