History of
Greene County
New York

with

Biographical Sketches of its Prominent Men

J.B. Beers and Co.
1884


Outline History of Greene County


Transcribed by Dianne Schnettler


CHAPTER I

GENERAL DESCRIPTION – GEOGRAPHY, TOPOGRAPHY – SOIL – WATERS – GEOLOGY

Greene County lies on the west side of the Hudson River, centrally distant 130 miles from New York, and from the State capital 35 miles. The boundary lines are very irregular; that on the north, which is the old south boundary of Rensselaer Manor, being the greatest length of straight line (a distance of about 30 miles) to be found in its perimeter. It contains 686 square miles. The longest line that can be drawn in the county – diagonal from northeast to southwest – is about 43 miles, while the average length is 32 miles, and the average width 20 miles. Its greatest width is about 25 miles, and it has a front on the river of the same length. The southern part is mountainous, comprising the celebrated Catskill Mountains, which reach a height of nearly 4,000 feet, and can be seen from a great distance. Other parts of the county are very hilly. From the main range a spur of mountains extends through the county in a northeasterly direction, its peaks ranging from 2,500 to 3,000 feet high. This range forms a natural boundary, dividing the county into two nearly equal parts and separating the towns of Windham, Jewett and Hunter on the west from those of Durham, Cairo and Catskill on the east. The eastern slope of these mountains, as well as of the mountains of the county generally, is steep and wall-like, while the western side falls away by a more gradual slope, and in spurs of smaller mountains and hills. The north sides of theses spurs are rocky and bare, while their south sides are covered with vast deposits of drift, indicating that a great current of water once swept over them from the north. In the western part of the county a spur of mountains runs across, entirely hedging off the town of Halcott from the other towns. The valley on the west of this spur is drained by the Bush Kill; that lying between these mountains and the central range, above referred to, by the Schoharie Kill and its branches, while the country on the east of the latter range is drained mainly by the Katskill and its branches. Clefts between the mountains, through which these streams find their way are called “cloves.” [From the Dutch word kloof – a cleft, gorge.] These in some cases amount to wide valleys, while in others they are narrow ravines, the steep sides of which sometimes rise nearly perpendicularly 1,500 feet or more above the streams flowing through them. The most important of these are Kaaterskill Clove, Bush Kill Clove, Stoney Clove, Mink Hollow and Plattekill Hollow, all in the southern part of the county. The principal mountains lie at the nearest point about seven miles rom the river. In ront of them is a series of lesser mountains called the Little Catskills, (also known as Hooge-bergen or High Hills), which rise from 500 to 700 feet, and lie four or five miles back from the river. Between these and the river there are several ridges between which stretch parallel fertile valleys. The most strongly marked and important of these ridges is the Kalkberg, which lies two or three miles from the river and rises in a precipitous wall from 100 to 150 feet.

The soil of the county is for the most part a heavy shaly loam with local variations to sand and gravel. Along the valleys of the creeks there are numerous flats of heavy, fertile soil. On the rough and elevated portions the soil is so stony as to render cultivation difficult if not impossible. This is particularly the case in the towns of Lexington and Hunter. Some years ago Horace Greeley was addressing the farmers of this county and enlarging upon the possibilities of development by the aid of the sub-soil plow and other things, when he was interrupted by a farmer from the region mentioned who asked what he would do on those farms, where, by his description, he showed that Greeley’s methods were ridiculously impracticable; upon which Greeley simply raised his eyes and replied “raise sheep,” and went on with his address. The soil is well adapted to raising hay and grazing.

The county is well supplied with small streams, which find their way down from the rocks and mountains, and, after winding many miles among the irregular barriers with which nature has opposed their direct progress, reach the smoother waters of the Delaware or the Hudson. The largest of these, the Katskill – properly Kats Kil – which rises in a swamp in Schoharie county, called by the Dutch Eckerson Vly, and flows through this county, across the towns of Durham, Cairo and Catskill, forms for short distances the dividing line between Durham and Greenville and between Catskill and Athens, and empties into the Hudson after following its devious channel a distance of about 40 miles. Its principal tributary on the north is Potick Creek, which rises in Albany county, and coming down across the northeast corner of Greenville and the west end of Coxsackie, forms the dividing line between Cairo on its west bank and Athens on its east, joins the Katskill about five miles above its mouth. About two miles from its  mouth the Katskill is joined by the Katerskil, its principal tributary on the south, which rises in the lakes on South Mountain and flows through  a serpentine channel down one of the grandest gorges in all this mountain region. As it descends it makes several falls and cascades of rare beauty and grandeur. The most noteworthy of these are  Haines’s Falls, where the waters of the West Branch of the Katerskil dash over a precipice 150 feet high, and the Katerskil Falls where the east or main branch of the stream comes over two falls a few yards apart, the first being 175 feet high and the second 80 feet. Inspired by its beauty William Cullen Bryant many years ago wrote the poem which is so frequently quoted as not to require repetition here. Though the distance from its source to its junction with the Katskill is not over nine miles, this stream probably flows 25 miles to gain it. The Schoharie Kill rises in the southern part of the town of Hunter and flows northwesterly across Jewett, Lexington and Prattsville, draining nearly half the county, and taking a northerly course empties into the Mohawk, and thus its waters, after making a circuit of 175 miles, pass down the Hudson within 10 miles of their starting point. The principal branches of this stream are the Batavia Kill which rises in the eastern part of Windham and flows through that town and Ashland joining it in Prattsville; and the West Kill which rises in the southern part of Lexington, and flowing north, joins the Schoharie from the west. The Bush Kill, which with its branches drains the town of Halcott, flows westward into the Delaware.

The rock formation of this county furnishes an exceedingly interesting field for the study of the geologist. As we begin to investigate the character of this formation we learn that it is entirely the result of oceanic processes. The section contains no igneus [sic] or volcanic rocks. The existence of coal below the surface here is also proven to be a scientific impossibility, since the rocks that crop out here are part of strata that lie a great distance below the coal formation. Upon the bottom of the great primitive ocean, composed as that bottom was of the hypogene rocks, granite, gneiss, mica slate and the like, there were formed by the depositing of sediment successive layers of material that became rock. To these successive layers that had their period of formation before that of the rocks of this section, geologists have given names corresponding for the most part with the localities where the different layers respectively appear. These are, in order from the bottom, 1, Postdam sandstone; 2, calciferous sandrock; 3, Black River and Trenton limestones; 4, Utica slate; 5, Hudson River group; 6, grey sandstone and conglomerate; 7,  Medina sandstone; 8, Clinton group; 9, Niagara group; 10, Onondaga salt group; 11, Helderberg limestones, including grits and sandstones; 12, Hamilton group, including Marcellus shale and Tully limestone; 13, Portage group, including Genesee slate; 14, Chemung group and old red sandstone or Catskill group. Those in italics are found cropping out in this county.

