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Annals of New Netherland
1609-1674

1609
Henry Hudson discovers the North river, or the River of the Mountains, September 3rd, and anchors near the site of the present City of Albany. July 30, Lake Champlain discovered. The Iroquois defeated some days after by Champlain near Crown Point.

1610
Another Dutch vessel visits the River of the Mountains, now called the River Mauritius, in honor of Prince Maurice of Nassau.

1612
Various vessels trade along the River Mauritius.

1613
Huts constructed on Manhattan Island and the yacht Restless built there.

1614
Fort Nassau erected on an island immediately south of the present city of Albany. The name of New Netherland first given to the country. Long Island Sound explored by Adrian Block and the Connecticut river discovered.

1615
Champlain discovers Lake Ontario, and defeats the Iroquois south of it.

1620
Puritans in Holland apply for permission to emigrate to New Netherland which is refused. Captain Thomas Dermer, an English navigator, visits Manhattan Island.

1621
Dutch West India Company incorporated: New Netherland included within its charter. Adriaen Joris Director, or Governor.

1623
Colonization of New Netherland commenced. Fort Orange built. Fort Nassau erected on the east shore of the Delaware river. The Dutch take possession of the Connecticut river. Settlement of Long Island begun.

1624
Cornelis Jacobsen May, Director.

1625
William Verhulst, Director. Horses, Cows, Sheep and Swine arrive from Holland.

1626
Peter Minuit, Director. Fort Amsterdam on the Island of Manhattan, founded. Erection of a place of worship commenced on that Island.

1627
Trade opened between New Netherland and New Plymouth.

1628
Population of Manhattan Island, two hundred and seventy souls. First Clergyman arrives there.

1629
Charter to Patroons granted.

1630
Patroons' Colonies or Manors founded. Slavery established. Settlement of Rensselaerswyck commenced. Staten Island and Pavonia purchased.

1632
Swanendael Colonie on the Delaware, cut off by the Indians.

1633
Wouter Van Twiller, Director. First Schoolmaster arrives. Trade opened with Virginia. First English ship called the William of London, ascends the Hudson River. Fort Good Hope on the Connecticut completed. A wooden Church erected at Manhattan.

1635
Long Island conveyed to Lord Stirling. The English intrude on the Connecticut river. Fort Amsterdam completed.

1636
New Amersfoort, now Flatlands, Long Island, founded.

1637
Settlements in Westchester and at the Waal-boght commenced.

1638
William Kieft, Director. Inspection laws introduced. Swedes settle on the Delaware and build Fort Christina. The Dutch Governor protests against the intrusion. Quit rents introduced in New Netherland.

1639
First grant of land in the present town of Gravesend Long Island.

1640
Indian title to lands on Long Island, west of Oysterbay, extinguished. The English attempt a settlement on that Island under a grant from Lord Stirling, and are expelled. His Lordship's agent arrested. Free Colonies established.

1641
Settlement of Staten Island commenced. Wampum the general currency. Meeting of the Twelve Men convoked. Peter Minuit dies.

1642
The Twelve Men dissolved. War against the Weckquaeskecks, (or Westchester county) Indians. Newtown patent issued. Throg's Neck and adjoining lands granted. Erection of a stone Church in New Amsterdam commenced. English expelled from the South, or Delaware river. First clergyman at Rensselaerswyck and Fort Orange. Father Jogues captured by the Mohawks.

1643
War with the Indians around Manhattan Island. Great destruction of lives and property. The life of the Director General threatened. the Eight Men elected. Father Jogues escapes from the Mohawks. first Church at Fort Orange, or Beverwyck (now Albany). Sir Edmund Plowden lays claims to the territory forming the present State of New Jersey.

1644
Hempstead, Long Island, planted. John Underhill defeats the Westchester Indians. Peace concluded with several Indian tribes. First Excise laws enacted. Patroon of Rensselaerswyck fortifies Beeren Island, opposite Coeymans, and attempts to levy toll on vessels passing up and down the Mauritius, or Hudson River; consequent conflicting jurisdiction.

