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New Netherland and Beyond
New Netherland
Delaware River
Colonial New York
New York State

Historical Documents, 1624-1626

Document D
Explanatory and Biographical Notes

1The fact that the "Further Instructions" to Verhulst were sent over by Gerrit Fongersz shows that Verhulst himself had already proceeded to New Netherland. The name of Gerrit Fongersz does not appear in Wassenaer, de Vries, or any other source relating to New Netherland. De Rasiere in his letter of September 23, 1626, complains that Fongersz sought to thwart him in every way and states that he was lazy and addicted to drink. He was probably recalled soon after that date.

2In April 1625, Pieter Evertsen Hulft, one of the Directors of the Amsterdam Chamber of the West India Company, who was a well-known brewer and ship-owner of that city, undertook to ship to New Netherland, at his own risk, 103 head of horses and cattle and as many hogs and sheep as the Company saw fit. He sent these animals in two ships and added a third as a supply vessel. (See Wassenaer, in J. F. Jameson, Narratives of New Netherland, pp. 79-80.) It is these three ships that in the "Further Instructions" are referred to as the "Paert" (Horse), "Koe" (Cow), and "Schaep" (Sheep). Wassenaer adds that in company with these ships "goes a fast sailing yacht at the risk of the Directors." This was evidently the yacht "De Macreel," on which Gerrit Fongersz sailed. Wassenaer, in a passage which is not translated in the Narratives of New Netherland, but which is printed in I. N. Phelps Stokes's The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 4:62, states that a "small ship," whose name is given in the margin as "De Makareel," sailing for New Netherland, loaded with some necessaries, left the Texel on the 25th of April 1625 and was captured by the enemy on the 27th and taken to Dunkirk. This small ship was of 60 tons burden and had a crew of 12, among whom there was one who had assisted in the capture of Bahia in 1624. It would seem, therefore, that the yacht "De Macreel," which accompanied Hulft's ships, did not reach New Netherland, although we know from de Rasiere's letter, printed in this volume, that Gerrit Fongersz was in New Netherland in 1626. Apparently to make up for the loss "of the "Macreel," two months after, the sailing of Hulft's ships, "a fly-boat was equipped carrying sheep, hogs, wagons, ploughs and all other implements of husbandry." (Narratives, p. 82.) The yacht "Macreel" which sailed in 1625 was probably the same vessel as the yacht which in 1623 brought Daniel van Crieckenbeeck to New Netherland. This yacht sailed out on the 16th of July and arrived in New Netherland on the 12th of December. It returned to Holland in August 1624. (Documentary History N. Y., 4:132.)

3At the time the "Further Instructions were drawn up there was apparently no secretary in the colony, for Secretary de Rasiere in his letter of September 23, 1626, states that upon his arrival he found that the instructions of the Directors had been entered in a book by Gerrit Fongersz, the assistant commissary. De Rasiere returned to Holland in 1627 or 1628. He was succeeded by Johan van Remunde. In May 1631 Lenaert Cole signed as Vice Secretary, "in the absence of the secretary, Jan van Romund. (Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 183.) Arnoldus Buchelius, in a memorandum-book containing notes on the Dutch East and West India Companies (Koloniale Aanwinsten, 212 B, Rijksarchief, The Hague), states that in the beginning of July 1632 there returned at Amsterdam Johan van Voorst, after having been detained in England for four months, and that with him came over also "all the authorities, governor-director, secretary, minister, not being able to get along together." This would seem to indicate that Johan van Remunde returned to Holland with Minuit in 1632. Yet we know from the journal of David Pietersen de Vries that he was in New Netherland in May 1633. (Narratives of New Netherland, p. 190.) It is possible, however, that van Remunde returned to New Netherland with Wouter van Twiller, on the ship "Soutberg," which sailed from the Texel after July 20 1632, and arrived at New Amsterdam in April 1633. (See, also, Doc. Relative to Colonial History N. Y., I:51, and sketch' of the Rev. Jonas Michaelius, by Dr. A. Eekhof, in Nieuw Nederlandsch Biografisch Woordenboek, vol. I, cols. 1333-35, stating that Michaelius appeared before the Consistory of Amsterdam on March 4, 1632.)