The Hudson River shales and sandstones occupy a belt one to two miles in width along the river. This group was formed in that long ago time designated by geologists as the Lower Silurian period. It contains but very few if any fossils. Following this formation there appears to have been a long period of suspension in the process of depositing material for rock making here. During this time the process was going on in other parts, but no rocks that have been discovered were formed here until the Upper Silurian period, when the materials of the Helderberg group were deposited. Just above the limestones of this group a very monotonous formation of shales is found, from one to three hundred feet in thickness. This is a formation of the Devonian age, which geologists have given the name Cauda-galli, because of a sea-weed imprint of “cock-tail” form which appears on some of the beds. The fossils in this formation are few, except the apparently vegetable remains which give its name. Another layer of limestone follows this, and is called Corniferous from the circumstance of its containing chert or hornstone scattered in irregular nodules through it. It contains but few fossils. Next above this appears the Marcellus shale of the Hamilton group. This has a thickness of about one hundred feet, is black and sometimes glazed, and containing indications of bitumen it has led to the belief that coal existed below, and thus investigations have been pursued in search of that formation, but always without reward. This rock contains fossils. Its texture is soft, so that its line of outcrop has been worn away, and is now hidden beneath the glacial deposits that have since been made.

Above this black shale the rock becomes of lighter color, and runs through a gradation to a sandy composition, still containing fossils. This stratum appears in the hills which lie three to four miles back from the river in the southern part of the county. The various strata of this group are interspersed with a few thin calcareous bands. Upon this rests a series of shaly sandstones and shales known as the Chemung group. The material of this group is wanting in calcareous matter, and except perhaps in the very lowest strata, it is destitute of fossils. This group with the next, the Catskill group, forms the great mass of the mountains. The two groups taken together are more than three thousand feet in thickness. The latter consists of red shales and sandstones from the decomposition of which the soil forms a reddish clay.

The various strata of the rocks we have noticed, which at first lay horizontally, were, while in a plastic condition, compressed into wrinkles or folds by the action of some unknown and immeasurable force of nature. These folds lie nearly parallel with each other and with the river. Near the river they are sharply bent, so that their sides become parallel, but farther away their acuteness decreases. It is supposed that the pressure which produced them was exerted from the direction of the river, pushing the great mass of material in a direction a little north of west. The rock strata have an average south-southeasterly dip of forty to seventy degrees. The Hudson River group, which received the bulk of this pressure, is covered by varying depths of blue and yellow clays, through which, at frequent intervals, its distorted and ragged folds break out. Besides the one just mentioned there have been other agencies, very powerful ones, at work to change the shape and appearance of the original formations that we have noticed. These were the erosion following the great upheaval of the former ocean bed into dry land, and the movements of those great sheets of ice glaciers across the face of the continent, grinding down one place and filling up another with the earth and rocks they had stolen from some far-off region.

Of all the rock formations we have noticed the Helderberg group occupies the greatest part of this county, and is of the most importance. Its thickness is from two to three hundred feet. The lower strata subdivided into five sections may be briefly described, with the fossils peculiar to each , as follows:

The Waterlime: fine-grained, even, thin bedded, light-colored; weathers whitish; dips to the west; thickness about seventy feet; fossils, Leperditia and Tentaculite.

The Lower Pentamerus: a hard, blue rock, in knotted layers, often containing blue chert; thickness about eighty feet; dips to the west; fossils, Pentamerus, Atrypa, Rhynchonella and others.

The Catskill Shaly Limestone: dull dark blue when freshly broken but weathering brown or gray; even-bedded, thin splitting; thickness about one hundred feet; dips to the west forty to twenty degrees; resists erosion effectively; fossils, Spirifer, Hemipronites, Strophomena, Avicula, Dalmanites and others.

The Encrinal Limestone: hard, coarse crystalline, frequent reddish tinge, with dull green partings between its heavy layers; layers about horizontal; contains numerous crinoid stems and other fossils.

The Upper Pentamerus: a hard, blue, crystalline limestone; thick-bedded; largely composed of shells; strata lying flat; thickness, by itself undetermined, but in connection with the preceding, with which it is closely joined, about 120 feet; fossils, Pentamerus, Spirifer, Orthis and Rhynchonella.

In the foregoing paragraphs on the geology of this county, we have ben largely assisted by facts given by William Morris Davis, of Cambridge, Mass., in “Appalachia,” and in Van Loan’s Catskill Mountain Guide. 

CHAPTER II

THE INDIANS – THEIR HISTORY AND LEGENDS.

One of the first inquiries that suggests itself when we consider the history of a locality is in regard to its primitive occupancy. Who were the people that lived here before our ancestors gained a home on the soil; and how did they live? What was their condition, and what became of them when the white settlers took possession of their lands? Amid the obscurity which surrounds the early history of this locality we find but little positive data from which to construct satisfactory answers to these questions. The aborigines reared no enduring monuments to perpetuate to civilization the record of themselves and their work. When the first European settler came, the land now occupied by Greene County was occupied by sub-tribes of the great Algonquin nation. Indications of their existence are not wanting. We see them in the traces of their once frequented villages, their burial grounds, their stone arrow-points and instruments of various kinds, but in these there is little upon which to found a definite account of their history or themselves.

