Annals of Oxford.

"Yankee Doodle, twist the cat ---
Buttermilk and brandy;
Guess I'll bet my Sunday hat
They'll find I'm a boy quite handy."

Josiah Hackett.

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    Thus sang Josiah Hackett as he entered the village on the 10th of July, 1798, a beautiful summer afternoon with a touch of rain in the wind. He was a man of forty years, dressed in short breeches, long stockings with the accompanying shoebuckles, and carried a musket over his shoulder, which he termed "The Bloodsucker." Approaching a humble abode, whose friendly door stood open and from which the housewife looked forth, he addressed her as follows:

    "Madame, I'm a soldier, a shoemaker, and a traveler, seeking a place of shelter until I can make arrangements to locate in this section of God's country. I've been to the inn, but, fags and catnip! their rooms are taken for the night, and the landlord said he couldn't lodge another person nohow. Can you lodge me till morning?"

    "Yes," was the smiling reply; "I think we can make room for you, though my husband, Mr. HOVEY, is not at home just at present. He is at the Academy, where Justice KENT, Esq., is holding court. But you look tired, come in and wait. He will be here soon."

    "Thank ye, ma'am, I am that tired that if I was carried to the highest court of Juncture I couldn't make a move to resist."

    He was ushered into the kitchen, whose floor of rough boards was cleanly swept and the huge stone fireplace was apparently ready for the preparation of the evening meal. On the mantle over the fireplace stood a candlestick, a sausage stuffer, a spice mill, and a candle mold. By the side of the fireplace hung a smoke-blackened almanac, and by the hearth stood the high-backed settle, a sheltered seat for the long winter evenings. Within a short time Gen. Hovey appeared and soon the two were busily engaged in conversation. In answer to a question in regard to himself, Josiah replied:

    "I am from Lyme, Conn., where I was born in 1758. When the alarm that preceded the battle of Bunker Hill spread throughout the country, I took my musket, which I call 'The Bloodsucker,' and started for the scene of conflict, where we were busier than seven bumblebees in a punkin blow. Since then my musket goes where I go. She's a quick-witted jade, but she's trusty and true."

    "What is your business here?" asked Gen. Hovey.

    "I am a shoemaker, and want to locate in this new country, and was told you were a land agent. I made inquiries at the inn for lodgings, but could not get in. 'Rabbit ye, an' be darned,' says I, and moved along."

    "No, they have now more than they can accommodate," replied Gen. Hovey. "Hon. James Kent, Esq., one of the Justices of the Supreme Court of judicature of the State, held Circuit Court here to-day, the first in the history of our youthful county."

    "Oh, by the lurry and living jingo! had I known that court was in session I might have come earlier, as I would liked to have heard the proceedings," said Josiah, as he took a pipe an tobacco from his pocket.

    "They were not interesting, as there was no business to transact at this sitting. It was a mere matter of form, you know. But Justice Kent is a keen man, and I predict that he will at least be Chancellor some day."

    "Oh, well, then I haven't lost a nation sight of jigger-marees, if there was no business before the court."

    "No," replied the General "but as to your business here. You are a shoemaker, you say, and we need a man here of that trade as much as any other. The community is growing, and you'll get a good living."

    "Fags and catnip! I'm not only a shoemaker, but a patriot also, as The Bloodsucker,' my trusty musket which has never missed fire, can testify. I come to this country to earn a living for myself, wife, and little one, and I'll be soused in a butter tub if I don't do it. I also came for game, and they who know me best say I'm a good marksman. Uts, bobs, and butakins, but that won't do for me to say."

    "And you are a patriot?"

    "Yes. I saw a wonderation sight of fighting, but more about that some other time. Last fall my health was so poor that I thought I'd have to lie down in the graveyard and draw the green coverlet over my poor old body for the long sleep. I couldn’t set in meeting, or scarcely lie in bed. A doctor told me I was afflicted with a compliant of the lungs, and that I had better move on west when summer came, or my flesh would waste and I would grow weaker and bowed down. 'All right,' says I, 'I insign to see what your advice is good for if it costs me my fireball colt!"

    "You appear quite rugged now."

    "Yes, I have been on the way several weeks and got rid of a flamation wheezing and difficulty in breathing. Ods, bodkins, but I like this new country, and will locate here, or a few miles out. 'Drather be out of the hamlet, where I feel all over goose pimples, and where I'll have a better chance at game that abounds in this section. When 'The Bloodsucker' get a fair chance at any of it, it will find it's gizzard ripped out as quick as a pig can crack a walnut."

    "Well, I can locate you any where you choose. Let me see, what did I understand your name is -----"

    "Josiah Hackett, Si for short. A soldier, a shoemaker, and now a traveler. I love my country, and rabbit ye, the day of its birth, the glorious Fourth, whose anniversary was but last week, is the day of days for me. It is my solemn wish, and may the great and living Father grant it, that the hour that ends my life may come upon the Fourth of July."

    "That is an odd wish. But you are yet in the prime of life and undoubtedly have many years yet before you."

    "That is very true, but I shall always have that desire, for to me it is a scared day."

    It was now the supper hour, and Mrs. Hovey called them in from the rear of the dwelling where they had been sitting. On the following morning arrangements were made by which Josiah located near the "Desserts," in the south part of the town, and it was he that gave the name to that section."

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    On July 4th, 1845, forty-seven years later, Luman FISH entered C. F. T. LOCKE's store and said:

    "Well, Locke, 'Uncle Si's got his wish at last."

    "Do you mean old Si Hackett?" inquired Mr. Locke, as he proceeded to tie up a pound of tea he had been weighing.

    "Yes; you know he has always wished to die on the Fourth of July, and to-day the end came. We'll never see 'Uncle Si,' with ' The Bloodsucker' over his shoulder, again."

    "Well, well," said Mr. Locke, as he stepped in front of the counter. "We'll miss him and his musket. He was always firing a salute on Independence Day."

    "Yes," was the reply, "and a better marksman I never saw. He came here when the town was new and when there was plenty of game. He used to say his musket was a quick-witted jade, but trusty and true."

    "That's so," replied Locke. "He was a great hunter, and they say he fought bravely in the Revolution."

    "Yes, and he was that patriotic that to this day he could hardly bare to talk to an Englishman. And another thing, we'll miss his singing Yankee Doodle' on all occasions."

    "Well, if St. Peter hears him singing as he approaches, he'll be so astonished that Si will dodge in the gates of heaven without the countersign."

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OLD WOOD CUT --- Showing Academy, Ladies' and Gentlemen's Board-Halls. The present school building occupies the site of the old academy, which was taken down and re-erected in the Lackawanna railroad yard for a store house; the ladies hall (formerly the fourth academy building standing next to the Baptist parsonage) was again removed to Greene-st., and is now a residence. The gentlemen's hall (now Morton flats) alone occupies the site of what once was the scene of a flourishing boarding school.


That best portion of a good man's life,
His little, nameless, unremembered acts
Of kindness and of love.
--- WORDSWORTH.

William Gile.

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    Deacon William Gile, who kept a clothing store on the east side of the river, owned and occupied the house opposite the Congregational church, so long occupied in later years by Cyrus M. BROWN, the hatter. Mr. Gile was attentive to his business, never leaving it for any purpose outside of it, except for such things as he thought the welfare of the Presbyterian church demanded. Of his earnings he was a liberal giver, both to the church of his choice and to such benevolent and charitable purposes as he thought deserving. For several years it was his practice to set apart the net proceeds of one day's sales in each week for better purposes, and the larger the amount of the sales the better he was pleased. About the year 1829 the Presbytery, to which the church in Oxford belonged, sent him as a delegate to the general synod which met in Philadelphia. For several years he was superintendent of the Sunday school, taught a Bible class, and was the leader in all church work.

    Mr. Gile was not a politician, as the term is generally applied, but always voted for those he thought the best men, regardless of party; a strictly temperance man, and bitterly opposed to slavery. On the disruption of the old colonization society and the organization of the abolitionist party he became one of the first abolitionists in Oxford, and from that time on always voted that ticket when there was one in the field.

    Deacon Gile was born in Providence, R. I., and moved to Oxford about the year 1808. A few years later he married Ann, daughter of Capt. Abram STEPHENS, at that time owner of the property in Preston, known far and near as the "Green Meadow farm." Mr. Gile resided in this village until the year 1818, when he disposed of his property and with his family emigrated to Ohio, moving in a wagon to Olean Point on the Allegheny river. Here he built a flat bottomed boat, or ark, and floated down the stream to Gallipolis, Ohio, remaining there seven years. Epidemics and fevers were so common in that country that the entire family was sick all of one season, and, becoming discouraged he determined to leave. In the meantime the title to his property in Oxford had reverted to him, and he with his family returned, moved into the old home on Fort Hill, remaining until about 1839, when he again sold out and went to Steuben county. From there he moved to Wisconsin, where his wife died. He then resided with his children, spending a portion of his time with Joshua in Iowa, Gordon in Wisconsin, and Caroline, his youngest daughter, in Hannibal, Mo., where he died of cholera in 1876. He died as he had lived, a firm believer in the principles and faith of the Presbyterian church, in mind and body as vigorous as at the age of 40; and respected by all who knew him. His children, beside those already mentioned, were Margaret, wife of Charles N. SHUMWAY, who died October 20, 1846, aged 31; John, Ruloff, and William S., who in 1888 was Commissioner of Fisheries for Kansas, with residence at Venango.


O youngsters! The elderly man has his enviable memories,
and not the least of them is the memory of a long
journey in mid-spring or autumn on the outside of a stage
coach. --- GEORGE ELIOT.

