Other than a few points of clarification and updating
and web links, I have not changed the content or interpretations of my
original report of 1989. I have included images of the actual maps
and photos (meaning photocopies of the original), which, in the original
report, were computer drawn / traced renditions that I created as part
of a SUNY Morrisville engineering project.
This study was begun in the
Fall of 1988 when I, as Historian for the Town of Cazenovia, was given
a newspaper clipping dating from the 1950s which
described the finding of a number of grave stones on the property now (2000)
occupied by the Fire Department's headquarters. As plans were then
in progress to enlarge and improve the existing building to better accommodate
the Fire Department's equipment, I felt that it was necessary to conduct
an informal historical study of the property to determine the origin of
the old grave stones just in case more stones were uncovered during construction.
To prevent any unwarranted anxiety if more stones were found, several village
officials and employees were notified of my findings regarding the stones
before any site work had taken place. My research found that the
stones had been removed from Evergreen Cemetery when they were replaced
by new markers, and as far as this study has
determined no one was ever buried upon the property. Exactly how
and why the stones came to be placed on the Fire Department property was
not exactly determined, but this study provides some insights as to their
origin as well as the history of the property. Many more facts and
stories are connected with the history of this property than I have been
able to record faithfully. By doing the research on a seemingly insignificant
and often ignored and forgotten part of our village, it is hoped that a
greater understanding and deeper appreciation of Cazenovia's varied history
will be found.
The property upon which the
New Fire Department building stands is located
in the Village of Cazenovia, on the north side
of Albany Street, to the west of the bridge crossing Chittenango Creek,
and consisting of two property parcels situated between the large parking
lot of Buyea's Hardware and the intersection of Farnham Street. The
street addresses for these properties are not known, but the houses that
stood there, one on the western portion of the property and two on the
eastern. Since these houses were torn down many years ago it is not
clear what address number designation they may have been assigned.
It appears that they were numbered as #119, 123, and 125 Albany Street
as shown on a map of 1926, assuming that the
addresses have not been redesignated since that time (#121 was not designated
but would have included a lane between the parcels). The building
that most recently stood on the property was a service and gas station
which was in operation until a few years previous. In 1988 the Fire
Department purchased the property and began making plans for their new
home. Local building codes would not allow them to raze the entire
old building and a small portion of an outside wall of the old gas station
was retained in the new construction!
Until the 1960s the property
was divided into two parcels. The west part, on the corner of Albany
and Farnham Streets, and covering street address of #119 Albany Street,
is a small part of Lot 34 of the village
lots as laid out by Calvin Guiteau in 1793, and the east portion of
the lot, at #123 and 125 Albany Street, where the gas station which has
been incorporated into the new building stood, is a small part of Lot 37
of the same tract and was covered by two houses, to be described later.
Between these lots ran a narrow, 12 foot wide, lane or alley that was known
over the years as either "Factory Lane" or "Marshall
Lane", being named for the factories that stood to the north and the
Marshall Brothers who at one point owned them. This lane ran from
Albany Street to the woolen mill and a series of accompanying buildings
which stood where Buyea's Hardware store is now located. The 1834
factory is still standing, it being the large white building that was recently
renovated just east of the hardware store. Farnham Street was not
opened until 1845, thus the lane would have served the woolen mill and
the neighboring lots. The present entrance to Buyea's parking lot
was filled with buildings so entry could not be gained through there as
it is now. As shown on maps, the center of
this twelve-foot-wide lane ran for a distance along the line between what
became known as the "Brick Yard Lot" and the "Mill Lot", and presumably
was opened before 1810. The brick yard was in operation as early
as 1800 and the mill site was first extensively used in 1808. The
old lane was kept open until recently and served the present house of Mrs.
Ruth Sternberg at #121 1/2 Albany Street, and several other buildings (now
gone) that were located just north of the Fire Department property.
