Descriptions of the Town of Cazenovia, Madison County, NY, in 19th Century Gazetteers
Compiled by Daniel H. Weiskotten
 
Last Modified July 4, 1999
 
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1810 Jedediah Morse (Cazenovia)
1813 Horatio G. Spafford (Cazenovia)
1824 Horatio G. Spafford (Cazenovia)
1833 Darby & Dwight (Cazenovia)
1836 Thomas F. Gordon (Cazenovia)
1841 Barber & Howe (Cazenovia)
1842 / 1843 John Disternell (Cazenovia)
1860 J.H. French (Cazenovia)
1868 Hamilton Child (Cazenovia)
1872 / 1873 Franklin B. Hough (Cazenovia)
1872 Boyd (Cazenovia)
1899 John E. Smith (Cazenovia)

 
 
Morse, Jedediah, 1810,  The American Gazetteer, Exhibiting a Full Account of the Civil Divisions, Rivers, Harbors, Indian Tribes, &c. of the American Continent ... 3rd Edition. Thomas & Andrews. Boston, MA

Cazenovia, a thriving post town in Madison co. New-York, 40 miles westward of Whitestown.  It has 3080 inhabitants.  The first number of "The Pilot" a newspaper, was published here August 10, 1808.  It is 494 miles from Washington City.  This town has lately been divided.
 

END of Morse 1810 (Cazenovia)
 

Spafford, Horatio Gates, 1813, A Gazetteer of the State of New-York: Carefully Written from Original & Authentic Materials, Arranged on a New Plan, In Three Parts. H.C. Southwick. Albany, NY

(Cazenovia Town and Village, page 155; Chittenango Creek, page 173)

<:155>        CAZENOVIA, a Post-Township, the capital of Madison County, 494 miles from Washington: bounded N. by Sullivan, E. by Smithfield and Nelson, S. by DeRuyter, W. by Onondaga County.  Its present extent is 12 miles N. and S., by about 5 E. and W.  But when first erected in 1795, then in Herkimer Co., it comprised an area nearly equal to the whole County of Madison.  it is watered by the Chittenango and Lime-stone creeks; and near the centre of the Town is a lake of 41-2 miles long N. and S., and from 1-2 to 1 mile wide.  This is called by the Indians Hawhaghinah, and sometimes by the English Canaseraga ? but is more properly called Linklaen lake, by general consent.  This Town is situated on elevated ground, but the surface is rather level than hilly.  The soil is a rich loam, underlaid by strata of gravel or clay, abounding with lime-stone.  The soil may be denominated a good medium for grain and grass.  The turnpike from Cherry-Valley to Manlius, runs centrally E. and W., and good country roads intersect it in every direction.  The whole population, 3151; 513 heads of families, and 172 senatorial electors.  Taxable property, 164,176 dolls.  There are 5 grain-mills, 10 saw-mills, 2 clothiers, 2 carding machines, 2 trip-hammers, a brewery, distillery, 2 asheries, and 2 tanneries.  There is a Presbyterian, and a Baptist meeting-house, and 12 or 14 school-houses.  This town was first settled in May, 1793, by Col. John Lincklaen, from Amsterdam, agent for a company in Holland.  Their lands in this and the adjoining Towns, were sold in farms to actual settlers, principally from New-England.  And as this agent gives an honorable character to the inhabitants, and those to the agent, I preserve both with much pleasure, as honorable evidences and testimonies of private worth.

<:155>        CAZENOVIA VILLAGE, in the Town of Cazenovia, the seat of justice for Madison County, is pleasantly situated at the S. end of Lincklaen Lake, near the centre of this Town.  The situation is very eligible for water works of every description.  The great western turnpike from Albany to Manlius, leads through this Village, and many country roads centre there.  In 1810, the site for the County buildings, was fixed in this village by Commissioners appointed for that purpose.  Col. Linklaen settled at this spot May, 1793; and the village now contains, 1810, 500 inhabitants, 69 houses, 5 stores, a grain and saw-mill, 2 clothiers, 2 carding machines, 2 trip- hammers, a brewery, distillery, 2 pot-asheries, 2 tanneries, a post-office, and a handsome presbyterian meeting-house.  This village was incorporated in 1810.  It lies [error with "about 20 miles"] N. and W. from Albany, distant 130 miles on the post-route by Utica.
        [sources were:] P.G.C. [Perry G. Childs], J.L. [John Lincklaen], A.P.L. [Andrew P. Lord]

<:173>        CHITTENANGO CREEK, rises in Linklaen Lake, at Cazenovia Village, and runs northerly about 25 miles, into Oneida Lake.  It is a fine stream, abounding in mill-sites: 3 miles north of Cazenovia Village it has a perpendicular fall of 70 to 80 feet.  For several miles it forms the line between Madison and Onondaga Counties.  At its mouth is Chitteningo Landing, in Cicero.
 

END of Spafford 1813 (Cazenovia)
 

Spafford, Horatio Gates, 1824, A Gazetteer of the State of New-York: Embracing an Ample Survey and Description of its Counties, Towns, Cities, Villages, Canals, Mountains, Lakes, Rivers, Creeks, Natural Topography, Arranged Alphabetically: With an Appendix. B.D. Packard. Albany, NY

(Cazenovia Town and Village, pages 94 & 95)

<:94>        CAZENOVIA, a Post-Township of Madison County, 11 miles W. of Morrisville, 113 from Albany, bounded N. by Sullivan, E. by Smithfield and Nelson, S. by DeRuyter, W. by Onondaga Co.  It was formerly the County Town, now removed to Eaton, Morrisville, after so many removals that it is a rare chance if the ?seat of justice' is now permanently fixed.  if it prove so, it will probably be at the expense of losing the northern part of this County, for a new one on the Erie Canal.  Sore fingers prolong the play of 'Robin's alive.'  Its present extent is 12 miles N. and S., by about 5 E. and West.  But when first erected in 1795, then in Herkimer Co., it comprised an area nearly equal to that of the whole County of Madison.  It is watered by the Chittenango and Lime-stone Creeks; and near the centre of the Town there is a Lake of 4½ miles long N. and S. and from ½ to 1 mile wide.  This is called by the Indians Hawgena, and sometimes by the English, Canaseraga, ? but it is more properly called Linklaen Lake, by General consent.  The town is situated on elevated ground, but the surface is rather level than hilly.  The soil is a rich loam, underlaid by strata of gravel or clay, abounding with lime-stone.  The soil may be denominated a good medium for grain and grass.  The turnpike from Cherry-Valley to Manlius, runs centrally E. and W., and good country roads intersect it in every direction.  This town was first settled in May, 1793, by Col. John Linklaen, from Amsterdam, agent for a company in Holland.  Their lands in this and the adjoining Towns, were sold in farms to actual settlers, principally from New-England.  And as this agent gives an honorable character to the inhabitants, and those to the agent, I preserve <:95> both with much pleasure, as honorable evidences and testimonies of private worth.