Early Traveling and Mail Routes.

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    Traveling by land was for a few years limited and hazardous, so that travel by boat was the more popular, although canoes were perilous. Transportation was almost wholly done by water, and in the winter merchandise was drawn on rude sledges. As horses multiplied women rode with as much ease as men. Young girls rode on side saddles, while older women rode behind men on pillions, padded cushions which had a sort of platform.

    The first roads were called "trodden paths," narrow worn lines, scarce two feet wide, trodden over pine needles and fallen leaves among the tree trunks by the feet of the red men as they walked stealthily in Indian file through the great forest. Later these paths were deepened and worn bare by the coarse and heavy footwear of the pioneers, others were formed by the slow tread of domesticated cattle as they wound around the hillside to pasture or drinking place. Then a scarcely broader bridle-path for horses, with blazed trees as guide posts, widened slowly to traveled roads and uneven cartways.

    Gen. Benjamin HOVEY entered into an agreement with the agents of the State in 1789 to open a road from the Unadilla river, to Cayuga lake, near Ithaca. It is known as the old State road and is the same which is now traveled from the Unadilla River to this village, and thence west to McDonough, Cincinnatus, and Ithaca, with very little alteration in the course. The materials for carrying on the surveys of the Gore of the State in 1789 to open a road from the Unadilla river, to Cayuga "Twenty Towns" and for cutting the State road were brought up the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers in canoes from Athens, Penn.; a distance of about eighty miles, against a rapid current nearly the whole distance.

    Francis BALCOM, while living in Unadilla, became acquainted with Gen. Hovey, and through him, took in hand the work of cutting the timber, bridging streams, grading and otherwise constructing the road from Rockdale on the Unadilla river to Oxford on the Chenango river. Those who assisted him were his brother Samuel, Andrew SPROWL, Thomas and James McCALPIN, all skilled woodmen. They selected a spot on the east hill to erect a cabin, wherein they might find shelter. One day was devoted to cutting and hauling logs, which, when ready fitted, were drawn to the spot by binding chains around their waists. Before night-fall the cabin was ready for occupancy, and Joab ENOS took charge of it and boarded the road-makers. In 1804 Francis and Samuel Balcom took a contract to build a bridge across the Susquehanna river at Wattles ferry and one at the Catskill turnpike.

    The corduroy road was the first improvement made to render public highways passable by vehicles. Miry ground and chuck holes were filled up with sapplings and logs, and whole roads were made of transverse logs touching one another, cut in lengths about twelve feet long.

    The two-wheeled cart, clumsily built and wasteful of power, was next used by our forefathers for transportation purposes, though the transfer of merchandise still was chiefly in the winter by "sledding." In those days the winters were severe with deep snow. The pioneer at that season of the year had little else to do, and the rough and clumsy-built roads were made smooth by the passage of the sleds.

    After a few years regular freight wagons or sleighs, besides the mail coach, were run and a vast amount of travel and traffic passed over the old State road, or Catskill turnpike in the days before canals and railroads. For many years distances were reckoned form tavern to tavern, and stone mile posts were met with at every mile of the road.

    All the products of the farm, butter, grain, lumber, wool, etc., had to be drawn over this road to reach a market, and returning teams brought the merchants their merchandise. As even little towns furnished freight, the aggregate was large, and, as they neared the Catskills, the number of teams on the highway seem enormous. Droves of hundreds of heads of cattle and sheep were of daily occurrence; stages, with two and three extras; teams, heavily loaded, passed both ways; taverns as often as every two miles the whole length of the road, and all crowded nearly every night. Private carriages without number, loaded with people and their baggage, all helped to swell the vast calvalcade that daily passed over this popular turnpike.

    The haulers of freight were sturdy and healthy men, of regular habits, though not always strictly temperate. Their life was much too vigorous for them to be drunkards.

    During the winter sleighs and pungs took the place of wagons. They were heavily loaded with frozen hogs, poultry and venison; firkins of butter, bags of beans, peas, sheep-pelts, deerhides, skins of mink and fox, occasionally a bear skin; nuts that had been gathered by the children, yarn that the housewife had spun, and stockings and mittens that the white-haired mother had knitted; homespun cloths and linen. Besides this were hay and oats for the horses, and food to last the teamster until the end of the trip, which consisted of doughnuts and cheese, cold roast port, sausage, and "rye and injun".

    Meals at the taverns cost but little, a "cold bite" could be had for a shilling, and a warm meal two shillings, but the teamsters often preferred to take their own food with them, which they ate at the taverns, and, if they washed their own dishes, the landlord got six cents for furnishing hot tea, and was expected to throw in a glass of whiskey when the bill was settled. It was immaterial to tavern keepers whether or not they served meals. More profit was made on the liquors sold and sleeping accommodation given, though the latter was crude enough. Great fires were built in barroom and parlor, the teamsters spreading blankets and robes upon the floor, rolled up in them and slept with feet toward the fire, thus forming a half-circle. Ten cents was paid for the privilege of thus lodging, but the sale of rum and cider made a fat wallet for the tavern keeper.

    In winter the teamsters were attired in heavy homespun clothing, calfskin boots with trousers tucked inside, and fur-lined overshoes over the boots. Over all these were bright red knit leggings, which came up nearly to their thighs. They wore a fur or buffalo skin coat, a red comforter and fur cap with ear protectors. Many also had red silk sashes around their bodies, tied on the left side with a double bow with tassels. Their hands were encased in double-pegged mittens, leather or fur gloves. The costume made the men picturesque figures at the taverns.

    The first mail route through Oxford was from Cooperstown to Binghamton, then called Chenango Point, and was without doubt established soon after the settlement of Oxford was begun. The little community at first was supplied with a semi-monthly mail, then a weekly mail was carried over this route on horseback as late as 1819, when a stage line was formed from Utica to Binghamton by Joseph WILLOUGHBY of Oxford, who commenced a "stage wagon with two horses," making weekly trips, which were soon changed to semi-weekly. In 1821 George MUNSELL of Binghamton purchased Mr. Willoughby's route, running semi-weekly and four horses and continued one of the principal proprietors of the Utica line for many years.

    In 1822 a stage route and mail line was formed from Catskill to Ithaca, which soon became a very general thoroughfare of travel. The stage left Catskill every Sunday morning and arrived in Oxford on the following Tuesday morning. Leaving Oxford on Wednesday afternoon it arrived in Catskill on Friday afternoon. In later years the route was improved and the stage left Catskill for Ithaca every morning on arrival of boats from New York, via Delhi, Unadilla, Oxford, etc., the route being 165 miles long. Leaving Ithaca every morning at 3 o'clock, the stage arrived in Catskill the second day. Thirty pounds of baggage was allowed and 140 pounds were equal to one passenger. The fare was four cents per mile.

    Burr BRADLEY, who drove the stage on the Catskill line in 1822, was a striking character and an important individual; popular with travelers and acquainted with everyone who resided on his lengthy route. He was a good natured fellow and his arrival in town was hailed with joy by all the juveniles, which he announced by frequent blasts upon a long tin horn, that echoed through the valley from the head of Albany Street. This was also a signal for the loungers to bestir themselves and gather on the tavern porch as the stage drew up with vehement "Whoas!" He was never without a story, which he would tell in such a humorous way that many considered it a treat to ride with him, and he was a general favorite of the boys and girls, with whom he cracked his jokes. His team was covered with ivory rings, and he was always talking to it when not conversing with the passengers. He never was without a runaway, kicker, and biter in his team; sat up straight, kept his reins taut and whip erect in his left hand. He talked to his horses as he would to a person. "Git up, Bill, have to touch ye up if ye git shirky." "If you don't do better, Tom, I'll swap ye off fur one of Ben BUTLER's old sheep, and get the best of the bargain then." He carried from town to town, and from house to house, general news, sometimes gossip, and often word in regard to the health of friends. His progress along the highway was eagerly watched by the farmer in the field, who paused in his work until the stage was lost to sight; while at every house faces at the small windows greeted him and his passengers. He would stop his team at a lonely spot, where a little home was located, perhaps miles from town, and to the pale and anxious woman who came to the door joy and thankfulness would radiate her features at his message: "Sam's fever has left him, and he's hungrier than a b'ar. The doctor says he's comin' out all right." And, with a "God bless you, Burr, for the good news," he would drive on. At another place he would leave the message: "Mary and the baby will be up next trip. Wants ye to tell all the folks so she wont miss seeing any of 'em." Burr had a kindly disposition and was a good friend to everyone but himself, which eventually led to his death by a fall from his stage, resulting in a broken neck. He was sincerely mourned by old and young, and his many acts of kindness were remembered for years.

    About 1822 Ethan CLARKE came to Oxford and purchased the Stage House, now the Hotchkiss House, and later became connected with the stage line that stopped at his house.

    In 1823 mail coaches and stages ran twice a week from Oxford to Albany, Utica, Catskill, and to Newburgh by way of Binghamton.

    n 1825 Jacob P. HILL carried on horseback the first mail from Oxford to McDonough.

    In 1829 the Oxford and Cooperstown line left Oxford daily, Saturday excepted, at 4 A. M., and arrived at Cooperstown in the evening. This route was a part of the Ithaca and Albany line of post coaches, which made the trip in three days. The line was intersected at Oxford by the Binghamton, Catskill and Utica line. All baggage was carried at the risk of the owner. A writer in the Chenango Republican, published in Oxford under the date of January 20, 1830, said: "It is not generally known in this section of the county which is the shortest and most convenient route to New York. One who is intimately acquainted, recommends leaving this village either on Tuesday, Thursday, or Saturday morning-will pass through Chenango Point, and reach Montrose the evening of each day, passing through Milford and Morristown, in New Jersey, and reach New York the third day from leaving Oxford."