Some time in the 1950s when the house at #123 Albany Street, on the east side of the lane, was torn down, according to an undated newspaper clipping, a number of grave stones were found that had been long buried in the ground. I found that these stones were not from some long forgotten cemetery on this site, but were old stones that were removed from Evergreen Cemetery when new stones were made to replace them. I have not discovered a connection, if any, between the names on the stones (Webb, Hesler, and Atkinson) and anyone who owned any of the houses which once stood on the Fire Department property. It may be that some resident of the house had been a worker at the cemetery or at a nearby tombstone maker's shop. The most likely origin of the discarded stones is a marble carver's shop which stood on the west side of Farnham Street where the house at #7 now is. This "Marble Shop" operated on this spot some time in the mid-19th century and could have been the shop where the replacement stones were made. In any case the stones were simply laid face down and used as a sidewalk, and they did cause somewhat of a stir when first uncovered. It is sad that all knowledge of the neighborhood tombstone carver's shop had been forgotten in less than a person's life time (assuming that the stones had been replaced some time after 1869, the date on the most recent stone).
Because the east and west
portions of the property, now one lot, had individual histories I will
outline their history separately.
The western part of the subject
property was originally part of a large brick yard which was situated on
Lots 34 & 35. This "Brick Yard Lot" covered the land now
occupied by lower Farnham Street and the land for about 50 feet on both
sides of the street (see the Area Map at the end
of the text for features of the surrounding area). The earliest
record of Lots 34 & 35 indicate that they were purchased from John
Lincklaen, resident agent of the Holland Land Company and founder of Cazenovia,
on November 15, 1799 by James Tucker whose occupation is unknown.
In 1800, according to a statement of the settlement of the village taken
by John Lincklaen, the lots were occupied by Garratt & Phillips, brick
makers. From later statements it is seen that Moses Phillips was
a brick maker on the lots in 1801, 1802, and 1803. In the 1806 village
statement the only mention of a brick yard was included in the listing
of the association of Gray, Howard, Lovejoy, & Farr who had a "carding
machine, asheries, brickworks, &c". Who these individuals were
is not at this time known. In 1806, according to a survey of the
Jail Limits for the village, the Brick Yard Lot was accessible to those
who were being held to the limits for debts. Jail Limits were restricted
areas where people detained for debt or other offense could have access
to various places of business and employment throughout the village, including
stores, taverns, and artisan and mechanic's shops.
In The Pilot of October 1808 Asa Frost advertises a brick yard, but the location is not given. By late 1808 Asa Richardson and Adam Brown were the owners of the all of Brick Yard Lot except two small lots belonging to Jabish N.M. Hurd: one in the north west corner (now #13 & #17 Farnham Street) and another in the south east corner measuring 28 feet along Albany Street and 14 feet deep (see the Area Map for location of these subdivisions). In September 1808 Richardson and Brown sold the brickyard to Hurd who immediately sold it to Samuel Dutton. The brick yard was owned by Dutton until he sold it to John Lincklaen in October of 1814. The deed for this transaction does not mention the two small lots which had been previously divided off. The one in the north west corner had been purchased by Dutton in 1811, so it is possible that the 28 by 14 foot lot on Albany Street had also been purchased by him and then included into the whole parcel. Dutton was a Colonel in the War of 1812 and died on October 6, 1815 at the age of 40 years. No further mention of this brick yard is found after this date. A small house, described further below, was moved to this lot about 1813, and it is possible that the yard had stopped producing brick by that date.
Little is known of the property for the next decade and a half. In 1831 Helen Lincklaen, widow of John Lincklaen, sold a large lot to her brother Jonathan D. Ledyard. This lot fronted on Albany Street and occupied that land between the lane leading to the woolen factory, and the house of Mrs. (Oran E.) Baker which stood at the east corner of Albany and Center Streets. In July 1840 the eastern most one-third of the brick yard lot was sold by J.D. Ledyard to John Williams. The description of this lot, being 50 feet along Albany Street and 380 feet deep included all of the eastern side of lower Farnham Street (which was not yet opened)
The Town Road Book, which contains surveys and other records of highways in the village as well as the town, tells us that Farnham Street was surveyed and constructed in 1845 (TRB #2:221). It was in March of that year that permission was granted to the Highway Commissioners to open a road northerly from Albany Street to what is now Corwin Street. Previously this path, which passed through the property of several owners, had been only wood lot, pasture, and back yards. In 1846 B.T. Clarke was given land by Elisha Farnham in consideration for land surrendered for the purpose of opening Farnham Street (Deed BH:440a), and others must have been similarly compensated. Both Farnham and Clarke were large land holders in this section of the village. By 1852 there were already close to twenty house fronting on Farnham Street between Albany and Corwin Streets. Nearly all of the houses on Farnham Street date to the period immediately following its opening in 1845, but several are obviously much older and are further evidence of the much used practice of house moving. Where these older houses had been moved from is not yet known.