In the early part of the seventeenth century the banks of the Hudson were occupied by sub-tribes of the two great Indian nations, the Lenni Lenapes, or Delawares as they were afterwards called, and the Mahicans. The former occupied the west side of the river from its mouth  up as far as the Katskill, and west to the head waters of the Delaware and Susquehanna rivers, while the latter occupied all the east side of the river, and the west side from an undefined point in the northern wilderness down to the Katksill, and west as far as Schenectady. The wolf was the totemic symbol of the representatives of both these nations upon the territory of Greene County. The chieftaincy of the Lenni Lenapes that extended up the river to this point ws the Minsis, which had six sub-divisions. One of these sub-tribes was the Catskills, and they inhabited the region from Saugerties northward to the Katskill, and perhaps, beyond that stream. Definite boundaries to their jurisdiction were unknown. There are evidences that indicate that their claim to lands as far north as Coxsackie Creek was admitted. It appears, however, that they held no lands beyond the ridge of the Katskill Mountains, the Schoharie Valley being the ground of the Mohawks. The Catskill Indians were spoken of by Hudson as a “loving people,” and otherwise seemed to have the reputation of a very peaceable clan. In 1663, their Chief was known as Long Jacob; and their sachem in 1682 was Mahak Niminaw. The Warranawonkongs, another sub-division of the Minsis, and the most numerous of all joined them on the south. The particular chieftaincy of the Mahicans that occupied the valley of the Hudson was divided into five or more sections or sub-tribes. Of these the Mechkentowoons occupied the territory “above the Katskill and on Beeren or Mahican Island.”

We have little evidence to show that the Indians of this territory played a very conspicuous or active part in the wars between the Mohawks and the Mahicans that waged for many years during the period of European discovery and settlement. The Catskill Indians were no doubt associated with the other sub-tribes of their nation in resisting the Mohawks. A tradition comes down to us that once upon a time, the representatives of the two great powers – Iroquois and Mahicans – met in great numbers upon the island now called Rogers Island [Wanton Island, several miles below Catskill, has also been made the scene of this battle], and there engaged in bloody conflict for the supremacy over the river. The result, as the tradition goes, was a victory, complete and lasting for the former, or more definitely for the Mohawks, they being the particular tribe of the Iroquois confederation engaged in this conflict. When it took place we are not told. The Mohawks, whatever may have been their triumphs, never laid claim to the lands bordering the river here.

The history, habits, manners and religion of the Indians who occupied this ground were the same generally as those of the nations to which they belonged. They selected for their habitations the rich flats bordering the streams, and probably seldom ventured upon the mountains. The fish in the river and its tributary creeks and the game with which the forests of the plains and lesser hills abounded, together with the products of the fertile soil which they cultivated gave them an abundant livelihood, and there was little in the waste of rocks and inaccessible steeps to attract them thither. They lived in circular wigwams, generally in single families. These wigwams, ten or twelve feet across them, were formed of poles set up in circular form and the top drawn together, after which the frame-work was covered with barks and skins. They had a custom of setting the woods and meadows on fire in autumn, at “Indian summer” time. Their strong-holds were circular forts, built upon commanding elevations at important points. These forts were usually enclosures, containing about an acre, surrounded by palisades 12 or 15 feet high, and within were filled with wigwams. The hoes with which they planted and cultivated their corn were made of the shoulder-blades of the deer or moose, or clam shells, fastened to a handle. It is said that they sometimes used fish as a fertilizer, (though we do not see the necessity of that), and that their corn-fields were often several acres in extent. Besides corn, they also raised squashes, tobacco, beans and sunflowers.

Swiftly and surely they faded out, before the poisonous breath of civilization and “fire-water,” and there is nought left to speak of their existence but the ashes of their homes, their own decaying bones and the fragments of their stone implements that here and there protrude from the disturbed soil.

Of the few legends that are preserved concerning them, we have only room for the following, which is the substance condensed from recollections of a recital of it made forty years ago by a descendant of the old Dutch settlers:

“About the time of the settlement of this vicinity, there lived an Indian chief who bore the name Shandaken, who is said to have occupied, during the warm season, the table rock upon which the Mountain House, on Pine Orchard, stands. This old chief had an only daughter, whose beauty excited the admiration of all the young braves and the envy of all the squaws in the neighborhood. Lotowana, for that was her name, was sought for by many a warrior of high rank in the circles of the forest. But the proposals, which were frequently made to Shandaken for the hand of his daughter, were uniformly rejected, for she was already betrothed to a young chief of the Mohawks. Among those who were captivated by the charms of Lotowana was Norsereddin, who boasted descent from an ancient race of Egyptian kings, and who lived somewhere upon the banks of the Katskill. This young man had little to recommend him to the favor of any one, either in possessions or character. Haughty, morose, unprincipled, cruel and dissipated, he still possessed an invincible determination to accomplish his purposes that recoiled not from the use of any means that lay within his reach. This graceless man had been moved to attempt the conquest of Lotowana’s heart, simply by a banter of a Dutchman at a primitive tavern, where they were enjoying the sweets of the proverbial beer and pipe. The Dutchman had offered to wager 1,000 pieces of crown gold that Norsereddin could not win the affection of Lotowana from her troth, and although the proud Egyptian scorned the regard of the Indian girl, he declared that he would take the wager and make the one who offered it rue his presuming folly.

“Norsereddin repaired at once to the mountain and spent six months in hunting, fishing and shooting with Shandaken, improving the while every opportunity to engage the favor and confidence of the chief and his people. By his seductive manners he was able to make fair progress as far as the chief and other were concerned, but with the dusky damsel he was assured by no such measure of success. In fact, while he evidently failed to awaken any tender regard for himself in the heart of the girl, he found to his chagrin that his own heart was becoming enchanted by her winning graces. So now Norsereddin had a double stimulus to the prosecution of his design, a thousand crowns of gold and a wife, that if he could not introduce with pride to the circle of his Egyptian friends, he could take delight in here amid the seclusion of the new world. He at last asked for the hand of Lotowana, but great was his mortification when he found himself rejected. Repeated assertions of his love, which were now made in all sincerity, were met by steadfast refusal, until his wounded spirit was aroused to its former imperious and haughty mien, but to his remonstrances the old chief replied: “Go, my son, there are smiles for thee among the daughters of thine own race, they are fair, and will rejoice in thy coming. The child of the red men would not forget her home. She has been nursed amid the voices of the forest, and the tall trees have cast their shadows upon her soul as over a pure stream. The music of their leaves has lulled her for many moons, and her heart is full of their strange language. Her dreams have been haunted with the croak of the raven and the scream of the panther, and still she has slept in security under the branches of the tall oak, until the images of the forest have become as a part of her own being – she would not forget them, and would sigh to return. Let my son but reflect, too, that the sunlight of her spirit falls towards the camp of the Mohawk, and its shadow, even now, darkens in his own pathway. The light of the glad sun, which proceedeth outwards continually, is the truth of the Manitou, carrying joy to the hearts of his people. It returns not, like a false light, ere it has fulfilled its promise, but goes on into the darkness beyond the world, gladdening it with hope. Shandaken would have his word like the truth of the Manitou. It has sown joy in the heart of one, let it not return unfulfilled, that the finger of scorn should point at him, and shame come upon him in his old age.”