    In 1836 stages ran from Utica to Oxford and Binghamton every day except Sunday; leaving Utica at 5 A. M., they reached Oxford the first day, thence to Binghamton next day at noon.

    In 1847 A. H. WATKINS, then a resident of Oxford, established a coach communication between Oxford and Norwich. The coach left Oxford daily at 8 A. M. and 2 P. M., and on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday at 7 P. M. Returning, it left Norwich at 10 A. M., and 5 P. M. every day, and on Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 5 A. M. also. The fare was twenty-five cents one way, or thirty-eight cents round trip.

    In May, 1847, the fare was reduced on the Binghamton, Utica and Albany route, and a four-horse post coach left Binghamton at 7 A. M., arriving at Utica at 12 P. M., the next day. Returning, it left Utica at 3 P. M., reaching Binghamton the next day at 11 A. M. An accommodation left Oxford every Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 5 A. M., reaching Utica at 5 P. M.

    The old four-horse post coach, or Concord coach, was a clumsy vehicle, hung on thoroughbraces, which lurched over the rough road like a ship in a seaway. They contained three seats with leather cushions. Behind the middle seat was a broad leather strap to support the backs of passengers. Two seats on the outside would accommodate four persons besides the driver. In winter the coach was placed on runners. Curtains were closely buttoned at the sides and big buffalo robes and a liberal supply of straw contributed a slight degree of comfort. When the coach stopped at a tavern the passengers would alight to warm themselves, hanging their shawls and broad-flapped coats on a wooden peg and draw up before the log fire, the men in the barroom were surrounded by a group of townsmen eager for the latest news, and from the ladies in the public sitting-room the landlady often got much information from the fashionable world.

    In January, 1848, Mr. Watkins fitted up a stage on runners and appropriately named it the "Snow Bird." It was placed on the "accommodation line" between Oxford and Norwich. A stove was securely fastened inside, which insured a comfortable ride.

    Accidents were of occasional occurrence, of which we will mention one. On October 10, 1834, as the stage was near Unadilla on its way to Oxford, the horses became frightened at the bloody cloths about a butcher's wagon, ran away, and threw themselves with the coach, which was well filled with passengers, down a steep bank. The coach was crushed to pieces and two residents of Oxford were among the injured: the Rev. Mr. BUSH receiving a fracture of the collar bone, and Cyrus A. BACON severe bruises about the head. One horse was instantly killed.

    In 1848 A. H. WATKINS Co.'s Catskill route to New York was popular on account of the day arrangement. Covered carriages were run to Gilbertsville, and four-horse coaches from there to Catskill. The line left Oxford at 7 A. M. on Monday, Wednesday and Friday, remained over night at Stamford, making a passage to New York in two days with no traveling at night. Returning the stage left Catskill daily for the Chenango Valley; on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday for Oxford, and on the alternate days for Greene and Ithaca.

    Four-horse coaches in January, 1849, left Oxford daily, Sunday excepted, on arrival of accommodation line from Utica, and arrived in Deposit in time for the Erie train to New York. The fare was $5.15. The Monday morning stage left Oxford at midnight and run in time for trains to New York the same day.

    In April, 1851, a stage commenced running tri-weekly between Oxford and Cooperstown, leaving the former place at 6 A. M. and arriving at the latter at 5 P. M., and returning on alternate days at the same hour.

    In August, 1851, G. M. BARTLE and I. SLATER started a daily stage from Oxford to Deposit, leaving Oxford at 6:30 A.M., passing through Coventryville, South Bainbridge, Vallonia Springs, Sanford Centre, and arrived at Deposit at 1 P.M., in time for the Express east. Returning it left Deposit at 7 A.M., after arrival of morning train from New York, reaching Oxford at 3 P.M.

    In July, 1858, arrangements were made with the Syracuse and Binghamton and the Erie railroads, whereby passengers were receipted directly through to New York at the rate of $6.00. The stage left Oxford at 6:15 A.M., making connections at Chenango Forks and giving passengers two hours in Binghamton, landing them in New York City the same evening.

    In May, 1861, two lines of stages passed daily through Oxford and the fare was reduced to $5.85 to New York.

    In June, 1866, Peter PACKARD started a stage line from Oxford to Unadilla to connect with the Albany and Susquehanna, now the Delaware and Hudson railroad. Leaving Oxford at 8 A.M., passengers reached Albany in time for evening boats on the Hudson river to New York. Later the stage line was changed to Sidney, and then to Bainbridge, as the railroad was extended to those places.

    The year 1870 saw the last of the four-horse mail coach in the Chenango Valley, as the New York, Ontario and Western railway ran its first passenger and mail train into this town on the 21st day of February of that year, and the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western railroad was opened on the 19th of December of the same year.

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    ONE of the pastimes in early days was that of gathering at the river during Spring freshets and watch the lumber rafts float down stream to tidewater.


As Tammie gloured, amazed and curious,
The mirth and fun grew fast and furious. --- BURNS.

River Bridge Bee.

____________

    The first bridge across the majestic Chenango at Oxford was built by Theodore BURR, an architect and famous bridge builder, from Egremont, Mass., in the year 1800. The second bridge was constructed under the direction of Jonathan BALDWIN in 1823-4. At the commencement of this work it was necessary to procure the assistance of numbers of men and teams from the neighboring towns in drawing stone for the abutments and piers. This plan of united effort for a single object was to be termed a Bee. It was a new kind of one, though not the first.

    In order to intensify the pro bono publico spirit which would prompt a general acceptance of the invitation to men with teams, on the laborious occasion, the committee resolved to celebrate the day, and at the same time provide substantial beef rations, by roasting an immense ox on a frame or spit, after the manner of a grand barbecue.

    On September 7, 1822, a meeting of the inhabitants of the village and town was held at Clark's Hotel, where the subject of a new bridge was discussed. In January, 1823, the following call was issued:

NOTICE

    The undersigned Commissioners of OXFORD BRIDGE, request the inhabitants of Oxford, Smithville & Preston, to assist in drawing STONE from Mr. Abel SMITH's to said bridge in this village, on Saturday next. As the people of the above towns are interested in repairing said bridge, it is expected a punctual attendance will be given.

						S. BALCOM,   }
						J. STRATTON, >   Com's.
						S. PARKER    }

Oxford, Jan. 28.

    In February, 1823, another meeting was held and the following handbill was issued:

OXFORD

BRIDGE BEE.

[ Cut of Ox as Roasting. ]

    At a meeting of the inhabitants of Oxford, at CLARK's Hotel, on the 19th of February, 1823, to take into consideration the Bridge about to be constructed over the Chenango,

HEZEKIAH MORSE, Chairman.

    C. A. THORP, Secretary.

    Resolved, That the inhabitants of Oxford, and the adjacent towns, be invited to attend in person, and with teams, on Friday the 28th February inst for the drawing of Stone necessary to the New Bridge.

    Resolved, That Ransom RATHBONE, Ira WILLCOX, Abijah LOBDELL, Henry MYGATT, Epaphras MILLER, and Erastus PERKINS, be a committee in behalf of the village, to co-operate with the Commissioners in carrying the above project into effect.

    Resolved, That Ethan CLARK, George A. CARY, Uri TRACY, Jun., David ST. JOHN, Marcus SHERWOOD, Charles A. HUNT, Luther NEWCOMB, Ira M'NIEL, Austin ROUSE, Ebenezer SHERWOOD, Thomas NEWKIRK, Roswell M'CALL, George FARNHAM, Oliver T. BUNDY, John W. ALLEN, Richard VAN WAGENEN, Frederick STRATTON, Erastus SMITH, George C. BILLINGS, and Rufus HOPKINS, be a committee of vigilance, whose duty it shall be to notify the people of the above meeting, and to give to the proceedings of the day force and activity.

    Resolved, That Amos A. FRANKLIN, Otis J. TRACY, Samuel COLE, Solomon DODGE, Edward LOOMIS, Jeremiah TEN BROOK, Asa BEVERLY, Shubal COY, Samuel LEWIS, Luther OSGOOD, Jesse KEECH, Daniel SHUMWAY, Joseph NOYES, and Solomon BUNDY, be appointed captains of the Bee, to direct the loading and unloading of teams, the whole to be under the superintendence of the commissioners.

    The importance to the people of Oxford, and the neighboring towns, of having a firm and substantial Bridge across the Chenango, it is hoped, will procure a general attendance. The stone are quarried and in piles, and the sleighing is excellent. Those who have teams are solicited to come with them, and those who have no teams, are requested to attend to assist in the loading and unloading.

    Five Hundred Dollars were required to be subscribed for the Bridge: more than that sum has been already subscribed. The object of this Bee is to increase the funds for building a permanent Bridge. The labour thus furnished by the liberality of individuals has no connection with the subscription.

    A FAT OX will be roasted on the VILLAGE GREEN near the Bridge, and at five o'clock, each man who has participated in the labors of the day, will be at liberty to line his bread-basket with as much roast beef and trimmings, as he can conveniently carry. This repast, furnished through the patriotism of our citizens, will be offered to those only who assist in getting stone for the Bridge. Drones, poachers, and interlopers, whose only object is sport, will not be fed. To guard against imposition, tickets of admission to the supper table, will be distributed by the captains of the Bee. Capt. John FISHER, aided by several young men, will conduct the BARBECUE. The best of hay will be provided for the horses.

