From French's Gazetteer of the State of New York

Transcribed by Steve and Pat McKay
July 1997


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This county was formed from Onondaga, March 8, 1799. Seneca was taken off in 1804, and a part of Tompkins in 1817. It is a long, narrow co., lying W. of the center of the State, and extending from Lake Ontario s. to near the head of Cayuga Lake. It is centrally distant 146 mi. from Albany, and contains 756 square mi.1 It has a general northerly inclination, and is divided geographically into two nearly equal parts by a line extending eastward from the foot of Cayuga Lake. The N. half is level, or gently undulating, and contains numerous marshes. Some portions of its surface are covered with small, isolated drift-hills 50 to 75 ft. high. The surface of the S. half is rolling, and gradually rises until it attains an elevation of 500 to 800 ft. above the level lands of the N. These highlands are divided into two general ridges, the first lying between Skaneateles and Owasco Lakes, and the second between Owasco and Cayuga Lakes. The summits of both ridges are rolling, and have an elevation of 1000 to 1200 ft. above tide. Their E. declivities are often precipitous, forming high, bold bluffs upon the shores of the lakes, but their W. declivities are more gradual, generally sloping gently down to the very edge of the waters. The S. part of the W. ridge is divided near its center by the valley of Salmon Creek, which is bordered by steep banks 50 to 200 ft. high. Among the most peculiar of the natural features of the co. are the three long, narrow lakes which extend from the level regions of the N. between the parallel ridges far into the highlands of the S. Skaneateles Lake, upon the E. line, is 840 ft. above tide, and is bordered by bluff shores within the limits of the co. Owasco Lake, near the center, is 770 ft. above tide, and its shores are generally bold, and in some places precipitous. Cayuga Lake, on the western border, is 387 ft. above tide, and along nearly its whole extent in the co. the land slopes beautifully and evenly upward from its surface to the summits of the ridges. The water of these lakes is clear and transparent, and may be taken as the very type of purity. This lake region, with its beautifully rolling surface and rich and productive soil, with its green lawns apparently stretching upward from the very bosom of the water, and with its highly cultivated farms, presents one of the finest landscapes in the country. Seneca River flows eastward through near the center of the lowlands which form the N. half of the co. It receives Cayuga and Owasco Outlets from the S. and numerous smaller streams from both the N. and S. A swampy region, known as the Montezuma Marshes, extends along the whole course of the river.2 The streams that drain the central ridges are small creeks and brooks. Upon the level land in the N. part of the co. are a series of small, shallow lakes and ponds, the principal of which is Cross Lake.

The rocks in this co. generally lie in nearly horizontal layers, but in some places they are disrupted and broken. Their edges above the other, forming the declivities of the hills that rise toward the S. The lowest formation is the Medina sandstone, which outcrops sandstone, which outcrops upon the shore of Lake Ontario and covers the N. Half of Sterling. Above this successively appear the Oneida, conglomerate, and Clinton groups in the S. part of Sterling; the Lockport group in Victory; the red shale of the Onondaga salt group in Cato, Brutus, Conquest, and Mentz; the gypsum of the same group in Auburn, Aurelius, and Springport, and for a distance of 10 miles along Cayuga Lake; the waterlime and Oriskany sandstone in Owasco, Auburn, Fleming, and Springport; and, successively above the Onondaga and corniferous limestone, the Marcellus and Hamilton shales, Tully limestone, Genessee slate, and the Portage and Ithaca groups, the last occupying the summits of the southern hills. Weak springs of brine are found in the Medina sandstone upon the borders of Lake Ontario, and also in the red shale of the salt group along the course of Seneca River. In the central part of the co., and along the shores of Cayuga Lake, are numerous quarries, which furnish a good quality of waterlime, quicklime, and gypsum. The red sandstone and the Onondaga and corniferous limestone are quarried extensively for building stone. Thin layers of corniferous limestone and of sandstone are extensively quarried along Cayuga Lake, and make an excellent quality of flagging.

The soil in the N. half of the co. is generally a fine quality of sandy or gravelly loam, intermixed with clay, muck, and alluvium; and in the S. it is a gravelly and clay loam and very productive. The whole co. is well adapted to either grain raising or pasturage. Until within a few years wheat has been the staple production; but it has been nearly superseded by rye, oats, barley, and corn. Wool growing and dairying are also extensively pursued. The cultivation of fruit, for which the climate and soil are admirably adapted, is beginning to receive considerable attention. The manufactures of the co., mostly confined to Auburn, are extensive, though comparatively less than in 1810.3

The county seat is located at the city of Auburn.4 An elegant and substantial courthouse was built in 1807-1809.5 It is located upon a commanding site in the S.W. part of the city, and contains rooms for the usual co. offices. A fireproof clerk's office is situated adjacent to the courthouse.6 A substantial stone jail was erected in 1833, in the rear of the courthouse. The county poorhouse is located upon a farm of 90 acres in Sennett, 3 mi. N.E. of Auburn. It is a poor, old dilapidated building, containing about 30 rooms. The average number of inmates is about 100, supported at a weekly cost of 70 cts. Each. A school is kept during a potion of the year.7 The Cayuga Orphan Asylum, located in the city of Auburn, was incorp. In April, 1852. It receives orphans and destitute children and has an average attendance of 30. The institution is well managed, and the children receive good care and instruction. The Erie Canal extends through Brutus, Mentz, and Montezuma. Cayuga Lake and Outlet are navigable, and form a connection with the canal at Montezuma. The direct branch of the N.Y. Central R.R. from Syracuse to Rochester extends through Brutus, Mentz, and Montezuma, and the Auburn branch through Sennett, Auburn, and Aurelius.8

Two daily, 7 weekly, and 3 monthly papers are published in the co.9

This co. formed a portion of the Military Tract, and included the original townships of Cato, Brutus, Aurelius, Scipio, Sempronius, and parts of Milton and Locke. Sterling was included in the lands granted as a compensation for portions of the original grants, which upon survey were found to belong to the Boston Ten Towns. Before the advent of the whites it formed the chief hunting grounds of the Cayuga Nation. The people of this nation were more migratory in their habits than those of the Onondaga and Seneca nations, and they had fewer towns and villages. The principal town or place of council of the tribe was upon the shore of Cayuga Lake, near the present village of Aurora. The first white settlers were soldiers, who had served during the Revolution and who drew lots upon the Military Tract, or those who had purchased soldiers' warrants. The first immigration was by the way of Oneida Lake and River, and from the S. by way of Cayuga Lake; but in 1796 a State road, extending from Whitestown to Geneva by way of Auburn, was cut through; and in 1800 the celebrated Cayuga Bridge10 was built, the new route speedily becoming the great highway of Western emigration. The population steadily and rapidly increased from 1790, a great impulse being given to it by the completion of the Erie Canal in 1825. The first inhabitants were principally from New England and the eastern cos. of New York.

AUBURN CITY – was formed as a town from Aurelius, March 28, 1823. It was incorp. As a village April 18, 1815, and as a city March 21, 1848. It lies upon Owasco Outlet, near the center of the co. Its surface is rolling, with an inclination toward the N. Owasco Outlet, flowing N. W. through near the center, descends 120 ft., and furnishes an abundance of waterpower, which is mostly improved. Along its course are valuable quarries of waterlime, Oriskany sandstone, and Onondaga and corniferous limestone. The city is finely laid out upon both sides of the creek, most of the streets having a gentle inclination. It is situated in the midst of a rich farming country, and it has a large share of internal trade. Its manufactures are extensive and important, consisting principally of woolen goods,11 paper, agricultural implements, books, flour, and machinery. Besides the co. buildings, it contains 12 churches,12 3 banks, and many other fine public and private buildings. Seven weekly, 2 daily, and 2 monthly papers are published in the city. Pop. 9,476.

