Chapter XX


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Library , Cabinets and Apparatus.--The school received the library and apparatus that belonged to the Cortlandville Academy. Large additions have been made to them from time to time ; the Legislature also made , in 1871 , an appropriation of $5,000 to increase the library and apparatus. Mrs. Henry S. Randall donated , in 1880 , the valuable private cabinet of geological and mineralogical specimens which her husband had collected ; this cabinet occupies a large room in the third story of the building and is known as the Randall Cabinet. Dr. Thomas B. Stowell , of the chair of science of the school , has selected a valuable collection of apparatus. The library has an extensive collection of valuable books. Normal students enjoy rare opportunities in having access to the library , to cabinets , and to the apparatus of the school.

Organization of the Local Board.--Hon. Abram B. Weaver , Superintendent of Public Instruction , appointed , December 16th , 1868 , nine citizens of Cortland to be the local board of the school. These gentlemen were Hon. Henry S. Randall , Hon. R. Holland Duell , Dr. Frederick Hyde , Hon.Horatio Ballard , and Messrs. Charles C. Taylor , Norman Chamberlain , William Newkirk , and Arnold Stafford. Mr. Randall was made by the board chairman , Mr. Duell secretary , and Mr. Taylor treasurer. Mr. Stafford died June 27th , 1872 , and Mr. Robert Bruce Smith was appointed to fill the vacancy. Mr. Randall died August 12th , 1876 , and Mr. James Squires was appointed to the vacancy ; Dr. Hyde was appointed chairman of the board at this time. Mr. Ballard died October 8th , 1878 , and Mr. James C. Carmichael was appointed to the vacancy. The officers of the board now are: Dr. Hyde president , Mr. Norman Chamberlain secretary , and Mr. Taylor treasurer. Mr. Newkirk succeeded Mr. Duell as secretary , and Mr. Chamberlain succeeded Mr. Newkirk.

Opening of the School-Faculty.--The school opened March 3rd , 1869 , with the following board of instructors: James H. Hoose , principal , science and history of education ; Norman F. Wright , ancient languages ; Frank S. Capen , mathematics ; Thomas B. Stowell , natural sciences ; Martha Roe , superintendent of training school , teachor of methods ; Helen E. M. Babcock , history , rhetoric , geography ; Martha E. Couch , modern languages ; Marianne Bates , vocal music , four hours daily ; Helen K. Hubbard , principal of intermediate department ; Margaret Hunter , principal of primary department ; Charles A. Fowler (temporary) , part time , assisdent intermediate department.

Teachers who have been connected with the school: [1]--

James H. Hoose , A.M. , Ph.D.,Principal , mental science and philosophy of education , March 3d , 1869.
Norman F. Wright , A.M.,Latin and Greek , March 3rd , 1869-January 30th , 1877.
Thomas B. Stowell , A.M., Ph.D.,natural sciences , March 3rd , 1869.
Frank S. Capen , A.M., mathematics , March 3d , 1869.
Martha Roe , methods , and superintendent of training school , March 3d, 1869.
Helen E.M. Babcock , history , rhetoric , geography , until 1870 , then modern languages , March 3d , 1869-July 2d , 1872.
Mrs. Martha E. Couch , modern languages , March 3d , 1869-July 20th , 1869.
Marianne Bates , vocal music , March 3d , 1869-July 20th , 1869.
Mrs. Lemoyne A. Hoose , drawing , March 3d , 1869-July 20th , 1869.
Helen K. Hubbard , principal and critic in intermediate department , March 3d , 1869-July 2d , 1872.
Margaret Hunter , principal and critic in primary department , March 3d , 1869-February 1st , 1870.
Charles A. Fowler , assistant in intermediate department , March 3d , 1869-July 1st , 1870.
Mary Morton , drawing , September 8th , 1869-January 28th , 1873.
Mrs. O.S. Douglass , vocal music , September 8th , 1869-October 1st , 1869.
Mary F. Hall , critic in intermediate department , September 8th , 1869-July 1st , 1870.
Mrs. Helen D. Kendall , critic in primary department , September 8th , 1869-July 1st , 1870.
Mary F. Hendrick , reading , elocution , gymnastics , rhetoric , English literature , September 8th , 1869.
Mary Marsh , vocal music , October 1st , 1869-January 28th , 1872.
Mrs. Helen M. Smith , principal and critic in primary department , February 16th , 1870-September 14th , 1870.      
Amanda J. Hopkins , critic in intermediate department until September 24 , 1873 , then principal and critic , September 14th , 1870-June 27th ,1876.
Sarah M. Sutton , English grammar and history , September 14th , 1870-January 27th , 1874.
Mrs. Theodore Perkins , principal and critic in primary department , September 14th , 1870-January 31st , 1871.
Mary E. Lester , principal and critic in primary department , February 15th , 1871-January 28th , 1873.
Julia H. Willis , critic in primary department , February 15th , 1871-January 20th , 1872.
James H. Shults , principal of academic department until September , 1877 , then department of English , physics and Greek , first time , September 6th , 1871-July 1st , 1873 ; second time , September 6th , 1876-July 2d , 1878.
Emily E. Cole , principal and critic in primary department , February 14th , 1872-January 23d , 1883.
Clara E. Booth , modern languages , September 4th , 1872.
Mary A.Hubbard , principal and critic in intermediate department , September 4th , 1872 , died September 24th , 1873.
Helen P. Eels , critic in primary department , February 12th , 1873-July 1st , 1873.
Sara A. Sanders , critic in primary department , September 3d , 1873.
Henrietta Van Ness , critic in intermediate department , September 24th , 1873-July 30th , 1874.
M. Anzolette Drake , vocal music and drawing , September 3d , 1873-January 19th , 1874.
James M. Milne , principal academic department , then Latin and Greek , first time , September 3d , 1873-June 27th , 1876 second time , September 5th , 1877.
Mrs. E.P. Halbert , vocal music and drawing , January 19th , 1874.
Samuel J. Sornberger , Ph.M., English , science , Latin , first time , September 2d , 1874-June 27th , 1876 ; second time , September 4th , 1878.
Elizabeth Rase , critic in intermediate department until September 6th , 1878 , then principal and critic , September 2d , 1874.
Mrs. Lottie T. Corlew , critic in intermediate department , September 6th , 1876-May 2d , 1882.
Josephine Folger , critic in intermediate department , May 2d , 1882-June 27th , 1882.
Ellen J. Pearne , critic in intermediate department , September 6th , 1882.
Mary L. Roberts , principal and critic in primary department , January 23d , 1883.