The only immediately available references to the property in the later years of the 19th century were several maps of the village which indicated that the house at #119 Albany Street, at the corner of Farnham Street, was occupied or owned in 1853 by B.T. Clarke, in 1859 by W. Williams, in 1875 by Mrs. Daley, and in 1895 by B. Riley. I have not done any deed research on this property to determine more about the owners in this time period.
For one hundred and fifteen years this small house, now gone, stood on the corner of Albany and Farnham Streets. This house had the distinction of being the first frame house built in Cazenovia. It was built by Samuel S. Forman in 1794, one year after the first settlement of the village. The house, measuring 31 by 27 feet, originally stood within the present Lakeland Park. In 1813, when Forman built his great wooden mansion known as "Lakeland" the small house was moved to the eastern end of Albany Street. The early history of the house, before it was moved, is fascinating but it is not pertinent to this project.
The house stood at the corner of Albany and Farnham in relative obscurity until 1928 when it was demolished to make way for a new gasoline filling station. It was at that time owned by Miss Kathryn Hughes of Harrison, New York and occupied by Charles Hart and family. Measured drawings of the house exist, but the only known photograph of the house shows that the exterior of the house had been changed considerably since it was built (unless it shows some other building!).
Items from the Cazenovia Republicans of January 5, February 2, 9, & 16, and March 1, 1928 describe the history of the building and outline the alternatives that were proposed by the local chapter of the D.A.R. and other concerned citizens in an attempt to save the historic building. Due to "financial questions" the D.A.R. had to abandon their plans to move and restore the house. In March of 1928 the building was sold to Durfee & Bender who demolished it and used the materials to erect a house for Mrs. George Murch on Park Street. In April of 1928 a new gas station was opened by G.D. Hermann & Sons, Inc. on this part of the property. This will be discussed later.
The eastern half of the property
is situated on the southwest corner of Village
Lot 37 as laid out by Calvin Guiteau in 1793. This part of the
Fire Department property was a portion of the land purchased by Frederick
Brimm from John Lincklaen on August 1, 1795, and it was taken or assumed
by Elisha Farnham on June 1, 1797. The Brimm and Farnham property
consisted of all the land between the brick yard and Chittenango Creek
and from Albany Street nearly to William Street. What Brimm did with
this once swampy property is not known, but by 1808 Farnham had made use
of the abundant water power on the creek and soon opened a tanworks and
fulling mill. By 1812 there was also a blacksmith's shop, trip hammer,
and carding machine and soon after a woolen mill. All of these industries,
which were situated close to the creek and set back from Albany Street
near where Buyea's Hardware is now located were leased by Farnham to a
series of proprietors including Elisha Starr, Luther Burnell, John Lincklaen,
William Johnson, Mathew and Oran Chandler, and John Williams.
In 1839 John Williams, who had leased the woolen mill property since 1831, purchased the mill and surrounding land, including part of the Fire Department lot, from Farnham. For several years Williams owned this part of the Fire Department parcel and an extensive study of the real estate transactions of John Williams disclosed the purchase of this land in 1839 but failed to find when Williams sold it. As Williams died in 1853 it may have passed to his heirs whose deeds have not been researched.
By 1852, according to Henry Hart's village map of that year, the east part of the Fore Department property had been created as a separate parcel from the mill lot except for the lane which ran along the side of it to the mill. This 1852 map shows two houses on the lot, at #123 and 125 Albany Street, but does not indicate its owner their owners. Another map, made by Gurdon Evans in 1853, shows that #123 Albany Street was owned or occupied by E.E. Blair and #125 by S.H. Henry, who was a publisher of school texts books. In 1875 the house at #123 was owned by T.S. Marshall who may have been a relation of Justus Marshall a machinist who operated a machine shop in the old woolen mill complex during that time. #125 was occupied by J. Darling. In 1895 #123 was occupied by J. Evans and #125 by Mrs. Thomas ("Grandma") Marshall, and in 1928, according to a survey of the residences and shops along the Cherry Valley Turnpike, Mrs. John Evans resided at #123 and Mrs. John Riley occupied #125 with a beauty shop run by Mrs. Mildred Boland also in the house or garage behind. The old house at #123 was demolished some time in the 1950s and it was along the west side of this house, between the house and lane, that the grave stones were found. The last days of #125 are not well known except that during the 1940s and 1950s the house was owned by Charlie Elmer, who had a large work shop and garage out back with an apartment above.
