HISTORY OF CATTARAUGUS COUNTY, NEW YORK

Illustrations and Biographical Sketches of Some of its Prominent Men and Pioneers.

Philadelphia:L.H. Everts, 1879, Edited by Franklin Ellis

Transcribed from pages 346-356 by Claudia Patterson



Photographs in this chapter

SALAMANCA

This is an interior town, south of the center of the county. It was erected from Little Valley as Bucktooth, Nov. 19,1854, with a territory embracing all of townships 1 and 2, and about one-fourth of 3, in the 7th range of the Holland Company's survey. April 17, 1862, its name was changed to its present title in honor of Señor Salamanca, a Spanish banker and a large stockholder of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, who had visited the town a short time previously. On the 23d of November, 1869, the town of Red House was taken off from the southern territory of Salamanca, leaving its present area 11,827 acres, and constituting it the smallest town in the county. The surface is very hilly, except along the Allegany River and the Little Valley Creek, where are fine valleys. The former lies wholly within the Allegany Reservation, and there is consequently but little productive land in town subject to improvement by the whites. The soil is generally fertile, and appears especially adapted for the production of grass and oats. The Allegany River is the principal stream of the town, and has a general east and vest course through it, a little south of its center. Its tributaries on the north are Newton Bun, Little Valley Creek, and Bucktooth and Saw-Mill Runs. These streams afford considerable water-power, which has been advantageously improved.
It is no easy matter, in a town of the nature of Salamanca, to produce an accurate account of

PIONEER SETTLERS.

A    great many came and went in the interests of the lumber trade, and abode here only so long as it was profitable to remain. But it is generally believed that James Rosenberry made the first permanent settlement in 1815. He was born in Butler Co., Pa., Nov. 21, 1797, and while but a youth followed the river up to Great Valley, where he lived a few years before coming to Salamanca.  For a short time he lived on lot 9, where he made some slight improvements, and then moved up the valley. In 1833 he moved to his present home in Red House.
    James Green was probably the next to live in town, but what year we have not been able positively to learn. He lived on lot 9, on the place now owned by W. P. Crawford. A son, John, became a well-known river pilot. This family did not remain permanently in town.
    John Parr, a native of New England, settled on lot 10 about 1830, and lived here until his death, Feb. 15, 1863. His wife died but fire days later. John Boutell also lived early on this lot, and was somewhat prominently identified with the interests of the old town of Little Valley. He went to Georgia, and died there some time in the Rebellion.
    William P. Crawford, of Venango Co., Pa., came to the town in1832 as a lumberman. He made his home on the Reservation, but since 1849 him lived on lot 9, in town 3. For nearly forty years he followed his vocation as a pilot on the Allegany, and often walked all the way from Pittsburgh, while others of the party brought back the tools of the raft in a canoe. Mr. Crawford is now one of the oldest settlers of the town, having lived here to see it change from a wilderness to a very populous community.
On the same lot lives L J. Worth, who came from New England in June 1834.
    John Boardman settled on the Reservation, where West Salamanca now is, in 1886. He lived in town until 1870, when he removed to Randolph, where he died in 1874. In this locality there were also, as early settlers in the town's history, Adam Johnson, B. C. Brainard, and Absalom Smith in the northern part of the town the Wright families and Thomas L. Newton; on Saw-Mill Run, George Hill; and on Bucktooth Run, George W. Drake. The condition of the settlements can better he seen from the following list of resident landowners in the year the town was formed, the names being arranged alphabetically


Lot Town
Lot Town
Boutell, Charles 10 3 Lyon, Elihu 10 3
Ballard, Stephen A. 34 3 Lyndsay, David 34 3
Cross, John C. 34 3 McKay, Hiram 17 3
Cross, William 47 3 Monfort, Peter S. 35 3
Curtis, Joseph 35 3 Newton, Thomas L. 66 3
Cranker, Jeremiah 44 3 Parr, John 10 3
Crawford, W. P. 9 3 Shafer, Patrick 18 3
Clark, Hubbard 18 3 Wright, Warren 25 3
Clark, Henry 18 3 Wright, Josiah P. 9 3
Drake, George W. 25 3 Wheeler, George 10 3
Davis, Charles M. 26 3 Worth, Leicester J. 9 3
Foren, Michael 44 3 Wakefield, Edward 33 3
Knapp, Levi 47 3 Waterman, Dwight 35 3
Lyon, Ezra 10 3




This does not include those living on the Reservation as farmers, or in the village of Bucktooth, as businessmen. After the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad was completed population increased rapidly, and is yearly being augmented. In 1875 there were 3000 inhabitants in town, and at present there sire very nearly 1000 more.
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CIVIL GOVERNMENT.


The first town-meeting was held at the house of John Boardman, on Tuesday, the 27th day of February, 1855, in pursuance of an act of the Board of Supervisors of Cattaraugus County, dividing the town of Little Valley and erecting the town of Bucktooth, passed Nov. 29, 1854.
The officers elected were as follows:
Supervisor; Alanson B. Head; Town Clerk, 0. W. Drake; Justices, Russel Granger, Willard F. Fellows, Marcus Frisbie, Warren Wright Assessors, Wm. P. Crawford, Lysander Whaley, Richard Jaquish; Collector, Peter S. Monfort; Town Sealer, John Purr: Commissions of Highways, Christopher Cross, James Rosenberry, Thomas L. Newton; Constables, Charles W. McMillan, Peter S. Monfort, George Cross, Abner Thomas; Overseer of Poor. John C. Cross, Leicester I Worth Superintendent of Common Schools, H. V. McKay; Poundtmaster, Wm. P. Crawford.
Since this period, 1855, the principal officers of the town have been


Supervisors Town Clerks
1856 John Boardman G. W. Drake
1857 " "
1858 " "
1859 E. P Parks A. V. Fuller
1860 " "
1861 David Harrower G. W. Drake
1862 Warren Wright John Nelson
1863 David Harrower "
1864 E. C. Topliff "
1865 " "
1866 Hudson Ansley Hiram S. Thompson
1867 Jesse T. Fosdick "
1868 Hudson Ansley Timothy O'Brien
1869 " "
1870 " "
1871 John Hill "
1872 " "
1873 H. W. Wait L. H. Brainard
1874 " James H. Palmer
1875 " R. Hevenor
1876 L. H. Brainard Charles Jenks
1877 " Jacob Butterfuss
1878 J. J. McDonnell "