Norsereddin in reply attempted to justify the breach of honor which he had urged Shandaken to commit, but this only called out a more indignant reply from the chief. Finding himself hopelessly foiled, the Egyptian became enraged and attempted to strike down the chief upon the spot, but Shandaken hurled him away with such force that he fell upon the rock almost insensible, and the Indians who were near, following up the movement, drove Norsereddin from the camp. The latter now vowed revenge, and gave his mind to the conception of a plan, which, having devised, he forthwith proceeded to put into operation.

By the help of an old domestic he obtained the fang of a serpent, and securing it upon a piece of wire, he arranged it in a very pretty little box in such a way that when the box should be opened the wire would spring out and strike the fang into the hand of the person holding it. To make its work doubly sure and effective he charged the point also with some powerful mineral poison. Thus provided he set out for the Indian camp on the day preceding that set for the marriage festival of the lovely Lotowana with her Mohawk chief.

The summer was in its full bloom of richness, and nature smiled in the freshness of her garb of verdure and hazy purple. Every feature of the landscape seemed to flush with conscious joy, but the heart of Norsereddin comprehended it not, for it was absorbed in the execution of a diabolical purpose of revenge. On reaching the mountain he greeted Shandaken with this cunningly devised address: “Brother, I have come far this morning to greet you with the words of kindness. Let us be friends. It is not meet that you, who are a prince among your people, and I, who am the scion of a race of kings, should be at enmity or war. If I have done any thing that has offended you, forgive my rashness, and charge it rather to the sudden heat of blood than any settled purpose to do you wrong. The Dawn of Day was beautiful, exceedingly – I was blind and frenzied – that passion is now dead, or lives only in my recollection of its folly. Let us forget the past, and as we once were so let us be friends again. Here is a casket, and there are jewels in it that would grace a diadem. I have brought them for Lotowana, the loved child of the Wabinga chieftain, ere she departs from the wigwam of her father. Let her accept them as a peace offering from her brother, so shall he remember her with gratitude, and invoke a blessing on her in her new home. Go, give them to the maiden, and I will depart with the breath of peace upon my lips.”

To this Shandaken replied: “It rejoices our hearts that our brother says peace. We harbor no evil against the pale-face – he is our friend; and as the mist of the morning fades before the sunlight, so melts our anger before the smiles of our brother. We accept the gift he had brought for the young maiden, as a pledge of his friendship, and are glad that he will bury his anger. It is good – let there be peace, so shall we think of him with kindness; and when he departs from us our blessing will follow him.”

Norsereddin, having delivered his message, retired without delay, while the chief went to deliver the casket to his daughter. She at once opened it, and in doing so was wounded by the fatal dart. Screaming with pain she called her father, who examined the infernal machine and saw through the scheme of which they had been made the victims. So effectual was its action that, notwithstanding all possible efforts were made to counteract the poison, the expectant bride in a few minutes lay dead at the feet of her father. Twenty warriors at once set out in pursuit of the wretched deceiver. Mounted on trusty horses, they sped down the mountain side and across the slopes with the swiftness of the whirlwind. But little did they gain on the fleet-footed charger of Norsereddin until the latter, when near the Kalkberg, stumbled and fell. To extricate himself from the entanglement of this position and remount took time that gave the pursuers advantage, and before he could regain his flight he was overtaken. The Indians now pinioned him, placed him on his horse, and proceeded with him back to their camp. A consultation was held and it was decided that he should be committed to the flames. The spot selected was upon the flat rock of Pine Orchard, but a few feet from the edge of the precipice. Overwhelmed by the prospect of death before him, he plead [sic] wildly for mercy, but he plead [sic] in vain. The pile of faggots was prepared, the victim thoroughly bound and placed upon it, and the torch applied. As the hungry flames which were his winding sheet, lapped around the body of the helpless wretch and intensified the surrounding darkness, the savages danced around it, while their shouts of exultation mingled with the wails that the agonies of death wrung from the victim of his own revenge.

The body of Lotowana was buried amid the mourning of her friends; and on the following day Shandaken removed from the spot, to which he never more returned; while the ashes of Norsereddin were left upon the rock untouched, to be scattered hence by the four winds of heaven. 

CHAPTER III

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT 

Henry Hudson was one of those ambitious navigators who were ready to sacrifice their ease, and even their lives, in the exciting enterprise of searching for the northwest passage to the Indies. A native Englishman, the early part of the seventeenth century found him in the employ, first of the London Company, and after that company had abandoned the enterprise, then engaged with the Dutch East India Company. Under the latter’s commission, he left Amsterdam in the “Half Moon,” a ship of about eighty tons capacity, and on the 4th of April, 1609, sailed for the New World. He arrived on the “banks” of Newfoundland early in July, and for two months cruised along the coast, looking for some opening that would promise to admit him to the Indian Sea beyond.

How easy it is for us, in the light of the present day, to smile at the unavailing enthusiasm of Hudson and the folly of his scheme! But as this voyage brought the first European discoverer to the lands of this county, and to the rock-ribbed hills that lift their eternal heads into the azure depths of heaven, and the first white navigator that ever sailed up the majestic river that washes cove and point along twenty-five miles of the county border, we shall notice with interest the account of that first voyage up the river, as we gather its substance from the journal of Hudson.