[1] The dates refer respectively to the beginning and close of service.

Organization of the school---The school is organized into two departments ; one is that of theory , and the other is that of practice. The department of theory comprises three courses of study. The elementary English course extends over two two years ; the advanced English course extends over three years ; and the classical course extends over four years. The last year of each course is devoted to professional work ; this work includes the history and philosophy of education and of teaching and practice in the art of teaching. This department of practice consists of the thoroughly organized school of about 300 pupils whose ages extend from five years upwards ; these pupils are classified into ten grades , the lowest being designated as the first. There are a few pupils in the school who have passed out of the tenth grade and do not rank as normal students ; these pupils are classified as academic pupils and recite in normal classes. Students must be sixteen years of age , at least , in order to be registered as normal students. Tuition and rent of text-books are free to normal students. The department of practice is under the supervision of the teacher of theories of practice ; while the department is under the immediate personal supervision of four experienced and capable critics who devote all their attention to the work of the teachers-in-training. The principal of the school devotes directly , also , much of his attention to the welfare of this department of the school. Theories of teaching are tested , observations are recorded , and the teachers-in-training have the benefits of all results obtained from these professional studies. Graduating classes visit various systems of public schools in the cities of the State in order to inspect them professionally.

Attendance of Normal Students.--The following table exhibits the yearly attendance normal students from the date of opening of the school to the close of the fifteenth annual report of the local board :--

  SCHOOL Number of Average Average Average
  YEAR Students Attendance Age [Male] Age [Female]
1     March 3 , 1869 , to October 1 , 1869 116 53 19 19
2 October 1 , 1869 , to October 1 , 1870 322 123 19 19
3 October 1 , 1870 , to October 1 , 1871 401 162 20 19
4 October 1 , 1871 , to October 1 , 1872 370 161 19 19
5 October 1 , 1872 , to October 1 , 1873 390 163 20 19
6 October 1 , 1873 , to October 1 , 1874 399 177 20 19
7 October 1 , 1874 , to October 1 , 1875 370 157 20 20
8 October 1 , 1875 , to October 1 , 1876 377 157 20 20
9 October 1 , 1876 , to October 1 , 1877 398 177 20 19
10 October 1 , 1877 , to October 1 , 1878 361 197 21 20
11 October 1 , 1878 , to October 1 , 1879 324 153 21 20
12 October 1 , 1879 , to October 1 , 1880 449 220 21 20
13 October 1 , 1880 , to October 1 , 1881 364 213 19.7 19
14 October 1 , 1881 , to October 1 , 1882 498 226 19.84 19.11
15 October 1 , 1882 , to October 1 , 1883 504 275 20 19.16

The following brief address which Dr. Hoose made to the students at the close of commencement exercises , January 22d , 1884 , gives a concise statement of the prosperity and condition of the school :--These exercises close fifteen years of history of the Cortland Normal School. Two thousand three hundred and forty-one different normal students have been connected with the school in this time. These students have represented nearly all the counties in the State.

The records of the school show that 449 normal students were enrolled during the year which ended Oct. 1st , 1880 ; the average age of the ladies was twenty years , and that of the gentlemen was twenty-one years ; that 364 normal students were enrolled for the year which ended October 1st , 1881 ; the average age of the ladies being nineteen , and that of the gentlemen being nineteen and one-half ; that 498 were enrolled for the year which ended Oct. 1st , 1882, 150 of this number entering in September , 1882 ; the average age of the women being a little above nineteen years , and that of the men being nearly twenty ; that 504 normal students were enrolled for the year which ended Oct. 1st , 1883 ; the average age of women being about nineteen and one-fifth years , and that of the men being twenty years. of the State. The higher the average age the more valuable to the State is the Normal School. Hence a high average age of the students is of greater importance , if possible , to the purposes of the school than the number in attendance.

  Including this present class , 418 normal students have been graduated. These graduates occupy places of importance and of prominence in the educational ranks of the country.Our graduates are in demand for those positions which require superior qualifications of scholarship and of executive ability ; they are commanding marked success as teachers and as men and women. Our graduates take high rank in all higher institutions where they enter and pursue higher branches.

Estimates made for the first ten years of the school show that over fifty per cent of our normal students teach more or less during any given year of their attendance. Inasmuch as a large majority of the students attend school more than one year , it follows that nearly all normal students teach more or less in the public schools of the State ; and very many teach years. These facts show that our school is the center of great influence in the commonwealth.

In order to exhibit the rank of the Cortland Normal School among the Normal Schools of the State , the following statistics of attendance are presented from the published report for the year which ended Oct. 1st , 1882.

Albany Normal School enrolled 401 normal students ; Brockport , 407 ; Buffalo , 261 ; Cortland , 498 ; Fredonia , 180 ; Geneseo , 461 ; Oswego , 394 ; and Potsdam , 406. Cortland outranked them all , and the attendance was larger for 1883 than it was for 1882.

These statistics demonstrate the wisdom which has controlled the administration of the local board since the school began its history. The board has proceeded on the theory that the citizens of the State , who pay the taxes which support the school , demand in return men and women who can teach better schools because they have been here ; that the public demands men and women of sterling character , who are loyal to their duties ; that it is the business of the school to give to its students these qualifications. History bears all honor to the board for the success which has crowned its administrations.

Memorandum of History.--The Cortland Normal School has had career that will go down into history as one of the most remarkable in the annals of educational history in the United States. Hon. Abram B. Weaver was Superintendent of Public Instruction when the school opened in 1869. Hon. Neil Gilmour succeeded him in the office in April , 1874 , and he was succeeded in office in April , 1883 , by Hon. W.B. Ruggles. The school opened March 3rd , 1869 , and flourished from the beginning , because the local board established at first a firm and conscientious purpose to serve only the best interests of the school ; the board has never deviated from this purpose.

It began to appear in 1876 that the superintendent of public instruction had conceived a purpose to control the normal school system of the State. This purpose revealed itself towards the Cortland Normal School in a series of overt acts which were calculated to destroy the unity and harmony of the administration of the school , and to wrest from the board its legal prerogatives of authority. The superintendent's first overt act was a charge against the loyalty of Dr. Thomas B. Stowell , of the chair of science in the school ; this charge was , in August , 1876 , to the principal , who replied to the superintendent that his charge had no foundation in fact. The second overt act was the manner in which the superintendent filed the vacancy in the local board caused by the death of Mr. Randall , which occurred in August , 1876. The board followed its previous custom ad recommended to the superintendent a suitable person to fill the vacancy ; but he appointed in September , 1876 , without notice and without explanation , another gentleman , Mr. J.S. Squires. No divided vote had ever been cast in the deliberations of the board before the advent of his appointee. The third act was a vain effort to secure the resignation from the board of Hon. R.H. Duell.