JUSTICES OF THE PEACE


1856 Josiah P. Wright 1865 Willard E. Fellows

Richard Wright
David W. Kelley
1857 James Resenberry 1866 Joel P. Lines

Alphonso Ames
Wm. T. Clark
1858 W. H. Payne 1867 S. D. Woolford

G. W. Drake
Peter Frank
1859 George E. Noble 1868 A. A. Pixley
1860 H. H. Carrier 1869 H. M. Seymour

Luther Cram
Samuel Dunham

Clark Wheeler 1870 Albert Hosley

Abner Miller 1871 Charles Gallagher
1861 H. E. Fellows
W. B. Evans

Wm. Franklin
Patrick Shafer

Samuel Boyer 1872 C. E. Gallagher

Luther Cram 1873 H. M.Seymour
1862 S. Boyer 1874 John J. O'Donnell

R. C. Brainard 1875 W. B. Evans

Nelson Frink 1876 C. E. Gallagher
1863 W. H. Payne 1877 A. Hosley

A. A. Pixley 1878 A. A. Pixley

A. B. Rice
A. L. Brainard
1854 Patrick Shafer





THE PUBLIC TH0ROUGHFARES

Of the town embrace three lines of railways and a number of passable roads. Provision was made for the latter at the first meeting by an appropriation, and the division of the town into seven districts, in charge of as many overseers. Since 1875 the highways have been worked under the provisions of Chapter 395 of the Laws of 1873. In 1817 Ira N. Mc-Kibbin, road commissioner, reported an expenditure of $8081.66 era the roads and bridges of the town. The latter have been a heavy burden to the people since it was necessary to bridge the Allegany River. The first structure across the stream was erected above the Hemlock Mills, in 1860. The funds were procured from a tax of seven cents an acre, levied on the lands of the people living in town south of the river. The bridge was of wood, and did not last long. In 1869 it was replaced by another wooden structure at a cost of $8000, $6000 of which was covered by appropriations from the State and county. The main bridge consists of three spans of 90 feet each, the entire length of bridge, including its approaches, being about 320 feet. This structure was placed in good repair in the summer of 1871 at a further cost of $3200.
The iron bridge across the Allegany at West Salamanca was authorized by the Board of Supervisors in November 1875, and affirmed by the electors of the town at their annual meeting in 1876 by a vote of 332 against 148. In the summer and fall following, the bridge was built at a cost of nearly $13,000. The main part consists of four spans, aggregating more than 500 feet in length. The entire structure is more than 700 feet low- and presents a very attractive appearance. By means of these two bridges the town is afforded a good highway on the south side of the river.
The Erie Railroad was the first completed through the town.  It enters from Great Valley, and passes down the Allegany River on, the north side of that stream to the north of Little Valley Creek, where it turns sharply northward and runs up the valley. The Atlantic and Great Western Railroad enters the town from Red House, an runs up the Allegany, on the north or west side, to its terminus at the village of Salamanca. The third and last build road is the Rochester and State Line Railroad, which enters from Great Valley and terminates at Salamanca.
To this point it was completed in the summer of 1878. It is proposed to extend it down the river to Warren, Pa., and thus form a through route between Rochester and Pittsburgh. The former two roads first had their junction at the west village, but in 1864 it was removed to the present place-Salamanca, at that time called East Salamanca. A way station is yet maintained at the west village by the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad, which has lately received the original name of the place-Bucktooth.

THE RAILROAD INTERESTS

of Salamanca must be more particularly noted in this connection. To them the town is chiefly indebted for what prosperity it enjoys, and the growth of the villages within her borders has been almost entirely promoted by the railroads. The completion of the Atlantic and Great Western began to direct attention to these places as favorable trading points, and when the shops of that road and the Erie line were here located, Salamanca took a place among the chief towns of the county, and has since maintained this position.
The Atlantic Repair-Shops  were flint established at Bucktooth in 1864, but in the fall of 1868 were removed to their present location, south of the Union depot, at Salamanca village. The main shop is a wooden building, 32 by 120 feet, with a wing 18 by 52 feet. The iron workshop is 30 by 85 feet, and is supplied with three forges and a rail-furnace. The machinery consists of everything necessary to carry on first-class shops, and its use requires a force of 25 men, who are governed by very stringent but wholesome rules. One of these strictly forbids the use of intoxicating liquors, and another enjoins the utmost care and order in and about the shops.
The engine-house is brick, built in semicircular form, and has ten stalls. Thirteen men are here employed, under the direction of Anion Smith. The foreman of the car-repair shops is Jesse T. Fosdick.
The Erie Car-Shops are almost directly north of the above, and were begun in 1865. In the fall of the following year the workmen were transferred to this building from the temporary shops at Bucktooth. The main structure is of brick, 70 by 300 feet, with a large wing for smithing purposes. It is supplied with steam-power front a stationary engine, and all its appointments are of the meet approved nature for doing good work. Although intended primarily for repair work, a number of new cars have been here built. Forty-two men are employed, under the foremanship of Robert Gunn, who has served in this capacity since the flail of 1865.
A semicircular engine-house, east of this building, has eleven stalls, with as excellent water connection with each stall. The water-house occupies a place between the above buildings, and is about fifty feet~ square and forty feet high. It contains four large tanks, into which water is forced from a capacious well near by. The entire water supply of the station u derived from this source.
The present Union Depot building was erected in the fall of 1872, sad was first occupied the following January. It is built in three sections, of from forty to eighty feet in length, with intervening open spaces for the transfer of baggage. The entire length of the building is 420 feet and its width 14 feet. At the ends are towers for office purposes. The sides of the depot are covered with corrugated iron, and an awning of the same material extends around the building to shelter the passengers. The structure contains the usual waiting room and the offices of the American and United States Express Companies, in charge of T. A. Heller. The general stationmaster is E. H Space, who is assisted by a clerical force of twenty men; the telegraph-offices employ half a dozen more, amid about fifteen additional men are engaged in various capacities about the station, which is the busiest in the county, owing to the large number of trains almost constantly arriving and departing.
At Bucktooth are the extensive stockyards of the Atlantic and Great Western Railroad. They comprise about fifty acres, on which stand nineteen large sheds, and a barn with a capacity to stable 100 head of horses. This building was formerly a cooperage. Water is supplied to every part of the ground, anti the yards are capacitated to feed seventy-two carloads of stock at a time. They are under the superintendence of M. J. McKay, and a number of men find employment in the care of the stock, and other railroad work at this place.
0n the 15th of May, 1878, the formal opening of the Rochester and State Line Railroad was celebrated at Salamanca with imposing ceremonies, participated in by many distinguished gentlemen from abroad. The importance of the new road was appropriately dilated upon, and its usefulness to the place predicted by shrewd businessmen. Their impressions seem to have been well founded. The railway at once became the route for the shipment of crude oil, which is brought to this point from the Bradford District, by

THE UNITED PIPE-LINES.

    A two-inch and a four-inch pipe were laid from Carrolton Junction to the hillside in the northeastern part of Salamanca, in the summer of 1878, amid two 25,000-barrel iron tanks there erected. On the Rochester and State Line Railroad a loading-rack was put up, by means of which 200 cars a day may be loaded, although at present only about half that number are sent from this point daily.
The search for oil in town may be here appropriately noted. Believing that the belt of the Bradford region extended to the river, and that its development would be a profitable measure, Time Salamanca Centennial Oil Centinnial Oil Company was formed July 24, 1876, with 40 members as corporators, under the act of Feb. 17, 1848, and the amendatory acts thereof. The company expressed its object to be the search for, and the digging and purifying of, oil and mineral of whatever nature. The capital was fixed at $2000, in shares of $25 each. John Hill was appointed President; John Nelson, Secretary; Henry 0. Wait, Treasurer; and A. E. Darrow, John B. Shaw, Jacob Olshoffskey, Ira McKibben, and Wm. G. Hevenor, an Executive Committee. A lease of several hundred acres of land was effected, and a well put down to the depth of 1500 fact, on a brook about a mile southeast from Salamanca. There was a large flow of gas, but the promise for an oil-producing well was not great enough to justify the further prosecution of  the work, and the project was abandoned.
    On the north side of the river, a test-well is being put down by The Newton Valley Oil Company, on a tract of 1600 acres, leased for oil purposes. The officers of this company are Ira L. Sherman, President; II. 0. Wait, Secretary; T. A. Heller, Treasurer; and A. H. Krieger, Chauncy Judd, and H. W. Eddy copartners. Other localities have been prospected, but as yet nothing has been developed to cause the belief that the town is within the bounds of the oil region.