4According to Verhulst's Instructions, he was to have his usual place of residence on the South River, and to leave Adriaen Jorissen Thienpont and Daniel van Crieckenbeeck in charge of the trading-post at Fort Orange, on the North River.

5Perhaps at Paulus Hook, in what is now Jersey City, or else at Castle Point, the trading station of Hobokan Hackingh. From either one of these places the runners may have made their way to what is now Elizabeth, N. J., and thence followed an Indian trail to the bend in the Delaware, near Trenton, N. J. (See R. P. Bolton, Indian Paths in the Great Metropolis Lin the series of Indian Notes and Monographs published by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation], pp. 198-99, and map of eastern New Jersey, of 1747, in the same volume.) De Vries says that when Michiel Pauw, in 1630, discovered that other directors of the West India Company had appropriated the land at Fort Orange for themselves, he "immediately had the land below, opposite Fort Amsterdam, where the Indians are compelled to cross to the fort with their beavers, registered for himself, and called it Pavonia." (J. F. Jameson, Narratives of New Netherland, p. 210.)

6The name Walich Jacobsz is apparently a mistake and intended for Jacob Walichsz, as shown by the "General List of the Animals in New Netherland in May 1630," printed in Edward Van Winkle's Manhattan 1624-1639, pp. 43-46, in which the name of the occupant of one of the first farms laid out on Manhattan Island is given as Jacop Walichs. Jacob Walichsz, or Walingen, from Hoorn, was the ancestor of the Van Winkle family. On January 12, 1639, being about 40 years of age, he testified at Manhattan that he and Cicero Pierre were in the year 1635 employed by skipper David Pietersen de Vries as sailors on the ship "Coninck David," and that de Vries threatened to put Cicero Pierre ashore at Cayenne and in Virginia. According to de Vries's journal, this ship left Holland on July 10, 1634, anchored on September 14 at Cayenne, sailed on October 14 for Virginia, and proceeded thence to New Netherland. (New York Colonial Mss., 1:64, and D. P. de Vries, Korte Historiael, reprinted by the Linschoten Vereeniging, pp. 187, 192, 202, 216-17, 223.) Jacob Walingen was for a short time in the colony of Rensselaerswyck. He left this colony on October 1, 1650, and on October 23, 1654, obtained a patent for land near the Kill van Kol. He died before August 17, 1657, when his widow, Trijntje Jacobs, married Jacob Stoffelsz. (Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 842.)

7Jacob Lourensz may have been the same person as Jacob Lourensz Bool, the smith, who i's mentioned in de Rasiere's letter of September 23, 1626, printed in this volume.

8Mattheus de Reus must probably be identified with Gerrit Theusz (or Mattheusz) de Reus, who was engaged as farmer by Kiliaen van Rensselaer on June 15, 1632, but who previously had been in charge of a farm of the West India Company on the island of Manhattan. (See Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., pp. 193, 231, 276, and Edward Van Winkle, Manhattan 1624-1639, p. 44.)

9Wolffaert Gerritsz, or Wolphert Gerritsen, was the ancestor of the Van Couwenhoven family. He entered, in January 1630, into a contract with Kiliaen van Rensselaer to superintend the establishment of farms in the colony of Rensselaerswyck, for which purpose he was for four years to serve each year from April to November, and if necessary to stay in the colony during the winter. At his request, he was released from his contract in 1632. He resided on Manhattan Island, where he occupied Bouwery No. 6, previous to November 15, 1639, when a lease from Director General Kieft to Abraham Pietersen Gorter, for a term of twenty years, was granted. (See Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 805; Edward Van Winkle, Manhattan 1624-1639, p. 43; and I.N.Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 2:189.)

10Jan Ides, or Jehan Ydes, occupied a farm on Manhattan Island in May 1630 (Edward Van Winkle, Manhattan 1624-1639, p. 44). He may have been a brother of Vrouwtje (the Dutch form for the Frisian name Froukje) Ides, the wife of Cornelis van Voorst, who was in New Netherland in 1626.