After entering the Chesapeake and Delaware bays, he returned to New York Bay and anchored there on the evening of the 3rd of September. After remaining there several days, he started on the 12th, to explore the river. On the morning of the 13th, with a clear, northerly wind, they weighed anchor and sailed four miles. As the ship lay at anchor, four canoes came off to them bringing oysters, which the crew bought for trifles, but did not allow the Indians to come aboard. Here Hudson found the variation of the compass to be 13 degrees. In the afternoon they sailed up on the flood tide, seven and a half miles further. Here they anchored and lay all night in five fathoms of water, and found “soft, ozie ground.” On the following morning, (14th), with fair weather and a southeast wind, they sailed up the river 36 miles, passing through a “streight between two points,” (the Highlands, just below Peekskill), “and it trended northeast by north one league,: with high land on both sides. Then they sailed northwest a “league and a half,” then northeast by north five miles then northwest by north six miles, which brought them to the neighborhood of what is now Cornwall Landing. Here they have found the shores high and mountainous, the water varying in depth from five to fourteen fathoms, and the river full of fish. On the morning of the 15th, a mist hung over the river, but the sun dispelled it, and the “Half Moon” spread her wings to a south wind, and sailed up 60 miles, passing, on the way, the Catskill Mountains. Here, the record says, they found “great store of salmons in the river,” of which they caught great numbers. That morning two Indians, whom they had taken prisoners, escaped out of a port and swam ashore. At night they anchored just above the present site of Athens. Here they were visited by Indians, probably the Catskill Indians, by whom they were well used. These Indians they found to be a “very loving people,” and among them many old men. On the following day, (16th), the savages came aboard the ship, having, it seems, gained the confidence of Hudson and his crew to such an extent that they allowed them to enter the vessel. This morning they attempted to fish, but the Indians had been paddling about with their canoes during the night and frightened the fish away. Here the ship lay at anchor all day, and the Indians brought them corn and tobacco and pumpkins, or perhaps, more properly, squashes. These the crew bought for some trifling articles they had with them. After filling their water vessels, they weighed anchor at night, and sailed up six miles further, where finding the water growing more shallow, they anchored and lay till morning. The 17th brought them a clear, hot day. In the morning they set sail, and passing the islands that obstruct the river from New Baltimore upward, sailed eighteen miles and ran aground. This point was probably just above Castleton, perhaps half way between there and Albany. After grounding the second time and heaving off, they cast anchor and lay all night and the next day. Here the mate of the ship went ashore with an Indian chief who took him to his home and treated him kindly. Just before noon, on the 19th, they weighed anchor and sailed up six miles further, where they found better water, probably just above the present site of Albany. Here the ship lay at anchor until the 23rd, during which time the mate, with four men in a small boat, explored the river about 25 miles further up, but finding they had reached the head of navigation, no attempt was made to run the ship any further.

While the ship lay here, Hudson and his crew had an opportunity to trade with the Indians and study their character. They came aboard in great numbers, bringing grapes, pumpkins and beaver and other skins which were bought for beads, knives and hatchets. On the 21st, the carpenter went ashore, cut a tree and made a fore-yard. While the ship lay here, some of the officers amused themselves by experimenting upon the Indians with liquor, as the journal says, to see “whether they had any treachery in them.” So they took them into the cabin and gave them wine and aqua-vitae until they were all merry. In the end, one of them who had been on board all the time the ship lay there, became drunk. This was new to the savages, and they did not know how to understand the strange condition of their comrade. They went ashore, but some of them returned bringing “stropes of beads,” which they gave him. This, doubtless, was to break the spell which they supposed the evil spirit had fastened upon the man. However, the spell was not broken, and he lay asleep all night. The next day, about noon, the savages came aboard and found their associate all right again. They were so well pleased with this, that they returned, and at about 3 o’clock in the afternoon, came aboard and brought tobacco and beads and gave them eto the master, and made an oration to him, and brought a great platter of venison, and caused him to eat with them, and after showing him all the country round about, they made him reverence and departed, all except the old man who had been drunk.

On the 23rd the Half Moon started on her return trip down the river. Weighing anchor at 12 o’clock she sailed down about six miles, when she struck a shoal, and had to remain there until the swelling of the tide helped her off. When they gained deep water they anchored and lay all night. On the 24th  they had fair weather and a northwest wind. Sailing down the river they ran aground on a flat in the middle of the river. This was probably the flat that lies between Hudson and Athens. At 10 o’clock at night they were able to get the ship off, and anchor in deep water. While the ship lay here aground the men went ashore and gathered chestnuts. On the 25th they had fair weather but a southerly wind, so they rode at anchor and went ashore to look at the land on the west side of the river, probably around the present site of Athens. Here they found “good ground for corne [sic], and other garden herbs, with great store of goodly oakes [sic], and walnut trees, and chestnut trees, ewe trees, and trees of sweet wood in great abundance, and great store of slate for houses, and other good stones.” The next day the wind continued southerly, and the carpenter and master’s mate and four other men went ashore to cut some wood. A party of Indians from the place where they found the “loving people,” generally supposed to have been Catskill Indians, came to the vessel in two canoes this morning. The old man who had become so attached to the ship and her crew while they lay at anchor above was with them. He had somewhere left the ship and gone out to seek his acquaintances, and brought them to see the wonderful ship and the wonderful people on board of it. The party consisted of the old man and another old man, who seemed to be a chief, and their wives and two girls of sixteen or seventeen years, “who behaved themselves very modestly.” Hudson gave one of the old men a knife, and he in return gave him some tobacco. The old man brought Hudson some beads, and was invited by him to take dinner with him. After dinner the Indians departed, giving Hudson an invitation to come down to where they lived, which they said was only two leagues below. As they passed the place where the Indians lived, on the following day, the old man came again to them and desired them to anchor and come ashore, but the wind being fair Hudson would not stop. The record states that the old man turned away sorrowful at the departure of the ship. Having with considerable difficulty and delay got off the flats at Athens they had a fair wind from the northward, and were able to make about eighteen miles that day, when the wind changing to south-southwest about five o’clock in the afternoon they anchored. They were now about opposite the present site of Saugerties. Here they went fishing and caught a few “Mullets, Breames, Bases and Barbils.” On the 29th the wind was south and southwest, and they were able to make slow progress. Reaching a point about opposite the present site of Kingston they anchored. Here the Indians came off to the ship and brought “Indian wheat,” probably corn, which Hudson’s men bought. In the afternoon they sailed down and anchored against “the edge of the mountaines [sic].” On the 30th they rode at anchor and the Indians came aboard and brought skins, which they sold to Hudson’s men for knives and other small articles. This, Hudson says, is a pleasant place to build a town. The Indians also brought to them specimens of the rock which they saw on the banks.