The fourth act of the superintendent was a fruitless effort , made in 1877 , to compel the board to nominate to him , against its best judgement , a certain gentleman for the chair of Latin and Greek , then vacant. Pending the confirmation of the nominee of the board , an attempt was made to cause the retirement from the board of its president , Dr. Hyde ; failing in the attempt , the nominee of the board , Prof. James M. Milne , was confirmed June 5th , 1877. The sixth act was an extraordinary order issued June 12th , 1877 , directing the board to re-nominate to him , for re-appointment all the members of the faculty. There being no vacancies , the board sent to him a memorandum of the faculty as it then existed ; he assumed this statement to be a recommendation , and purported to reconfirm , July 5th , the appointments attaching to his confirmation conditions not provided for by statute ; chief among these conditions was the clause: "Said approval to continue in force during the pleasure of the local board and the superintendent." The seventh act took place in a meeting of the principals of the Normal Schools of the State , convened by his order , and held at Albany in December , 1877. The superintendent presided ; he alluded to several personal matters , and said among other things , that the principals "must obey him." The eighth act was his manner of appointing Mr. J.C. Carmichael to fill the vacancy in the board caused by the death of Mr. Ballard , which occurred October 8th , 1878 ; the appointment was made October 28th with no consultation with the board. The superintendent continued to 1880 to manifest his displeasure with the board and with its administration , because neither it nor the principal of the school could be won by favor or by fear to deviate in he least from the plain line of clearly defined duties which they legally and morally owed to the State. The superintendent was a candidate to be his own successor in office , in April , 1880. The principal of the school and members of the board expressed a preference for Hon. John I. Gilbert , who was also a candidate for the position ; but Mr. Gilbert was unsuccessful , and the former superintendent was reinstated.

The superintendent made , in 1880 , his ninth effort to gain control of the school. He sent , June 28th of that year , an autograph order to Dr. Hoose , directing the latter to send him by July 6th his "peremptory resignation" as principal of the school. The board was composed at tis time of Messrs. Hyde , Duell , Taylor , Chamberlain , Newkirk , Brown and Smith ; and Messrs. Squires and Carmichael. The first seven mentioned members of the board , constituting the majority , claimed by law a voice in selecting teachers for the school ; they requested the specific charges against the principal ; the superintendent replied , July 6th , that "there are no charges" and that he proposed to act independently of the board. Dr. Hoose refused , July 8th , to resign ; the superintendent withdrew , July 12th , his approval of the employment of Dr. Hoose , that had been given by him in July , 1877 ; the board by act , on July 17th , refused to concur with the superintendent. August 4th he purported to appoint another principal to the school ; August 7th the board refused to recognize this appointee , and offered to agree with the superintendent on a case to construe the statue , and carry the matter to the courts ; the superintendent offered , August 19th to consent to carry the case to the courts ; provided the board would first give to him the control of the school , and threatened to close the school in case the board did not comply with his terms. August 26th the board refused to comply with his terms. The term opened Sept. 1st ; the appointee of the superintendent appeared at the building and demanded possession of it , in the name of the superintendent ; the board refused to recognize him as principal , and directed Dr. Hoose and the teachers to open the school ; his appointee then ordered all the teachers to withdraw from the building as he retired to his office at the Messenger House. The faculty was composed at that time of Dr. Hoose , Dr. Thos. Stowell , Prof. S.J. Sornberger , Mrs. E.P. Halbert , Misses E. Rase , S.A. Saunders , E.E. Cole ; and Prof. F.S. Capen , Prof. J.M. Milne , Miss M. Roe , Miss M.F. Hendrick , Miss C.E. Booth , and Mrs. Corlew. The first seven mentioned teachers obeyed the orders of the board ; the vacancies in the faculty were filled immediately ; the list of these teachers who thought were:--D. Eugene Smith , Wm.C. Bennett , Helen E. Bradford , Gardner Fuller , R.S. Bingham , Kate M. Sornberger , Helen K. Hoose , Herbert M. Hill , Hiram J. Messenger , Mary A. Knapp , William L. Bates , E.M. Ladd.

The superintendent purported to remove from the school , Sept. 2d , those six teachers who remained with the principal , obedient to the concurrent authority of the board , but they continued to teach , nevertheless ; this was his tenth overt act against the school. The next was his order to close the school , or to allow it to be closed by others. The twelfth act of the superintendent was his application at the special term of the Supreme Court for a writ of mandamus to compel the board to accept his construction of the statute. The case was argued October 27th , 1880 ; the decision was not rendered until Jan. 4th ,1881 ; it sustained the position of the superintendent , although the final service was not made upon the board until Feb. 7th , 1881. The school continued to flourish from Sept. 1st , 1880 , notwithstanding the attacks of the superintendent , who refused to certify to any of the current expense accounts of the school for the term. A class of eighteen normal students was graduated January 18th , 1881 , but the superintendent refused to prepare diplomas for the graduates.

Under the orders of the court the superintendent took sole charge of the school Feb. 7th , 1881. The board carried the case to the General Term of the Supreme Court ; it was argued May 13th , the decision was handed down Sept. 20th , 1881 , and affirmed the decision of the court below. The board carried the case to the Court of Appeals Dec. 20th , 1881. January 31st , 1881 , the superintendent argued in court on his motion to throw the case out of court on the ground that the board having obeyed the courts below had lost its right to appeal. The court denied , Feb. 7th , his motion. The case was argued before the Court of Appeals March 24th , Hon. Samuel Hand appearing for the board. April 18th the court handed down its decision , reversing the courts below. April 26th , 1882 , Dr. Hoose and the six teachers thus sent out by the superintendent re-entered the school under command of the courts. The superintendent vainly appealed , in May , to the Legislature to enact a law giving to him absolute control of the Normal Schools of the State.

He then sought in vain , in June , July , and August , 1882 , the Chancellor of the Regents to unite with him to remove the board from the Cortland Normal School. In October , 1882 , Miss Martha Saltsman , of Harford , Cortland county , began an action for a mandamus to compel the superintendent to grant to her a diploma , she having graduated January 18th , 1881. In December the superintendent prepared diplomas for her , and for the balance of her class. He certified in January , 1883 , to the current expense accounts of the school and for a portion of the salaries due for the time when he had possession of the school. Measures were instituted to collect from the State the balance of salaries due to April 26th , 1882 , and the Board of Claims awarded to the teachers in January , 1884 , the amount of salary due for said time.