The Public Schools are under a Board of Education, consisting of 4 members, elected annually. The schools, 5 in number, employ 23 teachers, --5 males and 18 females. In 1858 the number of children between the ages of 4 and 21 was 3001, of or and 21 was 3001, of or 72 per cent., attended school during some portion of the year. The total expenses of the schools for 1858 were 13,231.19. The number of volumes in the district libraries is 3986.
The Auburn Academy is a fine stone edifice on Academy St. It was first erected in 1811, but was burned in 1816, and the present building was soon after erected.
The Auburn Female Seminary, a private institution, is in the building erected for a city hall, at the junction of Market, Franklin, and North Sts.
The Auburn Theological Seminary, a Presb. Institution, was established by the Synod of Genesee in 1819. It was incorp. In 1820 and opened in 1821. The building is located upon a commanding site, fronting Seminary St., in the N.E. part of the city.
The Cayuga Orphan Asylum, an institution for the care of orphan and destitute children is supported by State and co. appropriations and private contributions.
The Auburn State Prison is situated on the N. bank of Owasco Outlet, N. of the center of the city. The site, containing 10 acres, is surrounded by high walls, and within this enclosure are the prison proper13 and various workshops in which the convicts are employed. The main building, fronting upon State Street, is 3 stories high and 276 feet long, and is flanked by two wings 42 feet wide and 242 feet deep.
The Asylum for Lunatic Convicts, situated upon a lot of 10 acres, formerly the prison garden, in the rear of the prison, is a fine brick building, faced with cut stone. It contains 64 cells, and rooms for physicians, attendants, &c14.
Fort Hill is a beautiful rural cemetery, located upon the site of an ancient fortification and Indian village. It contains a monument to the memory of Logan, the celebrated Cayuga chief.15
The first settlement at Auburn was made in 1793, by Col. John Hardenburgh, from Ulster co.16 Hon. Wm. H. Seward resides in this city.

AURELIUS – was formed Jan. 27, 1789. Brutus, Cato, Owasco, and "Jefferson" (now Mentz) were taken off March 30, 1802, Auburn and Fleming in 1823, a part of Springport in 1833, and a part of Throop in 1859. It lies upon Cayuga Lake, near the center of the W. border of the co. Its surface is undulating, with a slight inclination toward the N. and W. Owasco Outlet flows through the N. E. corner; and upon its course are several fine mill privileges. Cayuga Brook, Crane Creek, and several other small streams take their rise in the town. The soil is mostly a heavy clay and gravelly loam. Cayuga, (p.v.,) upon Cayuga Lake, 2 mi. S. of the outlet, was incorp. In 1858. It is an important station upon the Central R. R., and is connected with Ithaca by a daily line of steamers. It contains 2 churches and 400 inhabitants. Fosterville, (p.v.,) in the N. part, contains a church and 12 dwellings; and Aurelius, (p.v.,) in the S. E. part, a church and 12 dwellings. Clarksville, on the E. line, is a manufacturing village, and forms a suburb of Auburn. It contains a paper mill,17 gristmill, hoe factory, woolen factory, and 300 inhabitants. The first settlement was made at Cayuga in 1788, by John Harris, from Harrisburgh, Penn.18 The first church was formed in 1804, by Rev. David Higgins.19

BRUTUS – was formed from Aurelius, March 30, 1802. Sennett was taken off in 1827. It lies on the E. border of the co., N. of the center. In the N. and W. its surface is level, with an average elevation of not more than 10 feet above Seneca River, which forms its N. boundary. The portions immediately bordering upon the river are generally swampy. In the S. E. the surface is rolling and broken by isolated drift hills 50 to 75 feet above the general level. The principal streams are Bread Creek and Cold Spring Brook, both flowing into Seneca River. The former is a canal feeder, and along its banks are outcrops of limestone and plaster, which are quarried to some extent. The soil is a fine quality of sandy and gravelly loam intermixed with clay and alluvium. Weedsport20 (p.v.,) was incorp. April 26, 1831. It is situated upon the Erie Canal, and is a station on the N. Y. Central R. R. It contains a bank, insurance office, union school, 4 churches, a foundry, a large distillery, and several mills. Pop. 1,226. The first settlement was begun in 1800, by Wm. Stevens, from Mass, on Lot 76.21 The first church (M.E.) was formed in 1816.22

CATO – was formed from Aurelius, March 30, 1802. Sterling was taken off in 1812, and Conquest, Ira, and Victory in 1821. A part of Ira was annexed in 1834. It lies upon the E. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface is level in the S. and gently rolling in the N. The ridges extend N. and S., and their summits are about 50 feet above the valleys and 150 to 200 feet above Lake Ontario. Seneca River forms the S. boundary. Cross Lake, upon the E. Border, is a shallow body of water about 5 mi. long, through within flows Seneca River. Otter Lake and Parkers Pond, in the N. part, discharge their waters through Otter Creek into Seneca River. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam mixed with clay and disintegrated red shale. Meridian23,(p.v.,) in the N. part of the town, was incorp. Oct. 17, 1854. Pop. 360. Cato, (p.v.,) on the line of Ira, in the N. W. corner, contains 3 churches and 53 dwellings. Seneca River is a p.o. The first settlement was begun in 1800, by Samson Lawrence, on Lot 32.24 Rev. Daniel Palmer was the first pastor.25

CONQUEST26– was formed from Cato, March 16, 1821. It lies on the W. border of the co., N. of the center. The surface is gently rolling, the ridges extending N. and S. The S. part along the course of Seneca River is marshy, and a swamp about one-fourth of a mi. wide extends N. and S. through the town along the course of the small stream which flows through Mud Pond. Duck Pond, in the N. W., is about 1 mi. in diameter. Howlands Island, in Seneca River, contains 2,700 acres, one-third of which is swampy, and overflowed during high water. The soil is a sandy loam interspersed with clay and underlaid by red shale. Conquest Center (Conquest p.o.) contains 2 churches and 26 houses; Pineville, in the W. part, contains 15 houses. The first settlers were George Snyder, from Schoharie co., who located on Lot 37, and Israel Wolverton, from Tompkins co., on Lot 4, in 1800.27 The first church (Prot. Meth.) was formed at Conquest Center, in 1803; Rev. Joshua Beebe was the first settled preacher.28

FLEMING29 – was formed from Aurelius, March 28, 1823. It lies W. of the foot of Owasco Lake, a little S. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling, with an inclination toward the N. and E. The banks of the lake slope upward for about three-fourths of a mi. The highest portions are 150 to 250 feet above the lake, and 800 to 1,000 feet above tide. Wheeler and Crane Creeks are the principal streams. The soil is principally a gravelly loam, with an occasional intermixture of clay and sand. Fleming, (p.v.,) near the center, contains 2 churches and 25 dwellings. Owasco Lake is a p.o. The first settlements were made in 1790-91.30 The first religious services were held by Elder Daniel Irish (Bap.) about 1794.31