In looking at several sources, namely the 1890 Birdseye View of the Village, a photo taken about 1910, and an aerial photo taken about 1950, it is clear that the house at #125 Albany Street was either entirely remodeled or replaced some tim early in the 20th century. It is likely that the house is an entirely different structure rather than a remodeling of the old one as house moving was a common practice and can confuse historians who are not aware of the extent of its practice. It is not known how long the house stood on this lot, but it did outlast the neighboring house and blacksmith shop, perhaps surviving into the 1960s.
In April 1928, after demolition
of the old "Forman House", a Sunoco gas station
was built by G.D. Hermann & Sons, Inc., of Oneida, on the west part
of the Fire Department property. The Turnpike survey of 1928 lists
the service station of G.D. Hermann & Son.
The station was later run for many years as a Sunoco station by Walt Freeborn. It was afterwards run by his son-in-law Howard Judd with Carl Judd. In 1964 the property, now encompassing the whole of the present parcel, was sold by Union Securities & Co. to Ilko Properties, Inc. who in turn sold it to the Gulf Oil Corp. in 1965. In 1978 Sal Giardina (Puff & Putt, Inc.) purchased the property, and in 1980 he sold the property to the Village of Cazenovia who have since used it, first as the annex, and then as the base for the Cazenovia Fire Department. The building was almost entirely demolished in 1989 (zoning regulations prevented taking it all the way down) and the present fire house was then built.
Construction of the much
larger Fire Department building began in March, 1989 with trenching around
the property to place underground utilities out of the way of the proposed
construction. The trenching along the back perimeter of the property
exposed sheet refuse in the forms of coal ash and building materials which
dated from the turn of the century or later. At the northeast corner
of the property, near the house of Mrs. Sternberg, a deep refuse layer
was dug through which contained coal ash, oyster shells, and broken ceramics
and glass. This deposit, judging from the items found at the surface
of the refilled trench, dated perhaps as early as the 1870s. In some
parts of this trenching a fine tan-gray clay was encountered which may
have been of the quality used for brick making at the adjoining brick yard.
While some brick was uncovered none of it was determined to be rejected
or deposited by the brick making operations of the very early brick yard.
This trenching took place off the Fire Department property, and, it appears,
as will be discussed later, that the refuse is related to the neighboring
lots rather than the Fire Department property.
During the first week of April the under ground fuel tanks from the earlier gas stations were exposed, cleaned and filled with earth. These three large underground tanks were situated in front of the former gas station / temporary Fire Department annex at the south east part of the property. No foundations or other forms of historical evidence were seen in the excavations made in exposing the tanks as the opened holes were only large enough to uncover the tops of the tanks. It is likely that when the tanks were originally placed in the ground the excavation took out much of the foundation of the former Elmer house which stood at #125 Albany Street on the eastern edge of the Fire Department property.
In trenching for the footings of the eastern wall of the new building some glass and ceramics fragments dating from the turn of the century 19th century were found. No evidence of the several small buildings which stood along this line, as shown on the historical maps, was seen, but evidence of much filling to bring the grade up was noticed.
In the north trench for the footing of the back section of the new building no cultural evidence was seen, but some filling had been done. There was no clear evidence of the narrow lane in the trench profiles other than the gravel seen in the top few inches of soil.
Along the western side of the back section no refuse was seen, the clay and glacial gravel parent soil being exposed only about one foot below the surface indicating that this area has been deeply cut in recent times from the original topography and taking away any earlier deposits. The same situation was observed along the north trench of the western part of the building. This is of note as it was near these lines that the coal ash and other debris described above was found. It may be that this debris does not relate to the occupations of the Fire Department property, but to the neighboring lots.