This controversy was watched with deepest interest by friends of education everywhere , and public sentiment generally sustained the local board , and those teachers who remained under the board. The business men of Cortland continued to furnish the supplies which were necessary to meet the needs of the school during the time that the superintendent refused to certify to the bills ; all of these bills have been paid. Among the citizens of Cortland village who sustained the board were Hon. A.P. Smith , Mr. D.F. Wallace , Major A. Sager , Mr. Morgan L. Webb , Mr. H.Hubbard , and Mr. George Warren.

The school is in a highly prosperous state , notwithstanding this controversy. The self-sacrifice , devotion , firmness and perseverance of the majority-seven of the board and of their sympathizers have elevated to a higher plane the tenure and independence of the position of the teachers , and the dignity and worth of the profession of teaching , and have given a new and illustrious example of manhood defending the freedom and rights of American citizens. The legal points which the controversy established are the following (89 New York Reports , pp. 11-12):--

The superintendent of public instruction has no power to remove the principal of a normal school established under the act of 1866 (Chap. 466 , Laws of 1866) , without the concurrence of the local board.

The provision of said act ( {4 ) declaring that the 'employment' of teachers in said schools shall be subject to the approval of the superintendent , refers to the act of hiring. When the approval is once given , the contract of employment is complete , and the teacher can only be discharged by the authority in whom the power to employ is vested , i.e., by the concurrent act of the local board and the superintendent.

It is not within the power of the superintendent , by annexing conditions to his approval , to change the law regulating the discharge of teachers of these schools.

The local board of a normal school employed one H. as principal , which employment was approved by the superintendent 'to continue in force during the pleasure of the board and the superintendent ; 'thereafter the superintendent withdrew his approval and directed the local board to recommend another principal , and upon its declining so to do , made an appointment himself which the board refused to recognize. In proceedings by mandamus to compel such recognition , held , that the superintendent had no authority to attach to his approval the qualification stated ; that , notwithstanding the action of the superintendent , H. remained principal , and the refusal of the board 'to make a new appointment was not an omission to discharge its duties ' within the meaning of the amendatory act of 1869 (Chap. 18 , Laws of 1869) and so did not authorize the superintendent to discharge such duties."


It is ordinarily a difficult matter to give a detailed record of the post-office of any given village , as only the documents from such a record can be made are on file in the Post-office Department at Washington. An exception may , however , be made of the Cortland village office , owing to the enterprise of Wm. H. Clark , proprietor of the Cortland Standard , who obtained data from the department records at the time the office was removed into the new Standard building on the night of April 2d , 1883 , and printed therefrom in his journal a history of the post-office from its first establishment. From that record we compile the following:--

The first postmaster of Cortland village was Oliver Wiswell , one of the earliest lawyers in the place , who resided where W.R. Randall now lives , and ket the office in a front room. His term of office extended to July 25th , 1817 , when Roswell Randall succeeded him , and continued to serve for about four years , keeping the office in his store on the corner now occupied by the Keator block , being followed by Samuel Nelson , appointed May 11th , 1822. This gentleman reside where Mr. F. Ives now lives , corner of Main and Mill streets , and , as near as we can learn , kept the post-office in his house. The post-office of that time was a very small affair compared with the one of the present , as persons were considered lucky who received one letter a month , and in order to get that had often to pay as high as twenty-five cents. The mail was brought from Syracuse by a four-horse stage , the horn announcing its arrival being "tooted" vigorously from the upper end of Main street to Mr. Nelson's door. The arrival of the one mail and the departure of the same were only enlivening events of the day. Postmaster Nelson afterwards became , first , chief justice of the State of New York , and later on , associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He also received the degree of L.L.D. from Columbia College. He died in 1872 in Cooperstown , at the age of 82. Charles Lynde succeeded him , the date of his appointment being June 2d , 1823. Mr. Lynde was a merchant and kept the office in his store , which was on Main street , on the spot where Mrs. Thomas Keator now resides. He had charge of it until Dec. 20th , 1824 , when his brother , John Lynde , took his place. The latter gentleman was a doctor , and kept , as was the custom then , the post-office and his business office together. He lived about half way between Cortland and Homer. He remained in office up to April 28th , 1825 , when Roswell Randall was appointed for the second time. His office was in the old Eagle block , which stood on South Main street , and was absorbed in the new Squires block. He , in turn , was succeeded by Canfield Marsh , appointed July 28th , 1830 , who was a manufacturer of and dealer in hats. His store was an old wooden building situated where Union Hall block now stands.

About this time the name of the village was changed by dropping the " u " from " Courtlandt , " making Cortlandt Village." Richard Scouten , the proprietor of the Eagle Tavern , was the next postmaster , his date of appointment being Nov. 14th , 1839. He kept the post-office in the tavern, which at that time was two stories high. A third story was added shortly afterward , and in January , 1862 , the whole structure was burnt down , Isaac Fairchilds owing it at the time. The post-office , however , before this event had passed into the hands of Joel B. Hibbard Feb. 24th , 1841. Mr. Hibbard was a partner of Andrew Dickson , who afterwards had charge of the office himself , and kept a general country store in a brick block built by Messrs. Bishop & Edgcomb , on the site of the present Keator block. The next postmaster whose name is on record was Tercius Eels , appointed May 15th , 1841 , who was a merchant and kept his store and the office in a long , low , white building , afterwards occupied by Charles W. Collins , where Garrison's block now stands. Danforth Merrick , who kept the "Cortland Tavern" (on the site of the Cortland House) , took the post-office temporarily , and kept it in his hotel from May 24th , 1842 , till Sept. 6th , 1842 , when Andrew Dickson , before mentioned , took charge of it , removing it again to the site of the present Keator block. Jehiel Taylor , a mechanic , came next , his appointment bearing date April 18th , 1849 , and transferred the office to a small wing attached to the building where Eels had kept it. Upon the expiration of Taylor's term of office , Hiram Crandall was appointed and filled the place till March 19th , 1861. He first kept the office near where the National Bank of Cortland now is , and afterwards removed it to where Mahan's block is at present located , Nos. 9 and 11 Court street. This building was a small wooden structure , about twenty feet square , formerly an old justice's office , and which was afterwards moved up to No. 92 Adams street , where it is now occupied by John Van Rensselaer. Here we find the first record of a separate building being used for post-office purposes alone , unassociated with any other business of profession.