GENOA – was formed as "Milton," Jan. 27, 1789; and its name was changed April 6, 1808. Locke was taken off in 1802. It is the S. W. corner town of the co., lying upon the E. bank of Cayuga Lake. The surface is a rolling region, gradually rising from the lake to a height of about 600 ft. and divided into ridges by the valleys of Big and Little Salmon Creek, which extend through near the center.32 The declivities that that border upon the streams in some places are steep and 50 to 150 ft. high. The soil consists of a strip of clay along the banks of the lake, and a deep, rich, gravelly loam in the other parts of the town. Genoa, (p.v.,) on Big Salmon Creek, contains 2 churches, 2 flouring mills, a tannery, and a furnace and machine shop. Pop. 300. Northville (Kings Ferry p.o.) is situated in the N. W. part of the town. Pop. 200. Five Corners (p.v.) contains 35 dwellings. East Genoa (p.o.) is a hamlet. The first settlements were made anterior to the organization of the co. Jabez Bradley was the first settler, at Northville. The census reports 6 churches in town.33

IRA – was formed from Cato, March 16, 1821, and a part was annexed to Cato in 1824. It lies upon the E. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface is rolling, the summits of the ridges being 50 to 75 ft. above the valleys and 225 to 275 feet above Lake Ontario. The streams are small brooks and creeks. The soil is a sandy loam underlaid by red sandstone, and is very productive. Ira Center, (p.v.,) the only village, contains 2 churches and 145 inhabitants. The first settlements were made by David, Eleazur, and Andrew Stockwell, 3 brothers from Whitehall, on Lot 58, Wm. Patterson, on Lot 32, and Henry Conrad, (a German,) on the same lot, all in 1800.34 The first church (Cong.) was formed at Ira Corners, July 7, 1807, by Rev. Francis Pomeroy; Rev. Silas Barnes was the first preacher.35

LEDYARD36– was formed from Scipio, Jan. 30, 1823. It lies upon the E. bank of Cayuga Lake, S.W. of the center of the co. Its surface inclines toward the W., its extreme E. border being elevated 500 to 600 ft. above the surface of the lake. The slopes of the hills are generally gradual, but are steep in a few places. Its streams are small, rapid brooks, the principal of which is Paines Creek, flowing through a narrow ravine in the S. part. The soil is sandy and clayey loam, very fertile. Aurora, contains some of the finest residences to be found in the interior of the State. It is the seat of the Cayuga Academy.37 Pop. 459. Talcotts Corners, (Ledyard p.o.,) near the S. E. corner, contains 2 churches and 12 dwellings. Levana (p.v.) is a steamboat landing, 2 mi. N. of Aurora. Pop. 106. Roswell Franklin, from Wyoming, settled at Aurora in 1789, and was the first settler in Cayuga co. Benj. Avery was the first settler at Talcotts Corners.38 Rev. Seth Williston (Presb.) conducted the first religious services; and Rev. H. Woodruff was the first settled minister.39

LOCKE – was formed from '"Milton," (now Genoa,) Feb. 20, 1802. Summer Hill was taken off in 1831. It lies upon the high ridges which border upon Owasco Inlet, in the S. part of the co. The inlet flows through near the center in a deep, narrow valley bordered by steep hills rising 200 to 400 ft. above it. The summits of the hills spread out into a beautifully undulating region with a mean elevation of about 1,000 ft. above tide. The soil is a gravelly loam interspersed with clay. Milan, (Locke p.o.,) situated on the S. branch of Owasco Lake Inlet, contains 2 churches, 2 woolen factories, 2 gristmills, and several mechanics' shops. Pop. 180. Centerville contains 18 houses. The first settlement was made by Ezra Carpenter, Jas. Cook, Jas. Durell, and Solomon Love, in 1790.40 The first church (M.E.) was formed in 1819.41

MENTZ – was formed from Aurelius, as "Jefferson," March 30, 1802. Its name was changed April 6, 1808. Montezuma and a portion of Throop were taken off in 1859. It lies upon Seneca River, N. W. of the center of the co. Its surface is generally flat, with a few low sand ridges near the S. Border. A swampy region extends along Seneca River. Owasco Outlet, flowing through the center, is the principal stream. Limestone, gypsum, and red shale are the underlying rocks. The soil is a clayey, sandy, and gravelly loam. Port Byron, (p.v.,) incorp. March 2, 1837, is situated upon the Owasco Outlet and Erie Canal, near the center of the town. The N.Y.C.R.R. station is 1 mi. N. of the village. It contains 3 churches, a woolen factory, cabinet ware manufactory, and a flouring mill with 10 run of stones. Pop. 1,669. Centerport, a canal village on the E. line, contains 22 houses. The first settlement was made in 1797.42 There are 3 churches in town; Bap., M.E., and Presb.

MONTEZUMA – was formed from Mentz, April 8, 1859. It lies in the N. W. angle formed by the great easterly bend in Seneca River, on the W. border of the co. Its surface is mostly low and flat. An extensive swamp, known as the Montezuma Marshes, extends along the river. The only considerable stream is Cayuga Brook. The soil is generally a clayey loam. Brine springs are found along Seneca River. Montezuma (p.v.) is located upon Seneca River in the W. part of the town. The Seneca and Cayuga Canals here unite with the Erie Canal. Salt and some other articles are manufactured43. Pop. 650. The first settlement was made in 1798.44 The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1803, by Rev. John Jeffries. There are 3 churches in town; 2 M.E. and Bap.

MORAVIA – was formed from Sempronius, March 20, 1833. It lies upon Owasco Lake and Inlet, in the E. part of the co. The greater part of its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the deep and narrow valleys of Owasco Inlet and its branches.45 These valleys are 300 to 400 ft. below the summits of the hills, and are bordered by steep and in many places nearly perpendicular sides. Upon the streams in their course through the ravines are several beautiful cascades, furnishing an abundance of water-power. Mill brook, just below its junction with Trout Brook, flows over a precipice of 80 ft. Upon the E. tributary of the outlet, near the S. border, is a cascade known as Dry Falls, from the fact that in summer the stream ceases to flow. A little below this cascade is a circular recess in the face of the perpendicular precipice, 42 ft. deep, and surmounted by a limestone arch 55 ft. high and 125 ft. long. Upon this arch rises a lofty hill covered with primitive forest trees. A large spring of carburetted hydrogen gas, highly inflammable, is situated upon the lowlands near the lake. The soil among the hills is a gravelly loam mixed with clay, and in the valleys it consists of a deep, rich loam formed of gravel and disintegrated limestone and slate. Moravia (p.v.) is situated on Mill Brook, in the valley 3 mi. S. E. of the head of Owasco Lake. The rapids and cascades in the stream at this point furnish an abundance of water-power. The village is incorp., and contains 130 dwellings, the Moravia Institute, and several mills and other manufacturing establishments. Montville46, a small village 1 mi. E. of Moravia, contains 15 houses. The first settlement was made at Moravia Village, by John Stoyell, in 1791.47 The first church (Cong.) was formed March 12, 1806.48

NILES – was formed from Sempronius, March 20, 1833. It lies between Owasco and Skaneateles Lakes, S.E. of the center of the co. Its surface is principally a rolling and hilly upland. The highest summits are 700 ft. above Owasco Lake. The declivities are gradual toward Owasco but more abrupt toward Skaneateles Lake. Dutch Hollow Brook, flowing N. through near the center, is bordered by high, steep banks.49 The soil is a gravelly and clayey loam. Kelloggsville, (p.v.,) in the extreme S. part, contains 2 churches and 30 dwellings; New Hope, in the S.E. part, contains a church, gristmill, sawmill, and 12 dwellings; Niles, (p.o.,) in the N. part, West Niles, Twelve Corners, and Nine Corners, are hamlets. The first settlements were made in 1793.50 There are 4 churches in town; 2 M.E., Bap., and Univ.