1645
General peace with the Indians. Indian title to what is now New Utrecht, Long Island, extinguished. Settlement of Flushing commenced. Town of Gravesend erected.

1646
Adriaen van der Donck founds a colonie near Spyt den Duyvel, under the name of Colendonk. Yonkers is so called after this Patroon. Patent issued for Kattskill. Breuckelen incorporated. Lake Saint Sacrament (now Lake George) discovered and explored by Father Jogues, S. J., who is afterwards murdered by the Mohawks. The land on which Philadelphia now stands, purchased by the Dutch.

1647
Peter Stuyvesant, Director. Estimated population of the Province 2,000. Church at New Amsterdam finished. Cornelis Melyn and Jochem Pietersen Kuyter, members of the former board of Eight men, prosecuted for opposing and complaining of the previous administration, heavily fined and banished. Shipwreck of the Princess, Ex-Director Kieft, Rev. Mr. Bogardus, Attorney General van der Huygens, and a number of others drowned. The Board of Nine Men appointed. Houses in New Amsterdam built of wood and thatched with straw. Influenza prevails throughout the country. Lady Stirling's agent arrested and sent to Holland. A Dutch ship seized at New Haven and brought to Manhattan.

1648
Fire Department and an Annual Fair established in New Amsterdam. Mission to Holland to represent the State of the Province proposed.

1649
General discontent. Papers of the Nine Men seized and Adriaen van der Donck, their President, imprisoned. Proceedings against Melyn and Kuyter disapproved in Holland, and they return to America in triumph. Delegates sent to Holland. Great Remonstrance of New Netherland presented to the States General. Kattskill and Claverack purchased for the Patroon of Rensselaerswyck. Indian title to a large portion of the land in the present county of Westchester extinguished.

1650
Reforms in the Government and Institutions of New Netherland, reported by a committee of the States General, are opposed by the West India Company. continued complaints by the Nine Men. Treaty concluded at Hartford determining the Boundary between the English and Dutch. Free navigation of the Hudson River declared.

1651
Continued arbitrary Government. Vice Director Dincklage expelled the Council for being opposed to Director Stuyvesant. Publications in Holland direct attention to New Netherland. Fort Casimir built at the Delaware.

1652
Beverwyck (Albany) separated from the Colonie of Rensselaerswyck and a distinct Court of Justice established there. Settlements begun at the Esopus, at Newtown and Flatbush, Long Island. Nyack purchased and New Utrecht founded. Bibles first imported. Slaves to be imported direct from Africa. Population of New Amsterdam between seven and eight hundred souls. Municipal Government granted to that city. War between England and Holland. The Dutch send an embassy to Virginia to conclude a treaty with that Colony.

1653
Organization of a Municipal Government for New Amsterdam. Burgomasters and Schepens appointed. That city palisaded. Captain Underhill hoists the Parliament flag on Long Island, and is banished. Fort Good HOpe on Connecticut river seized by the English. Description of New Netherland prepared by Adriaen van der Donck. Rev. Mr. Drisius sent on an embassy to Virginia. Father Poncet, S. J., taken prisoner by the Mohawks, is sent back to Canada by way of Oswego. The Second Amboyna Tragedy; or a Faithful Account of a Bloody, Treacherous and Cruel Plot of the Dutch in America to murder the English Colonists, published in London. convention of Delegates from several towns in New Netherland assemble at New Amsterdam, and vote a Remonstrance on the State of the Province, demanding a Representative form of government, &c., which is sent to the authorities in Holland. Oysterbay settled.

1654
Breuckelen granted additional privileges. Midwout and Amersfoort obtain the right to have local Magistrates. First Dutch Clergyman on Long Island appointed. Lutherans of New Amsterdam refused permission to call a minister. An Expedition against New Netherland sails from England. The English on Long Island disaffected. Peace with England concluded. General Thanksgiving. Salt Springs of Onondaga discovered. The Swedes surprise and seize Fort Casimir on the Delaware, and call it Fort Trinity. Emigrants from Connecticut settle in the town of Westchester.