<:94>        CAZENOVIA VILLAGE, formerly the seat of justice for Madison County, is pleasantly situated at the S. end of Linklaen Lake, near the centre of this Town.  The situation is very eligible for water works of every description.  The great western turnpike from Albany to Manlius, leads through this Village, and many country roads centre there.  The site of the Village was the first residence of the agent named above, who laid out the Village : it is 11 miles WNW. of Morrisville, 113 WNW. of Albany, and 8 S. of the Erie Canal.  In October 1822, a census of the Village was obligingly taken for this work, when there were 700 inhabitants, 125 houses, 9 stores, 3 churches, for Methodists, Baptists and Presbyterians, 2 printing houses, 3 tanneries, 2 asheries, 3 distilleries, 2 grist mills and 3 saw mills.  New Woodstock Post Office, is 15 miles from Morrisville, 115 from Albany.  Population [of the town], 3909: 623 farmers, 233 mechanics, 16 traders, 9 foreigners, 6 free blacks: taxable property, $555241: 23 schools, 7 months in 12; [public monies received in 1821] $515.83; [No. of children between 5 and 15 years of age] 1250; [No. taught that year] 1461: 695 electors, 12479 acres improved land, 3705 cattle, 707 horses, 9700 sheep: 21172 yards cloth: 6 grist mills, 17 saw mills, 2 oil mills, 6 fulling mills, 5 carding mills, 1 cotton and woolen factory, 4 trip hammers, 6 distilleries, 3 asheries.
        [sources were:] I.K [?], O.E.B. [Oran E. Baker], P.G.C. [Perry G. Childs], J.L. [John Lincklaen], A.P.L. [Andrew P. Lord]
 

END of Spafford 1824 (Cazenovia)

 
Darby, William and Timothy Dwight, Jr., 1833, A New Gazetteer of the United States of America; Containing a Copious Description of the States, Territories, Counties, Parishes, Districts, Cities and Towns ? Mountains, Lakes, Rivers and Canals ? Commerce, Manufactures, Agriculture, and the Arts Generally, of the United States; Embracing Also the Extent, Boundaries, and Natural Productions of the Principal Subdivisions, the Latitude and Longitude of Cities and Towns, and Their Bearing and Distance from Important Places; Including Other Interesting and Valuable Geographical, Historical, Political, and Statistical Information; With the Population of 1830. Edward Hopkins. Hartford (CT)

(Cazenovia, page 90; Chittenango Creek, page 102)

<:90> CAZENOVIA, p-t. Madison Co. N.Y. 113 ms W. Albany, 11 W. Morrisville, 5 ms. by 12, has Canaseraga Lake, of 4½ ms., and Chittenango and Limestone creeks.  It is level, high land, rich loam for grass and grain.  First settled 1793.  The village is at the S. end of the lake, and flourishing.  Pop. 1830, 4344.

<:102> CHITTENANGO, creek, N.Y. a fine mill stream, falls into Oneida lake.
 

END of Darby & Dwight 1833 (Cazenovia)
 

Gordon, Thomas F., 1836, Gazetteer of the State of New York: Comprehending its Colonial History; General Geography, Geology, and Internal Improvements; Its Political State; A Minute Description of its Several Counties, Towns, and Villages; Statistical Tables, Exhibiting the Area, Improved Lands, Population, Stock, Taxes, Manufactures, Schools, and Cost of Public Instruction, in Each Town. With a Map of the State, and a Map of Each County, and Plans of the Cities and Principal Villages. T.K. and P.G. Collins, Printers. Philadelphia, PA

(Cazenovia, Book II pages 519 & 520)

<:519>        CAZENOVIA, taken from Whitestown and Paris when part of Herkimer county, 5th March, 1795; W. from Albany 113, from Morrisville 11, miles; surface high and undulating; soil rich gravelly loam, on limestone, suitable for grain and grass; drained by the Chittenango and Limestone creeks, and containing Linklaen lake.  When erected, this town comprised an area nearly equal to that of the county.  It was first settled in May, 1793, by Col. John Linklaen, from Amsterdam, agent for a company in Holland, who were owners of large tracts in this and the adjacent towns.  Cazenovia and New Woodstock are post villages.  Cazenovia village, founded by Col. Linklaen, about 1795, incorporated 1n 1810,8 miles S. of the Erie canal; 40 W. from Utica, with the relative distances above given, upon the margin of the lake, and its outlet, and upon Chittenango creek; is beautifully situated, and contains 1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, and 1 Methodist, churches, 2 grist and 1 saw, mills, 2 woollen factories, 1 paper mill, oil mill, a manufactory of wire harness, for weavers' looms, 3 hotels, 10 dry goods, 2 extensive drug, and 1 book, stores, a book printing office, and bindery; ashery, a large tannery, and 6 groceries; a seminary, established by the Methodist Oneida Conference, about 1825, with large and convenient brick buildings, accommodating 125 boarders, and having, in 1835, 268 students, male and female; the studies are divided into six departments, forming a systematic and regular course, from the branches usually taught in common schools to those pursued in colleges.  Students may take the whole or any part of the course; a high school, a seminary for young ladies; 1 bank, capital $100,000, incorporated March 14th 1831; a land office, of the Holland Land Company, a printing office, issuing a weekly newspaper, and about 240 dwellings, many of which are remarkably neat, some of three stories above the basement, some of the stores of brick, on limestone columns, and some built altogether, of dressed limestone.  This village was the seat of justice of the county, previously to its location at the present more central site at Morristown [Morrisville].  Lands around the Village are valued at from 40 to 50 dollars <:520> the acre.  New Woodstock, in the S. part of the town, 15 miles from Morristown [Morrisville], in a fine rolling country, has 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist, churches; an academy, incorporated May 2d, 1834, capital stock, $2,500; 1 tavern, 1 grist and 1 saw mills, carding and clothing works, 1 store, 1 tannery, and 30 dwellings.
        Four miles N. of the village of Cazenovia, at the falls of the Chittenango Creek, are extensive limestone quarries, yielding stone of any desired size; whence much is taken for the buildings in the village.  The falls here of 140 feet, give a valuable water power.