OWASCO – was formed from Aurelius, March 30, 1802. It lies E. of the foot of Owasco Lake, S.E. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling and inclined to the N.W. From the lake it slopes gradually upward, and the highest summits attain an elevation of 500 ft. Owasco Creek, flowing W. across the S. part, and Millers Brook, in the N. part, are the only streams. The soil is clayey loam. Owasco, (p.v.,) in the S.E. corner, contains 3 churches and 45 dwellings. The first settlements were made in 1792.51 The first church was formed in 1798, by Rev Abram Brokaw.52 Ex-Gov Throop is a resident of this town.

SCIPIO – was formed March 5, 1794. Sempronius was taken off in 1799, a part of Marcellus (Onondaga co.) in 1804, Ledyard, Venice, and a part of Springport in 1823. It lies on the W. shore of Owasco Lake, S. of the center of the co. Its surface is rolling, the highest summits being 500 ft. above the lake. A steep bluff, 20 to 50 ft. high, extends along the lake, and from the summit the surface slopes gradually upward for about one mi. The streams are mere brooks. The soil is a clayey loam. Scipio Center (Scipio p.o.) contains 2 churches and 80 inhabitants; Scipioville, (p.v.,) near the W. line, 80 inhabitants; Sherwood, (p.v.,) near the S.W. corner, 80 inhabitants. The Square is a p.o. in the N.W. part, and Bolts Corners a hamlet in the S. The first settlements were made in 1790.53 The first religious services were held by Elder David Irish, in 1794; and the first church (Bap.) was formed the same year.54

SEMPRONIUS – was formed March 9, 1799. A part was annexed to Marcellus (Onondaga co.) March 24, 1804, and Moravia and Niles March 20, 1833. It lies upon Skaneateles Lake, in the S.E. part of the co. From the valley of the lake and inlet the hills rise abruptly to a height of 800 to 1,000 feet, and from their summits the surface spreads out into a rolling and hilly upland. The highest points are about 1,700 ft. above tide. Mill Brook, flowing W., Bear Swamp Brook, N., and Fall Brook, S., all have excavated deep valleys in the drift deposits and shales. The soil is a good quality of clayey, sandy and gravelly loam, mixed with disintegrated slate and limestone. Dresserville, (p.v.,) located on Mill Brook, in the S. part of the town, contains 30 dwellings; Vansville, (Sempronius p.o.,) 15; Glen Haven (p.o.) is a noted water cure establishment near the head of Skaneateles Lake. Its situation is extremely beautiful, and it is supplied with pure, soft spring water. The first settlement was made in 1794, by Ezekiel Sales,55 Jotham Bassett, and Seth Burgess. The first church (Bap.) was formed Feb. 20, 1798; Rev John Lasure was the first preacher. The census reports 1 church (Bap.) in town.

SENNETT – was formed from Brutus, March 19,1827; it was named from Judge Daniel Sennett, a pioneer settler. A portion of Throop was taken off in 1859. It lies upon the E. border of the co., N. of the center. Its surface is level or gently undulating, the ridges rising in long, gradual slopes 50 to 100 ft. above the valleys. The streams are all small brooks. The soil is a deep, fertile, clayey and sandy loam, and is under a high state of cultivation. Sennett, (p.v.,) a station on the Auburn branch of the N.Y. Central R.R., contains 2 churches and 30 dwellings. The first settlement was made in 1794, by Ebenezer Healy, Jos. Atwell, Thos. Morley, and Thos. Morley, jr., from Conn., on Lot 21.56 The first church (Bap.) was organized Sept. 12, 1799, by Rev. Manasseh French, who was the first preacher. There are now 2 churches in town; Presb. And Bap.

SPRINGPORT – was formed from Scipio and Aurelius, Jan. 30, 1823. It lies upon the E. shore of Cayuga Lake, S.W. of the center of the co. Its surface rises in gradual slopes from the water to the E. border, where it attains an elevation of 400 to 500 ft. Waterlime, plaster, and limestone used for flagging, are quarried along the shore of the lake and in the adjoining ravines. Two immense springs flow from the ground near the village, furnishing a valuable water-power.57 The soil is a superior quality of sandy and gravelly loam, in some places mixed with clay. The lake is so deep that it rarely freezes, and the warmth of the water essentially moderates the intensity of the frosts of winter.58 Union Springs (p.v.) is beautifully situated upon Cayuga Lake, S. of the center of the W. border of the town. It contains several manufactories, a private academy, and many fine residences. Pop. 1,118. The first settlement was made in 1800, by Frederick Gearheart, Thos. Thompson, and Jas. Carr.59 The first church (Cong.) was formed by Rev. Joshua Lane, the first preacher.60

STERLING – named from William Alexander, Lord Sterling, of the Revolution - was formed from Cato, June 19, 1812. It lies upon Lake Ontario, in the extreme N. part of the co. Its surface is rolling and has a slight inclination toward the N. The summits of the ridges in the S. are 200 to 300 ft. above the lake; and Big Bluff, upon the lake shore, has about the same elevation. The streams are Little Sodus Creek and its branches, flowing into Little Sodus Bay, and Cortright Brook, flowing into Blind Sodus Bay.61 Little Sodus Bay is about 2 mi. long by 1 mi. wide, and is one of the best harbors upon the S. Shore of the lake. An extensive swamp, covering several hundred acres, extends along the lake shore, E. of the bay, and another lies on the S. border of the town. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam; some portions of the surface are very stony and hard of cultivation. Outcrops of Medina sandstone62 and Oneida conglomerate are quarried in this town for building stone. Sterling Center (Sterling p.o.) contains 40 dwellings; Fairhaven, (p.v.,) on Little Sodus Bay, 40; Martville, (p.o.) near the S.E. corner, 25; and Sterling Valley 20. North Sterling (p.o.) is a hamlet. The first settler was Peter Dumas, who located upon Lot 19 in 1805.63 The first church (Asso. Ref. Presb.) was formed in 1818.64

SUMMER HILL – was formed from Locke, as "Plato" April 26, 1831; its name was changed March 16, 1832. It is the S.E. corner town of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, 1000 to 1100 ft. above tide. Fall Brook, the principal stream, flows S. Through the E. part. Its valley is 300 to 400 ft. below the summits of the hills, and forms the only considerable break in the general level of the surface. Summer Hill Lake is a small pond in the N.E. part, discharging its waters into Fall Brook. The soil is a clayey and gravelly loam, the clay predominating. Summer Hill, 9p.v.,) in the S. part of the town, contains 115 inhabitants. The first settlement was made in 1797, by Hezekiah Mix, from Genoa, on Lot 37, near the village.65 The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1807; Elder Whipple was the first pastor.66

THROOP67 – was formed from Aurelius, Mentz, and Sennett, April 8, 1859. It is an interior town lying a little N.W. of the center of the co. Its surface is generally level, broken in a few places by sand and gravel ridges 100 to 150 ft. high. Its principal streams are Owasco Outlet and Cayuga Brook. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. Throopsville, (p.v.,) on Owasco Inlet, S.E. of the center, contains 3 churches, a grist and saw mill, and woolen factory. Pop.160. The first settlement was made on Lot 2, in 1790, by Ezekiel Crane and his son Shadrach, from N.J.68 There are 3 churches in town; Bap., M.E., and Disciple.