In the trench parallel to and nearest Farnham Street the poured concrete foundation and deep cellar of the 1928 service station was exposed. Because of considerable disturbance caused by the building of this station and the various piping and tanks that were associated with it, no evidence of earlier buildings or the brick yard was seen.
Although some grading and pavement removal was done inside of the footing trenches, no evidence was seen to indicate the location of any buildings that are shown on the historical maps. No signs of any small or obscure out buildings were seen within the back portion of the building site. Further disturbance did not occur in this area as it was soon filled and leveled for a poured concrete floor. The same may be said of the western portion of the building.
As the early buildings on the property stood just a few feet off the sidewalk there should be extensive evidence remaining underground to mark their exact location and give further clues to their history. Because little work is planned for any part of the property within about thirty feet of Albany Street it was not seen that any disturbance or damage would occur to these early foundations.
As construction neared completion the site was continually observed for more historical and archaeological data. As work was limited to finishing touches such as paving and landscaping nothing more of significance was exposed. During the late summer and fall of 1990 Farnham Street was widened by the New York State Department of Transportation and limited observation was made of subsurface work which may have exposed pertinent historical or archaeological material. During the unfortunately few times that I was able to look at the exposed soils nothing was observed. It is also unfortunate that no Cultural Resource Survey was conducted for this major highway project as it destroyed and damaged a great many sites, large and small, of historical archaeological significance.
The following are listed in the books of Evergreen Cemetery:
Name lot died age died age
Atkinson, Robert H 198 2/22/1869 35 1869 35
Hesler, Esther F. H 266 8/8/1844 25 1844 25
Webb, Christopher H 266 3/4/1837 82 1883 82
Webb, Martin L. H 266 1/6/1837 52 1837 52
Webb, Susan H 266 5/4/1850 36 1850 36
Webb, Susanna H 266 5/12/1868 87 1868 87
Because of a similarity to the replacement stones now standing at the graves of the above, it is possible that stones may also be found for the following:
Charity Davenport Webb, Mary Branch Webb, Harrison Hesler, Herbert D.
Hesler, Josephine A. Webb, Eudora A. Webb.
Another building which is
remembered by many of the older residents, but not located on the Fire
Department property, was a large wooden building that stood on a high stone
foundation where the entrance to the hardware store is now. In and
on the site of this unique building, at street address #127 Albany Street,
stood the shop of several blacksmiths, including
Barney Riley. While it was not part of the Fire Department property
I thought it appropriate to discuss it in some detail as the history of
this building is little known.
Through the 19th century the area now covered by the parking lot for Buyea's Hardware was occupied by several houses, workshops, barns, gardens and two large blacksmith's shops (see the maps of 1852, 1853, 1875, 1885, 1906, and 1926). Not much is known about the other buildings, but the blacksmith's shops were well established village landmarks. One of these, Riley's blacksmith shop, stood on Albany Street immediately east of the east edge of the Fire Department property. As this was for a time a small component or part of the woolen mill lot owned by John Williams, who most likely leased it out to others, it may not be possible to identify its original occupants or uses. From the maps of 1852 and 1853 it can be seen that it and much of the surrounding property was still owned by Williams who died in 1853. It may have remained as a part of the mill lot, but the research done on this building did not include a study of the property deeds which would show the various owners and boundaries during the late 19th century. Another blacksmith's shop was located behind Rileys and between the woolen mill building (see the maps of 1852, 1853, 1875, 1885, and 1906) and was operated in conjunction with the wagon shop that was run by various persons in the latter half of the nineteenth century. It was in no way connected with the Riley shop and was closely related to the industries which located in the old Williams mill over the years. It was removed sometime between 1911 and 1926.
Many of the local residents that I spoke with knew of the existence of at least one of the blacksmith's shops, and often confused them or identified their proprietors as individuals who are known from historical record to have been located elsewhere. From the 1850s to 1920s there were well over a dozen different blacksmiths in at least five shops near the East Bridge, it is understandable why there has been much confusion surrounding these buildings.