Gordon's 1836 Table of Madison County Statistics (shown with the Madison County descriptions) on page 523 shows for Cazenovia [statistics from 1835 State Census?]:
population 1820 = 3909, 1825 = 3860, 1830 = 4344, 1835 = 4647; militia = 503; voters = 1018; aliens = 70; unmarried females under age 16  years of age = 944, unmarried females between 16 and 45 of age = 471, married females under 45 years of age = 537; marriages = 30; male births = 71, female births = 78; male deaths = 36, female deaths = 26; area in acres = 28843, acres improved = 20522; assessed value of real estate = [$]502032, assessed value of personal estate = [$]234546; cattle = 4056, horses = 1199, sheep = 17,436, swine = 3545; fulled yards [of cloth] = 4842, unfulled woolens [yards of cloth?] = 7787, cottons, linens &c. [yards of cloth?] 7524; County tax = [$]1053.08, Town tax = [$]730.87; grist mills = 5, saw mills = 17, oil mills = 1, fulling mills = 4, carding machines = 6, woolen factories = 1, distilleries = 3, asheries = 2, clover mills = 1, paper mills = 1, tanneries = 1, breweries = 1; school districts = 21, public money expended [on schools, per district?] = [$]673, teachers wages besides public money = [$]763, scholars = 1166.
 

END of Gordon 1836 (Cazenovia)
 

Barber, John W. & Henry Howe, 1841, Historical Collections of the State of New York; Containing a General Collection of the Most Interesting Facts, Traditions, Biographical Sketches, Anecdotes, &c. Relating to its History and Antiquities With Geographical Descriptions of Every Township in the State. S. Tuttle. New York, NY

(Cazenovia, pages 255 & 256)

<:255>        CAZENOVIA, taken from Whitestown and Paris when part of Herkimer county, in 1795; from Albany 113 miles.  When erected this town comprised an area nearly equal to that of the county.  Pop. 4,153.  it was first settled in 1793 by Col. John Linklaen, from Amsterdam, agent for a company in Holland, who were owners of large tracts in this and the adjacent towns, and sold them out in farms principally out to New Englanders.  Cazenovia village was founded by Col. Linklaen about 1695 [1793], and incorporated in 1800 [1810].
        It is Situated upon the margin of Cazenovia lake and its outlet, and upon Chittenango creek, 8 miles S. of the Erie canal, 11 from Morrisville, 40 from Utica, and 113 from Albany.  The following engraving is a SW view of the village as from the bridge, at the outlet of the lake.  The village contains upward of 200 dwellings, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Methodist, 1 Baptist, and 1 Congregational church, a bank, 2 printing offices, and the "Oneida Conference Seminary," incorporated in 1825.  This institution was established under the patronage <:256> of the Methodist denomination for the education of youth of both sexes.  It has ever maintained a high standing.  The number of pupils in 1840 was 327.  Woodstock is a small village.
 

END of Barber & Howe 1841 (Cazenovia)
 

Disternell, John, 1842 / 1843, A Gazetteer of the State of New-York: Comprising its Topography, Geology, Mineralogical Resources, Civil Divisions, Canals, Railroads, and Public Institutions: Together with General Statistics: The Whole Alphabetically Arranged: Also, Statistical Tables, Including the Census of 1840: And Tables of Distances: With a New Township Map of the State Engraved on Steel. J. Disternell. Albany, NY (1842 and 1843 editions are the same)

(Cazenovia, Town, Village, and Lake, page 109)

<:109>        CAZENOVIA, t. Madison Co. situated 10 miles west of the village of Morrisville, and distant 118 miles from Albany; contained in 1840, 4,153 inhabitants.  The surface is high and undulating; soil rich gravelly loam, suitable for grass or grain.  It is watered by Cazenovia lake and Chittenango creek, which flows north into Oneida Lake.  Cazenovia and New Woodstock are names of post offices.

<:109>        CAZENOVIA, v. and p.o. Cazenovia, Madison co. is situated on the Cherry Valley turnpike.  It was incorporated in 1810, and now contains 1,600 inhabitants, 250 dwelling houses, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Congregational, 1 Baptist, 1 Methodist church, 3 taverns, 10 stores, 1 woollen factory, 1 grist mill, 1 saw mill, 1 machine shop and iron foundry, and 1 distillery.  Here is situated the Oneida seminary, a theological institution sustained by the Methodist persuasion of this and neighboring states.

<:109>        CAZENOVIA LAKE.  This is a small but beautiful sheet of water, situated in the town of the same name.  It is 4 miles long by 1 mile in width, abounding with different kinds fish.
 