VENICE – was formed from Scipio, Jan. 30, 1823. It is an interior town, lying S. of the center of the co. Its surface is a rolling upland, the highest summits being 300 to 400 ft. above Owasco Lake. Salmon and Little Salmon Creeks flow S. in deep valleys dividing the surface into distinct ridges. Owasco Lake borders upon the N.E. corner. The declivities bordering upon the lake and upon the W. bank of Salmon Creek are steep, but generally the hillsides are long, gradual slopes. The soil is a fine quality of clayey and gravelly loam. Venice, (p.v.,) in the N.E. part of the town, contains 1 church and 20 dwellings; and Poplar Ridge, upon the highest summit in the N.W., contains a foundry and machine shop and 20 dwellings. East Venice (p.o.) and Venice Center (p.o.) are hamlets. The first settlement was made in 1800.69 The first church (Bap.) was formed at Stuarts Corners, in 1800, by Elder Irish, the first preacher.70 Upon the ridge E. of Salmon Creek, near the S. border of the town, are the remains of an ancient fortification. Upon the creek, near the center of the town, were extensive cleared and cultivated fields at the first advent of the whites. Near these fields was an Indian burial ground.

VICTORY – was formed from Cato, March 16, 1821. It lies upon the W. border of the co., N.W. of the center. Its surface is gently undulating, the highest points being scarcely 50 ft. above the general level. Little Sodus and Red Creeks are the principal streams. The underlying rocks are red shale and blue limestone, covered deep with drift. The soil is a gravelly and sandy loam. A swamp in the S.W. part covers several hundred acres. Victory, (p.v.,) near the center of town, contains 25 houses; and Westbury, (p.v.,) on the line of Wayne co., 50. The settlement of the town was commenced in 1800, by John McNeal, from Montgomery co., and John and Samuel Martin, from Ireland, on Lot 65.71 The first church (M.E.) was formed in 1813, by Rev. Zenas Jones, the first preacher.72