At this time , too , the " t " at the end of " Cortlandt " was dropped , making the name of the office read " Cortland Village. "

With the incoming of a Republican administration , on the 19th of March , 1861 , Horace A. Jarvis was appointed , and held the position for over seventeen years ( the longest term of any postmaster in the place ), up to July 13t h, 1878. He commenced where the gas office now is , in the rear of the National Bank of Cortland , but shortly afterward removed to where the office was before its change to the Standard building ( in the building on the corner of West Court and Main streets. Mr. Jarvis was the first to introduce the glass and lock-boxes. James A. Nixon , the present incumbent , was appointed July 13th , 1878 , and has since made many and marked improvements. The name of the office was still further changed , Sept. 23d , 1880 , by dropping the word " Village " , leaving it plain " Cortland , " as it will probably always continue.

The new location in the Standard building is eminently fitted for accommodating the office , combining as it does all the conveniences of steam heat , good ventilation , plenty of light and an abundance of room. The present apartment has two entrances on Tompkins street in addition to the one upon Main , thus providing for the prevention of the crowd and rush usually attendant upon the delivery of the mails.

The business sections of the office are inclosed by glass , including the delivery department , which is in the form of an elongated bay , the whole constructed in a convenient and appropriate shape for the rapid dispatch of business. On the extreme right is an entrance into the business room , and on the same side are the Yale lock-boxes , 229 in number. Mr. Nixon's administration of the office gives excellent satisfaction to the community.

The Professions.--Readers of the general county history embodied in preceding chapters are familiar with the records of the legal and the medical professions of this county. The former has contributed many eminent men to the county , by far the larger portion of them having , naturally , been residents of this village. For the details of their professional lives , their labors performed in public office and in other fields to which they have been called , the reader is referred to the chapter devoted to that profession. The medical profession , too , has been especially honored , and is at the present time , by the names of many who have devoted their lives to the healing of mankind in this county , and who occupy positions of high distinction in their chosen profession. These will be found properly treated in their appropriate place and hence need not be further referred to in this connection.

The Dental Profession of Cortland Village.--The first dentist in the village of Cortland was Dr. Levi R. Gleason ,who came here in about the year 1852. He was a native of the town of Virgil , was an excellent operator and a worthy citizen. He remained about ten years and sold out his business and office appliances to Dr. F.O. Hyatt , a native of Otsego county. Dr. Hyatt came into the county in 1844 , locating first in Marathon. He received his dental education in Towanda , Pa. , under Dr. McIntosh and L.B. Hyatt , and began practicing first in Marathon in 1848. He then took up his residence in Cortland as stated. He soon gained an enviable business and a reputation as a first-class operator.

Dr. Hyatt is , aside from his profession , an artist of recognized ability , possessing genius and talent of a high order , especially as a portrait painter. Although he never had instruction in the art , some of his works evince merits that entitle them to rank with those of our eminent artists. His first attempt was a portrait of his brother , C.S. Hyatt. The distinctive features of excellent portraiture were so apparent in this work that he has since received commissions from a large number of prominent men , both in Cortland county and at a distance. In the fire on the corner of West Court and Main streets , May 24th , 1884 , Dr. Hyatt lost about one hundred and fifty choice paintings , besides his dental rooms.

Dr. Monroe Franks came to Cortland about 1868 , and not long afterward Dr. A.H. Matson , now a leading dentist of Syracuse , located here. They remained but a few years. Messrs. Pettingill & Spencer then opened rooms and remained in the business about nine years. They were succeeded by Dr. Todd , who was a student in Dr. Hyatt's office. He continued four or five years when he sold to H.G. & C.E. Ingalls , who have now carried on a successful practice about twelve years.

George L. Holden came to Cortland from McGrawville and practiced a few years , when he died , in 1877. Dr. G.H. Smith came also from McGrawville and studied with Dr. Hyatt from 1871 , and in 1879 formed a partnership with him. He is still here. G.W. Hull has enjoyed a successful practice here for a number of years , and L.T. White , also , who has been in practice a few years.

The Cortland Water Company--The water drawn from the numerous wells of Cortland village has always been of an excellent character. These wells were dug through the gravelly soil and stoned up in the ordinary manner , until the invention and patenting of the well known driven well by Mr. Suggett , of Cortland village. Since that event driven wells almost without number have been put down in the village , the soil being especially well adapted for the use of that device. Not only this , but the same plan was adopted some years since as a means of supplying the village with water for , extinguishing fires and other public purposes. Driven wells were sunk of several inches calibre and four or more of them connected with one discharge pipe at the top , to which the suction of a fire engine could be attached. These wells have served their purpose effectively and have been put down on most of the prominent street corners. But the recent rapid growth of the village and the distance of the wells from each other , with constantly increasing danger from fires , has made it apparent that some other and more extensive system of water works was one of the imperative needs of the place.The subject was often agitated , as we have already stated , of bringing water into the village from Otter creek , and other less promising plans have been suggested , but without practical effect , until the year of this writing (1884) , when the question of giving the village an abundant supply of pure water has undoubtedly reached its solution , through the organization of the Cortland Water Works Company. This is a private corporation which entered into a contract with the firm of Hinds , Moffat & Co., of Watertown ,to construct and equip a water system on the following general plan :--

First , To erect a pump house to be located at the Otter creek springs and to place therein pumps known as the " Worthington ," of sufficient capacity to pump to summit of court-house hill 1,200 gallons per minute , with proper boiler , feed pump , connections , etc. The land to be purchased and a good and sufficient basin to pump from prepared.

Second , A ten-inch pipe to run from pump to reservoir.

Third , Reservoir to be of iron , to be forth feet high and forty feet in diameter.

Fourth , Mains starting from reservoir with ten-inch pipe running down Prospect street to Messenger House corner via Tompkins street , mains to run from the Wickwire factory on South Main to Grant street , Port Watson street , to cross Deleware , Lackawanna and Western railroad , on Court street , Railroad street , Elm , Mill , Grant , Lincoln avenue , West Court , Tompkins , Reynolds avenue , Union , Church and Greenbush streets.

Fifth , Hydrants to be placed along line of pipes as trustees of village may direct. The hydrants to be frost proof.

Sixth , Gates to be placed at all places available along pipe so pipes may be repaired without shutting off from reservoir.


At the annual meeting held in Firemen's Hall , on the 18th day of March , 1884 , the following resolution was voted upon and passed.--


" Resolved , Third , That the sum of $2,000 be raised by special tax , for the purpose of purchasing and contracting for , from Cortland Water Works Company , the use of forty hydrants of water for protection from fire and for other purposes during the coming year , to be located as by the board of trustees of the village directed , with three public drinking fountains on Main street."