THE MANUFACTURING INTERESTS

of the town date from the building of a steam maw-mill by Indians on Saw-Mill Run. This was about 1812. It is said that the Indians having become involved in a quarrel concerning the mill, it was destroyed by Cornplanter, who made the observation "that it was better to have peace in their homes than lumber in their houses.' It is also reported that James Green erected a small mill on Little Valley Creek, on lot 9, before the war of 1812. Others place the time when this was built as late as 1823. It appears to have been of little consequence and the dam was soon swept away by a freshet.
On the Allegany, near West Salamanca, Irvine & Sexton put up a mill, having four saws, capable of cutting about 30,000 feet per day, which was formed into rafts and floated down the. River. This place was known among lumberman as the "Bucktooth Mill",' and after about twenty years operation was abandoned as many years ago, having had among its owner. Robert Mills, Thompson & Aldrich and others.
0n the same stream, below the island where Salamanca now is, the "Hemlock Mill" was erected after 1840 by Howe & Green. In 1857, it was rebuilt by S. W. Bradley, and two years later was owned by Fay, Bradley & Harnower. It then had three English-gate saws one twenty-eight gang-saw, and other good machinery. Simon 1808, Hall & Whitmore, of Warm, Pa., have been the proprietors, and it is at present operated for them by James G. Fitts. The mill has an excellent power, which gives it great capacity. In addition to the machinery with which it was first supplied the mill has machines for re.sawing, planing, matching, and edging. There is also m machinery for making lath, shingles, and moulding. It is a complete lumber manufacturing establishment, and a large stock of all kind, of lumber is constantly kept on hand for the retail trade, which aggregates about $25,000 per year. Formerly the manufacture of store boxes and dry-goods cases was also here carried on. The capacity of the mill is 50,000 feet per-day, and requires from 40 to 50 men to operate it fully.
About 1850, Horace Howe put up a saw-mill on Bucktooth Run, on lot 25, to which a small grist-mill was attached by Marsh & Brownell. This is now owned by S. C. Hall.
On the same lot Warren Wright built a saw-mill at a later day, which is yet operated by him.
On Saw-Mill Run saw-mills were formerly operated by E & N. Wakefield and by Enfield Leach, but both have long since been suffered to go down.
On the same stream Andrew Head put up a water-power-mill, about thirty years ago, which became the property of the "Erie Lumbering Company," and was much enlarged in 1854. Here afterwards was established H. A. Daniels & Co.'s Chair-Stock Mill, the power being supplied by an 80 horse-power engine. The lathes turned out about 10,000 pieces per day; and the mill was operated extensively in the manufacture of all kinds of lumber, giving employment to more than thirty men.
On Newton Run John Spore had a water-power mill and Harkness & Brown a steam-mill, and both have been discontinued; but in this locality Thomas L. Newton has yet in operation a small steam saw-mill. Steam saw-mills were formerly, and within the past. Fifteen years, operated near West Salamanca; and on lot 33, by Darrows & Co.; and near Salamanca, by John Hill, S. Learned, and Francis Townsend.
At the village of Salamanca, A. A. Whipple erected a planing-mill in 1873, which was closed after a year's operation and the machinery removed. A handle-factory, on the south aide of the river, but employing steam-power, was put in operation in 1876 by Bacon & Knapp, but is at present also closed. In the village G. W. Hagadorn has in operation a feed-mill, put up in 1877; and at West Salamanca Oakes & Calver have a cheese scale-board factory, which was removed to this point from Cattaraugus in 1878. 1n 1863, Sampson & Ballard had in successful operation at West Salamanca a cooperage for the manufacture of oil barrels, which gave employment to 100 workmen, and was for several years a very important industry. Subsequently the building was employed for a stave.factory, and a. at present used as a horse-barn in  the railroad stock-yard.
THE SALAMANCA TANNERY
was built in 1863 on 20 ACRES of ground, well located for this business near the Erie Railroad, in the eastern part of the village. It has been operated by Curtis & Demming, Curtis & Williams, and at present by C. H. & G. L Williams, under the management of Bliss Richards. The present arrangement of the tannery is very complete, embracing several building. 200 feet long, with which is connected the yard, containing 320 liquor-vats. There are also a large dry-house, shipping-rooms, 14 tenements, and two residences A siding from the railroad to convenient points in the tannery greatly facilitates the work of the place, and lessens the labor attending such a manufactory. The motor is steam, which drives an 80 horse-power engine. 3000 cords of hemlock-bark are consumed annually in tanning sole-loather, which is mold through the firm's office in Buffalo. The average number of men employed is 30.
WEST SALAMANCA
is the oldest village in the town. It is situated at the mouth of Little Valley Creek, on the Allegany, almost wholly within the Indian Reservation. The place was knows as Bucktooth until 1862, when it received the mane of Salamanca, and in 1873 its present name. It was originally the junction of the railroad., and promised to be a place of importance. It is yet a station on the Atlantic and Great Eastern Railroad, and is the point where that company has its stock-yards. There are at present several stores, hotels, and shops, Catholic, Methodist and Congregational Churches, and an excellent union school. The village contains about 500 inhabitants.
John Boardman was the first to engage in business here, about 1836. He had a small store near the river, and his trade was almost entirely with the Indians. After eight or ten years W. P. Crawford opened a grocery-store, near his present home. Farther down this street John Bill opened the first regular store about 1860, continuing in trade until 1877. W. P. Hallook became the successor, and the store was burned in the summer of 1878.
Sencar & Nelson opened a stock of goods in the building now known as the "People's Store," in 1861. Here Hevenor & Buck afterwards traded, and at present Hevenor Brothers, the store being managed by L. C. Metcalf. Others prominent in the trade in the village were Hiram Thompson, Waterman & Marsh, and Timothy O'Brien, grocer. This stand is now occupied by S. C. Hall. As druggist, there have been J. Frederick Potter, James Wright, W. P. Clothier, and the present, George Dye. J. S. Beers has a jewelry-store, and George P. Williams is the tobacconist.
John Boardman opened the first public-house at his place near the river, but removed to the central part of the village in 1848, where he continued until about 1860. Soon after Boardman opened his house, Johnson started a tavern at the foot of Little Valley Street, which he kept until about 1840. Absalom Smith built a tavern farther up the same street, which was afterwards kept by E. a. Ayers. Other landlords in the place have been Gage, Ellis, Chamberlain, and Drakesley, the latter having now the "Red Lion House." The "Exchange Hotel: was built by Edward Price for hardware and furniture store, the upper part of the building being set off for a public hall George Chile changed the house to a hotel, which is at present kept by Ira Graves.
    The post-office was established before 1840, with John Boardman as postmaster. He held the office until 1852, when W. P. Crawford became his successor, retaining the position nineteen years. H. M. Seymour was the next appointee, and the office is at present held by L. C. Metcalf.
SALAMANCA,
one and a half miles east from the above piece, at the junction of three leading railway lines, is one of the most important places in the western part of the State. Nothing but the fact that it is located on the Reservation, and the consequent uncertainty of its tenure, has kept it from being the foremost place in the county. The question of leases has been so far determined that the improvements in the village are becoming more permanent and substantial, and already there are good business buildings, and many fine residences, as evidences of the prosperity of the place. Until 1863 the village site was a swamp, with a surface so soft and yielding that a corduroyed road was required to cross it. Such a road has been built a few years before, from Great Valley to the Hemlock Mill, on the opposite side of the river, which gave its name to this locality until eight or ten years ago. Then it was called East Salamanca, and since 1873 has been known by its present name.
    The first frame house in the village was put up in 1863, by Elias Sauter.  All the buildings were of this material until the summer of 1878, when A. H. Krieger erected a very handsome brick residence, costing $4500.The Opera-House, erected the same season, is the largest building, being 52 by 150 feet in length. The front is three full stories high, and presents a very imposing appearance.
    The building season of 1873 was the most marked in the history of the place for the number and character of the improvements. That year 150 houses and two churches were erected. From this time on the place has had a sure and vigorous growth, containing at present 18 or 20 stores, 10 public houses, two newspapers, a bank, a large number of shops, five churches, several public halls, and over 3000 inhabitants.
The village is Incorporated under the general act of 1870. The movement to assume these privileges took a formal shape July 25, 1878. That day a notice of intention to incorporate was published, containing the names of William G. Hevenor, James Crawford, E. H. Space, G. W. Bailett, W. H. Crandall, James G. Fitts, John J. O'Donnell, John Hoag, C. O. Day, T. A. Heller, John Nelson, Robert Gunn, James T. Fosdick, P. S. Pelton, James Riedy, Hudson Ansley, C. E. Gallagher, George Johns, H. M. Seymour, A. Hosley, A. H. Krieger, C. D. Davie, W. H. Henshaw, James A. Williams, W. T. fish, H. O. Wait, Martin Donelin, S. H. Seymour, Richard Malone, John Drake, C. F. Nies. An enumeration of the population followed, which showed 2728 persons living within the proposed bounds.. The matter of incorporation was finally settled at an election held at McGuire's Hall, Aug 30, 1878. Of the 256 votes cast, all but 23 favored the proposed measure. The corporation contains 1987 acres, extending from the Reservation limits on either side of the Allegany and along that stream to comprise the above area, the average width being about a mile.
    Oct. 5, 1878, the first election of village officers was held; 369 votes were polled and the following board chosen; President, O. S. Viceland; Trustees, C. O. Day, E. O'Brien, William Bartlett; Treasurer; James H. McGuire; Collector, Phineas Stevens; Clerk, C. D. Davie (appointed). Salutary measures for the welfare of the place have been adopted by this board, and the ordinances enacted for the government of the village will undoubtedly promote its interests.
    The history of the trade of Salamanca begins with the opening of a grocery-store by Peter Frank, Dec. 25, 1863. Others engaged in merchandising in a small way soon after, but it was not until April 1866, that a good general store was established in the place. The winter before, W. T. Fish, at that time engaged in business at Great Valley, erected a building for a store, 24 by 50 feet, in which he opened a stock of goods at the time mentioned. At this stand, Mr. Fish has since been in trade, and his business has increased until now it requires the use of a building 34 by 110 feet, both floors being occupied.
    In 1873 the Hevenor brothers came from West Salamanca, and began a trade which has reached such extensive proportions that the sales of a single day sometimes aggregate $1000. A business block 48 by 100 feet is occupied, in which are employed 15 clerks, 2 cash-boys and a cashier.  