1Exclusive of 160 sq. mi. in Lake Ontario.
2Several efforts have been made by the State to drain these marshes, and large sums have been expended. A portion only, however, has yet been redeemed.
3"The number of looms in the co. were 1360, producing 340,870 yds. Of cloth annually; there are 19 tanneries, 47 distilleries, 48 asheries, 11 carding machines, 11 cloth dressing mills, 3 oil mills, an air furnace, triphammer, several nail factories, 6 earthen ware factories, and several hatters; shops. About 2,2,500 skeins of silk and 60,000 bushs. Of salt are made annually. The inhabitants clothe themselves principally in the products of their own families, and were it not for the exorbitant number of their distilleries, I should add, are very temperate and industrious,-the character given them by correspondents."-Spafford's Gazetteer, ed. 1813.
4When organized in 1799, Cayuga included Seneca co., the territory lying between the Cayuga and Seneca Lakes; and, as central to the population, the first courthouse was located at Aurora, on the E. shore of Cayuga Lake. It was built of poles and covered with brush. In 1803 a circuit court and court of Oyer and Terminer was held at this place by Daniel D. Tompkins, at which an Indian by the name of John was tried and convicted of the murder of Ezekiel Crane, jr., and sentenced to be hung. He urgently requested that he might be shot,-a privilege, of course, not granted by our laws. A log building at Cayuga Village was authorized to be used as a jail March 25, 1800. In 1804 an act was passed, authorizing John Tillotson, Augustus Chidsey, and John Grover, jr., commissioners to build a courthouse on the S.E. corner of Lot 46 of Scipio, (now Auburn.) This act was afterward repealed. On the 6th of March, 1805, Edward Savage, of Washington co., Jas. Burt, of Orange, and Jas. Hildreth, of Montgomery, were appointed commissioners to locate the site of a courthouse. The commissioners neglected to fix the site; and, April 6, 1808, John Glover, Stephen Close and Noah Olmstead were appointed to superintend the finishing of the courthouse at Auburn.
5The first co. officers were Seth Phelps, First Judge; William Stuart, District Attorney; Benjamin Ledyard, County Clerk; Joseph Annin, Sheriff; Glen Cuyler, Surrogate.
6This building is 45 by 65 feet, 2 stories high, with 2 double and 26 single cells, arranged in the center of the building, with a hall on three sides, open to the prisoners in daytime.
7No means are provided for ventilating the rooms of for classifying the inmates. The insane are sometimes confined in dark cells not provided with means of warmth; and the whole establishment and its management are by no means creditable to the intelligence and humanity of the citizens of the co.
8The Ontario, Auburn & N.Y.R.R., extending from Little Sodus Bay S. to Ithaca, has been surveyed through the co. and partially graded; but work upon it has been suspended.
9The Levana Gazette, or Onondaga Advertiser, the first paper published in Cayuga co., was established July 20, 1798, at Levana, in the town of Scipio,(then Onondaga co.,) by R. Delano. The Western Luminary was published at Watkins' Settlement, in Scipio, in 1799. The Aurora Gazette was established in 1799 by H. & J. Pace, and continued until 1805, when it was removed to auburn and changed to The Western Federalist. It was published as The Auburn Gazette by Skinner and Crosby in 1816. The Cayuga Tocsin was commenced at Union Springs in 1812 by T.T. Chamberlain. It was soon after removed to Auburn, and continued by different persons until 1847, when it was united with the Cayuga Patriot. The Cayuga Patriot was started at Auburn by Samuel R. Brown in 1814. Isaac S. Allen, Ulysses F. Doubleday, and others, were afterward interested in its publication. In June, 1847, it was united with the Tocsin, the joint papers taking the name of The Cayuga New Era. It was successively published by Merrill, Stone & Co., Stone, Hawes & Co., Finn & Hallett, and William L. Finn, and was discontinued in 1857. The Advocate of the People was commenced at Auburn in Sept. 1816, by Henry C. Southwick. The Cayuga Republican was commenced in 1819 by A. Buckinham, and was afterward published by Thomas M. Skinner. In 1833 it was united with the Free Press and issued as The Auburn Journal and Advertiser by Oliphant & Skinner. Skinner subsequently withdrew, and the paper was continued by Oliphant. In 1846 it was issued as The Auburn Journal; and the same year The Auburn Daily Advertiser, the first daily paper published in the co., was established in connection with it. In the fall of the same year, Oliphant sold out to Henry Montgomery, by whom the papers were continued until 1850, when Knapp & Peck, the present publishers, became proprietors. The Auburn Free Press was commenced by Richard Oliphant in 1824 and published by him until 1829. It was then sold to Henry Oliphant, and in 1833 it was united with the Cayuga Republican. The Gospel Messenger (Prot. E.) was established at Auburn by Rev. Dr. Rudd in 1827. It was removed to Utica a few years after. The Diamond was published in 1830. The Gospel Advocate was published in 1830. The Cayuga Democrat was published by Fred. Prince in 1833. The People's Friend was published in 1836 by Oliphant & Skinner. The Western Banner was published in 1836 by Francis S. Wiggins. The Peoples Library, mo., was published in 1836 by F.S. Wiggins. The Primitive Christian was published in 1836 by Silas E. Shepard. The Conference Record was published in 1837 by Rev. J. S. Chamberlain. The Northern Christian Advocate (M.E.) was commenced in April, 1841, by Rev. John E. Robie. It was edited by Rev. F. G. Hibbard and Rev. Wm. Hosmer until May, 1844, when it was purchased by the Meth. Genl. Conference and changed to The Northern Advocate. It was edited successively by Rev. Nelson Rounds and Wm. Hosmer, and is now under the editorial charge of Rev. F. G. Hibbard. The Star of Temperance was published in 1845 by L. H. Davey. Auburn's Favorite was published in 1849 by Newton Calkins. The Cayuga Chief was commenced at Auburn in January, 1849, by Thurlow W. Brown, and continued until 1857. The Auburn Daily Bulletin was published in 1849 by Stone, Hawes & Co. The Masonic Union, mo., was published in 1850. The Christian Ambassador (Univ.) was commenced in Jan. 1851, and is now edited by John M. Austin. The Spiritual and Moral Instructor was published in 1851 by Peleg S. Collrell & Co. The Auburn American, d. and w., was established in Feb. 1855, by Wm J. Moses. In 1859 the name of the daily was changed to The Daily Union, Moses & Vail publishers. The Journal of Specific Homeopathy, mo., was started in March, 1855, and is pub. by F. Humphreys. The Spiritual Clarion, commenced Nov. 15, 1856, is published weekly by Uriah Clark. The Northern Independent was estab. In Aug. 1856, by a pub. Com. Of the M.E.Ch.; Rev. Wm. Hosmer, ed. The Orphans' Friend, mo., commenced in Feb. 1857, is pub. By the managers of the Cayuga Orphan Asylum. The Cayuga Farmer and Mechanic was commenced in Sept. 1856, by P. J. Becker. In Dec. 1857 its name was changed to The Teachers' Educational Journal; it is still issued by its original proprietor. The Auburn Democrat was established in Aug. 1857, by Stone and Hawes, by whom it is still published. The Weedsport Advertiser was published in 1827. The Northern Phoenix was published at Weedsport in 1830 by Frederick Prince. The Genoa Spy was published in 1840 by Gelim Hine. The Port Byron Herald was first published at Port Byron in Oct. 1844, by Frederick Prince. The Port Byron Gazette was started in 1851 by Oliver T. Baird, and continued until 185-. The Cayuga Telegraph was published at Union Springs in 1850. The Meridian Sun was started in 1854 by Arthur White. It was afterward published as The Meridian Advertiser by W. H. Thomas. The Family Scrap Book, mo., was published at Victory Center in 1855-56.
10The Cayuga Bridge was finished Sept. 4, 1800, by the Manhattan Company. It was 1 mi. and 8 rods long, 22 ft. wide and 22 ft. between trestles. It was built in 18 months, and cost $150,000. The Cayuga Bridge Company, consisting of John Harris, Thos. Morris, Wilhelmus Mynderse, Charles Williamson and Jos. Annin, was incorp. In 1797. The bridge was destroyed in 1808, but afterward rebuilt. For a great number of years the Cayuga bridge was considered one of the greatest public improvements in the State, and it was taken as the dividing line between the E. and W. The bridge was abandoned in 1857; and the lake is now crossed by a ferry.
11The Auburn Woolen Mills give employment to 175 hands and manufactures 250,000 yds. Of cloth per annum. The Auburn Paper Mills employ 50 hands and manufacture $80,000 worth of paper annually. The foundries and machine shops give employment to a large number of men, and turn out work to the amount of $100,000 annually. The N.Y.C.R.R. Repair Shops employ 52 hands exclusively in repairing passenger cars. For a number of years books were very extensively manufactured; but of late much of this branch of business has been removed to other cities. Besides these, there are in the city a card factory, belting factory, carpet factory, distillery, rolling mill, and 2 grist mills.
122 Presb., 2 M.E., 2 R.C., Prot.E., Af. Meth., Bap., Second Advent, Univ., and Disciples.