On the 1st of October occurred one of those incidents which show how little conscience Hudson’s men had in regard to taking the life of an Indian. One of the latter paddled up under the stern of the ship, and climbing up on the rudder to the cabin window, stole a pillow, two shirts and two bandoleers. The master’s mate thereupon took a gun and shot and killed him. As might have been expected this act created consternation among the other Indians that were about the ship, who fled with precipitate haste, some not even entering their canoes, but leaping into the water. In the midst of the confusion the ship’s boat was manned and the stolen property recovered. While the men were doing so one of the Indians while struggling in the water near the boat seized hold of it, probably to save himself from drowning, but as the journal states, “thinking to overthrow it.” The cook drew his sword and cut one of his hands so that he fell off and drowned. These inhuman acts very justly excited the resentment of the Indians, who followed the ship down the river, and in company with one of the young men whom Hudson had taken on the voyage up the river, and who had escaped, approached the ship. The crew were now very naturally suspicious, and would not allow any of the Indians to come on board. A party now approached the vessel in two canoes and shot arrows at the stern, whereupon the men fired six muskets from the ship and killed two or three of the Indians. Then about a hundred of them gathered on a point of land, perhaps to see the majestic ship pass, but as the journal insists, “to shoot at us.” Without, however, waiting to give them a chance to manifest such an intention, if such they entertained, Hudson shot a falcon at them and killed two. The others then fled to the woods. Then a little later a canoe with nine or ten Indians in it approached the ship. Without intimating that they showed any hostile intentions, Hudson says: “So I shot at it also a falcon, and shot it through, and killed one of them. Then our men, with their muskets, killed three or foure more of them.” This was sufficient to drive the Indians away from the vessel. The record does not show that they were troubled any more by the approaches of Indians on their voyage down the river. On the morning of the 4th of October they reached the “great mouth” of the river, and then the journal says: “We took in our boat and set our mayne sayle and spirit sayle, and our top-sayles, and steered away east-southeast, and southeast by east, off into the mayne sea.” The expedition arrived at Dartmouth, England, November 7th, 1609.

By this exploration this territory, with all that through which the Hudson runs, was taken possession of by the Dutch. In 1614 forts were built at New York, Rondout and Albany, but no attempt was made to establish any kind of a footing within the present limits of Greene county until many years later.

When we turn back two hundred years and more, to look at the history of settlement in a locality so barren of any positive historical data as this, we find ourselves in the midst of almost impenetrable darkness. There were no organized efforts at settlement here. Occasionally a Dutchman ventured to buy of the peaceable Indians who infested this region the right to use a patch of their ground, and then some sort of permit from the Knickerbocker governor completed his title, and he took his chances in the midst of the wilderness, which we may well imagine, presented powerful attractions in the beautiful landscapes, but more practically in the rich flats of virgin soil, and the fish abounding streams and game infested woods. Up to 1650, but little had been done toward settlement along the river. Brandt Van Schlechtenhorst, Commisssary of  Van Rensselaer, the patroon had purchased of the squaw chief Pewasck and her son Supahoof, April 19th 1649, a tract n the Katskill, including three rich flats, and a few others had probably attempted to make individual settlements. The Dutch evidently had no idea of founding a democratic settlement. They had an ambition to become lords of extensive tracts, and through the influence of this class all persons were forbidden to buy lands of the natives without consent of the Director and Council. Some exceptions seem to have been made here, however, so that grants free from any feudal patronage were issued to individuals in the name of the Dutch West India Company. But the Dutch had no ambition for an organized settlement. Those who did not aspire to rule were content with their ease, and saw no charm in the association of citizens of equal rank for purposes of local self-government.

Jonathan W. Hasbrouck, in his collection of early history, printed in Sylvester’s History of Ulster County, says of the general conditions surrounding the first settlements in this region:

“The nearest settlement antedating that of the town of Kingston, of which we have an authentic record, was Katskill. During the year 1643, Adriaen Van Der Donck, sheriff of the patroon of Rensselaerwyck ambitious of becoming a landed aristocrat, undertook to buy the Indian title to this section, and engaged settlers for his estate. Killiaen Van Rensselaer was highly incensed at this independent procedure of his liegeman, and took possession of it himself, claiming no one had a right to buy within eight miles of his estate without his consent. August 22nd, 1646, Cornelius Van Slyck obtained a patent for it. Van Slechtenorst, director for the former, waged a war of words about it, and settled a plantation there. Either through these would-be lords, or a desire to be independent, some few families had, in the mean time, fixed their homes on the banks of the Catskill Creek, and thus began the nearest settlement to Esopus. Harmen Vedder, Jan Dircksen of Bremen, Jan Jansen of the same place and Peter Teunnisen were among them.”

The colony of Palatinates at West Camp was among the early attempts at settlement of this region, but as that settlement was hardly within the limits of this county, it does not require extended notice here. The planting of this colony was a scheme of Queen Anne, by which she hoped to develop the resources of this country in the production of tar, rosin and other supplies for the British navy from the forests of pine which then abounded. Several hundreds of these German immigrants were sustained there by a contract with Robert Livingston. The colonization began in 1710-11, but the fare was so uncongenial that in less than ten years it is said nearly the whole colony had gone away and found for themselves homes in the wilds of the Schoharie region or the Mohawk Valley.

But little progress was made for a century or more. This was the century of the Dutch predominance. Not long before the revolution, however, a tide of immigration from Connecticut began to set in. At an early period, Stephen Day from that State, purchased a large tract of the Hardenburgh Patent, embracing much of the old town of Windham, and parts of Lexington and Hunter. This was settled principally by immigrants from Connecticut. In the valley of the Batavia Kill a few Dutch families from Schoharie county had attempted a settlement, but the Indians and tories, during the Revolution, harassed them so much that they abandoned it. Afterward, Elisha Strong, the Simpson brothers, Agabus White, John Tuttle, Jarius Strong, Solomon Ormsbee, Dr. Thomas Benham, and Medad Hunt, in 1788, settled in that neighborhood. They were mostly from Connecticut. The Dutch had previously gained a settlement in Prattsville, in which John Laraway, and his sons John, Jonas, Derick and Martinus, Isaac Van Alstine, John and Peter Van Loan, John Becker and others by the name of Schoonmaker and Vrooman were prominent.