In 1859 Nathan Soult, a blacksmith for many years, was indicated as having a shop at the site at #127 Albany Street. How long he had been at this spot is unknown, but he had surely worked at other places previously. Eber Peet, who had worked across the street (where the "Red Apple" convenience store is now), was in the former Soult shop in 1875, and from about 1890 to the late 1920s the shop was run by Barney Riley, and then his sons Ed and Jack Riley. In 1928 it was run by his son Edward Riley. This building, of a quite unique architectural character, was at some point sold to D.D. Norton who demolished it in 1944 and kept used cars on the lot for a short time. It is now part of Buyea's parking lot.
On the 1852 village map another building can be seen along Albany Street between the creek and the Riley Shop. This building (later modified or replaced) originally stood where Willow Place now runs (this is in the western part of the village). This was Jacob Ten Eyck's foundry, in operation on the edge of the swamp (now mostly filled) near Willow Place about 1820. About 1830 it was moved to this spot near the East Bridge and used as a foundry by Samuel Chubbock and Whitman Cobb. Cobb had done work on this site previously and advertised as a blacksmith in 1827. In 1830 he dissolved a partnership with Ten Eyck, and in 1831 he advertised that he was operating a blacksmith, wagon, and cabinet maker's shop. While the building is shown on the 1852 map there is no indication of its owner or occupant. It seems to be on the same property as the blacksmith's shop next door west and the two buildings may have been related at one time, perhaps one as a furnace and the other as the blacksmith's shop. The building was occupied by L. (Lucius) Berthrong in 1853, by Mrs. Abbott in 1859 and is not shown on the 1875 map. I suppose that the Great Spring Freshet of 1865 took away this building, as it did also with scores of other creek-side establishments, dams and bridges, and the site was never again occupied.
In conducting the research necessary for this project I am indebted
to many people of the village of Cazenovia. I would especially like
to thank the following for relating their stories, sharing their knowledge,
and allowing access to their records:
Survey of the Jail Limits of the Village of Cazenovia, 1806, from Lorenzo State Historic Site, (AW-45-1, LO 1975.1640.51).
Miscellaneous papers from the collection at Lorenzo State Historic Site (as many of these had not been sorted at the time that I saw them I do not have catalog numbers for them).
Various deeds from the Clerk's Offices of Madison and Chenango Counties
Enos Cushing's 1835 Map of the village of Cazenovia.
Henry Hart's 1852 Map of the village of Cazenovia.
Gurdon Evans' 1853 Map of Madison County.
Jonathan E. Gillette's 1859 Map of Madison County.
D.G. Beers' 1875 Atlas of Madison County.
L.R. Burleigh's 1890 Birdseye View of the Village of Cazenovia.
1895 Atlas of Cazenovia, N.Y. Sewers.
Sanborn Map Co. Insurance maps of the village of Cazenovia: 1885, 1906, 1911, 1926.
A Survey of the Cherry Valley Turnpike, 1928.
Aerial photograph of the Fire Department property and vicinity in the possession of Mr. John Colligan.
Various newspapers published in the village of Cazenovia, 1808-present.
Tax Maps, Madison County Planning Department.
1972 Aerial photograph of the village of Cazenovia, Madison County Planning Department.
Town Road Book #2, listing surveys and resolutions regarding town and
village highways, c. 1796 to c. 1860, Town of Cazenovia.
topographic map showing the Village of Cazenovia and locating the study
or project area. USGS 7.5 Minute Series (1:24000), Cazenovia Quadrangle
USGS. This map is dated 1943 and shows the village bounds and features
as they existed then.
is a map I have compiled showing the location of the properties mentioned
in the text. The dashed line along the top of the map is the line
between the Village
Plot and the New
Petersburg Tract. The large vertical rectangle denoted by dashed
lines in the center of the map is the early "Brick Yard Lot", and the smaller
rectangles in the northwest and southeast corners of this are later subdivisions,
as mentioned in the text. The building used as a temporary annex
and later reconstructed by the Fire Department is shown. This building
was originally a gas station and was modified and greatly enlarged for
use as a fire house. The new fire house, with parking lots and turning
areas, occupies nearly all of the land shown in the two lots which are
divided by the 12 foot wide lane and fronting on Albany Street. The
addresses for #119, 123, and 125 Albany Street are given along the front
of the lots, rectangles with numbers are existing houses and their addresses.
is a portion of the wonderful 1852 Village map by Henry Hart. It
was rendered in incredible and very accurate detail. Farnham Street
and Albany Streets are unmarked on this clip of the larger map. The
Fire Department property is located on the northeast corner of Albany and
Farnham Streets where the three houses of #119, 123, and 125 Albany Street
can be seen. The lane serving the Williams property to the north
can be seen between #119 and 123. A series of building to the east
and between the Fire Department property and the Mill Pond stood on what
is now the entrance to Buyea's Hardware parking lot.