END of Disternell 1842 / 1843 (Cazenovia)
 

French, J.H., 1860, Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive View of the Geography, Geology, and General History of the State, and a Complete History and Description of Every County, City, Town, Village, and Locality. With Full Tables of Statistics. R. Pearsall Smith. Syracuse, NY

(Cazenovia, page 390)

<:390>        CAZENOVIA (note 390-6) -- was formed from parts and Whitestown, (Oneida co.,) March 5, 1795. De Ruyter was taken off in 1798; Sullivan in 1808, Smithfield and Nelson in 1807, and a part of Fenner in 1823.  It is the central town upon the W. border of the co.  Its surface is a rolling upland broken by the valleys of Chittenango and Limestone Creeks.  The summits of the hills are 300 to 500 feet above the valleys.  Owahgena or Cazenovia Lake, in. the N. part of the town, is a beautiful sheet of water about 4 mi. long.  Its outlet -- Chittenango Creek -- forms a part of boundary between this town and Fenner.  In its course it has a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of valuable mill sites.  At the Chittenango Fall the water plunges in a beautiful, cascade perpendicularly over a ledge of limestone rock 136 feet in height.  Limestone Creek flows across the S. part of the town.  Hydraulic and common limestone are quarried near Chittenango Falls.  The soil in the N. and central parts is a gravelly loam, and in the S. a clayey loam underlaid by hard pan.  Cazenovia, (p.v.,) incorp. Feb. 7, 1810, is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek, at the foot of Cazenovia Lake.  It contains 7 churches, an academy, (note 390-7) a bank, and manufactories. (note 390-8) Pop. 1177.  New Woodstock (p.v.) contains 2 churches and 273 inhabitants.  Chittenango Falls is a p.o.  Settlement was commenced in 1793, by John Lincklaen, from Amsterdam, Holland. (note 390-9)  The first church (Presb.) was organized May 17, 1799, with 5 members; and the Rev. Joshua Leonard was the first pastor.  The census reports 9 churches in town. (note 390-10)

Note 390-6
Named for Theophilus Cazenove, the first general agent of the Holland Land Company.

Note 390-7
The Oneida Conference Seminary os a large and flourishing institution, under the care of the Methodist denomination.

Note 390-8
In and near Cazenovia, on Chittenango Creek, are a woolen factory, paper mill, oil mill, town clock factory, furnace, machine shop, 2 grist mills and a saw mill.

Note 390-9
Archibald Bates, Wm. Gillett, Wm. Miles, Benj. Pierson, Noah Taylor, Saml. S. Forman, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubael Brooks, and others named Tyler and Augur settled in the town in 1793; Joseph Simms, Isaac Moss, Gideon Freeman, and David Fay soon after.  The first birth was that of Noah Taylor, in 1794.  John Lincklaen built the first saw mill and grist mills, in 1794.

Note 390-10
2 Bap., 2 M.E., Cong., Presb., Prot. E., Union, and Univ.
 

END of French 1860 (Cazenovia)
 

Child, Hamilton, 1868, Gazetteer and Business Directory of Madison County, N.Y., for 1868-9. Printed at the Journal Office. Syracuse, NY

(Cazenovia, pages 35 to 37)

<:35>        CAZENOVIA, named for the first agent of the Holland Land Company, was formed from Paris and Whitestown, March 5, 1795.  Its territory was subsequently diminished by taking off De Ruyter in 1798; Sullivan in 1803; Smithfield and Nelson in 1807; and a part of Fenner in 1823.  It is the central town upon the west border of the County.  Its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the valleys of Chittenango and Limestone Creeks.  The summits of the hills are from 300 to 500 feet above the valleys.
        Cazenovia Lake, (call by the Indians, Owahgena, meaning; "the lake where the yellow fish swim, or yellow perch. lake,") is a beautiful sheet of water, about four miles long.  Its outlet, Chittenango Creek, forms a part of the boundary between this town and Fenner, and is a feeder for the Erie Canal.  The stream has, in its course, a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of valuable mill sites.  At  the Chittenango Fall, about  three miles from Cazenovia village, the water plunges, in a beautiful cascade, perpendicularly, over a ledge of limestone rock, 136 feet in height.  Limestone Creek flows across the south part of the town.  On this stream, near the southwest border of the town are two beautiful cascades, one of which is ninety feet in height, the other between sixty and seventy.  Hydraulic and common lime are quarried near Chittenango Falls.  In the northern and central parts, the soil is a gravely loam; in the southern part, a clayey loam, underlaid by hardpan.
        Cazenovia, (p.v.) incorporated February 7, 1810, is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek, at the foot of Cazenovia Lake, and is a summer resort.  It contains six churches, two banks, three hotels, the Oneida Conference Seminary, and several manufactories.  The Seminary was founded in 1825, and is a large and flourishing institution.  There is a large sash and blind factory, a woolen factory, <:36> and a large tannery, on Chittenango Creek, a short distance below the village.  The sash and blind factory of O.W. Sage uses about one million feet of pine lumber, twenty barrels of glue, two tons of finishing nails, and fifty reams of sand paper, annually.  About forty five hands and six teams are employed, turning out about eighteen thousand doors, fifteen thousand pair of blinds, and 250,000 lights of sash annually.  The American Look Company have recently established a factory here, for the manufacture of "Felter's Patent Culindo Locks."  They are burglar and powder proof, simple in construction, and possess the most desirable qualities of the best combination locks, and are in many respects superior to any hitherto made.  The Company have already a capital of $33,000 invested, with the privilege of increasing it to $100,000.  There are several mills, machine shops, cabinet shops, &c. in the village.  The population is about 2,000.
        Bingley Mills, about two miles from Cazenovia, on Chittenango Creek, has been owned by Mr. William Atkinson since September 12, 1831.  This is a longer time than any other mill in town has been run by the same man.  H.S. Keeler and C.L. Chappell have recently opened a trotting course on their land,. about half a mile north of Cazenovia village.
        New Woodstock, (p.v) situated in the southern part of the town contains two churches, two carriage and wagon shops an extensive glove factory,  a hotel, four stores, several mechanic shops and mills, and about 300 inhabitants.  A fine new school house, to cost about $3,000, is being erected.  From July 27, 1867, to July 27, 1868, not a death occurred within two miles of the village.  Isaac Warren, Robert Fisher, Jonathan Smith and John Savage, were the first settlers in this part of the town.  Ralph Knight, now the oldest resident of the village, born December 18, 1796, was the second child born in the town.
        Chittenango Falls is a post office.