    Gentlemen who reside in the adjacent villages, will confer a favor by procuring and sending labourers and teams. All who afford us assistance in any shape, are cordially invited to cut in for a lunch of the OX.


   						SAMUEL BALCOM, }
						SIMEON PARKER, >       Commissioners
						JOHN STRATTON, }
    Oxford, February 22, 1823.

    The great day finally dawned and with it came men and teams from far and near to assist, and those from opposite sides of the river vied with each other in getting first at the work. The day proved to be very stormy and intensely cold, but all worked diligently, and big bonfires were kindled to lessen the severity of the weather.

    The ox had been roasted entire on the spit passing through its body, which was suspended between two wheels, and made to revolve over the fire for two days and a night in cooking it. Tickets, marked with the word "Barbecue," had been distributed among those who had assisted, who instantly thronged about the tables when roast ox was announced. Potatoes and bread in huge quantities were provided with the beef, and he was lucky who could fill both hands with the trio of edibles, as the foremost ones at the table were rudely pressed forward by hungry battalions in their rear.

    The air was full of chill, and many of the crowd were full of enthusiasm, as Ira WILCOX, the Fort Hill merchant, had been a very liberal provider of cider and whisky. After a terrible battle with the beef, in which scarcely a trace was left, their spirits rose to such a pitch that dishes and potatoes alike were sent sailing through the air. Amid frantic yells for more beef, when there was no beef, the jovial horde snatched the spit with the remains of the roast, composing the frame of the creature only, supported still by the two wheels, and gave an exhibition through the principal street on the west side of the village. They then rushed merrily singing across the bridge towards Fort Hill. It is impossible to impart the impressions which the sight, and especially the sounds of the procession, inspired in the minds of an unoffending public, except, that, in the case of the Fort Hill merchant, we are able to get a gleaning of his "impressions," as he afterwards sat on the occasion. Mr. WILCOX was standing in his store door, when, as in a waking vision, he beheld the unusual spectacle bearing down upon him over the bridge. He stood, arrayed in all the stern dignity which he could wear so well, and withal, in a black suit of smoothest cloth. With glasses adjusted, and eyes riveted on the advancing apparition, he shouted:

    "Don't you come over here with that; we won't have it!"

    "Yes, we will, too!" was the reply in a chorus of babel voices.

    Then, before the merchant prince could realize his position, he was seized and placed astride the moving carcass. The panorama passed on amid the cries of "Hail to the King!" with its added accumulation of backbone, which Mr. WILCOX was known to possess, through the streets of the east side of the river. Then the good natured merchant was unhorsed, with his broadcloth bearing the glistening marks of a tallow dip. Thus passed this memorable day into history.

____________________

    THE MANNER in which the celebration of the successful laying of the first Atlantic cable was carried out, in the evening of August 6, 1858, was worthy of Oxford in her best days. Although but a short time could be given for preparation, residences and stores were brilliantly illuminated, the old Academy boarding hall with its hundreds of candles in the windows made a sight that is remembered to this day. The Oxford Band from the balcony of the LEWIS block discoursed excellent music, a six-pounder in front of the Stage House kept up a regular cannonading, and a balloon ascension closed the festivities. The balloon was, no doubt, the handiwork of * "Hank" KNAPP, who used to make huge paper balloons of many colors and send them up on all public occasions. The streets were thronged with people, all expressing joy at the wonderful feat in laying a telegraph wire under the Atlantic ocean and being able to send messages o'er the sea.

    *Henry S. KNAPP was one of the twenty or thirty young men who learned telegraphy in Oxford and later filled responsible positions as managers and operators in the west. Mr. KNAPP died several years ago.

____________________

    MANY STORIES are told of Joseph WALKER, odd of speech and emphatic in expression. One will illustrate: Mr. WALKER was ill, his last sickness in fact, and his old friend and neighbor, Cyrus A. BACON, dropped in to see him. "Good morning, Mr. WALKER," he said, "how do you feel today?" "Poorly, poorly, how do you get along, BACON!" "I don't feel very well myself, Mr. WALKER," replied Mr. BACON. The sick man rolled his eyes and murmured, "Ah, BACON, THEY WANT US."


And this our life, exempt from public haunt,
Find tongues in trees, books in the running brooks,
Sermons in stones, and good in everything.
---- SHAKESPEARE.

In Rafting Days.

____________

    Ira B. McFARLAND, of whom mention is made elsewhere in the Annals, often related his experience in the vast pineries which, in the early history of the country, filled the valleys of the Chenango and the Susquehanna, and covered the intervening hills and broad tablelands. The forests, as they stood in their primitive glory, contained tall and straight trees, many of them gigantic in size, lifting their regal heads heavenward, and sweeping in one vast wilderness for miles upon every side, constituting a source of untold wealth. Some of the trees would be four and five feet in diameter, and seventy feet to the first limbs. Many of the pines would make four thousand feet of lumber, and the manner in which they were prepared for transportation, in the form of lumber, to distant markets is interesting.

    A "gang" of men would enter the woods with axes and saws. The choppers going before would select their trees, passing by the ordinary and taking only the noblest specimens. The tree fairly down, it was examined, and it required but a trifling imperfection to condemn it, and then it was abandoned and left to decay. The first step in the process of cutting the felled tree into logs was to "butt" it, that is, from four to eight feet of the trunk next the stump would be sawed off and rejected. This condition of the lower portion of the trunks of pine and hemlock trees is probably caused by the swaying to and fro of the tree, year after year of its life, whenever the winds blow, which bends the solid wood just at this point, and necessarily strains the fibres and rends them apart by the powerful action and weight of the great body above.

    Sawmills were erected upon a creek or river bank, to which the logs would be drawn during the winter season, and there converted into lumber ready for rafting down the river when the spring freshets came. A raft would generally contain about forty thousand feet of lumber, making it in length not far from one hundred and forty feet, and in width from twelve to sixteen feet, with a solid depth of three feet. Sometimes a cabin would be made of a few of the boards and placed in the center of the raft, which afforded protection for the raftsmen against the cold driving rains and boisterous winds of the early spring season. A straw bunk and one or two kettles were usually all the outfit the cabin contained. Coarse bread, pork and beans, and potatoes were the daily rations. To guide the raft, two oars were provided, one at the forward end, the other at the rear end, and consisted of a large pole thirty or forty feet in length, resting by the center over a head block, with a wooden pin through it, which permitted it to turn in any direction. Upon the end in the water was fastened a long, wide plank, that formed the rudder, which was easily operated by means of the long lever portion extending back of the head block. The oars, with an occasional use of poles, would guide the raft most effectually, and a pilot and one hand was all that was needed to run down as far as Columbia, on the Susquehanna. Here over a stretch of forty miles, through swift rapids and among numerous rocks, the aid of five men were required to manage the raft. At Columbia another gang of men took the raft on down to the head of tide water on Chesapeake Bay. Here fifty or more rafts would be put together and run to Baltimore, where the lumber found a ready market.

____________________

    A MAP OF THE VILLAGE of Oxford, drawn in 1824 by the late Henry R. MYGATT then a boy in his teens, is in possession of Charles W. BROWN. The map shows only the now main streets as they then existed, with the buildings located thereon. A wooden river bridge, extended nearly to what is now Canal street, there was no "Navy Island" (now the main business street) nor was the Chenango canal built. LaFayette Park is on the map as Baldwin's square, and Washington Park as Academy square from the fact that the first academy was located there in 1794; Clinton street was Baltimore street, and State Cayuga street. Cork Island is shown above the bridge. The island was somewhere in the vicinity of the present Basket factory, but time and floods have changed the channels and its location is lost.

____________________

    ONE GENERAL TRAINING DAY Wayne BERRY, a noted character, came to town on horseback and rode up in front of the Stage House when the grith broke and he fell off into the mud, still seated in the saddle. The crowd broke into a laugh, when Wayne, seated in the mud, exclaimed: "Gentleman, it's a d---d good horseman that sticks to his saddle."


Our land is rough and poor; we grow but little produce, and
so we build schoolhouses and churches and grow men --- WEBSTER.

Oxford Academy.

____________

    Oxford Academy was planted in the wilderness three years after the town was founded. Its charter, under the legal title of "The Trustees of Oxford Academy" bore date January 12, 1793, but was not granted until January 27, 1794, and was one of the first four given in the State west of the Hudson. Among other matters it recited the following:

    Whereas the subscribers have severally contributed for the purpose of erecting in Academy in the town of Jericho in the county of Tioga, for the instruction of youth in the learned languages and other branches of useful knowledge;

    And, whereas, a lot of land has been purchased, and a building erected thereon, in the town aforesaid, out of the moneys contributed as aforesaid, for the use and profit of the said Academy. Now, therefore, we do respectfully make application to the Regents of the said University, and request that the said Academy be incorporated, and be subject to the visitation of the said Regents; and we do hereby nominate Benjamin HOVEY, John PATTERSON, Uri TRACY, David BATES, Nathaniel WATTLES, Witter JOHNSON, Charles ANDERSON, Jonathan FITCH, John McWHORTER, Sleuman WATTLES, Joab ENOS, Benjamin RAY, Samuel COE, Solomon MARTIN, Avery POWERS, James PHELPS, Gershom HYDE, and Peter BURGOT, to be Trustees for the said Academy; and we do hereby specify and declare, that the said Trustees shall be called and distinguished by the name of the Trustees of Oxford Academy in the county of Tioga.