1655
Flag of England raised at Gravesend, Long Island. Swedes on the Delaware river reduced. Indians invade New Amsterdam and consequent collision. Hoboken, Pavonia and Staten Island laid waste. General consternation. First auction sale of Bibles, Psalm books, etc., in New Amsterdam.

1656
Orders issued to form compact villages. Proclamation issued against "Conventicles," or places of worship not in harmony with the Established Dutch Church. Westchester reduced under Dutch government, and Magistrates appointed for that Town. Rustdorp, or Jamico, Long Island, planted. Hartford Treaty ratified by the States General. City of New Amsterdam surveyed. New Church built at Fort Orange, now Albany. Religious persecution revived. Baptist Minister of Flushing banished and Sheriff Hallett degraded for having harbored him. French settle on Lake Onondaga. Jesuit Missionaries among the Five Nations.

1657
Great and Small citizenship established in New Amsterdam. City of Amsterdam establishes a colonie called New Amstel on the Delaware. Wreck of the ship Prince Maurice off Five Island with a number of immigrants for that Colonie. Cromwell addresses a letter to the English on Long Island. Increased religious intolerance. Lutheran Minister banished. Quakers persecuted.

1658
Continued persecution of Quakers. Fines imposed on persons refusing to contribute to the support of the Dutch clergy. Flushing charter altered. Harlem founded as a place of amusement. Bergen (N.J.) purchased. Village of Communipa established. Trade opened by sea with Canada. French abandon their settlement at Onondaga. Village laid out at the Esopus.

1659
Massachusetts attempts to encroach on the Hudson River. Trade with France, Spain, Italy and the Caribbean Islands permitted. Latin school established at New Amsterdam. War with the Esopus Indians. Delaware river claimed by Maryland. Dutch embassy to that Province.

1660
Haerlem incorporated. Peace concluded with the Esopus Indians. Clergymen appointed to Breuckelen and Esopus. Embassy to Virginia. Ambassador from Virginia arrives at New Amsterdam. Lord Baltimore renews his claim to the Delaware.

1661
Settlers invited to take up lands in what is now the State of New Jersey. Persecution of Quakers renewed. Wiltwyck, at Esopus, incorporated. Schenectady purchased. Bushwyck, New Utrecht and Bergen incorporated. Salt works erected on Coney Island.

1662
Encroachments of Connecticut; annexes Westchester and the English Towns on Long Island. Continued persecution of Quakers. John Bowne banished. New Proclamation against the public exercise of any religion but that of the Dutch Reformed Church.

1663
Religious persecution in New Netherland reproved by the authorities in Holland, and ceases in consequence. Puritans attempt a settlement at Raritan. An Earthquake in New Netherland. Small Pox commits great ravages. Massacre of Whites at the Esopus. War proclaimed against these Indians. The whole of the Delaware river surrendered to the City of Amsterdam. Connecticut ignores the existence of New Netherland. Convention of Dutch Delegates at New Amsterdam. Names of the English villages on Long Island changed.

1664
New Netherland granted to the Duke of York. English Towns on Long Island elect Captain John Scott their President. General Provincial Assembly at New Amsterdam. Peace with the Esopus Indians. Schenectady surveyed and lots laid out. Connecticut claims the whole of Long Island. Population of the Province 10,000. New Netherland reduced by the English who give it the name of New York.

1673
New York recovered by the Dutch on the 9th of August, 1673, and the country from Maryland to Connecticut again called New Netherland. New York city called New Orange; Albany, Willemstadt; and Kingston, Swanenburgh. September 19th, Jacob Benckes appointed Governor.

1674
New Netherland ceded to the English in exchange for Surinam. On the 10th of November, New Orange is transferred to Major Edmund Andros, the English Governor, and that city and the Province are again called New York.






Register of New Netherland, E. B. O'Callaghan, (c)1865, p xi-xx.







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