        The first settlement of this town was commenced by John Lincklaen from Amsterdam, Holland, in 1798.  The Holland Land Company had previously purchased the greater part of this town, and Mr. Lincklaen undertook the sale and settlement of the tract.  His party numbered sixteen persons, of whom Samuel S. Forman was engaged as general business assistant, and charged with the disposition of a stock of goods, selected and sent forward to supply the settlers with comforts not otherwise to be had.  These goods were left with John Post, at old Fort Schuyler, (near Utica,) the only merchant then residing at that place.  The first load of goods was brought along the "Genesee Road" to Oneida Castle, being one day's journey, thence to the Chittenango Creek, following its banks to the village of that name.  Here the road terminated., and Indian trails were the only openings.  From this place Mr. Forman's axemen <:37> cleared a passage for their loaded cart, and with great labor they reached the summit of the high hill, but not till the sun had sunk beneath the horizon, was their tent pitched for the night.  The next day they reached the foot fr Cazenovia Lake, where they determined to make a settlement.  Log cabins were rapidly erected, a storehouse was built, an office opened, and tempting terms offered to settlers, such as one dollar an acre for lots purchased by the first ten settlers with their families.  This offer was promptly accepted, and raised a clamor for like advantages to newly married couples, to share in Mr. Lincklaen's novel patronage.  Surveys were pressed forward under Mr. Locke, and purchases rapidly effected at $1.50 to $2.00 per acre.  As an evidence of the intelligence of the early settlers, it is said, on the authority of Mr. Forman, who was a clerk in the land office for four years, that only one man who could not write his name took up land during the whole time.

        Among the other early settlers were Archibald Bates, William Gillett, William Miles, Benjamin Pierson, Noah Taylor, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb and Shubael Brooks.   E.S. Jackson, Samuel Thomas,  Joseph Sims, Isaac Morse, Gideon Freeborn and David Fay, also settled here at an early day.  Mrs. Mary De Clercq, whose maiden name was Ledyard, came to this town on horseback, from Connecticut, in 1798.  She is still living, and in the 88th year of he age.  Levi Burgess came about 1800.  His son Elam, now a resident of this town, has resided here sixty years.
        The first birth was that of a child of Noah Taylor, in 1794.  John Lincklaen built the first saw aid grist mills, in 1794.  Matthew Chandler erected the first woolen factory, and Ebenezer Knowlton, a chair shop and an oil mill, at an early. day.  Luther Bunnell [Luther Burnell] erected a trip-hammer shop, and carried on an extensive business about 1810.  From 1812 to 1817, Cazenovia was the County Seat.  The Oneida Indians formerly had a small village on the present site of Cazenovia, and the remains of a fort were found there.  The lake was a place of resort for fishing by the Oneidas and Onondagas.  The town contains nine churches.  The first church (Presb.) was organized May 17, 1799, with eight members.  The following are the names of the original members, viz: Jedediah Turner,  Jacob Dannals, John Tappan, Samuel R. Coats, Anne Howd, Mary Dannals, Eunice Coats and Alathea Root. Jedediah Turner was the first deacon.  Rev. Joshua Leonard was the first pastor.
        The census of 1865 gives the town a population of 4,157, and an area of 29,274 acres.  There are twenty-two schools districts, employing eighteen teachers.  The whole number pupils is 842, and average attendance is 330. The whole amount expended for <:38> school purposes in 1867 was $3,763.06.  Cazenovia is about to be connected to Canastota by railroad.
 

END of Child 1868 (Cazenovia)
 

Hough, Franklin B., 1872 / 1873, Gazetteer of the State of New York, Embracing a Comprehensive Account of the History and Statistics of the State, With Geological and Topological Descriptions, and Recent Statistical Tables, Representing the Present Condition of Each County, City, Town, and Village in the State. Andrew Boyd. Albany, NY (1872 and 1873 editions are the same)

(Cazenovia, page 384)

<:384>    CAZENOVIA -- named from Theophilus Cazenove, first agent of the Holland Land Co., was formed from Paris and Whitestown, March 5, 1795.  De Ruyter was taken of in 1798, Sullivan in 1803, Smithfield and Nelson in 1807, and a part of Fenner in 1823.  It is on the middle of the W. border of the co.  Its surface is a rolling upland, broken by the valleys of Chittenango and Limestone Creeks.  The summits of the hills are 300 to 500 feet above the valleys.  Owahgena or Cazenovia Lake, in the N. part of the town, is a beautiful sheet of water about 5 mi. long.  Its outlet -- Chittenango Creek -- forms a part of the boundary between this town and Fenner.  In its course it has a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of valuable mill sites.  At the Chittenango Fall the water plunges in a beautiful cascade perpendicularly over a ledge of limestone rock 136 feet in height.  Limestone Creek flows across the S. part of the town.  Hydraulic and common limestone are quarried near Chittenango Falls  Cazenovia, (p.o.,) incorp. Feb. 7, 1810, is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek, at the foot of Cazenovia Lake.  It contains 6 churches, an academy, (note 384-2) 2 banks, a newspaper office, (note 384-3) and several manufactories. (note 384-4)  Pop. 1,722.  New Woodstock, (p.o.,) contains 2 churches, and 300 inhab.; Bingley, is a R.R. station 1½ miles from Cazenovia; Constine Bridge, is a station on the Syr. & Ch.V.R.R.  Chittenango Falls, is a p.o. and R.R. sta.  There is a cascade of 136 feet fall at this place.  Settlement was commenced in 1793, by John Lincklaen, from Amsterdam, Holland. (note 384-5)  The first church (Presb.) was organized May 17, 1799, with 5 members; and the Rev. Joshua Leonard was the first pastor.  The census reports 9 churches in town. (note 384-6)

Note 384-2
The Central N.Y. Conference Seminary is a large and flourishing institution, under the care of the Methodist denomination.  its name was changed from the Oneida Conf. Sem." by act August 3, 1870.

Note 384-3
Cazenovia Republican, (Repub.,) weekly; Irwin A. Forte, pub.  Terms, $2.00.  Size, 28 by 28.  Begun 1854.

Note 384-4
In and near Cazenovia, on Chittenango Creek, are a woolen factory, paper mill, lock factory, furnace, machine shop, 2 grist mills, and a saw mill.

Note 384-5
Archibald Bates, Wm. Gillett, Wm. Miles, Benj. Pierson, Noah Taylor, Saml. S. Forman, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubael Brooks, and others named Tyler and Augur settled in the town in 1793; and Joseph Simms, Isaac Morse, Gideon freeman, and David Fay, soon after.  The first birth was that of a child of Noah Taylor, in 1704.  John Lincklaen built the first saw and grist mills, in 1794.