    For one hundred years it lasted in its own independence, and then was merged into the free school system of the State, and is now designated Oxford Academy and Union School. The academy building, which was removed in 1895 to give place to the present handsome and commodious edifice, was the fifth structure in succession since the charter was granted.

    The first building completed and occupied was erected in the autumn of 1792, and was the first framed building raised in town. It was used for a private and classical school for more than eighteen months, and was taught by Uri TRACY, a graduate of Yale, who also was the first principal of the Academy.

    The site of the first house was on the northwesterly side of Washington Park, near the residence of the late Dr. George DOUGLAS. It soon proved too limited for the increasing needs of the schools, and in December, 1797, was sold with part of the site for eighty pounds. A part of the lot was released to Benj. HOVEY in exchange for twenty rods of land in the southerly part of the common, near the present residence of Joseph E. PACKARD, and the second building was erected and completed on this site in the autumn of 1799.

    This second Academy was destroyed by fire and never occupied, and a third building was erected upon the same site in the first year of the past century. This third structure was removed from the lot on the common in 1806 to the southerly side of Merchant's Row, at its intersection with Greene Street, opposite lands now a part of the estate of the late Ward VANDERLYN. Here it continued in use for the school until about the year 1832, when it was sold to the trustees of the Methodist Episcopal church who used it as a place of public worship until the erection of their present church on Fort Hill.

    At a meeting of trustees in October, 1794, it was

    Voted. That this Board consider themselves indebted to Uri TRACY in the sum of £50 for his services as principal during six months past.

    Voted. That a petition be presented to the legislature requesting them to grant unto the Academy of Oxford the benefit of the land in the county of Tioga set apart for the purpose of promoting literature.

    Voted. That Mr. Solomon MARTIN be requested to procure a seal for this board, to be known as the seal of Oxford Academy; and that the expense of procuring the same be paid by the Treasurer.

    Voted. That a committee of three be appointed for the purpose of procuring a teacher. Benjamin HOVEY, Uri TRACY and Solomon MARTIN were chosen accordingly.

    Voted. That a member of this board attend the Regency of the University the ensuing winter relative to the future support of this encorporation, and that Benj. HOVEY be requested to attend for that purpose.

    Voted. That a committee of three be appointed for the purpose of keeping the academy in repair and to make some alteration in the water now brought to the house for the use of the school.

    Voted. That the proprietors of the private library have liberty to erect a book case or other necessary equipments for their accommodation, free of expense, in this house.

    Voted. That if any scholar break glass, or injure this house, he, or his guardian shall repair the same at his own expense.

    Voted. That the secretary be directed to transmit a copy of this and the former proceedings of this board to the Treasurer and Teacher of the school within fifteen days from date, and that he charge the expense thereof to this board. (Signed.)

    Benjamin HOVEY, Uri TRACY, Solomon WATTLES, John McWHORTER, Witter JOHNSON, James PHELPS, Joab ENOS, David BATES, Benj. RAY, Avery POWERS, Solomon MARTIN.

    It was in the third Academy, under David PRENTICE as principal, afterwards professor of the Greek and Latin in Geneva (now Hobart) College, that among other names the roll bears those of Horatio SEYMOUR, sometime Governor of the State; John W. ALLEN, who in 1840 was Postmaster General under the first Harrison; Ward HUNT, who afterwards sat upon the bench of the Supreme Court of the nation; Joseph G. MASTEN, who was a Judge of the Superior Court of Buffalo; Charlemagne TOWER, whose name was familiar in the world of business and finance; Ferris FORMAN, who was afterwards graduated at West Point, and was in the war with Mexico, and reached honorable rank in the army; Henry W. ROGERS, a leading lawyer and popular citizen of Buffalo, and prominent in political life; and Henry R. MYGATT, who, during nearly forty years of able and honorable practice of the law in Oxford, was the liberal citizen, the steadfast patron and friend of the Academy, adding to her strength and usefulness by his willing service, wise counsel and constant benefactions. Of those who were with them at school, Hon. Frederick JULIAND of Greene, Mrs. Elizabeth (HOPKINS) NEWKIRK and Mr. Alanson HULL of this town, were the last survivors. Horatio SEYMOUR as a schoolboy was known as "Pompey" SEYMOUR, a nickname he brought with him from the circumstance of his birth place being in Pompey, Onondaga County. He was tall of his age, figure in just proportion, brilliant black eyes, straight as an arrow, and graceful in every move. In athletic exercises he was ahead of his companions, and in his studies was always perfect. Every Wednesday afternoon was declamation, and he was the orator par excellence that others tried to imitate. His favorite piece was the speech of Robert Emmet, in his own defense before the English court that condemned him. He had other declamations, but the students always were delighted when he spoke and acted this piece.

    The fourth school building, dedicated January 2, 1832, was erected on the easterly side of Fort Hill, opposite the Baptist church, and was far in advance of any before in its architecture and fitness for school purposes. It was surmounted with a dome to which a new bell was added, which is still in use to summon students to duty. What a long array of students in succession have heeded it calling them to their tasks! How many have heard its glad welcome to entertainment and festival and anniversary! How sweetly, may be sadly, its sweet tones have vibrated in the young, brave hearts of some on battle fields, while they thought of the severed ties of dear kinship and tender association never perchance to be renewed on this side the veil!

    In this building a separate apartment for girls was first instituted under a preceptress, the gentler sex having until then been wholly under the training of the principal and his male assistants. The school now entered upon a career of great prosperity and wider usefulness, under the mastership of Merritt G. McKOON, and Miss Emily C. BENEDICT, the first female instructress ever employed for the school. The employment of a female teacher was a subject of grave consideration, for, at a meeting March 12, 1830, it was resolved "That Messrs. VANDERLYN, TRACY, and CLAPP be a committee to examine and report on the expediency of establishing a female branch to the Academy." As the committee were all lawyers, their report in favor of the employment seemed to put at rest as least every legal objection that could be urged against it.

    John ABBOTT succeeded Mr. McKOON, and in no equal term of life has its patronage been so wide spread as during their principalship, covering a period of over twenty years. It reached quite beyond mere local limits and gathered students not only from other and distant sections of this State, but from those adjoining east, west and south. The catalogue of 1840 had three hundred and ten names, and within fifteen years 3000 different students had been in attendance at the school

    The fifth and last school building erected by the Trustees of Oxford Academy, stood upon the site of the present Union Free School. It was longer in service, and more students have gone out from it, than from any that preceded it. Its dedication August 1 and 2, 1854, called together an assemblage of vast proportion, the second of which is in book form and familiar to many. Of the men who shared the labors and duties of that occasion, nearly all have gone beyond the great divide. Joseph G. THORP, the last survivor of the trustees is at rest in the Riverview Cemetery. Of those who took part in the literary exercises, Miss Lucy A. BALCOM and Rev. Daniel WASHBURN, each of whom contributed an ode, are with the great majority beyond. Of the local committee which had in hand the general care and direction of the celebration none are living.

    The writer, who was then in his fifth year, distinctly remembers but one event at the Jubilee. The assembly, seated on rough benches, filled the yard facing the building, and the Oxford Band was present to assist in the musical part of the programme. We were too young to be left at home alone, nor could we be fostered upon the neighbors, for they, too, were at the Jubilee. So, hand in hand with our maternal parent, we joined the jubilant throng. All was well till half of the programme was finished, then came a selection from the Band. It was our first experience with a Band, and we rather like it until the bass drummer loudly struck his instrument, then the serenity of the occasion was amusingly diverted by the sudden dive we made under the benches. Caraway sprigs and peppermint sticks could not dispell our fears nor prevail upon us to come forth until the selection was finished. Then, with tearful eye, we were taken from the scene to the TIMES office, and left to be called for at the close of the afternoon exercises.

    The fourth Academy, which had stood on the east side of Fort Hill, was moved during the summer of 1854, and placed near the river and the new school building, and used as a boarding house for teachers and students. Here Merrit G. McKOON, first principal in the fourth building, died very suddenly November 28, 1954. After years of service elsewhere he had come back in the full vigor and ripe experience of manhood, with high, fond hope of the future, to take again the principalship of the school in the new Academy. His burial from the same building where he had with such zeal and devotion entered upon a new career of useful and honorable service, was well and fitly ordered by the trustees. At his death the roll contained the names of one hundred and ninety-nine students committed to his care.

    Of those who followed Mr. McKOON as principal, the longest term of service, extending beyond ten years, was that of David G. BARBER, beloved by all of his students. It was during the early part of this period, that more than sixty, who had been or were then students of Oxford Academy, went forward to the defense of the Republic against armed rebellion. Some of these closed their school books and came not back again. Edward S. BRAGG, a student of 1844, who was breveted a general for meritorious services and afterwards made minister for the United States to Mexico, was early in the list. A beautiful bronze tablet, figured in low relief of the schoolboy and the young soldier, attracts the eye as one enters the Academy hall, and bears the inscription:

CENTENNIAL TABLET

1794-1894

    Erected in Commemoration of the Patriotic Action of the Students of Oxford Academy who, in 1861-1865, voluntarily periled their lives in defense of the Union and the Flag. A tribute of Perpetual Remembrance and undying honor by the Trustees, Teachers, Students and Friends of Oxford Academy in Centennial Celebration assembled, in June 28-29, 1894.

    The Centennial of Oxford Academy, June 28 and 29, 1894, brought together men and women from far and near, erstwhile teachers and students, to hear kindly words of welcome, and speak, heart to heart, glad centennial greetings. It was an event that is faithfully recorded in a book compiled by the late Major O. H. CURTIS, which will have added interest and value with the passing years.