The large building with the central division line was the blacksmith shop
later occupied by Riley, and the building near the Mill Pond was a furnace.
The checkered building marked "Cazenovia Woolen Factory" is the the large
white building that still stands adjacent to Buyea's store.
is a clip of the the Village of Cazenovia inset from Gurdon Evans' 1853
map of Madison County (reference numbers from the map have been enhanced
for legibility). Much of the information in this map is the same
as shown on the 1852 map, but Evans includes
names that Hart did not. The Fire Department building now stands
where #23, 24, and 25 are shown (#119, 123, and 125 Albany Street).
The key to this map identifies the buildings as: #20 and #21 = Mrs. Baker,
#22 = Wm. Law, #23 = B.T. Clark (Clarke), #24 = P.E. Blair, #25 = S.H.
Henry, #26 = J. Williams, and #27 = L. Berthrong. "J. Williams"
is also shown written across the land just above these buildings indicating
that he owned this section at this time.
1875 Beers Atlas of Madison County has a detailed map of the Village of
Cazenovia, which is shown here in part. From this various elements
of the historical landscape can be clearly seen, including property lines,
the lane running through the properties to the former woolen mill (here
shown as a cabinet shop). The western part of the Fire Department
property is located where #27 is shown. This house, #119 Albany Street,
was at this time occupied by Mrs. Daly. The eastern half of the Fire
Department property is occupied by T.S. Marshall at #123 Albany Street
and J. Darling at #125. Other structures identified in the key are:
#28 = A. (Apollos) Severance; #29 = E. (Eber) Peet, Blacksmith (this is
later Barney Riley's shop), #64 = Mrs. Mann, and #65 = S. Mather.
Note that the building closest to the creek seen in earlier maps of 1852
and 1853 is no longer present. On the
far right can be seen the newly completed tracks of the Cazenovia and Canastota
Railroad, which stopped just north of the mill pond. The dashed line
parallel to the railroad is the proposed extension that was built shortly
after this map was made.
This is a section of the 1885 Sanborn Insurance Company map of the Village of Cazenovia. No names are provided for residences, but they are shown in great detail with interior spaces and such elements as porches clearly delineated. The three houses fronting on Albany Street and just east of Farnham Street stand on the Fire Department property. The one to the left is marked as a 1 1/2 story Dwelling with a 1 story back section, that in the middle and along the right side of the lane is a 2 story Dwelling with a 1 1/2 story wing, and the third house, situated very close to the blacksmith shop, is identified as a 1 1/2 story Dwelling with a porch on the front, a bay window on the west, and a 1 story attachment behind. These descriptions fit nicely with the buildings as shown in the 1890 Birdseye View. In this 1885 map the houses are given street numbers #105, 107, and 109, respectfully, but these numbers have changed and the addresses would now be #119, 123, and 125 (see the 1926 map). The Carriage shop occupied by J. Darling stands in what is today the middle of the Buyea's Hardware parking lot. A.L. Trowbridge's Carpentry and repair Shop is in the old John Williams Woolen Mill building, which still stands.
Another incredibly detailed and accurate resource is the 1890 Birdseye
View of the Village of Cazenovia by L.R. Burleigh. This low-resolution
scan does not do the original image justice. Albany and Farnham Streets
are the major streets (both unmarked in this section). The old Forman
house, built in 1794 and moved here in 1813, is shown at #119 Albany Street,
the northeast corner of Farnham and Albany Streets and the other two houses
of #123 and 125 Albany Street are clearly shown. The large, three-story
blacksmith shop of Barney Riley is seen on Albany Street on the side of
the lane leading to the even larger former woolen mill, which was probably
used at this time as a carriage shop. Note the houses and shops which
are intermingled and closely spaced in the area around the "East Bridge"
which carries Albany Street over Chittenango Creek. This area was
the hub of Cazenovia's manufacturing and service trades, with a blacksmith
shop on nearly every corner, machinists, a foundry, brewery, cabinet makers'
shops, and many other artisans and craftsmen who located here to take advantage
of the water power of the creek and traffic of the highways.