The northern central part of the county was settled mainly by the English element about the time of the Revolution. The settlement of Greenville was made by Major Prevost, 1768; Stephen Lantman, Godfrey Brandow and Hans Overpaugh, 1774; Edward Lake, Peter Curtis. Abraham Post, Bethuel Hinman, and Eleazar Knowles, from Connecticut, 1783; and Asahel Jones and Rozel Post, from Connecticut, settled in Durham in 1788. George Stimpson, Abijah Stone, Increase Claflin, Perez Steele, Joshua Jones, William Henderson and Lemuel Hitchcock settled in the present Windham, 1790 to 1796.

In the southern part of the county we find the mountain region the refuge of those who fled from pursuit. The earliest settlers of Hunter were “cowboys” who located here during the Revolution, but were driven out and their property confiscated by the Whigs, soon after. After the suppression of Shay’s Rebellion in Massachusetts a number of the participants in it found their way hither in 1786, and settled among the mountains. Samuel Merritt, and Samuel and William Hayes joined the settlement in 1791. In the valley of Schoharie Kill settlement was made by Amos Bronson, Samuel Amos, Richard Peck, David and Benjamin Bailey and Benjamin Crispell in Lexington. These settlements began in 1788. William Gass, a Scotchman, settled near the Schoharie Kill, in Jewett, about 1783. Others, who followed soon after, were Zephaniah Chase, from Martha’s Vineyard, in 1787; Chester Hull from Wallingford, Conn., in 1789, and Zadoc Pratt, Theophilus and Samuel Peck, Ebenezar, David and Stephen Johnson, Laban, Ichabod, Abraham and Amherst Andrews, Benajah, John and Jared Rice, Henry Goslee, Justus Squires, Daniel Miles, Adnah Beach, Isaac and Munson Buel, Gideon, Reuben and Joel Hosford, and Samuel and Daniel Merwin.

Thus, individual settlements were made by the Dutch, along the river side of the present county, and, in a few instances, in the western par, up to the time of the Revolution; then the English began making settlements in isolated instances, or in small groups in the interior and western parts of the county. But in all these settlements there existed no municipal organization up to 1772, and there were no town organizations in existence here until after the advent of the State government. 

CHAPTER IV

ORIGINAL LAND TITLES – SYNOPSIS OF THE PATENTS

The lands of this county were at first bought of the Indian proprietors by individuals, generally in comparatively small parcels. Later the Indian title was obtained by the provincial government. Grants from the latter were made to individuals or small companies. No town or manorial charters were granted. We shall here attempt to give only an outline of the many grants that were thus made. The enumeration of them is probably incomplete, but the list embodies all the patents or grants of land of which we have been able to obtain any reliable information. Without regard to chronology or importance it will be more convenient here to notice them in alphabetical order.

Athens, Land under water: Several tracts of land under water at Athens village were surveyed on their applications for Oliver Wiswall and others; Marshall Jenkins; Casper Claw; Thomas Dillon; and Thomas Lawrence and others; March 26th 1803.

Aloon Grant: Three hundred acres in the town of Windham, adjoining the south boundary of the Batavia tract, were surveyed for Christian and others, March 28th 1772.

Batavia Patent: This was an irregular shaped strip of land lying along both sides of the Batavia Kill, mostly within the present limits of Windham, but extending into Ashland. It contained 4,200 acres and was granted to Vincent Matthews and others April 24th 1736.

“Bake Oven” Patent: This tract lay on the west side of the Katerskill, within the limits of Catskill. It comprised 885 acres in addition to about 3,000 acres which the grantees already held under the Catskill Patent. It was granted November 27th 1771, to David Abeel jr., John Dederick, Jacobus Abeel and James Abeel.

John Bronk’s Land: A tract of about 50 acres, lying on the north side of the Katskill, and bounded on the east, west and north by a “certain hill,” was confirmed to John Bronk by Governor Cornbury, July 20th 1705. It lay within the limits of the Catskill Patent, and is excepted in that patent. It had been given to John Bronk by an Indian named Schermerhorn.

Barker’s Patent: Two plains, called by the Indians Tagpohkight and Magquamsasick, lying on the Katskill, between two creeks, were granted to Elizabeth Barker in August (20th or 27th) 1691. The tract contained 400 acres, and lay above Potick, in the present town of Cairo.

Bronck’s Patent: The original Bronck’s Patent was given for a tract of land that had been bought of the Indians January 13th 1662. It was granted to Pieter Bronck June 11th 1667, and comprised 252 acres, lying between Martin Garrettson’s Island and a “hook of land called by the Indians Koixhacking.” A subsequent patent was granted for this, including also the north part of the tract granted to John Clute and others, besides additional land known as Corlear’s Kill Patent. This second patent was granted to John Bronck and Martin Garrettson May 23rd 1687.

Butrick’s Grant: A tract of 2,000 acres in the town of Catskill was surveyed for George Butrick, “late Quarter-Master in his Majesty’s 46th Regiment of Foot,” January 11th 1768.

Baker’s Grant: Two hundred acres in Catskill were surveyed under warrants dated March 1st 1769, and March 7th 1770, for William Baker, “late Sergeant in His Majesty’s 28th Regiment of Foot,” September 24th 1771.

Black and Gregg Grant: One hundred acres, in Durham, were laid out for James Black and John Gregg March 24th 1775.

Beekman and Livingston: A patent was granted to Henry Beekman and Gilbert Livingston June 11th 1719, for a tract lying in the southern part of Catskill. Another patent had been granted to Henry Beekman in 1718. (See Kiskatomatje Patent.)

Catskill Patent: This is the largest and most valuable patent ever granted for lands now entirely within this county. It embraced five “great plains,” called by the Indians Wachachkeek, Wichquanachtekak, Pachquiack, Assiskowacheek and Potick, with all the land included in a sweep of four miles from the outer edge of the plains in all directions. It contained 35,500 acres. The five plains were the flats at what is now Leeds. The land was bought of the Indians July 8th 1678, by Sylvester Salisbury and Martin Garritsen (Van Bergen), and a patent granted by Governor Andross March 27th 1680. A confirmatory purchase was made of the Indians by Cornelius Van Dyke and Martin Garrittsen June 13th 1684, and a corresponding patent was issued by Governor Dongan April 29th 1688. Several comparatively small tracts that fell within its limits were excepted.