    Following is the succession of principals: Uri TRACY, 1793, '04; Elisha MOSLEY, 1795; John KINNEY, 1807; Rev. Wm. HYDE, 1808; David PRENTICE,(1) 1821; Wm. D. BEATTIE, 1825; Rev. Edward ANDREWS, 1826; Wm. B. BEATTIE, 1828; Merritt G. McKOON, 1832; John ABBOTT, 1843; Myron M. GOODENOUGH, 1852; Chas. E. VANDERBURGH, 1852; Abel WOOD, 1853, William WIGHT, 1854; Merritt G. McKOON, 1854, until his death; Frederick HUMPHREY, 1854; J. .C. VanBENSCHOTEN, 1856; H. BARNES, Jr., 1858; David G. BARBER, 1859-70; Henry E. STORRS, 1870; Herbert J. BOOK, 1870; Rev. Charles WOODWARD, 1872; Charles W. BROWN, 1872; Warren C. HUBBARD, 1872-73; Rev. Frank B. LEWIS, 1873; James A. BROWN, 1879; Frank D. BUDLONG, 1883; Frederick L. GAMAGE, 1885; Herbert P. GALLINGER, 1893; William C. JOSLIN, 1895; R. H. COE, 1896; Robert K. TOAZ, 1899; E. M. SANDERS, 1906.

    Oxford Academy, having rounded out its century of prosperity, gracefully retired as a private academy and became merged in the free school system under the name of Oxford Academy and Union School. The new building, of brick with Oxford blue stone trimmings, was erected at a cost of $20,000. The building was formally opened September 7, 1897, with appropriate ceremonies. Addresses were made by Hon. Charles W. BROWN, principal, , Reginald H. COE, and Hon. Charles R. SKINNER, Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State.

    David Prentice, LL. D., though far advanced in years, was in 1855 teaching in Geneva, N. Y. On Christmas day of that year he received the gift of $500 from five of his former Oxford pupils. The donors were ex-Governor Seymour and Judge Hunt of Utica; Judge Martin and Henry W. Rogers, Esq., of Buffalo, and Henry R. Mygatt of Oxford.


In this grand wheel, the world, we're spokes made all. --- BROME.

HULL Family.

____________

    The first record of the Hull family is of Benjamin Hull and his wife Amy of Connecticut. He was impressed in the British army during the Revolutionary war, and never heard from. His wife died at the age of one hundred years, five months and twenty-five days.

    Their son, John Hull, married Martha PARDEE. Their children were: Eli, Eliasaph, Elijah, John, Ebenezer and Rosa.

    John Hull, son of John and Martha (PARDEE) Hull, was born April 21, 1771; died September 4, 1864, in Oxford; married July 2, 1797, Hannah WOOD, born May 14, 1778; died January 16, 1845, in Oxford. In 1798, when he was 27 years old, Mr. Hull, accompanied by his wife, left North Haven, Ct., and settled upon the land now known as the William HOGAN farm, about two miles south of Oxford village. He found a wilderness never before inhabited, and lived to see the opening and settling of all the vast territory of Central New York, for over sixty- years of a busy life was before him when he came to his new home. He lived to see cultivated farms, thriving villages and teeming cities take the place of the unbroken wilderness he first knew. Children: SALLY, born July 10, 1798; died in Pitcher, N. Y.; married Levi POST; ELI, born November 21, 1799; died in Clinton, N. Y.; RILEY, born August 11, 1801; died in Chautauqua, N. Y.; SAMUEL, born April 12, 1803; died in Stockbridge, N. Y.; CLARK, born December 3, 1804; died in Owego, N. Y.; ZERAH, born January 8, 1807; died October 30, 1841, in Ann Arbor, Mich.; twice married. Children by first wife: Sabra C., born September 9, 1831, in Otselic; married October 1847, Dr. Tracy S. CONE; died February 3, 1902, in South Oxford; Sarah C., married ---- GREENE of Grand Rapids, Mich. Child by second wife: Zerah. HARRY, born July 6, 1809; died January 30, 1902, in Afton; married (1) Amelia PENDLETON; died March 18,1864, in Oxford; married (2) Abbie COOK. Children by first wife: Harriet, married (1) Peter G. BRINK; married (2) P. E. GOLDEN of Varna, Thompkins county, N. Y.; HENRY P., married (1) Mary C. ROUSH; married (2) Dora M. LESLIE; resides at Kendrick, Idaho; SARAH J., died April 18, 1874, aged 25, at Knob Noster, Mo.; unmarried. HARRIET, twin to Harry; married ---- ADAMS of Owego, N. Y.; JOHN, born September 20, 1811; lived and died in Guilford, N. Y.; married Eliza BOLLES. Children: William H. H., residence in New York city; John died in Norwich, N. Y.; Mary, married Eugene BUNNELL of New York city. ELIASAPH, born July 21, 1813; died August 14, 1872, in Oxford; married June 25, 1848, Ellen GOODRICH of Avon, Conn., died December 11, 1906, at Germantown, Pa. Child: Ella M., married Nathan A. BUNDY, resides in Philadelphia.

    Ebenezer Hull, son of John and Martha (PARDEE) Hull and his wife Bedee JACOBS, were married January 2, 1803, at North Haven, Conn. They came to Oxford in 1804 and settled on the East Hill on the farm now occupied and owned by their son, James H. Hull. Coming to this town at an early day they were among the pioneers of Chenango county. On July 24, 1849, Mr. Hull, while engaged in the field accidently fell from a load of hay, receiving injuries from which he died almost instantly. His age was 73. For thirty-five years he was a communicant of St. Paul's church. Mrs. Hull died February 24, 1844, aged 64. Children: LEVI, 1st, born April 23, 1804, in Connecticut, died in infancy; ALANSON, born May 21, 1806, in Oxford; died February 3, 1905, in Oxford; married (1) May 26, 1828, Wealthy WARNER of Jackson, Washington county, N. Y., who died December 28, 1863; married (2) September 15, 1868, , Betsey (HALE) TULLY of Norwich, who died March 1, 1875. Alanson Hull was Justice of the Peace for several years, and lived seventy-five years upon the farm he purchased in 1830. He was at one time postmaster, with the office at his home, which was called Oxfordville. At his death he was the oldest communicant of St. Paul's church and the oldest person in town. Children by first wife: Edwin A., (1) married Martha MERRILL; married (2) Mary Ann HATCH; resides at Hinsdale, Cattaraugus county, N. Y.; Joseph J., married Sarah M. MEAD; Sarah E., married (1) Israel JACOBS; married (2) A. J. ACKLEY; resides on the homestead; Martha W., married John W. MANNING of Coventry. EBENEZER, born June 4, 1809, in Oxford; died July 24, 1887, in Oxford; unmarried; LEVI 2d, born February 14, 1814, died unmarried; JAMES HENRY, born November --, 1825; married Jane E. KINNEY, who died December 8, 1898, aged 72.

    Elijah Hull, son of John and Martha (PARDEE) Hull, married Nancy BLAKESLEE. Their children were: William, Willis, Philemon, and Mary, who died young.

    Willis Hull, son of Elijah and Nancy (BLAKESLEE) Hull, died February 10, 1895, in North Haven, Ct., aged 76; married Emily BRADLEY, who died January 14, 1899, in Oxford, aged 83. For many years they resided in Oxford on the farm now owned and occupied by James BURKE, on the road to the O. & W. station. Children: LAVINA B., married James O. DODGE of Oxford; MARGARET A., married J. Boardman SMITH, of New Haven, Ct.; died September 20, 1862. Child: Arthur H. SMITH, resides in New York city.

____________________

    In 1832 the McDonough Mineral Springs were extensively advertised and well patronized. Gideon MINER had charge of the hotel at one time and later he conducted for Oxford Academy the gentlemen's boarding hall, now Morton flats. There were a happy lot of boys in the hall at that time, and they kept the genial boarding house manager busy guessing what was going to happen next.

    G. D. PHILLIPS ran a line of stages from Oxford to the Springs every Friday afternoon, and carried many jolly loads of health and pleasure seekers during the season.

____________________

    ALAMANZER WATSON one of the early harness makers had a sign on his shop on Fort Hill which read: "Cash Paid for Dekin Skins." One day C. F. T. LOCKE hailed Mr. Watson with "Say, Alamanzer, what are you paying for dekin skins?" "Twenty-five cents," was the answer. "Good," said Locke, "I'll go and skin every deacon in my church and send you the hides." The deacons of Mr. Locke's church would have been something of a curiosity, even unskinned.

____________________

    It must have been an open winter in 1851, for on December 15th it is recorded that a boat loaded with merchandise arrived on the canal from the north.


For he by geometric scale,
Could take the size of pots of ale. --- BUTLER.

Old Tavern Days.