Note 384-6
2 Bap., 2 M.E., R.C., Presb., Prot. E., Union, and Universalist.

 

END of Hough 1872 / 1873 (Cazenovia)
 

Boyd, Andrew, 1872, Boyd's New York State Directory for 1872 - 1873 ... Truair Smith & Co. Syracuse, NY

<:890>
CAZENOVIA, MADISON CO. Was formed Feb. 7the, 1810.  it is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek, at the foot of Cazenovia Lake, and the terminus of the Canastota & Cazenovia Railroad, 22 miles from Syracuse.  It contains a bank, weekly newspaper, the works of the American Lock Co. (burglar and powder proof); the New York Conference Seminary, a large and flourishing institution, has been for many years a popular concern.

(Business Directory follows)
 

END of Boyd 1872 (Cazenovia)

 
Smith, John E., 1899, Our County and Its People: A Descriptive and Biographical Record of Madison County, New York. The Boston History Co.. Boston, MA

(Cazenovia, pages 547 to 553)
(This book is a large "County History" and extensive historical and bibliographic information for the Town of Cazenovia is to be found in other parts of this source - please consult the original book for further information)

<:547>

The Town of Cazenovia.

         Cazenovia is one of the five towns that were organized previous to the erection of Madison.  It was formed from Whitestown and Paris on March 5, 1795, and was originally of very large area, containing the territory of what are now the towns of Georgetown, German, Lincklaen, Otselic and Pitcher taken off in 1798; Sullivan, then including Lenox, taken off in 1803; Smithfield in 1807, and a part of Fenner in 1823.  The town is on the west border of the county and is bounded on the north by Sullivan, east by Fenner and Nelson, south by De Ruyter, and west by Onondaga county.  The surface is high and rolling, through which extend the valleys of the Chittenango and Limestone creeks.  Cazenovia Lake is a beautiful body of water in the north part, four miles long and from half a mile to a mile in width.  Chittenango Falls is a picturesque cascade on that creek where the water falls 136 feet.  The soil is gravelly loam in the north and central parts, and clay loam underlaid with hardpan in the southern part.  Most of the town is underlaid with the rocks of the Hamilton group, with the Onondaga limestone appearing in the northeast part, where it has been extensively quarried for lime and building purposes.
        There are three post-offices in the town of Cazenovia, one at Cazenovia village, one at New Woodstock, and one at Chittenango Falls.  The population of Cazenovia village was 1,918 in 1880, and in 1890 it was 1,987, showing a small increase.
        Cazenovia village is beautifully situated on Chittenango Creek and at the foot on the east shore of the lake which bears the same name.  It is located a little northeast of the center of the town and is a station on both railroads named below, giving it connection with Canastota, with Syracuse, and with Cortland and Elmira.  The village was incorporated on February 7, 1810, the first corporation meeting being held on May 10 of that year at the house of Eliphalet S. Jackson.  Elisha Farnham, a justice of the peace, presided, and A.D. Van Horne acted as clerk.  The following were elected the first officers: Elisha Farnham, P.G. Childs, Jonas Fay, E. S. Jackson, and Samuel Thomas, trustees; J.N.M. Hurd, treasurer; Jacob A. Dana, bailiff and collector. Jonas Fay was chosen the first president of the village, and Caleb Ledyard, clerk.
        Following is a statement of the population of this town as shown by the census taken at different dates: 1835 = 4,647; 1840 = 4,153; 1845 = 4,675; 1850 = 4,812; 1855 = 4,495; 1860 = 4,343; 1865 = 4,157; 1870 = 4,265; 1875 = 4,240; 1880 = 4,363; 1890 = 4,182; 1892 = 3,803.
<:548>        These figures, like the record in most rural towns in the State, show a small decrease in population, the causes of which are now well understood.
        The chief agricultural interest of the town at the present time is dairying in its various features.  Much of the land is well adapted for grazing and the production of hay, large quantities of which are shipped to distant markets.  Along the lines of railroad are a number of milk stations, and a large part of the milk produced is taken to them, for shipment to New York and other points.  Cheese and butter are also manufactured at these stations from the surplus milk.  Hops, the great staple of this county, have been raised in past years in Cazenovia, but not so largely as in many other towns, especially in recent years.  The various grains and vegetables are produced for home consumption and to a limited extent for outside sale.
        The first records for this town that are in existence are for the year 1804, when the following officers were elected: Supervisor, James Green; town clerk, Eliphalet S. Jackson; assessors, Ebenezer Lyon, Oliver Bugbee, and Asa Dana; commissioners of highways, Isaac Morse, Asahel Jackson, Asa Dana; collector, Elisha Williams.
        At that meeting it was voted that the clerk should procure books for the use of the town, and twenty dollars was appropriated for the purpose. The clerk was also directed to transcribe from the old books such matter as he deemed advisable. It is probable that he did not do so, as the existing book, as before stated, begins with 1804. The proceedings of the first meeting of which there is a record are given in earlier chapters.
        Following is a list of supervisors of Cazenovia from 1806 to the present time:
        1807, Lemuel Kingsley (sic)[Kingsbury]; 1808-11, Eliphalet Jackson; 1812-13, Samuel S. Forman; 1814, E.S. Jackson; 1815, A.D. Van Horne; 1816, Samuel Thomas; 1817, William Sims; 1818-24, E.S. Jackson; 1825-28, Samuel Thomas; 1829-31, Newell Wright; 1832-33, Elihu Severance; 1834-38, John F. Hicks; 1839-45, Talcott Backus; 1846-50, Albert Card; 1851- 52, Charles Stebbins; 1853-54, Lewis Raynor; 1855, John C. Loomis; 1856, Albert Card; 1857, John F. Fairchild; 1858-59, John Stebbins; 1860-62, Silas L. Loomis; 1863, D.E. Haskell; 1864- 66, C.H. Beckwith; 1867, Charles Stebbins, Jr.; 1868-69, Silas L. Loomis; 1870, Charles Stebbins, Jr.; 1871-72, Marcus L. Underwood; 1873-78, Willard A. Crandall, 1879-81, J. Harvey Nourse; 1882-83, John Stebbins; 1884-91, William C. Sherman; 1892-97, Chauncey B. Cook.