The plans of the water company have been carried out in all essential particulars , and the village will hereafter , without doubt , be supplied with water which can be taken into every dwelling and place of business , besides being always at hand for fire purposes. It is one of the most important improvements ever made in Cortland village.

Public Halls , Theaters , etc..--The first public hall in Cortland village that was prepared expressly for amusements , public meetings , dancing parties , etc., was what was known as Reynold's Hall , and latter as Squire's Hall , after the building passed into possession of James S. Squires. The hall continued in use for its intended purposes for many years and until H.J. Messenger built what is now called Taylor Hall block , in the year 1864. This place of amusement was fitted up with a stage , a limited amount of scenery and other accessories to render it available for theatrical entertainments. It was called Messenger Hall until the building was transferred to Wm. E. & Chas. Taylor , when the name was changer to Taylor Hall. The interior , the stage , scenery , etc., have been renewed , extended and improved at different times since it was first opened.

The subject of a new opera house in Cortland has been often discussed and agitated within the past ten years. While the size of the village and the tastes of the inhabitants demanded public amusements of a high order , the fact of these being no adequate accommodations for first-class dramatic and musical organizations has kept many such from making engagements here which otherwise would.


The current year (1884) , which has witnessed so many other needed improvements in the village , will also see the consummation of plans for a beautiful theater which will be erected at a cost of about $35,000. For this purpose a number of leading citizens have united their means and taken the necessary responsibility. J.H. Kirby , of Syracuse , was employed to make the plans for a new theater and has given his patrons a building which will be a credit to himself and to the place. The seating capacity of the theater is about 1,100 and the walls are of Trenton brick.                  

Homer and Cortland Gas Company.--This company was organized in the year 1860 , for the purpose of supplying the two villages of Homer and Cortland with illuminating gas. Nathan Randall was the principal promoter of the enterprise and J.M. Schermerhorn subsequently became largely interested in it. The first certificate of stock was issued to Mr. Schermerhorn on the 1st day of December , 1861 , and the first reading of meters was made in October of that year. The works are located midway between the villages. The stock passed from the possession of the original holders to Mr. Schermerhorn in 1874 , and was afterward bought by the Wilkinsons , Truesdall & Blair and A.C. Wood , all of Syracuse , who now own nearly the whole.


  There are at the present time 99 street lamps in Cortland village and 48 in Homer. There are about 400 consumers in the former village and 150 in the latter. B.B. Woodworth has been superintendent since August 3d , 1880 , with his office in Cortland.

Fire Department.--The first movement towards providing the village with adequate apparatus for extinguishing fires was made at the fourth meeting of the board of trustees , December 29th , 1853 , when the following resolution was adopted:--

" Resolved , That the clerk is hereby authorized to cause a notice to be published in the Cortland Democrat , calling a meeting of the voters of Cortland for the purpose of raising the sum of $1,150 for engine and hose ; $150 for engine house and $250 for reservoir and conductors. "


The notice , for some unknown reason , was not published as directed , and at the next meeting , January 17th , 1854 a resolution was adopted embodying the same authority and directing that the meeting to vote on the question of raising the above named sums be held on the tenth of February , instant. Other delays occurred so that the meeting was not held until the 18th day of April.

            The sum authorized to be raised for the engine house was changed from $150 to $100 and the resolutions were adopted. At a meeting of the board on the 29th of May a resolution was passed requesting tat those persons who wished to become members of the fire company to be organized would hand their names to the trustees on or before the 5th of June , then next. It was also resolved that the engine to be procured should be named the " Tioughnioga. "

               The president of the board was then authorized to contract for a suitable engine , hose and hose carriage and other necessary apparatus , at as early a date as possible. At the meeting of June 5th the following names were read as constituting the first fire company of the village:--

J.C. Jarvis , E. Gurley , Glen Cuyler , E.F. Gould , C.S. Crouch , J.B Fairchild , A. Lyman , E. Gatty , Giles Rexford , G. Bradford , J.A. Graham , John Murray , Ballard Stephens , C.L. Todd , S. Benjamin , I.M. Seaman , H. Buell , H. Bates , H. Mead , H.A. Jarvis , J.Knowlton , Wm. Powers , H. Danes , F. Hotchkiss , R. Rounds , T. Cornwell , D. Fisk ,jr. , A. Sweet , D. Mallory , W. Van Schaak , I. Seaman , W. Rooks , E. Merritt , H. Rouse , J. B.Horton , R. Lee , W. Gager , C. Jones , ---- Bass , E. Johnson , ---- Maycumber , J.C. Pomeroy , D. Smith , J. Wiles , A.A. Sweet , Chas. Taylor , W. Alvord , R. Mudge.

At a meeting held August 2d the following persons were appointed to fill places of others who had resigned or refused to serve--                     

Chas. Snyder , James Carmichael , Geo. Potter , Samuel Bush , John Tierney , Wm. Burt , C. Rogers , C.W. Crofoot , O.E. House , Lyman Mead.     

It will be quite clear to the older residents of Cortland that nearly all the respected citizens of the village at the time the fire company was organized , joined it.

             Stephen R. Hunter , Henry Brewer , G.K. Stiles , Rufus A. Reed and S.D. Freer , were made the first fire wardens of the village.

At the meeting of the board of August 18th the name of the engine was changed to " Water Witch." The engine , with hose cart and other apparatus , cost $1056.60 , which was paid in November., 1854. An additional sum of $150 was voted for the engine house early in the year 1855 and a liberal amount was expended in digging and enlarging wells , which work was continued by succeeding board of trustees.

In March , 1855 , proposals were called for the construction of three cisterns on Main street , nine feet deep , of oval form , sixteen feet in the longest axis and ten feet in the shortest , with cobble-stone walls laid in water-lime. Two of these were subsequently built , with slight modifications , by John Sullivan , at a cost of about fifty dollars each.

In the latter part of 1855 an engine house was built by contract with Ira Meads , costing $262. In the following year $216 were raised with which the lot was purchased whereon the engine house was built.                     

In 1857 three ladders were made by order of the trustees. The committee appointed for that purpose reported the the ladders " had been made at a cost of $13.75 , and thought those would be all that would be necessary at present."

             The first appropriation of money to the fire company by the village trustees was made in February , 1860 , to the amount of $25. An appropriation of $150 was made in the same year for purchasing a bell and putting up the same , and for other fire expenses. In 1861 the company received from the village $23.30 , the amount of tax received on foreign insurance companies , and additional hose was purchased at a cost of $100.86. New wells and cisterns were also added.