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RICHARD AND W. G. HEVENOR of Salamanca


Besides these two firms, stores are kept by C. E. Gallagher and Barse & Culver, hardware, the former since 1873; Wilson Ryder, furniture; Holler & Co., notions; Vreeland & Co. and J. B. Smith, drugs W. C. & A. T. Palmer, grocers; Story Brothers, dry-goods; and J. Butterfuss, harness. Among the firms who have been in trade, but have removed or discontinued, were Kelley Brothers & Co., A. P. Knapp & Co., Bloodgood & Son, and James H. Palmer.
John Newton opened the first public-house in 1864. Numerous other small places were opened, but the "Atlantic Hotel,' opposite the Erie freight-depot, McKibben & Brainard proprietors, was from 1872 till its destruction by ire Aug. 26, 1877, the leading hotel of the place. This distinction is now enjoyed by the Krieger House, which was removed to its present place in 1872, and has at different times been enlarged to its present condition.
A banking-office was opened in the village by A. A.Couter & Co., who discontinued business in 1877. In January 1878, Dame, Morris & Co. opened an office for the transaction of a general banking business which is still carried on by them.
    The post-office was established at East Salamanca about 1870, and had Ralph Tenney as the first postmaster. April 1, 1873, the name was changed to S Salamanca, with John Nelson postmaster, who still fills that position.
The Cattaraugus Republican established a printing-house at Salamanca, Aug. 1, 1873, from which that paper has since been issued; the editorial rooms being here anal at Little Valley. It is supplied with good presses,  which are operated by steam-power.
In August 1878, J. S. Fidler removed a printing-office to this place from Cattaraugus village, and commenced the publication of the Salamanca Gazelle, which is now issued as a Greenback sheet.
THE  PROFESSIONS
have been represented in Salamanca as follows:
As physicians in  West Salamanca,  H. M.. Gale, M. M. McDonell, A. S. Bonesteel, James Wright, W. W. Drake, H. W. Dye, - Westbrook, - Kimberley, - Fisher, and W. C. Peaslee. At Salamanca, Doctors J. G. Smith, since 1870; Charles 0. Day, since 1874; J. P. Colgrove, since 1875. Doctors Samuel and Henry Learned and E. A. Chapman removed.
An attorneys, George W. Canfield located at West Salamanca  about 1863, residing there until his death in 1867. In 1864, Hudson Ansley opened an office in the same village, and in 1872 associated  0. F. Vreeland with him in a practice, which, since 1873, has been continued at Salamanca. H. M. Seymour opened an office in the West village in 1865, and in July 1877, moved to Salamanca. In October 1877, he formed a partnership with C. D. Davie, who came in 1876. H. L. Green has been in practice since 1875. Other attorneys in town have been Samuel Dunham, Commodore P. Vedder, L J. Murphy, George Ryder, and Frank Robinson.

The Secret Orders

of the town embrace the following societies:
Salamanca  Lodge, No. 524,1. 0 .of  G. T., at West Salamanca, was instituted, Feb. 1,1868, with 47 members, and George C. Waterman, W. C. T.; Maggie A. Worth, V. T.; L. J. Worth, Chaplain; M. L Lee, Sec.; A. A. Pixley, Tress.; H. E. Walker, Marshal.
The lodge has had a very flourishing existence, and at one time numbered 150 members. The present number is 46, and the meetings arc hold in a hail over the "People's Store," the principal officers being John Shields, W. C. T.; Mrs. 0. Jepson, V. T.; Miss Gussie Barton, Sec.; L. C.
Moffat, Tress.
In 1876-77 the Templars had a Degree Temple, which prospered for a brief period, but has been discontinued.
West Salamanca Temple, No. 156, Juvenile Tern plays of Temperance was instituted March 23,1877, with R. J. McKay, C.T.; Oliver Roberts, B. S.; John Shields, F. S.; and Mrs. B. J. McKay, T.; and eighteen members. The meetings have been suspended since January 1878.
Triumph Lodge, No. 34, K. of IL, was instituted at West Salamanca, Aug. 31, 1876, with ten members, and A. E. Darron, Dictator; A. H. Drake, Recorder. The present membership is 21, and the lodge-meetings are held in Good Templar Hall. The present officers are S. C. Hall, P.D.; B.A.Kendull,D.;W.D.Edwatds,V.D.; J.M. Worth, A. V. D.; John Shields, B.; A. H. Drake, F. R.;
A.E. Darien, Tress.; H. W. Peck, G.; H. C. Barlow, C.