<:549>        According to the State census of 1892 Cazenovia town has a population of 3,803.  The census of 1890 gives the number as 4,182, showing a loss of nearly 200 during the preceding decade.  The town is divided into fifteen school districts, with school houses in each, in which were employed in 1897 twenty-four teachers; all the schools are flourishing and notably well conducted.  The whole number of children taught in 1897 was 718.
        The Chenango Valley branch of the West Shore Railroad crosses Cazenovia from northwest to southeast, and the branch of the Lehigh Valley road which was formerly the Cazenovia and Canastota Railroad, crosses the town in a southerly direction, the two forming a junction about a mile south of Cazenovia village.  This branch was extended to De Ruyter in 1877 and subsequently continued on to Cortland, Ithaca, and Elmira.  The town was bonded in aid of this road to the amount of $160,000.  The present bonded indebtedness is $111,000.
        That part of Cazenovia included within the Gore, which was more than one-half in the southern part, was comprised in the purchase made by the Holland Land Company of about 120,000 acres, through the agency of John Lincklaen, in 1792-3.  Mr. Lincklaen procured the survey of the Road Township (so called from the fact that the proceeds of the sale of lands therein were to be applied to the construction of roads), and in 1794 built mills near the site of Cazenovia village.  Other settlers in the town in 1793 were Archibald Bates, Day Fay, William Miles, Noah Taylor, Isaac Nichols, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubael Brooks, Samuel Tyler, and one Augur.  In the next year David Smith and Lewis Stanley settled in the town and were soon followed by Jonathan Smith, brother of David, William Sims, Isaac Morse, Chandler Webber Abraham Tillotson, Walter Childs, Jacob Ten Eyck, Jeduthan Perkins, Francis Norton, James Covell, Hendrick De Clercq (from Holland), Levi Burgess, Joseph Holmes, Caleb Van Riper, Edward Parker, Phineas Southwell, Robert Fisher, Isaac Warren, John Savage, Samuel Thomas, Deacon Isaiah Dean, William Moore, Christopher Webb, Ebenezer Knowlton, all of whom settled before or in the year of the formation of Madison county, locating in various parts of the town.  After that date settlement was very rapid, many of the incomers being noticed in earlier chapters and in Part III of this work.
        The first merchant in the village of Cazenovia was Samuel S. Forman who came to the place in the employ of John Lincklaen in 1793, in the interest of the Holland Land Company. The store was for a time carried <:550> on by Mr. Forman with Mr. Lincklaen, representing the company as a partner.  Mr. Forman subsequently took the business alone.
        Other early merchants were Jabish N.M. Hurd, who came about 1800; Jesse Kilborn, William M. and Joseph Burr, Benjamin T. Clarke, E.B. and E.D. Litchfield, brothers; William Greenland and his son, William S.; William Mills, Charles Crandall and Frank Moseley who formed a partnership and conducted a bookstore from 1884; John C. Reymon, L.G. Wells, Henry Groff, John Hobbie, and others.  The business of L.G. Wells was transferred in 1878 to his sons, Dwight W. and Edward G., and is now conducted by the latter.  George Morse, dealer in drugs, began business in 1847 with John F. Irons and purchased his partner's interest two years later; the firm is now George Morse & Son.  Ebenezer Knowlton began the jewelry business about 1848 and continued more than thirty years; the business is now carried on by C.M. Knowlton. E.A. Blair purchased the harness and saddlery business of T.S. Whitnall in 1863 and continues to the present time; Bowman Stanley, grocer, started in 1860 in company with his brother, Benjamin F.; Tillotson & Nichols, who succeeded J.D. Beach about 1861 in a general store; H.B. Thomas, a pioneer and early harness maker; Jesse W. Hall, groceries, etc., who sold out in 1869 to David P. and James C. Dean; Will H. Cruttenden, jeweler, began in 1870; Nichols & Covell, clothiers, began in 1871; Colton & Webber hardware, began trade in 1877, succeeding Colton, Johnson & Co.; Wells Bros., general merchants since 1872;  J.W.T. and William Rice, druggists, began in 1873; Henry A. Rouse, general merchant; Samuel T. Jackson, hats and caps, commenced in 1877, with his cousin, Frank E. Jackson, and others who have been noticed in the earlier town history.
        The present merchants and business men of Cazenovia village are as follows; E.G. Wells, furniture and undertaking; H.B. Thomas, harness and trunks; Curtis Brothers, drugs; George Morse & Son, drugs; J.W. Howson, coal dealer; F.B. Wilson, baker; G.H. Atwell & Son, flour and feed; Mrs. F.D. Holdridge, and Mrs. L.M. White, millinery; Marshall & Bumpus, Aikman & Norton, Driscoll & Marshall, and H.H. Colton, hardware; Holdridge & De Clercq, musical instruments; S.B. Allen, news room and cigars; William Watkins, and H.F. Greenland, books and stationery; Charles R. Parkinson, bakery; W.W. Rice, drugs; W.S. Greenland & Son merchant tailors; J.W. Hall, jeweler; H.N. Clark, jeweler; F.C. Phelps, general store; H.H. Hamilton, meats; W.W. Rainey, harness; R.A. Niles & Co., clothing; <:551> E.L. Riggall, meats; F.E. Richardson, grocer; C.W. Covell, boots, shoes, clothing, etc.; B. Vollmer, general store; D.S. Reidy, harness; Nichols & Loomis, general merchants; J.D. Warner, meats; H.A. Rouse estate, general store (managed by C.H. Rouse); Tillotson & Needham, house furnishings; Wells Brothers, dry goods and groceries; P.H. Donnelly, groceries; Clark & Mulligan, dry goods and general merchandise; Enright & Barrett, furniture and undertaking; Jackson Brothers, meats; John Wilson, ice.
        The early manufactures established on the water power of Cazenovia comprised the trip hammer forge of Luther Bunnell (sic) [Burnell], established as early as 1811; Nehemiah White's chair shop; a woolen mill built by John Lincklaen and Elisha Starr, which soon passed to Matthew Chandler & Son; a tannery started by Thomas Williams and his son, John, which was sold to R. & R.G. Allen; the saw mill of David B. Johnson; the fulling mill of Sidney Roberts; a tannery established by Elisha Farnham; the Cazenovia paper mill built about 1810 by Zadock Sweetland, which was burned in 1859 and rebuilt; the Cedar Grove woolen mill; the Fern Dell mills, originally built for a woolen mill, but not used for that purpose; the Crawford mower and reaper works, removed from Ilion in 1875; the Lake Mills, built by Dr. Jonas Fay in an early time; an oil mill operated by Edward Knowlton; a saw and planing mill operated by S.F. Chaphe and Reuben Parsons, all of which have been fully described.