               In 1863 $150 were appropriated for the purchase of hook and ladder apparatus and a like sum for wells and cisterns. Dr. F.O. Hyatt was given authority at a subsequent meeting to purchase hook and ladder truck and appurtenances , at a cost of $360. On the 24th of August of that year a resolution was passed by the trustees , granting the privilege to the Water Witch Fire Company to organize a separate hose company , which should be under direction of the fire company.

                  The board of trustees of 1864 , at their December meeting , voted to accept the resolution of disbandment of the hook and ladder company , and appointed the following named gentlemen as members of a new company , with power to meet on the 10th of the December to elect officers:--

          Byron Phelps , C.W. Collins , W.W. Gale , M.H. McGraw , Thomas Sims , A Sager , Frank W. Freeman , L. Dexter , J.P. Hotchkiss , Geo. J. Allen , M.P. Callender , D. Edwards , Harry Lewis , J.A. Corwin , John Ellison , Geo. G. Sperry , D.T. Williams , and B.H. Webster. At the same time $80 were voted the new company , with which to purchase shirts.

                    In March , 1865 , the following additional members of the company were appointed:--E.D. Mallory , N. Minturn , Josiah Stevens , J.H Gatland , J.B. Fairchild , John Ryan , Geo. Nottingham , Marvin G. Johnson , Simon Lynn , I.M. Seaman. The Cortland Fire Department , as organized under the charter , must now consist of a chief engineer , first and second assistant engineers , a secretary and treasurer , with the necessary organized companies. The officers are elected on the last Wednesday of each year. The foremen of companies are empowered to all meetings for the election of officers. General meetings for inspection and review are held in September of each year. At a special meeting held Feb. 13th , 1866 , J.C. Carmichael was appointed chief engineer. He was succeeded in 1873 by W.W. Gale; 1874 , H.F. Shirley ; 1878 , I.H. Palmer ; 1880 , C.E. Ingalls.

By a resolution of the board in 1873 Water Witch Hose Company was authorized to become a separate incorporation ; and in 1878 Orris Hose Company was incorporated. Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company was incorporated in 1877. Emerald Hose Company was incorporated in 1878.

In the year 1875 extensive improvements and additions were made in the fire department ; the present handsome and convenient engine-house was erected under a contract made with L.G. Viele , and the first steps were taken towards procuring a steam fire engine. At the annual meeting in 1876 the sum of $2,500 was voted for the extension of the well system in the village and $5,000 for engine , etc. A rotary Silsby steamer was purchased , which has since proved its efficiency on several occasions when the village has been visited by destructive fires.

Following are the present officers of the fire department:--

Chief engineer--M.F. Cleary
First assistant--Thomas Button
Second assistant--Del. Barber
Treasurer--Thomas Grady
Secretary--Arthur M. Delavan

             The Cortland Protective Police is an efficient organization acting in co-operation with the fire department;--

Captain--A. Sager
Lieutenant--R.A. Smith
Sergeant--Geo. W. Davenport
Treasurer--C.P. Walrad
Secretary--C.W. Collins
Property clerk--F.A. Bickford

                  Following are the officers of Water Witch Fire Company No.1:--

Foreman--A.G. Newton
First assistant--B. Delavan
Second assistant--John Chamberlain
Secretary--O.D. Raymond
Treasurer--J.W. Bowen
Property clerk--O.D. Raymond

                  The officers of Orris Hose Company are as follows:--

President--C.S. Strowbridge
Foreman--Burnett E. Miller
First assistant--E.L. Rodgers
Second assistant--S.H. Strowbridge
Secretary--H.A. Dickinson
Treasurer--F.R. Woodworth

The officers of Emerald Hose Company are:--

President--Daniel Dolan
Vice-president--James Dowd
Foreman--John Dowd
First assistant--John Dallton
Second assistant--Thomas Purcell
Secretary--A. McSweney
Treasurer--Patrick Dwyre
Property clerk--Michael Healey

                  The officers of the Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company are as follow:--

Foreman--F.W. Kingsbury
First assistant--Earl Stimson
Second assistant--Frank Howard
Secretary--Charles Thompson
Treasurer--John Phelps
Property clerk--Arthur M. Delavan

Cortland and Homer Horse Railway:--This company was organized in 1882 for the purpose of constructing a street car line which should connect the two villages of Homer and Cortland. Different lines of omnibuses had hitherto run between the villages and their patronage was such as to warrant the prime movers in the enterprise in going forward with the work. During the summer of 1883 the track was laid fro the southern portion of the village to the point where the D.L.& W. railroad crosses the road to Homer , and from Homer to near the same point. Here an unexpected obstacle was encountered in a refusal of the D.L. & W. Railroad Company to allow the street car line to cross its tracks. The question was taken into the courts and a decision from the Court of Appeals was give in favor of the horse railway company. The tracks will now be made continuous to Homer village.

                        At a meeting of the stockholders of the company , held the first week in March , 1884 , the following directors were elected for the ensuing year.

                  Chas. H. Garrison , R.H. Duell , L.D. Garrison , J.C Carmichael , W.H. Clark , J.D. Schermerhorn , Wm. N. Brockway , S.E. Welch , C.C. Taylor , L.J. Fitzgerald , E.A. Fish , J.M. Milne and Coleman Hitchcock.

                        At a subsequent meeting of the new board of directors the following officers were chosen:

President--Chas. H. Garrison
Vice-president--J.C. Carmichael
Secretary--J.M. Milne
Treasurer--S.E. Welch
Attorney--R.H. Duell
Engineer--F.E. Knight
Executive com.--L.J. Fitzgerald , W.H. Clark , J.D. Schermerhorn.




  We have not to go very far into the past in search of the beginning of manufacturing in Cortland village ; at least upon a scale that would call for any special attention in this work. While this place has always possessed important advantages as a manufacturing center , and particularly so since its railroad connections have been developed , yet it was many years after it had become entitled to creditable mention among the thriving interior villages of the State before its manufacturing industries felt that forward impulse which has within the past decade made its name familiar in almost every State of the Union , and given it a growth in population that is almost phenomenal.