The societies at Salamanca have been as follows:
Cattaraugus  Lodge, Re. 239, F. and A. .M, was instituted at Little Valley under a dispensation granted in 1850 to Benjamin Chamberlain, Staley N. Clark; Samuel Barrows, Solomon S. Childs, Gaius Wheaton, Luther Peabody, Israel Day, Moses Beecher, Smith Finch, and Ira Gaylord. A. Chase was the first admitted as a Mark Mason. The principal officers were Ira Gaylord, M.; Benjamin Chamberlain, S.W.; and Luther Peabody, J. W. The lodge received its warrant in June 1851. Twenty years later it was incorporated, having had at the time as principal officers Henry 0. Robinson, H.; Hudson Ansley, S. W.; and B. A. Chase, J. W. The meetings were at Little Valley until December 1873, when the lodge was removed to Salamanca, where it now exists in a flourishing condition, having 100 members. The trustees of the lodge arc J. J. O'Donnell, A. Hover, and B. Hevenor; and its officers H. Ansley, H.; F. B. Mills, S. W.; B. Hevenor, J. W.; H. 0. Wait, Tress.; and J. D. McDonell, Sec. The meeting. are held in a large and finely furnished hall in the Hevenor block.
Salamanca Chapter, No. 266, R. A.M , was organized under a dispensation granted March 6, 1872, to John B.
Shaw, II. P.; B. H. Space, K.; and Companions Chase, Whipple, Krieger, Brainard, Waterman, Griffin, Wait, Elliott, Hevenor, Henderson, O'Donnell, and Farquharson. The chapter was duly chartered about a year later. The present number of members is 65, and the principal officers are Trustees, H. Ansley, J. D. McDonell and J. B. Shaw; High Priest, John J. O'Donnell; King, H. 0. Wait; Sec., J. D. McDonell
Banner Lodge, No. 314, K. of H., was instituted June 28,1870, with fifteen  charter members and officers: A. L Brainard, P. D.; A. I. McKoon, D.; Spencer Whipple, V. D.; W. B. Westinghouse, A. D.; J. W. Mulcay, Rap.; F. S. Cobb, F. R.; C. A. Benson, Treas. Present membership is 83. and one death has occurred-H. D. Wright, in 1877. The lodge holds its meetings in a well-appointed hall in the MeGuire building, and has for its principal officers Win. Randolph, P.D.; A. L.. Brainard. D.; H. Goldstein, V. D.; G. B. Stebbins, A. D.; J. Butterfuss, Rep.; J. H. Thompson, Trees.
Salamanca Lodge, No. 37, A. 0. U W'., was instituted on the petition of 36 persons. Sept. 7, 1876, and had for its first officers J. P. Colgrove, P. 31. W.; Frank Elliott, N.W.; C. W. Cone, G. F.; L. J. Murphy, 0.; B. B. Wcber, B.; 0. 31. Space, F.; J. D. McDonnell, Roe.; W. H. Crandall, H. C. Springer, A. Keninger, Trustees.
The lodge has at this time, December 1878. 60 members, and the chief officers are C. W. Cone, P. M. W.; J. P.    Colgrove, M. W.; A. F. Wait, G.  F.; G. W. Hagadorn. 0; J. .J. O'Donnell, A.; W. H. Henshaw, F.; J. D.    McDonell, Ree.

TENT NO. 106, NATIONAL ORDER OF RECHABITES,,

was formed with 26 charter members, April 24, 1877, and had A. I. McKoon, C. B.; George McBride, D. B.; D. E.    Beaver, P. C. XL; D. E. Burt, Shop.; 0. B. Bronson, Levite; J. H. Dickinson, Sec.; J. Butterfuss. F. Sec.; C.    A. Benson, Treas.
The order discontinued its meeting. at this point in the fall of 1877.

RESCUE LODGE, NO. 100, I. 0. 0F .G. T.,

was instituted April 14, 1874, with 17 members, and F. S. Cobb, W. C. T.; Spencer Whipple, B. Sea.; Alexander Haag, F. Sec.
The meetings of the lodge were regularly held until February, 1878, when they were discontinued. At that time there were 90 members, and the following officers: Joseph H. Thompson, L D.; Fred. Smith, W. C. T.; Miss Emma Wright; V. T.; George Westonhouse, Sec.; Miss Satie GoodelI, Treas.
Years ago a lodge of Good Templars existed at Salamanca, and for a time was very flourishing, but owing to changes of residence among its members and other causes, was allowed to go down, and after an interval of several years, Rescue Lodge took its place.
A temperance society for children and the St. Joseph's Society of the Catholic Church have also been discontinued.

EDUCATIONAL

It is believed that Miss Melinda Chase taught the first school in town, in an old building on the Reservation, near West Salamanca, in the summer of 1832. Subsequent schools were taught in the mime neighborhood. In 1855 the town contained the following districts:
No. 5, having 44 children of school age.    
No. 6, having 27 children of school age.
No. 9, having 56 children of school age.
No. 10, having 19 children of school age.
No. 11, having 17 children of school age.
The amount received for the support of these schools was $245.38.
The district bounds have been frequently changed, and in 1878 the exhibit visas follows:
    
District No.            AverageAttendance    Children    Money Received
1.......................     29                 21            $ 105.13
2.......................     41                 20            $ 112.21
3.......................     68                 26            $ 138.95
4.......................    787                315            $1171.31
5.......................    161                 73            $ 587.78
                                                              $2115.38

The total library money was $33.41.
On the 21st of April, 1866, the inhabitants of District No. 5, which includes West Salamanca, decided, by a vote of 48 to 15, to establish a

UNION FREE SCHOOL,

electing as trustees A. A. Pixley, Jesse T. Fosdick, and S. Dunham.
Under this system the schools at this place have since been continued. In the summer of 1878 a fine two-story frame school building, 30 by 50 feet, and well finished and furnished, was erected for the use of the school at a cost of $3000. The school employs two teachers, and has an average attendance of 73 pupils.
The present Board of Education is composed of V. Ward, President; Geo. W. Stevens, Secretary; B. S. Griswold, Trustee; S. C. Hall, Treasurer; John Shields, Collector; and the Principal of the school is J. E. Markham.