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    The earlier taverns were not the comfortable institutions of today for there were but few travelers. The rooms were low studded, with great beams overhead, the floors hard oak boards white, smooth and well "sanded." The important feature of the inn was the barroom, with the quart pots, pint pots, gill pots, glass bottles, tankards and its cavernous fireplace, on which huge logs crackled in winter time as the smoke ascended the mammoth chimney. Around the room were big, comfortable chairs, red settees, and a huge bunk wherein the hostler slept at night and on which the village loafer generally roosted during the day, and by the fireplace hung the "flip iron" a necessary adjunct in the days when flip was a popular tipple. Near the bar was a standing desk, with a lid, on which stood an ink horn, quill pens and sandbox. In the desk was kept the account book which recorded the debt of delinquent tipplers and accounts of the tavern. The following gives an idea of the cost to a guest at the "Oxford Village Stage House" "for a day's keep," being a copy of a bill rendered in 1821:

Mr. Jackson Bill
Breakfast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$ 0.31
Dinner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.25
Supper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0.25
Brandy Wine & Segars . . . . .0.19
Lodging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0.13
Horse keeping and Oats. . . . . 0.50

    Handbills were tacked to the walls, advertising stolen horses, runaway apprentices and stage lines; the gorgeous show bill was then unknown. Here is a copy of one of the old Stage House bills:

    The landlord enjoyed the right to sell liquors and in those early days all classes indulged in the practice of drinking; in moderation to be sure, but as often as occasion demanded. The landlord was an important personage, his name was conspicuous over the door, or on the sign, and he usually looked after the comfort of his guests without putting himself to any great trouble. He had a penchant for public office and himself sang bass in the choir on Sunday. His rotund figure was conspicuous on election days, well dressed though always appearing in his shirt sleeves. He was the village oracle and able to discuss politics, theology and science, to at least his own satisfaction.

    The landlady was usually the one who toiled early and late. The polished and well sanded floor, immaculate window panes, clean blue china, and savory dishes, attested her care. She and her daughter officiated in the dining room, and were famous for their wonderful dumplings with potato crusts. Chickens were plenty, likewise fresh vegetables from the tavern garden. Then there was the appetizing baked beans, warm brown bread, succotash, rye cakes, and pandowdy. Ale, usually home brewed, cider and black tea were poured from pewter flagons. The water, clear and cold, was drawn from a well by a "sweep." At supper, among the prime favorites, were hot ginger bread, Johnny-cake, delicious waffles and mush and milk. People in those primitive times were not particular and were willing to sleep under any arrangements, so long as they got shelter. It was usual to have two or three beds in a room, and it was a common occurrence for the landlord to enter, candle in hand, the room of a guest, and escort a stranger to his side to calmly share the bed till morning, sometimes three sharing one bed, and a man was regarded as very unreasonable who objected to a stranger for a bedfellow. If the night was cold, a warming pan would be passed over the sheets and the guest was left to the consolation of a feather bed and patch work quilts, and considered himself fortunate if he was not compelled to share his quarters with one or more guests. If the tavern was crowded then one had to sleep before the open fire, rolled up in a bear skin robe, while the great logs in the black fireplace became white ashes.

    Many of the old taverns had an assembly hall on the upper floor, and here fair maidens and ruddy-faced youths enjoyed the contra dances to the music of a violin. Balls commenced at four o'clock and often lasted until next morning.

    The original portion of what is now the Hotchkiss House was built previous to 1796 and for many years known as Wells' Tavern. The house was of typical New England architecture, two stories in front, sloping toward the rear until a man could touch the eaves, and was painted red. Behind the tavern was a large shed with roof and open sides for the protection from rain of snow or loaded wagons.

    One November afternoon there gathered at the tavern several of the townspeople for the pot of extra-brew and the long clay pipes, called church-wardens. Among those present were; Anson CARY, in broadcloth and expensive shirt front; Eleazer SMITH, tall and lank; John FITCH, wearing a tile hat and stiff black stock; Josiah HACKETT, in continental suit; John HOLMES and Jared HINCKLEY in homespun; all patriots of the Revolution. It was at these gatherings that fell many of the epigrams which were recalled years after. On this particular day the subject of conversation finally drifted to the Continental army and its officers. John Fitch spoke up and said:

    "Well, pint of ale, please, and a churchwarden." Then shifting in his chair, continued: "Speaking of Benedict Arnold, although rendered infamous by his attempt to betray his country --"

    "Rabbit ye, an' be darn'd!" broke in Josiah Hackett, "hold your gab there, old Arnold was a traitor and brought up all standing."

    "Yes, yes," replied Fitch, but I want to say some things about him that I know. I was at the second battle at Freeman's Farm, where the British were totally defeated by Arnold, who had charged them with mad fury upon their line. During the battle a wounded Hessian soldier, lying on the ground, fired at Arnold and slew his horse, while the ball passed through the general's left leg that had already been wounded, and fractured the bone above the knee. As Arnold fell, one of our men attempted to bayonet the wounded soldier who had shot him, when the general cried out, "For God's sake, don't hurt him; he's a fine fellow!" The Hessian was spared, and I have always said that was the time Benedict Arnold should have died."

    "Oh, that old sneezer!" again put in Hackett. "I've heard when he was dressed up the bottom of his waist was pinched up to the size of a quart cup; that he wore eleven capes to his coat, and over the place where his brains should have been a jockey cap of catskin, and carried a mock gold watch with two seals, each as big as a premium turnip."

    "He wasn't quite such a fop as that," said John Holmes, knocking the ashes from his pipe, "but I have heard that before his death in England he was shunned and depised by even the English."

    After a general filling and lighting of pipes and a round of ale, Jared Hinckley got into a reminiscent mood and related one of his experiences:

    "If ever I struck hell upon earth it was the battle of Oriskany, fought in a dark ravine filled with a mass of fifteen hundred human beings, made up with St. Leger and his Indians and loyalists, and General Herkimer with 800 hundred prisoners; all screaming and cursing, slipping in the mire, pushing and struggling, seizing each other's throats, stabbing and shooting, and dashing out brains. It was a sight that will never leave my eyes. General Herkimer had unconsciously marched into an ambuscade, but his men soon recovered and fought with the courage and skill of veterans. The slaughter, however was dreadful. At the beginning of the battle a musket ball passed through and killed the horse of General HERKIMER and shattered his own leg just below the knee. With perfect composure and cool courage, he ordered the saddle to be taken from his slaughtered horse and placed against the trunk of an immense tree, where he was carried and propped up. After lighting his Dutch pipe he continued in a loud voice shouting orders to his men who were falling like autumn leaves. But the old hero had fought his last battle, for his shattered leg was not skillfully treated and he died ten days later, propped up in bed, smoking his pipe and reading his Bible at the thirty-eighth Psalm."

    "It was after this battle that the first American flag with stars and stripes was raised," remarked Anson CARY.

    "Yes, indeed," replied HINCKLEY, "though a crude affair it was."

    "How so?" asked Eleazer SMITH, who, though a good listener, seldom spoke.

    "Well, I'll tell you. Not a great while before this battle Congress had adopted the stars and stripes as the National symbol of American liberty. Colonel WILLETT returned to Fort Stanwix and raised five captured British standards, while over them he raised a hastily made flag to represent the American banner. It was made out of an officer's white shirt, an old blue overcoat, and some strips of red cloth from the petticoat of a soldier's wife. And that was the first American flag with stars and stripes hoisted."

    "Well," exclaimed Josiah HACKETT, "the English rigermadoons scampered along through mud and mire to get out o' sight of it; but it still waves over our land, and will till time is no more."

    "Well said, Josiah" spoke up John Holmes. "We'll take a final sip and go home, the hour is getting late."

    The old soldiers, who had enjoyed fighting their battles over, retired, Josiah bringing up the rear, and as he closed the door marched off singing:

"Yankee doodle, ramrods, guns,
Pikes and pistols handy ---
We're the true descendant sons
Of Yankee doodle dandy."

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    STEPHEN O. RUNYAN was practicing law in Oxford previous to 1799 and continued till his death, which occurred April 23, 1820, at the age of 48. He came from New York and his office stood on Washington Park, at the head of which he resided. It was destroyed by fire in July, 1823. He was distinguished for his charity and benevolence, and his whole life was characterized by a devotion to acts of public munificence. He was popular with the people, and his mind was richly stored with anecdotes, which he was fond of relating. His wife died June 5, 1860, at Cortland, N. Y.

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    A DISTILLERY was located for many years opposite the residence of Alpha MORSE. One dollar in those days would fill a three-gallon keg straight from the worm. Immense quantities of corn were converted into whisky and numerous porkers were fatted on the malt, being kept thereby in a blissful state of booziness from the day they reached the distillery yard until they were dumped into the scalding kettle. Many a boy was sent to the distillery for whisky to be used in refreshing the minister on his yearly calls.


A merchant of great traffic through the world. --- SHAKESPEARE.

Captain Samuel Farnham.

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    Captain Samuel Farnham, born in New London, Conn., December 16, 1775, came to Oxford in 1799 and opened a drug and general merchandise store in a story and a half frame building which stood on the site of William M. MILLER's store. He is the first merchant of whom we have any record, though it is probable that General Benjamin HOVEY opened a store soon after coming here. Captain Farnham continued the business until his death, which occurred on April 20, 1822, at the age of 47. He was associated for two years, from 1807, with Epaphras MILLER.

    Captain Farnham received his military title from his connection with the first artillery company in town, organized and commanded by him, receiving his commission from Governor Morgan LEWIS, who was elected to the governship in 1804.

    In 1800 Captain Farnham was united in marriage to Sally, daughter of Henry BALCOM, and sister of Francis and Samuel Balcom. Soon after their marriage they went to housekeeping on Clinton street, in a house long afterwards the home of Horace S. READ, which stood on the site of the residence of E. A. PEARSALL, where they died.

    Mrs. Farnham reared to manhood a family of six sons, and died February 16, 1859, in the 79th year of her age. Two sons, within the same year preceded her to the grave. Four children, Epaphras M., Julia A., Charles E., and Sarah D., died in infancy.

    Pictures of Farnham house, Clinton street (present residence of J. L. RUMSEY, Columbia street; The Old Feeder Dam; Old McKOON residence and law office (site of residence of Harvey MORTON and S. H. MEAD); Stage house in the sixties (now HOTCHKISS house).