13The cells of the prison are built in a block 5 stories high, separated from the exterior walls by an open space and surrounded by galleries. Each cell is 7 feet long by 31/2 wide and 71/2 high, closed by an iron grate. Breakfast and dinner are eaten at narrow tables, so arranged that the convicts cannot exchange looks or signs. Supper is eaten in the cells. The workshops form a range of near 1000 feet, built against the outer wall and lighted from the roof and inner sides. Waterpower is afforded by the Owasco. These prison buildings were commenced in 1816 and completed in 1819, by the State, at a cost of $300,000, exclusive of the labor of convicts upon them. The general control is vested in a Board of Inspectors; 54 officials, including a guard of 20 men, a chaplain, a physician, and 2 teachers, are employed in the management and government of the establishment. The average number of convicts is about 700. Their earnings in 1857 were $70,000 and the current expenses of the establishment about $72,000.
14This building was erected by the State in 1858, at a cost of $60,000.
15This ancient fortification was evidently the work of a people who occupied the country prior to the advent of the Indians. The monuments left by this people, the remains of the language still existing, and the traditions of the Indians, all show that they belonged to the same general stock as the aborigines of Mexico. They are known as the "Mound Builders," and in history are generally called the "Alleghans." The fort at this place was probably built prior to the discovery of America by Columbus, and was occupied by them for several hundred years; but they were finally driven out by the Cayugas. It was named by them Osco or Was Kough, and became the principal village of the nation until the advent of the whites. The celebrated Indian chief, Logan, was born here about the commencement of the last century. He afterward emigrated to Penn., and finally to Ohio. He was always known as a peacemaker and friend to the whites until his wife and children were murdered by Col. Cresap, after which he took up the hatchet and became on of the most noted of the Indian warriors. His address to the Peace Commissioners at the close of the war has scarcely its parallel in history for true eloquence and pathos. This ancient work is particularly described in the Smithsonian Contributions, Vol. II, Art. VI, p. 35.
16Among the other early settlers were Col. Brinkerhoff, Dr. Hackcliat Burt, Wm. Bostwick, Barnabas Caswell, and Lyman Paine, who came about 1795. John Hardenburgh built the first gristmill, in 1794; and Wm. Bostwick kept the first inn, in 1796. The place was called "Hardenburgh Corners" until 1805, when its name was changed to Auburn.
17The Auburn Paper Mill was incorp. Here Feb. 17,1848, with a capital of $50,000. It gives employment to 40 hands, and manufactures paper to the amount of $150,000 annually.
18Mr. Harris established the first ferry across Cayuga Lake. Wm. Harris and John Richardson came in the same year. The first marriage was that of John Harris and Mary Richardson, in 1789; the first birth, that of John Harris, Jr. , in 1790; and the first death, that of –Depuy, in 1797. Hugh Buckley taught the first school, in 1797; John Harris kept the first inn, in 1790, and the first store, in 1789. The celebrated Cayuga Bridge, 1 mi. 8 rods in length, was built in 1797, by Swartwood & Deman, of New York City, and Joseph Annin and others, of Cayuga. It fell in 1804, but was rebuilt in 1812-13, and was abandoned in 1857. After it was built, the road across it was the great highway of emigration until the canal was finished. The county seat was located here at the first organization of the co.
19There are 4 churches in town; 2 Presb., and 2 M.E.
20Named from Elisha and Edward Weed, first settlers at the village.
21Among the other early settlers were Caleb, Nathan, and Jonah Rood, and –Powers, from Saratoga co., who located at and near Weedsport; John Hamilton, from Washington co., on Lot 64, in March, 1802; Edward Horton, Peter Douglass, and Samuel Moore, from N.J., on Lot 86; Adam Helmer, from Herkimer co., on Lot 67, in 1804; and –Van Dyck and Daniel Miller, from N.J., on Lot 76, in 1805. The first child born was Burnett Stevens. Nov. 13, 1801; the first marriage, that of Peter Douglass and Polly Hamilton, Jan. 12, 1804; and the first death, that of an infant child of Sunderland Sweet, in 1800. Harriet Phelps taught the first school, in 1806; Walter and Elisha Weed kept the first store; and Lewis Putnam built the first sawmill and gristmill, on Bread Creek.
22The census reports 4 churches: Presb., Bap., M.E., and R.C.
23Formerly "Cato Four Corners."
24Among the other early settlers were Solomon Knapp, on Lot 100, L. Sheldon, on Lot 84, Jacob Labertaux, from Penn., on Lot 57, in May, 1803; Jesse Elwell and Abner Hollister, at Meridian, in 1805. The first child born was Alvira Stockwell, May 4, 1805; the first marriage, that of Andrew Stockwell and Sybil Root, June 4, 1804; and the first death, that of Stephen Olcott, in 1805. Solomon Knapp kept the first inn at Cato, in 1803; and Jesse Elwell, the first at Meridian, in 1805. Daniel M. Bristol kept the first store, in 1806; and Samuel Woodford erected the first gristmill, on the outlet of Otter Lake, in 1811.
25The census reports 4 churches; Presb., M.E., Bap., and Ref. Prot. D.
26Name given to commemorate the conquest achieved by those who favored the division of the old town of Cato over those who opposed it.
27Among the other early settlers were James Perkins, from Onondaga co., on Lot 3, Ephraim Witherill, from Tompkins co., on Lot 4, Theophilus Emerson, on Lot 27, and Clement B. Emerson, on Lot 15, in 1802; Dijar Wilcox, from Saratoga co., on Lot 74, Wm. McCollom and John Crowell, from Newburgh, on Lot 76, in 1805; and William Crowell, on Lot 77, in 1807. The first child born was Amos Wolverton, in 1803; the first marriage, that of Gilbert Perkins and Betsey Snyder; and the first death, that of a traveler and stranger, at Musquito Point. Joh Perkins taught the first school, at Conquest Center, in 1807; Ephraim Witherill kept the first inn, in 1808, and Abram Cherry the first gristmill, in 1810. This mill was long known as the "Pepper Mill," from the fact that a store was at first kept in it. The first settlers joined in making a canoe which would hold 60 bush. Of grain; and in this they carried the grists of the whole neighborhood to Springport, by the way of Seneca River, to ground. The journey usually took 4 days. In 1813 John Filkins took a load of wheat to Albany, but was obliged to sell the wheat and one horse to defray the expenses of the journey. In 1804 Jas Perkins built the first framed house, sawing out the whole lumber with a whip-saw. The building still stands (1858) a monument of persevering industry.
28The census reports 3 churches; 2 Prot. Meth. And M.E.
29Named from Gen. George Fleming, an old resident.
30Among the early settlers were Benj. Irish, Joseph Grover, Edward Wheeler, Ichabod and Abel Wilkinson, and James Herrington. The first child born was Aurelius Wheeler, in 1791; and the first death, that of Mrs. West, in 1792. John Herring taught the first school, in 1794; Abel Wilkinson kept the first inn, in 1792; and Joseph Grover the first store, in 1797.
31There are 3 churches in town; Ref. Prot. D., Bap., and M.E.
32The S. part of the town was settled by emigrants mostly from Penn. And N.J., and the N. part by emigrants from New England. In 1800 the town had a pop. Of 3,553; in 1810 it rose to 5,425; in 1820, after its territory was reduced to its present limits, the pop. Was 2,585; and in 1855, 2,352.
33Two Presb. 2 M.E., Cong., and Univ.
34Among the other early settlers were Daniel Parker, on Lot 69, John C. Barnes and Rev. Silas Barnes, on Lot 70, and Zadock Barnes, on Lot 83, all from Marcellus, and Edward Wood, from Sennett, on Lot 89, in 1802; Archibald and Chas. Green, on Lot 70 in 1803; Eli Mattison and Abraham Willey, from Conn., on Lot 34, Henry Ferris and his son, Augustus, from Saratoga co., on Lot 71, in 1804; and Thos. Barnes, from Washington co., at Ira Corners, in 1805. Dr. Squire, the first physician, taught the first school, in 1805; David Stockwell kept the first inn, in 1800; Sam'l and Israel Phelps, the first store, at Ira Corners, in 1813; and John Hooker erected the first gristmill, in 1818. The first child born was Polly, daughter of David Stockwell, in April, 1802; the first marriage was that of Eleazur Stockwell and Margaret Noble, March 7, 1802; and the first death, that of the wife of Rev. Silas Barnes, in 1802.
35The census reports 5 churches; 2 M.E., and 1 each Bap., Presb., and Disciples.
36Named from Benjamin Ledyard, agent and clerk for the disposal of the lands belonging to the Military Tract. The trace of an ancient fortification is found within this town. It stood upon a hill between two ravines, and enclosed about 20 acres.—Smithsonian Contributions, Vol. II, Part VI, p.63.
37The Academy building stands upon an eminence commanding a fine view of the bay and lake. The institution has a well selected library, competent teachers, and is in a prosperous condition. The Gospel and School Lot No. 36 of this town having been given to Union College, Lot 89 was taken for school purposes, and assigned to this academy.
38Elisha Durkee, and Atwell and Edward Paine, settled at Aurora in 1790. The first settler, Mr. Franklin, was in the battle of Wyoming, at which his wife was killed and his youngest child taken prisoner by the Indians. He died at Aurora in 1791, under the weight of his misfortunes. Betsey Durkee(now Mrs. Sweetland) was the first child born in town. The first inn was kept by Joshua Patrick, at Aurora, in 1793, in a house still standing. Abiathar Hull kept the first store, and T. Wheeler erected the first mill, a little N. of Aurora.