THE SALAMANCA UNION FREE SCHOOL

was established Oct. 12, 1875, the first trustees being F.B. Mills, B. H. Space, John Keenan, Ira McKibben, C. B. Gallagher, John Nelson, A. Hosley, W. G. Hevenor, and T.A. Belier.
The board was organized by electing A. Hosley, President; C. B. Gallagher, Clerk; 0. B. Senear, Collector; J. B. Shaw, Treasurer. G. L. Weeks was the first Principal of the schools.
Three buildings are now occupied for school purposes, the one on Maple Street~ near Main, having half a dozen rooms. The Newton Run Division is in a handsome frame house, 30 by 50 foot, and having two stories, each 12 feet high. It is surmounted with a neat belfry, and has attractive surroundings. It cast $2800, has accommodations for 160 pupils, and was first occupied in January 1875. The school on the south side of the river is known as the Hill Mill Division. Here it is proposed to erect a house costing $2000.
The schools are under the principalship of B. B. Vreeland, assisted by seven teachers, and are supported at a cost of about $4000 per year.
The present Board of education is composed as follows:
Trustees. H. N. Seymour, Silas H. Seymour, C. D. Davie, A. Hosley, C. E. Gallagher, Wm.. Crandall, Jas. Williams, Robert Gunn, and Frederick Gaeng; President, C. B. Gallagher; Clerk, C. D. Davie; Treasurer, W. P. Culver; Collector, Phineas Stevens.
The schools are in a flourishing condition, and their standard is fully equal to those of ether places of the same population.

RELIGIOUS SOCIETIES

The first organized religious societies in town were composed of Indians, and one of the first formed was

THE INDIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH,

which, at the time it was constituted by the Rev. Charles Potter, had 80 members. In 1858, a house of worship was erected on the Allegany, several miles below Salamanca, at a cast of $900. The society has subsequently enjoyed the ministrations of the Rev. Wm. Hall, whose missionary services among the Indiana on the Reservation extend over a period of forty years. The Indian Congregational Church has not enjoyed a great degree of prosperity, and the present membership it small and the society feeble.

THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH IN BUCKTOOTH

was organized among the Indians on the Reservation, with 50 members, in 1858, by the Rev. N. Smith. The society prospered, and May 22, 1860, it was duly incorporated under the laws of the State, and William Shongo, James Jemison, and Dodge Fatty chosen trustees. At this time the church was without a pastor, and James Jemison served as a deacon. A church edifice was erected the insure year several miles below West Salamanca, at a east of $1200. It presents an attractive appearance, and will seat 200 persons. The church has had the pastoral labors of the Rev. W. G. Raymond and L. R. Hays. 1n1874,A. D. Brinkley, a native, was ordained a minister of this church, and Peter Sundown elected deacon. The membership has not been materially increased, and the church is not so vigorous in former days.

THE ST. JOSEPH'S CHURCH (ROMAN CATHOLIC),

at West Salamanca was the next organized. It was formed, in 1862, math, result of missionary labors begun here in 1860 by tire clergy of the parish of Jamestown. There were about 300 members under the spiritual tutelage of the Rev. Patrick Byrne. The same year a neat frame church edifice, 32 by 50 feet, was erected in the northern put of the village, just beyond the Reservation limits. A parsonage was erected soon after, and the entire church property was valued at $3000. The services of the church were now regularly held, and Salamanca and the surrounding Catholic appointments soon became a prosperous parish. The clergy who have served here as resident priests and otherwise have been Father. Cahill, McMullen, Wagner, Duyer, Bloomer, Baxter; and since 1870 the Rev. John Byron. The decline of West Salamanca and the growth of Salamanca so much diverted the membership and interests of the church to the latter place that for several years services have been suspended and the house closed. Accordingly, in 1875, Father Byron leased a lot of ground on River Street, in Salamanca, on which, in 1876, was

ST. JOHN'S CHURCH,

a plain hall, 24 by 73 feet, with a seating capacity for 400 persons, in which services have since been regularly maintained. A neat parsonage was purchased near the church in 1875, and the entire, property is reported worth $4000. The membership comprises 180 families. A Sabbath-school having 50 attendants is connected with the church, which belongs to the diocese of Buffalo.

ST. MARY'S CHURCH (EPISCOPAL).

The formation of this body followed the missionary services of the Rev. P. P. Kidder, at that time rector of St. John's Church of Ellicottville, who occasionally preached in West Salamanca as early as 1863. A few services were also held in the schoolhouse at the Hemlock sawmill. In 1865 a church, having 34 members,  was formally organized at West Salamanca by the Rev. Julius H. Waterbury, and the amine year a house of worship was erected at that point by the society at a cost of $2500. This was first occupied for divine services Nov. 19, 1865, the church officials at that time being Rev. J. K Waterbury, Rector; Jesse T. Fosdick and John Hill, Wardens; Thomas G. Armstrong, Thomas W. Litchfield, E. H. Space, James W. Phillips, John O'Donnell, Samuel Dunham, Frederick B. Towner, and Wm. G. Hevenor, Vestrymen. On Ascension Day, in May 1868, the church was consecrated. It was used by the society a place of worship until 1875, when it was sold to the Methodists, and the services thereafter held at Salamanca, whither nearly all the members had removed. Here a new church edifice was begun, in the fall of 1877, which is just about ready for occupation. It stands on an eligible lot on East River Street, and is an attractive frame structure, consisting of a nave 24 by 56 feet, and a chancel 16 by l7 feet, with a suitable robbing-room attached. The interior of the church presents a handsome appearance, and the windows are of stained glass embellished with proper emblems. It is being built by a committee composed of O. S. Vreeland, J. Smith, and John J. O'Donnell, and will cost $2500.
    The rectors of St. Mary's Church have been the Revs. J.    H. Waterbury, Francis Granger, and P. P. Kidder. The latter is at present the rector, having his residence at Dunkirk. There are 60 members, and Wardens, Richard Hevenor, Jesse T. Fosdick; Vestrymen, Wm. G. Hevenor, James Williams, O. S. Vreeland, J. J. O'Donnell, James O'Donnell, J. G. Smith, J. d. McDonnell, W. L. Davenports.

THE FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH

was the next organized religious body in town. It was legally incorporated, Feb. 10,1873, with H. 0. Wait, S.S. Palmer, and George B. Stebbins, Trustees. Prior to this period the Rev. B. Brown had preached to 8 or 10 persons; and the church, when formed, numbered 23 members. A church edifice was immediately begun, but was not ready for dedication until Jan. 11, 1874. The services were conducted by the Rev. B. J. lves, D.D. The house is 36 by 78 feet, and 24 feet high, with a neat steeple, and was, built by D. J. Langsworthy, at a cost of nearly $5000. It is supplied wish a $500 organ, and comfortably seat 400 persons.
    The clergy of the church, since Salamanca became a separate appointment, have been as follows: 1873, Rev. L. L. Luse; 1875, Rev. H. H. Moore; 1876,Rev.L.A.Chapin; 1877, Rev. A. & Goodrich; 1878, Rev. M. Fording.
    The church has at present 30 members, and maintains a Sunday-school of 35 member, superintended by William P. Culver. The present trustees of the society are W. T. Pith, D. E. Seaver, Charles Benson, Ira McKibben, and A. Bloodgood.
        In connection with this society, and largely out of its membership, was organized in 1875, by Rev. H. H. Moore,

THE WEST SALAMANCA METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

    In March of that year a board of trustees was chosen, composed of S. H. Jones, L. J. Worth, George M. Bissell, Charles Parker, and George Town. April 2, 1875, the house erected and occupied till this period by the St. Mary's Episcopal Society was purchased for a place of worship, and has since been the home of the Methodists. There has been an encouraging increase of membership, numbering at present 40.  The church has had the same pastoral connection as the one at Salamanca, and has regular meetings every Sabbath afternoon. A Sabbath-school is also maintained.

THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF SALAMANCA

    On the 8th of January, 1873, Samuel Learned, A. B. Bullard, Henry Fults, and Verres Ward met to consider the propriety of forming a church of those who entertained the Baptist faith. This purpose was accomplished March 3, 1873, when the Rev. G. W. Varnum organized the above body with 12 members, which was recognized by a council of the neighboring churches, July 24, 1873. The charge to the church was given by the Rev. L. Stowell, and the hand of fellowship extended by the Rev. R.D. Hays. The same day the meeting-house was consecrated, the sermon being preached by the Rev. G. W. Varnum, the dedicatory prayer made by the Rev. B. C. Willoughby. The building cost $2300, much of which was contributed by Dr. Samuel Learned, the first deacon of the church.
    The Rev. D. E. Burt became the pastor of the church soon after its organization and continued this relation until 1877. Since January 1878, the membership, now numbering 60, has enjoyed the ministrations of the Rev. R. A. Dickson, who is also superintendent of the flourishing Sunday School.
    The First Baptist Society of Salamanca was organized Feb. 1, 1873, with a board of trustees composed of Samuel Learned, Henry Fults, H. O. Searles, James M. Bois, A. A. Whipple, and which at present contains but 3 members, viz., Henry Fults, Nathan Picket, and Joseph B. Thompson.

THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH OF SALAMANCA

    Was organized March 11, 1875, by council of the neighboring churches, called for this purpose. Twenty-seven persons united in membership, and the Rev. J. D. Stewart became their first pastor. The meetings were held in the Baptist church. The pastoral office was next filled by the Rev. C. H. Crawford, and since April 1, 1878, by the Rev. H. M. Higley. The deacons have been A. Hoag, Sr., G. W. Hagadorn, and B. B. Weber. There are 37 members, and the church is in a flourishing condition.
    The temporalities of the church are cared for by a society organized March 16, 1875. This was legally incorporated May 29, 1877. The trustees at that time were E. H. Hess, G. w. Hagadorn, A. R. Knapp, Alenander Hoag, and John B. Shaw.  Under the  of this society a neat chapel was erected in 1876-77, at a cast of $1200,  which was appropriately consecrated Feb. 28,1877, the Revs. Thomas K. Beecher, M. L. Williston, and others officiating. The trustees of the society in 1878 were G. W. Hagadorn, J. B. Smith, A. Haag, Jr., E. H. Hess, and Robert Hoag.
THE BETHEL CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH OF WEST SALAMANCA
was constituted, in 1875, of the following persons, who had withdrawn from the First Congregational Church for this purpose: C P. Crawford, Mrs. William P. Crawford, Albert B.. Crawford, Laura A. Crawford, Mary L.Page, Aurilla Crook, Warren Wright, and S. C. Hall. A building committee was appointed, having as members,- William P. Crawford, Warren Wright, and A. A. Finley, which erected, the same year, a plain but comfortable house of worship, costing $1200. Until October 1876, the pastors of the church have been the same as those of the mother church. At present the pulpit is vacant, and the membership of the church in consequence rather weak.
A Union Sunday-school, which was organized in the village many years ago by William P. Crawford, is yet continued, and now meets in the Congregational chapel. In this house are also held the meetings of the Free Methodists, who bare not as yet become an organized body in town. The Rev. J. McGeary preaches here in connection with appointments at Steamborg and other points.
On Saw-Mill Run is a small body of Free-Will Baptists, who have fitted up a building where preaching is sometimes held, no regular pastor being maintained; and on Bucktooth Run are snail else.. of United Brethren and Protestant Methodists, both having preaching at stated times.

THE PUBLIC CEMETERY

on lot 9, in town 3, is the only place of internment in Salamanca. It comprises one acre of ground, purchased by the town of W. P. Crawford, in 1858. That year an appropriation of $120 was also made "to grub and clear the ground." later appropriations have placed it in good repair. Among others here interred is Abel Lyon, one of the pioneers of the county, who died in 1858, at the age of eighty-nine years.


BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

AUGUSTINE W. FERRIN

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The sketch of the life of a self-made man is always interesting, and is not without its useful lessons.
    The grandfather of our subject, Ebenezer Ferrin, was a native of New Hampshire. He emigrated from the State to Concord, Erie Co., NY, and was on e of the pioneer settlers of that town. He located and cleared a farm near the village of Springville, where he closed his days in the year 1851. Upon that farm, also, his son Adna P., father of Augustine Ferrin, died in 1854, and there the subject of this notice was born, March 9, 1843.
    Mr. Ferrin's father moved to the town of Yorkshire, Cattaraugus Co., NY, about the year 1845, but returned to the homestead farm in Erie County in 1851. He followed the pursuit of agriculture, as had his father before him. He married (in 1842), Lucinda Sanders, daughter of William Sanders, of Erie Co., NY, but of Connecticut parentage. She died in 1861. Of this union, Augustine was the oldest child. Owing to the death of his father when young Ferrin was but eleven years of age, his advantages for acquiring an education - limited to a few years at the district school, and a few terms at the Springville Academy - were cut short. The maintenance of his mother and sisters depending largely upon his efforts, he started out in the life-struggle at an earlier age than most youths, - being but thirteen years of age when he entered the printing office on his maternal uncle, Lucius C. Sanders, then publishing The American Citizen, at Springville. Six months later the office was sold, and the paper discontinued. Augustine returned to his books, and thus spent the year that intervened ere he entered the office of the Springfield Herald, as a apprentice to the "art preservative.: While serving his apprenticeship, and with the consent of his employer, he issued from that office a small paper entitled the Penny Weekly, the labor of his own hands and brain, and the result of diligently employed leisure hours. This early manifestation of genius shows his penchant for journalistic honor.
    He remained in the Herald office until August, 1862, when he enlisted in Company F, of the 116th Regiment of New York Volunteers. He accompanied the regiment to Baltimore, thence to Fortress Monroe and New Orleans, was with it at the siege of Port Hudson, and in the Donaldsonville campaign; but upon the return of the regiment to Baton Rouge, LA., he was sent to the hospital for disability, from whence he was honorably discharged in the fall of 1863. He returned to Springville December 1, and in the January following took charge of the Springville Chronicle, remaining its editor and publisher until April 1,1865, when he became the "city editor" of the well-known Buffalo Express. This honorable position he was, on account of failing health, compelled to resign in September 1865. The following year and a half were spent in efforts to regain his health.  The summer of 1866 he passed on the farm of Rev. J. B. Saxe, thereby restoring his health sufficiently to justify him in returning to his chosen field of employment. He then purchased the Springville Herald establishment, and removed the press and materials to Ellicottville, where he started the Cattaraugus County Republican, the first issue of which was dated Feb. 7, 1868, he removed his officer thither.
    Jan. 1, 1873, he associated with himself B. B. Weber as a partner, and a few months later they opened an office at Salamanca. The Republican thenceforward was dated at Salamanca and Little Valley, with offices at both places. In addition to the above, in February, 1876, Messrs, Ferrin & Weber engaged in a pioneer newspaper enterprise in the oil region, - establishing the Bradford Semi-Weekly Era. The paper was continued as a semi-weekly until October, 1877, when it was changed to a daily issue, Mr. C. F. Persons becoming a partner in the business. To comprehend the magnitude of the enterprise of publishing a daily at Bradford, with full "press dispatches," it must be remembered that at the time the place was but a city in embryo, and numbered less than five thousand inhabitants. The Daily Era was a success from its inception, and became at once the organ of the oil producers in the Northern oil field. In April 1877, the two first-named partners sold their interest in the Bradford establishment to Mr. Parsons.
    Mr. Ferrin married (Sept 24, 1868) Miss Anna E. Weber, of Springville, NY. She died Feb. 15, 1872, and Jan. 1, 1874, he married Miss Flavilla J. Van Hoesen, Preble, Cortland Co., NY. The result of the latter union has been one son, - Augustine W. Ferrin, Jr., - and a daughter,, - Susie L. Mr. Ferrin's residence is at Little Valley.
    Thus far in his career, Mr. Ferrin has led an active and useful life, and now, in the prime of his manhood, enjoys an enviable reputation of a journalist not only in the home of his adoption, but throughout Western New York.