    George Farnham succeeded his father in the mercantile business, and after trading a few years sold his interest to his brother John. In 1841 he removed to New York and became interested in the Chenango Lake Boat Line which transported merchandise to and from New York. He died suddenly in that city on the 3d of February, 1859, in the 59th year of his age. Married Susan, eldest child of Thomas GIBSON. Child: Susan Elizabeth Gibson, born in 1826, married Ransom BALCOM.

    Dr. John P. Farnham after purchasing the mercantile business of his brother George, carried it on some five years when he disposed of it to Dr. CLEVELAND in 1829, and established a hardware store on the lot now occupied by the residence of Francis G. CLARKE. In 1833 he moved to Carbondale, Penn., and for many years practiced his profession, but afterwards embarked in the mercantile and lumber business. He died at Carbondale in February, 1871, and had long been a prominent citizen of that place.

    Alexander Farnham died at Honesdale, Penn., April 19, 1858, aged 50.

    Frederick W. Farnham made his residence at White Mills, Penn.

    Samuel H. Farnham was a life long resident of Oxford and for many years conducted a jeweler's business, which he carried on for a few years, and having purchased a portion of the Fort Hill block, he entered into the grocery and fancy goods line, at the same time carrying on his trade of silversmith. In February, 1855, Mr. Farnham was appointed Canal collector in this town, and in September, 1861, with other members of the Oxford Band left for the seat of war to form part of the Regimental Band of the Anderson Zouaves, but remained but a few months on account of ill health. He was a possessor of an extensive and interesting cabinet of curiosities, many of which were ancient and valuable, and was also fond of pets, usually having a variety on exhibition at his store. He died July 21, 1887, in the 75th year of his age.

____________________

His fame was great in all the land. --- LONGFELLOW.

Joseph Walker.

____________

    Joseph Walker was born in the year 1796 at Pittsfield, Mass., and in 1817 married Mary HAMILTON of Binghamton, coming to Oxford the same year. He engaged in the tannery business with William MYGATT, later entering the boot and shoe business on Navy Island, which he conducted for years. He also owned and worked a farm about half a mile above the village, which he sold to his brother-in-law, Milo PORTER. Mr. Walker devoted much time to the study of astronomy and sent to London, England, for two mammoth globes to persue his studies, and later presented them to Oxford Academy. He was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and was one of the founders of Oxford Lodge, No. 175, Free & Accepted Masons. He was one of the few who saw Oxford grow from a small hamlet into a beautiful village. Mr. Walker died April 1, 1870. His wife, who was born in 1799, died in 1874 at Clayton, Mich. Their only child, Mary, married May 15, 1855, Jacob RHEINWALD of Oxford, who with Mr. Walker at one time conducted a brewery in the rear of Mr. Walker's residence, which stood on the site of Dr. DOUGLAS' residence on Washington Park. In 1876, they moved to Bouckville, Madison county, where they have since resided.


Who'er has travell'd life's dull round, Where'er his stages may have been; May sigh to think he still has found The warmest welcome at an inn. --- SHENSTONE.

Erastus Perkins.

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    Erastus Perkins, born January 18, 1778, was the eldest child of Captain Erastus and Anna (GLOVER) Perkins of Norwich, Conn., where he spent his early life. In 1799 he came to Oxford, then a two weeks' journey, in company with his wife, Abigail STEPHENS, whose father, Alvin Stephens, subsequently lived on the farm now owned and occupied by Nathan PENDLETON. Mr. Perkins remained in Oxford one season and then went to Deposit, N. Y., where he built the first frame house in that town. His business there was lumbering and rafting, but the population was too rough to suit him and he returned to Oxford in 1801, where his life was chiefly spent in mercantile pursuits. Soon after his return he built the Park Hotel on the east side of the river, which he kept till 1822. It was afterwards kept by his brother, Captain James Perkins to 1837 and then by his son, Alvin S., as late as 1850. The hotel during the following years underwent several changes until about 1900, when it was newly remodled (sic) and enlarged. On the night of October 28, 1903, it was so badly damaged by fire that it ceased to be a hotel.

    The earliest town meeting noted in the "Book of the Town Clerk" for 1814, was held at the house of Erastus Perkins. In 1815, '16 and '18, he was one of the seven pound keepers and fence viewers, "their yards to be the pounds." In 1821, '22 and '23 he was one of three commissioners of common schools. In 1822 he built a house and it was "voted at the next Town Meeting to be held at the new Dwelling House of Erastus Perkins." In 1838 he was again commissioner of schools. In 1814 he subscribed $10 to Rev. William LACEY's salary as rector. In 1815 he subscribed $50 to the first building of St. Paul's church in the center of Fort Hill square, and August 16, of that year, he with John TRACY were appointed building committee of said building. February 28, 1850, he was elected senior warden in place of Austin HYDE, deceased. He had charge of the VAN WAGENEN burial ground almost to the time of his death. A man of fine character, interested in church and school, liberal in proportion to his means, and in politics a Whig. Mr. Perkins died May 30, 1852. His first wife, Abigail Stephens, died January 31, 1815, aged 34. His second wife was the Widow Ursula ALLEN of Connecticut, who died January 2, 1821, aged 41. She had two children by her first husband, the Hon. John W. ALLEN, and the wife of Judge ANDREWS of Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Perkins third wife was Agnes VAN WAGENEN, daughter of Gerrit H. and Sarah (BRINCKERHOFF) Van Wagenen of Oxford, who died February 13, 1868, aged 80. Children by first wife: ERASTUS S., died March 12, 1882, in Houston, Tex., aged 70; married Eunice BUTLER, who died June 7, 1861, in Houston; ALVIN S., died October 7, 1872, in Houston, aged 64; married Frances, daughter of Jabez ROBINSON of South Oxford, and moved to Houston in 1857, where she died of yellow fever October 19, 1859; LEONARD S., married Harriet BENNETT, and died in Houston October 22, 1859; GURDON, died April 15, 1873 in Oxford, aged 61; married Frances A. SQUIRES; ANN MARIA, married Colonel Joseph JULIAND of Greene; died June 1, 1860, in Greene, aged 56; JANE E., married Dr. Austin ROUSE of Oxford.

    Children by his third wife: SARAH A., born August 31, 1824, in Oxford; married May 19, 1852, James W. GLOVER of Oxford; FRANCES B., born October 19, 1827, in Oxford; married November 30, 1849, Andrew J. HULL of Oxford; GERRIT HENRY, born June 24, 1826, at Oxford; married June 26, 1856, Frances WILLCOX of Honesdale, Pa.

    Gerrit Henry Perkins, died March 26 1900, in New York city. On May 8, 1854, soon after his father's death, Mr. Perkins became a vestryman of St. Paul's church, Oxford, and at a subsequent meeting was elected clerk, which position he held till June, 1890. He received his education at Oxford Academy, after which he read law in the office of Henry R. MYGATT and was admitted to the bar, practicing but a few years. About 1852 he went into partnership with Henry L. MILLER in a general mercantile business in the store now occupied by William M. Miller. After a period of nearly two years they removed to the Fort Hill building, then vacated by the firm of Chapman & Thorp. A number of years later they removed to the store first occupied by them on LaFayette square. The firm was changed to Miller, Perkins & Co. upon admission of William M. Miller, and so continued till 1890. Upon the organization of the Chenango Mutual Life Insurance company in 1881, he was elected president and took out the first policy of the company, holding the office till the time he left Oxford. Mr. Perkins was a member of Oxford Lodge, No. 175, F. & A. M., and for many years trustee of the same. Also one of the board of directors of the First National Bank of Oxford; trustee of Oxford Academy for a long term of years, and trustee of village and president of the board. He moved from Oxford in 1890 and entered into the brokerage and insurance business in New York city, where he remained till the time of his death. Children, all born in Oxford:

    ROBERT WALTON, born September 29, 1861; died March 25, 1891, in Denver, Col.; married July 25, 1888, Lucy JUSTICE in Oxford. Child: Mildred. SARAH VAN WAGENEN; married September 9, 1890, in Oxford, Frank Forester BRUCE of Cleveland, Ohio. Children: Alice and ----. ALICE M., married June 23, 1896, in New York city, Dr. Luzerne COVILLE of Ithaca. Child: Perkins. AGNES F., unmarried.

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    HORACE S. READ, son of Silas Read of Smithville Flats, was born in 1817. Mr. Read succeeded his father in the mercantile business, which he carried on for a few years, in the meantime he was postmaster four years. In 1851 was elected County Clerk, at the expiration of the term came to Oxford in 1854 and entered into the drug business with James H. FOX, which partnership was dissolved in 1863, Mr. Read retiring in 1868. He was a man of pleasing address and social disposition. Mr. Read married Flora GRANT of Smithville Flats, now deceased. He died January 23, 1886, aged 69.

    Their children were: VIRGIL C., married in Michigan; F. LOUISE, married Edward BARDLEY.

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    PETER B. GARNSEY, now spelled GUERNSEY, was born in New Lebanon, N. Y. He studied law in the office of Chancellor WALWORTH and was admitted as an attorney in 1798, and as a counsellor in 1800. His wife was Mary SPEIRS, whom he married at New Lebanon, on Christmas Day, 1797, by whom he had four children. Soon after his marriage he came to Oxford where he engaged in the practice of his profession until about 1800, when he removed to Norwich. He, with Nathaniel KING, represented Chenango County in the State Assembly in 1800.


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