                        To establish manufactures in every business center is the hopeful desire of progressive citizens the country over ; for it is well known that they are the never-failing key to advancement. But it is often only after years of patient waiting that the bold spirits , imbued with energy and perseverance , are found who will take initiatory steps in great undertakings. When this is once accomplished , there are seldom wanting enough others who will follow in the establishment of other industries and the community takes on new life. The manufacturing industries of Cortland , a large proportion of which have been established within the past ten years , have been almost uniformly successful , and this fact should act as a stimulant to others. Aside from the one feature of water power (and that sooner or later gives away to steam ) , Cortland possesses facilities for the manufacturer that are almost unexcelled. Prominent among these are her shipping advantages--a feature that is of more importance in this connection than any other. The Syracuse , Binghamton and New York Railroad connects at Binghamton with the New York , Lake Erie and Western , and Delaware , Lackawanna and Western Railroads ; at Syracuse with the New York Central and West Shore roads ; the Utica , Ithaca , and Elmira connects at Elmira also with the Erie and Delaware , Lackawanna and Western , and at Freeville with the Southern Central , and the Cazenovia , Canastota and DeRuyter Railroad also connects at Canastota with the New York Central--thus giving a choice of shipment over five of the greatest rival lines in the State , and there is good reason for predicting that these ample railroad connections will ere long be supplemented by others. The village authorities are alive to the importance of offering a warm and liberal welcome to all contemplating manufacturers , which fact is becoming widely known and cannot fail to attract capital.

The heaviest manufacturing interest in Cortland at the present time is that of road vehicles--wagons , carriages and cutters. In connection with this industry Cortland village is known throughout the United States and in many foreign countries.

                    Wagon making in Cortland was begun at an early day , one of the first manufacturers being Joseph Crandall , who began the business in the spring of 1820. He was an enterprising , progressive man and carried on quite a large business for that period. [1] The first shop used by Crandall stood on the site now occupied by Barney Dond's tavern on Port Watson street ; this old shop was burned. Crandall's second shop was the building now owned by W.P. Randall and occupied by Niver's livery stable. Crandall was succeeded in that shop by Wilber & Collins , who afterward sold to William K. Parker. He was the last manufacturer of wagons in that building , which was sold to Henry Smith , who used it as a sash factory for a time and sold it to Mr. Randall in 1848. Here he kept one of the most extensive livery stables in the county for a period of thirty years. At one time during his career in this business , in the palmy days staging from Syracuse to Binghamton , Mr. Randall kept about one hundred horses.


[1] Among Crandall's employees was a lad who traveled from Peekskill to Cortland on foot , remaining in the establishment as shop boy for seven moths. His name was William B. Kirk , now a old , respected ad wealthy citizen of Syracuse.


The manufacture of wagons in Cortland attracted but little attention until the foundation was laid for one of the largest establishments in the world--that of the Cortland Wagon Company. In the year 1869 L.J. Fitzgerald and O.C. Gee began making wagons in the usual manner of similar works in villages , in the building now occupied by the office of the Cortland Democrat ; there they turned out about 150 wagons annually and the business was continued on about that basis until 1872 , when Mr. Gee's interest was purchased by Chas. W.Kinne. The new firm soon put in operation their plan of building platform wagons for the general market. New buildings were erected on Railroad street , and the new firm turned out 50 wagons the first year of their partnership. The two men were full of business energy and they united their best efforts in carrying out the idea of building an excellent vehicle and pushing the sale to such a number annually as would enable them to greatly undersell all competitors.

The wisdom of the plan was rapidly demonstrated. The third year (1875) they built and sold 1,000 wagons , and the next year 1,500 at which time the firm took the name of the Cortland Wagon Manufacturing Company and erected their wood-working shop on the site of their present immense factory , near the railroad depot of the D.L. & W. road. In the year 1876 2,200 wagons were built and sold , and in the following year Mr. Kinne died , leaving the responsibility of a large and growing business on Mr. Fitzgerald's shoulders ; but he has proved fully equal to the work. In 1878 the production of the works was the same as in the preceding year , and on the 1st of January , 1879 , the present stock organization was formed--the Cortland Wagon Company--and incorporated , with capital of $100,000. The directors were L.J. Fitzgerald , W.D. Tisdale , Hugh Duffy and M.D. Welch. During that year between 5,000 and 6,000 wagons were manufactured , which number was increased in 1880 , and in 1881 , to 8,000.

In the fall of 1880 the middle building and the east building , which connects the north and south buildings , were erected , and on the first day of April , 1881 , the old works on Railroad street were abandoned and the whole business centered at this point , between the S.B. & N.Y., and U.I. & E. railroads , with special tracks from both roads running into the works. Here the facilities were still more largely increased until they are now manufacturing and selling 12,000 platform spring wagons , buggies and phaetons , per year , thirty railway cars of extra large size being owned by the company and employed in the transportation of their products to all parts of the United States.

The present directors of the company are the same as given above , with the exception of Mr. Welch , who withdrew. Mr. Fitzgerald is president ; Hugh Duffy , vice-president and general superintendent ; W.D. Tisdale treasurer , and F. Cyrus Straat secretary. The business has been extended to embrace the manufacture of buggies and the company is now without doubt the largest manufacturers of spring wagons in the world. From 300 to 350 men are employed ; about $18,000 are paid in wages monthly , and the works are valued at $500,000 and cover nine acres of ground. It is an industry of which any city or village might well be proud.

C.B. Hitchcock's Buggy and Cutter Works.--In the spring of 1877 C.B. Hitchcock came to Cortland from Cincinnatus and began the manufacture of cutters , on Port Watson street. He was a practical carriage painter and had been proprietor of a carriage manufactory in Cincinnatus , whence he removed to satisfy his ambition to do a larger business. In the first of his trade in Cortland he made and sold 100 cutters , from which moderate success grew his belief that the business could be almost indefinitely extended. To this end he purchased the old Methodist Church building which had been removed to the corner of Elm street and the Syracuse , Binghamton and New York railroad , and in the following year turned out 250 cutters and 100 buggies. Additions were made to the works in 1879 and the product increased to 550 cutters and 200 buggies. Since that time annual extensions have been made to the buildings , to meet the necessities of the rapidly increasing sales , which reached in 1883 about 10,000 cutters and 2,000 wagons. The works now comprise a wood-working shop and engine house , 60 by 100 feet in dimensions ; blacksmith shop , 30 by 150 feet ; painting and stock building , 100 by 120 feet ; a five story building , 30 by 300 feet , occupied by the repository , trimming and shipping departments ; and other smaller buildings. This is now the largest cutter manufactory in the world and the business has grown from $4,000 in 1877 to about $500,000. On the 1st of January , 1884 a stock company was organized , with $150,000 capital. It is the intention of the company to greatly extend the works and begin the manufacture of agricultural implements. The officers C.B. Hitchcock , president ; H.L. Gleason , secretary and superintendent ; H.C. Henry , treasurer.


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