39The census reports 6 churches; 2 Friends, 2 M.E., Presb., and Prot. E.
40A daughter of Jas. Durell was the first child born; Aaron Kellogg kept the first store, at Milan; James Cook, the first inn; Lyman Brown erected the first factory, at Milan, in 1810, and Mr. Durell the first gristmill. The traces of an Indian burying ground, half a mi. W. of Milan, between 2 deep gulfs, covering about 2 acres, are still visible. The graves are ranged in rows E. and W.
41The census reports 3 churches; 2 M.E. and Bap.
42Among the early settlers were Phillip King, Seth Higby, from Saratoga co., on Lot 72, Josiah Patridge, from Mass., on Lot 73, in 1797; Charles Annes, Aholiab and Elijah Buck, from Chemung co., on Lot 73, (now Port Byron,) in 1798; Dan'l Loveland, from Vt., on Lot 49, in 1799; Peter Rausier and Moses Lent, from Owego, on Lot 62, in 1800; James Dixon and Joseph Hamilton, from Washington co., Caleb Hopkins, from N.J., and Ira Hopkins, from Washington co., on Lot 85, from 1800 to 1804.
43Salt was first manufactured in Montezuma about 1798; but the business was abandoned about 1840, in consequence of the brine becoming too weak to successfully compete with the salt springs of Syracuse and Salina. Strong brine springs have lately been discovered, and the manufacture of salt has been successfully resumed. These salt springs, like those of Onondaga, belong to the State.
44Among the early settlers were Peter Clark, from New York City, Comfort Tyler, and Abram Morgan, at Montezuma, in 1798, who located there to manufacture salt.
45The Owasco Flats were in part cultivated by the Indians anterior to the settlement by the whites, and still bear traces of the ancient occupation.
46Ex-President Fillmore read law at this place with Judge Wood.
47Among the other early settlers were Winslow Perry, Amos Stoyell, and Jabez L. Bottom, in 1793; Gursham Morse, in 1794; and Cotton Skinner, in 1795. The first child born was Seth Perry, in 1794; the first marriage, that Jonathan Eldridge Wright, in 1796. Levi Goodrich taught the first school, in 1797; Zadock Cady kept the first inn, in 1801, David Wright the first store, and John Stoyell built the first mill.
48The census reports 3 churches in town; Cong., Prot. E., and M.E.
49On the highest point of land, 3 mi. E. of Owasco Lake, is a quarry of fine flagging stone.
50Among the early settlers were Garret Conover and his sons John and Aaron, Isaac Selover, James Brinkerhoff, and William Bowen. The first child born was Sally Amerman, in 1798.
51Among the early settlers were Samuel and Benj. De Puy, Moses Cartwright, and Jacob and Roeliff Brinkerhoff. Cornelius Delamater kept the first inn, in 1800; James Burrows, the first store, in 1807; and David Bovier built the first gristmill, in 1798.
52There are 3 churches in town; M.E., Ref. Prot. D., and True D. Reformed.
53Among the early settlers were Elisha Durkee, Henry Watkins, Gilbert and Alanson Tracy, Sam'l Branch, Ebenezer Witter, and Gideon Allen. The first child born was Betsey Durkee, Dec. 5, 1790; and the first marriage, that of Wm. Allen and Betsey Watkins, June 25, 1793. Wm. Daniels taught the first school, in 1798, and Dr. Strong kept the first store, in 1808.
54There are 4 churches in town; Bap., Presb., M.E. and Univ.
55The first child born was Benj. Sales, in 1794; the first marriage, that of Sam'l Rice and Matilda Summerston; and the first death, that of Sam'l Rice. Cyrus Powers taught the first school, in 1800; John Husted kept the first inn and store, and Artimus Dresser erected the first mill.
56In 1795 Judge Dan'l Sennett, Amos Bennett, and Jacob, Rufus, and Dan'l Sheldon, from Conn., settled on Lot 99. In 1797 Jacob Hicks, a Revolutionary soldier, who drew Lot 99, settled on it; Benj. Miller, also a Revolutionary soldier, on Lot 17; and Jabez Remmington and Hezekiah Freeman, from Vt., on Lots 21 and 10. The first child born was Sally Smith, in 1795; The first marriage, that of Nehemiah Smith and Mindevill Morley, in 1794; and the first death, that of Thos. Morley, in 1795. Betsey Morley taught the first school, in 1795; Joseph Atwell kept the first inn, the same year; and Sheldon & Lathrop the first store.
57These springs are about 10 rods apart. From the larger flows a stream of suffcient size to furnish water-power for running a flouring mill with 6 run of stones, a plaster mill, sawmill, and several other kinds of machinery. The stream from the smaller spring drives the machinery of a planing mill, sawmill, and tannery. From the springs the town and village both derive their names.
58Fruit growing, for which the climate and soil are admirably adapted, begins to attract attention. The vine is successfully cultivated; and a single vineyard of 10 acres, devoted to grapes, produces fine crops.
59Amos Comely taught the first school, near Union Springs; Thomas Collins kept the first inn; Laban Haskins and Walther Low, the first store; Phillip Winegar erected the first woolen factory.
60The census reports 9 churches; 2 Friends, 2 M.E., and 1 each Cong., Presb., Bap., Christian, and R.C.
61Since work commenced on the Ontario, Auburn & N.Y.R.R. an effort has been made to change the name of this bay to Ontario Bay.
62This stone is much used for the underpinning of houses and farm buildings. It has been observed the hogs are very fond of licking the stone whenever they have access to it; and in consequence they foam at the mouth, and can only be fatted with great difficulty.
63Mr. Dumas was a Frenchman, who came to this country with La Fayette and served during the Revolution. For his services he received a lot in the Military Tract, and drew Lot 19, in Sterling. Capt. Andrew Rassmusen settled the same year on Lot No. 1. He was killed on board of an American vessel, on Lake Ontario, during the War of 1812. Francis Decamp located near Martville, in 1806; Wm. Divine, Nathan Wilmot, and Hehial Peck, on Lot 11, in 1807; Jacob Wilsey, from Saratoga co., on Lot 14, in 1808; John Cooper, on Lot 12, John Duzenbury, on Lot 44, Curtis Stoddard, on Lot 19, John McFarland and son, from Washington co., on Lot 27, John and Matthew Harsha, from Washington co., at Martville, in 1810; Wm. Cooper, Jos. Bunnell, and John Turner, from Long Island, in 1811; and Geo. Cooper, from Saratoga co., in 1812. The first child born was Isaac Hoppins, March 16, 1807; the first marriage, that of Matthew Harsha and Charity Turner; and the first death, that of Ezra, son of Peter Dumas, July 21, 1806. The first school was taught by Benj. Clark, in 1812; Wm. Cooper kept the first inn, in 1810; John Cooper erected the first sawmill, in 1810, and the first gristmill, in 1815.
64The census reports 6 churches; 2 M.E., and 1 each Ass. Ref., Presb., Bap., Ref. Prot. D., and Ref. Presb.
65Among the early settlers were Nath'l Fillmore, (father of Millard Fillmore, Ex-Pres. U.S., who was born in this town,) Martin Barber, Wm. Webster, Jos. Cone, Wm. Honeywell, Jas. Savage, Harvery Hough, and Josiah Walker. The first school was taught by Nath'l Fillmore, in 1804. The first child born was Millard Fillmore or Anson Cone; the first marriage, that of Ebenezer Crowl and Rosanna Mix, in 1803; and the first death, that of Amos Mix, killed by the falling of a tree in 1798. Jos. Cone kept the first inn, in 1803; Chas. Crane, the first store; and Ebenezer Bennett erected the first mill, in 1816.
66The census reports 3 churches; Bap. Cong., and M.E.
67Named from Hon. Enos T. Throop, Ex-Gov. of the State.
68Among the other early settlers were Isaac Barnum, Othniel Palmer, and his son, from Conn., Israel Clapp, from Mass., on Lot 16; Jas. Leonard and Wm. Durell, from N.J., on Lots 2 and 4, Manonah Clark, from Oneida co., on Lot 4, Jonas Ward and his son Caleb, from N.J., on Lot 92, in 1796; Christopher and Rev. John Jeffries, from Saratoga Springs, on Lot 16, Ephraim Wethy, from Dutchess co., on Lot 4, in 1799; Amos and David Codner, on Lot 14, in 1801. The first marriage was that of Shadrach Crane and Hannah Palmer; and the first birth, that of Ezekiel Crane. Edward Carpenter taught the first school, in 1800; Israel Clapp kept the first inn, in 1800; Luther Harden the first store, in 1804; and Prentice Palmer erected the first saw and grist mill, in 1798.
69Among the early settlers were Henry Hewit, Ezekiel Landon, Samuel Robinson, and Zadock Bateman, at Stewarts Corners, Samuel Childsey, and Amos Rathbun, at Poplar Ridge, Luke Taylor, and Thomas Carman, all of whom came in between 1790 and 1800. The first child born was Lemon Cole; and the first death, that of—Herrick, one of the pioneer settlers; he was killed by the fall of a tree. The first inn was kept by Samuel Robinson. The first mill was erected at Venice Village, in 1835.
70The census reports 3 churches; 2 Friends and 1 Bap.
71Patrick Murphy, from Ireland, settled on Lot 54, in Feb. 1806; Matthias Vanderhuyden, from Albany co., on Lot 62, and Asahel Carter, from Vt., on Lot 66, in 1810; John Ramsey, and Wm. And Martin De Forrest, from Washington co., Conrad Phrozine, from Newburgh, on Lot 43, Manasseh French, from Scipio, Judge C. Smith, from Saratoga co., on Lot 40, Philander Phinney, from Saratoga co., Silas Kellogg, from Brutus, on Lot 39, and Ebenezer Bird, from Onondaga co., on Lot 29, all in 1812. Mrs. Jane Wood was the first child born in town, in 1804; and the first death that of John McNeal, in 1800.
72The census reports 5 churches; 2 M.E., Presb., Bap., and Christian.

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