BLANCHARD V. WEBER

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BLANCHARD V. WEBER , son of Matthew and Betsey (Hemstreet) Weber, was born in the town of Ashford, Cattaraugus Co., NY, April 16, 1848. He received his education, first, at the public schools of his native, and subsequently at the Griffith Institute, at Springville, NY. In 1871, he entered the office of the Cattaraugus Republican, as assistant business manager. While serving in the capacity he learned the trade, and is now a practical printer. On the 1st of January 1873, he purchased of A. W. Ferrin, his brother-in-law, a half interest in the Republican, and has since retained an equal partnership in the various interest of the firm.
    On the 28th of December 1868, Mr. Weber married Miss Lena L. Ferrin, a sister of his partner. They have four children, - two sons, and two daughters. He is an active member of the Congregational Church of Salamanca, of which he at present occupies the position of clerk. He is generally considered a good businessman, and enjoys a first-class reputation in the community in which he resides.  


CHARLES B. GALLAGHER

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CHARLES B. GALLAGHER is a native of Little Valley, this county, where he was born on the 15th day of June, 1849. His parents were born in Ireland, and can. to this country forty yearn ago; his father has been a heavy contractor of stone and mason work on the principal railroads and canals, and now occupies afar. in Little Valley. His boyhood was spent on his father's farm, mud his education received at the common schools and the Randolph Academy. He studied law in. the office of H. Ansly and H. M. Seymour, in Salamanca. He had charge for about two years of a law office in Salamanca for Judge Lamb and C. P. Vedder, also studied law with Joshua Cook, Buffalo, but has never yet made application to be admitted to the bar. By constant study his eyesight failed him, and he was at one time totally blind. After recovering his sight, he turned his attention to business, and engaged in the hardware and grocery business in Salamanca without any money or means having purchased his first goods on credit, but succeeded in the same. He is an active Democrat, and was a delegate to the Democratic State Convention in 1875, and was one of the secretaries of that convention. He ran for member of Assembly against Hon. S. V. Pool, David Huntington, nail Guy Carleton Carpenter, in 1877, on the Democratic ticket, and was defeated by a reduced majority; has been a justice of the peace in Salamanca since he was twenty-one years old, and now holds the office. He is now doing a business in the hardware, coal, and other lines amounting to nearly $100,000 per year. Is a hard worker, and attends to all of his own business, employing five clerks. Had six brothers and two sisters. P.A. Gallagher, his oldest brother, has served severed terms as member of Assembly and in the State Senate of California, and was a major in the army. He has two brothers, who are lawyers, and the others have been elevated to high and honorable positions..


JOHN J. O'DONNELL


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John J. O'Donnell was born in Kilcreest, county Galway, Ireland, April 27, 1836. His parents, Edmond and Anna (Taylor) O'Donnell, removed to Salamanca in November 1864.
Mr. O'Donnell was elected school collector in 1870, justice of the peace in 1878, member of the board of education in October 1877, and supervisor of the town of Salamanca in February 1878.
He commenced work a laborer, in the employ of the Erie and Atlantic and Great Western Railways, in December, 1864, and was promoted successively to tally man, shipping clerk, way-bill clerk, and in November, 1874, was promoted to the position of chief clerk in the freight offices of said railway company which position he now holds.
He was married, Dec. 21,1867, to Amanda Louisa Gorton, of Allegany Co., N. Y. They have five children, viz: Eliza L, Benjamin E., Annabel, Sarah G., and Blanche.
In politics, Mr. O'Donnell is a Republican. His religions faith is that of the Protestant Episcopal Church, and he is associated with St.. Mary's Church, Salamanca; he has served in the capacity of vestryman or warden since its formation as a parish, in 1865.

HENRY O. WAIT

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HENRY O. WAIT, the subject of this sketch, was born, Sept. 19,1841, in the town of Owego,Tioga Co.,NY. He is one of a family of six, -four girls, and the elder of two boys, - a son of Christian Wait (of Quaker descent), who was born, Feb. 4,1801, in Schoharie Co., N. Y., from whence he emigrated, when a boy, with his parents, and is one of the pioneers of Wait's Settlement, where he now resides, south of the Susquehanna River.
Where Owego now stands was at that time a wilderness, and they were obliged to cut a road six mile, through the forest to the place where the old homestead now stands, and where in 1830, he married Miss Rachel Briggs. She died Jan. 16, 1868.
    Henry 0. Wait was educated at a district school, and was by occupation a farmer until the breaking out of the Rebellion, when he enlisted, April 28, 1861, and was assigned to the 26th Regiment, New York State Volunteers, fir two years, or during the war. He served with distinction in the Army of the Potomac, First Army Corp., under Major General I. McDowell, and was engaged in the following battle: Cedar Mountain, Second Bull Run, South Mountain, and Antietam, where he was severely wounded, and, or gallant conduct, was promoted to captain on the field. He was laid up with his wounded limb for several months in Queen Street Hospital, Alexandria, VA. His regiment was mustered out of the service at the expiration of two years, which ended their term of enlistment. He again enlisted for during the war, receiving a major's commission from President Lincoln, and was assigned to the Army of the Southwest, under Gen.. Sherman, whom he joined at Chattanooga, where he was engaged in the battle of Lookout Mountain, Nov. 24, 1863; after which he was promoted to lieutenant-colonel, and was with Sherman's army in their "march to the sea" and until the surrender of Gen. Lee; was again mustered out of the service by reason of the closing of the war.
    He then turned his attention to railroading. He came to Salamanca, NY, where he is now, and has been for thirteen years, employed in the ticket department by the Erie and Atlantic and Great Western Railroads; has always taken an active part in politics, and has always been a Republican. He was elected supervisor of the town of Salamanca for three successive terms, 1873, 1874, 1875, by complimentary vote He was elected to the office of treasurer of Cattaraugus County, by an overwhelming majority, in 1878. He is a member of all the orders of Free Masonry,-Master Mason, Royal Arch, Council, Knight Templar, and all the degrees up to and including the thirty-second, and has held many responsible positions in the several bodies.
He was married, May 6, 1874, to Miss Bell Kirkpatrick, only child of David and Josie Kirkpatrick, of Attica, NY.