        The present manufactures of Cazenovia consist of the carriage shop of J.H. O'Neil; the establishment of the Cazenovia Wool and Felt company, employing several men; the sash, door and blind factory of T.W. Thayer & Co.; Albert Chaphe's flouring mill; the foundry and machine shop of Marshall & Card; the planing mill established by S.F. Chaphe, recently partially burned and rebuilt; blacksmith shops of P.H. Calhoun, Charles Bordwell, Martin McCabe and Barney Riley; and the Brooklyn Creamery.
        A private banking business was established by J.H. Ten Eyck Burr in 1880, and is still in prosperous existence.
        The village has three hotel - the Lincklaen house, built in 1835, now conducted by Walter H. Young; the Cazenovia House, built many years ago, now conducted by Charles E. Pratt; and the Stanton House, formerly until 1879 the Lake House, conducted by C.M. Stanton.
 The Cazenovia Republican is an able country weekly [newspaper], established in 1854 by W.H. Phillips, and now conducted by J.A. Loyster, who purchased the establishment in 1890.
<:552>        There are five churches in Cazenovia, as follows: Presbyterian, founded in 1798, with Rev. Joshua Leonard the first pastor; the church was built in 1806 and extensively repaired in 1834 (sic) [1868].  Present pastor, S.E. Persons.  The Methodist church, formed as part of the Cortland Circuit in 1816, and incorporated in 1830; first meeting house erected in 1838, and the present one in 1873.  The Baptist church, built in 1817, organized in 1820; church extensively repaired in 1868, burned in 1871, and rebuilt of brick in 1871 at a cost of $15,200; completed in 1880.  St. Peter's Episcopal Church, organized 1844 and incorporated 1845; church erected in 1848.  St. James's Catholic Church, organized 1849 by Rev. Michael Hayes; brick church erected in 1849-52.  The Universalist church was organized in 1853, and after many years of somewhat feeble existence, declined and ceased to exist.
        Cazenovia is the seat of the well known seminary, which has had an existence of about seventy-five years and is fully described in Chapter XXIV of this work.  In the same chapter will be found an account of the Union school of the village, which was established in 1874.
        The first physician to settle in the village was Dr. Isaac Lyman, who continued in practice from 1799 until his death in 1854.  Dr. Theophilus Wilson settled in the village in 1814, and Dr. Jonathan Silsby in about 1816, about which time Dr. David Mitchell located in the place.
        The first lawyers in the village were Schuyler Van Rensselaer and Samuel Sidney Breese, who settled there before the close of the last century; Van Rensselaer remained only a short time.  David Dearborn, David B. Johnson, and possibly others who remained only for brief periods, settled in the village during the first decade of this century.  Perry G. Childs located in the village about 1807, and was prominent in the profession. Charles Stebbins was a settler in 1810, and Justin Dwinelle and William J. Hough a little later.  Later lawyers were Charles H.S. Williams, Levi Gibbs, Sidney T. Fairchild, Calvin Carpenter, Richard Thomas and Robert G. Paddock.  The present attorneys in the village are Burr Wendell, M.H. Kiley, and A.E. Fitch.
        The post-office at Cazenovia was probably established and maintained by John Lincklaen at his personal expense until there was sufficient revenue to support it.  Records of its early history are wanting.  It was kept for a time in Mr. Forman's store and in that of his successor, J.N.M. Hurd, who was postmaster until 1821, when he was succeeded by Jesse Kilborn, who held the office nineteen years.
<:553>        The first fire engine in Cazenovia was purchased in 1810 at a cost of $100, and a company was organized the same year consisting of twelve members.  The usual village regulations regarding the keeping of fire buckets by citizens were adopted, and as years passed the apparatus was slowly increased.  The first hooks and ladders were purchased in 1827 at a cost of $20.  Old companies were from to time disbanded and new ones organized as fully described in earlier chapters.  Previous to the establishment of the present water works, there were two engine companies and a hose company maintained in the village, with adequate auxiliary apparatus.  The department as now existing, established in 1893, comprises two hose companies and a hook and ladder company, with adequate apparatus for fire purposes.  Alarms are sounded on the bell of the Baptist church by push buttons in different parts of the village, through electrical connections.
        The Cazenovia water works were established in 1890, and up to the present have cost about $42,000. A reservoir has been constructed with capacity of 8,000,000 gallons, elevated 178 feet above the lake.  This is fed by springs and by a pumping station, with capacity of 280,000 gallons a day, taken from driven wells.  The water is pure and amply supplied for public purposes.
        Cazenovia village supports an excellent public library containing about 5,000 volumes.  It was formerly maintained by private subscriptions.  The building in which it is located was given to the authorities by R.H. Hubbard.
        New Woodstock. - This is a pleasantly situated village in the south part of the town, and a station on the Lehigh railroad.  Early merchants there were Harvey and Alvin Smith, brothers, who were in trade from about 1816 to 1830, and also operated a distillery.  Joseph F. Clark was contemporary with the Smiths.  Jesse B. Worden was an early merchant, and Harvey Morris opened a store about 1834.
        The village now contains two churches, Baptist and Methodist.  The former was organized in 1800, with Elder James Bacon, pastor; a log meeting house was built in 1802, and a little [later] joined with the Presbyterians in building a frame edifice.  The Baptists erected a larger church of their own in 1816.  This old society has ever since maintained its existence.  The Methodist Church was organized in 1830.

 

END of Smith 1899 (Cazenovia)