11Meaning the Schout-Fiscal or Sheriff, of New Netherland. The first schout appointed by the Council was Jan Lampo, of Cantelbergh (Canterbury), who returned with Minuit on the "Eendracht," in 1632. He was succeeded by Coenraet Notelman, a cousin of Kiliaen van Rensselaer. (See Doc. Relative to Col. History N.Y., 1:51; J. F. Jameson, Narratives of New Netherland, p. 85; and Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., pp. 183, 206.)

12Wassenaer, under date of November 1625, records: "A ship came, at the same time, for the aforesaid Company from New Germany [the margin has the reading "Nieu Nederlant"], laden mostly with peltries, and had a favorable voyage." This probably refers to the return of the ship "Orangenboom," which was to stay in New Netherland until the end of August.

13As shown in note 2, the yacht "Macreel," or "t'Macreeltgen" (the Little Mackerel), was apparently captured by the enemy and taken to Dunkirk on April 27, 1625. The fly-boat which was sent out two months later may have taken its place.

14Dr. Albert Coenraetsz Burgh, a son of Coenraet Matthijsz Burgh and Brechtgen Pieters Rodingh, was baptized at Amsterdam on January 3,1593. He was a prominent merchant and dyer who from the organization of the Dutch West India Company was a director of the Amsterdam Chamber of that Company. He was in 1618 appointed by Prince Maurice a member of the city council, the next year became schepen, and in 1638 and 1643 held the office of burgomaster. In 1631-1632 he was ambassador at the court of Muscovy, in 1639 ambassador at the court of Denmark, and in 1647 extraordinary ambassador at the court of Muscovy. He died on December 24, 1647, at Nisjni Novgorod, but the next year was buried at Amsterdam. On November 1, 1629, he registered a colony on the east side of the South Bay, beginning at the mouth of the bay and extending to the narrows of the South River, but he made no attempt to settle this colony. (See Johan E. Elias, De Vroedschap van Amsterdam, I:327-28; Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 156; and I. N. Phelps Stokes, The Iconography of Manhattan Island, 2:113-15.)

15Samuel Godin, or Godyn, was a director of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch West India Company and the patroon of the colony of Swanendael, on the South River, which he registered on June 19, 1629. His name was at first given to the Delaware Bay, but afterwards applied to the Lower Bay, near Sandy Hook, which was called "Godyns Punt." Samuel Godin's wife was named Anna Anselmo. They had a daughter, Johanna, who in 1634 married at Amsterdam Jacob Trip. (See J. E. Elias, De Vroedschap van Amsterdam, 2:549; Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., p. 155; J. F. Jameson, Narratives of New Netherland, pp. 186-87, and the Buchelius chart of 1632 and van der Donck's map of 1656 in that volume.)

16Kiliaen van Rensselaer, the well-known founder of the colony of Rensselaerswyck, was director of the Amsterdam Chamber of the Dutch West India Company from its organization in 1623 until shortly before November 25, 1633, when, in a memorial addressed to the Assembly of the Nineteen, he calls himself "formerly director of said Company and commissioner of the aforesaid regions [of New Netherland]." On January 13, 1629, President Godyn and Mr. Rensselaer notified the Amsterdam Chamber that they, with Mr. Blommaert, by the ships then going to New Netherland, were sending two persons to inspect the country with the intention, if they should receive a favorable report, to plant a colony there. From the detailed nature of the instructions given to Verhulst and the reports which must have come to van Rensselaer and his associates in the years between 1625 and 1629, it would seem that in 1629 they must already have had very definite information in regard to the condition of the country, and that their main purpose in sending out the two men was to see whether land could be bought from the Indians. (See Van Rensselaer Bowier Mss., pp. 47, 154, 235; also, J. S. C. Jessurun, Kiliaen van Rensselaer van 1623 tot 1636, pp. 33-34.)

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Documents relating to New Netherland 1624-1626, In The Henry E. Huntington Library, Translated and Edited by A.J.F. van Laer, ©1924, p. 265-269.

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