This map is compiled from sections of the 1895 "Atlas of Cazenovia, N.Y. Sewers." It shows the houses along each street in the village and the connections that were made for the new sewer system. I have redrawn the map to show only the streets, houses, and the names of the occupants or owners. The dashed line is the location of the present Fire Department property. The building on the corner of Albany and Farnham Streets was #119 Albany Street, J. Evans was in #123, and Mrs. T. Marshall was in #125. All the buildings shown here are dwellings, excepting the B. Riley building on the far right which is his blacksmith shop, which had residences above.
1906 Sanborn Insurance Company map of the Village of Cazenovia shows the
situation of this neighborhood to be very much unchanged from what was
here in 1885. The houses on the Fire
Department property, here still marked with their old addresses, are unchanged
and little is different even with the manufactories and shops to the north.
This is a photo of the Riley Brothers Blacksmith shop taken just after the turn of the 20th century. This is after it was run by Barney Riley. Seen to the left of the blacksmith shop is the house at #125 Albany Street which stood on the Fire Department property, and the old blacksmith shop of J. Darling which stood in the rear. The photo appeared in the Cazenovia Republican about 1976 (exact date unknown) and was accompanied by a letter from Harriet Riley Slocum (Mrs. J.L. Slocum). The caption [with my notes in square brackets] read in part: "Enclosed is a picture taken about 1908-1910 of Riley Bros. Blacksmith Shop on lower Albany Street. From left to right are Harriet, John and Clara (holding Billie [William M.] Davis Jr. to whom she was a nursemaid). Jack Riley, partner of Ed Riley, is shown in front of the shop. This property was sold to Mr. [Irving] Buyea in 1944. Riley Bros. was directly across [Albany Street] from the Jim Smith blacksmith shop. In the back of [Riley's] was Jack O'Neil's blacksmith shop. The large horseshoe attached to the top of the pole in front of the shop read Riley Bros. The small white cottage on the left [on the Fire Department property] was occupied by Grandma Marshall, mother of Floyd Marshall, who kept a hardware store in Cazenovia."
This Sanborn Insurance Company map is dated 1926, but it includes paste-overs of later changes. The old 1794 Forman House, which stood at #119 Albany Street until 1928, has been replaced by a Filling and Greasing Station. This would be the G.D. Hermann & Son station built in 1928. Also, a barn or garage has been attached to the end of #123 Albany Street (the addresses are correct on this map). Other structures, including the residences at #123 and 125 and the Blacksmith Shop at #127 are still standing but the date of revisions to this map are not presently known (they are usually marked with revision dates but I have no note of this for this particular map). Note that several shops and other buildings standing just to the north, as shown on earlier maps as late as 1911, are no longer standing.
aerial photograph of the lower end of Albany Street, courtesy of John Colligan,
shows the Fire Department property about 1950. Only one house, at
#125 Albany Street, remains on the property and that is greatly changed
from its late 19th century appearance. Of the three houses that stood
here for many years two have been demolished by the time of this photo
to make way for the gas station and parking lots and the third is replaced
by another house that must have been moved here ... perhaps it was one
of the several houses that stood to the north (compare this house to those
shown in the 1890 Birdseye View and the Riley
Shop photo). Most prominently noted in this photo is that the
blacksmiths shops have been replaced by gasoline auto service stations
- a natural evolution with the change in technology. At the top left
is seen the Esso station (now Colligan's), at the lower left can be seen
the sign for the Texaco station (now the "Red Apple"), and in the center,
at the northeast corner of Albany and Farnham streets, is the Gulf station,
which had been built in the late 1920s by G.D. Hermann & Sons.
Also note that the large Riley blacksmith shop is no longer standing, having
been torn down about 1944 to open the entrance to Buyea's hardware, the
sign of which can be seen at the very lower right.