Caaterskill Patent: (See Lockerman’s.)

Cantine Patent: This covered 58 ¼ acres of land under water, on the north side of the mouth of the Katskill, granted to John Cantine by the State May 8th 1795.

Corlear’s Kill Patent: This was granted to John Bronk and Martin Garritse May 23rd 1687. (See Bronck’s Patent).

Clute’s Patent: A patent was granted to John Clute, Jurian Tennisse, and John Hendrick De Bruyn, for a tract joining upon the northern part of the Catskill Patent, May 25th 1667. (See Loonenburg Patent).

Cockburn Grant: This was for 200 acres “at the Blue Mountains,” on the north side of the Cader’s Kill, granted to William Cockburn September 16th 1802.

Coleman and others: A tract of land, lying in the towns of Catskill and Cairo, was granted to James Coleman and others April 13th 1768. It comprised 2,000 acres.

Coxsackie Patent: This was the northern part of the Loonenburg Patent that had been sold to Martin Garritse Garritse, and was included in the confirmatory patent to Bronck and him of May 23rd 1687. (See Bronck’s, Clute’s and the Loonenburg Patents.)

Darby and Tice: Samuel Darby, Solomon Tice and Ephraim Darby petitioned for a tract of 603 ½ acres in the present town of Cairo, under the mountain and on both sides of the Shingle Kill, May 5th 1791.

Fullerton Patent: This contained 797 ½ acres, lying in the southern part of Catskill. It was granted to Robert Fullerton February 28th 1687, and confirmed by patent to Thomas Fullerton January 19th 1692.

Fitch Patent: This was situated in the town of Windham, contained 400 acres, and was granted to Elnathan Fitch.

Frazer’s Patent: A tract of 2,000 acres, now in Durham, was granted to Lieut. Hugh Frazer (or Frasier) June 17th 1765, and surveyed for him June 16th 1767.

Greene and Biddle Tract: This tract was granted to non-commissioned officers and soldiers. It lies in the southwest part of the town of Catskill.

Greene Co. Tract: This contained 108 acres and was granted to Walter Livingston, M. West and W. Morris.

Gravis, William: Two hundred acres, near the Great Imboght, were surveyed for William Gravis April 4th 1767.

Glassford, James: This petitioner asked for 200 acres adjoining the Catskill Patent, in the town of Catskill, January 18th 1769. He had been corporal in “His Majesty’s 27th Regiment of Foot.”

Gillaspie, John: Petition was made January 13th 1772 by John Gillaspie, “late Corporal in His Majesty’s 27th Regiment of Foot,” for 200 acres, in Durham.

Glevis, Matthew: Five hundred acres adjoining the south bounds of Batavia Patent in Windham, surveyed for him March 23rd 1772.

Gilleland, William: A tract in the town of Windham, lying near Batavia, was located for William Gilleland February 27th 1797.

 Hardenburgh Patent: This patent covers more than one-third of the county, embracing the entire towns of Lexington and Halcott, all but a very small corner of Hunter, nearly the whole of Jewett, and considerable portions Prattsville and Ashland. It also comprehends considerable portions of Delaware and Ulster counties. Its boundaries were, on the east the watershed between the Hudson and Delaware rivers, on the northeast a line drawn from the lakes on Pine Orchard to the head of the Delaware River, Lake Utsayantha, on the northwest and west that river, and on the south a line leaving the Delaware about twelve miles north of Port Jervis and reaching the watershed before mentioned b courses south forty-five degrees east and north fifty-three degrees east. This great patent contained about 2,000,000 acres, about 140,000 acres being in Greene County. This patent was granted under Queen Anne, April 23rd 1708 to Johannis Hardenburgh, Leonard Lewis, Philip Rokeby, William Nottingham, Benjamin Fanuel, Peter Fanconer and Robert Lurting. It is supposed to have been more an accident than a design that so large a territory should be granted by this patent. Its upper boundaries were described by definite points in the absence of any survey or measurement, and it may well be conjectured that the grantors had an under estimate of its magnitude. We know of no purchase by these individuals having been made of the Indians previous to this grant, but the title of the latter was supposed to have been extinguished by treaties with the Crown. This territory had been within the jurisdiction of the Iroquois nation, and they, “by many acknowledgments, submissions, leagues and agreements,” had become the allies of the Crown, and the British arms had been set up in all their castles. This union of the Five Nations with the British Crown, which appears to have been entered into prior to 1697, meant to the Indians protection and strength in resisting their enemies, but to the Crown it afforded a pretext for appropriating their lands. However great the discrepancy between the intention of the Indians and the interpretation of the English Government may have been, the alliance was still further confirmed and strengthened by a treaty between the Five Nations and the Governor (Nanfan) at Albany in 1701. In 1749 a general survey of the Hardenburgh Patent was begun. In this survey it was run into lots. As this was extended toward the upper part of the tract it caused so much dissatisfaction on the part of the Indians that in 1750 the work was suspended. To quiet the Indians a purchase of this tract was made the following year. By this the Indians sold, for 149 pounds, 19 shillings, to Johannis Hardenburgh, the tract “beginning at the head of Fishkill, and from thence running with direct line to the head of Cadricks-Kill, and from the head of Cadricks-Kill with a direct line to the head of Papagonk river; and thence down the east side of the said river Papagonk to a certain place called Shokakeen, where the Papagonk river falls in the Fishkill; and then up to the said Fishkill, including the same, to the head thereof or place of beginning.” This was dated June 3rd 1751, and it was signed by 21 Indians. The upper part of this tract was divided into long lots, running from the northeast line of the patent in a southwesterly direction, extending beyond the present line of this county. Thus their length in this county was about twelve miles. (They were called Great Lots, and were divided and subdivided.) Beginning on the northwest line, Number 20 included nearly the whole of Halcott, a considerable part of Lexington, a part of Ashland, and the southeast corner of Prattsville; Numbers 22 and 23 ran across Lexington and Jewett,  22 taking in the southeast corner of Ashland; Number 24 took in the east side of Lexington, the west part of Hunter, and at the upper end covered nearly the width of Jewett; Number 25 ran across Hunter and made its northwest corner upon Jewett; and Number 26 covered the east part of Hunter.

Hammond, Abijah: A tract of land north of Batavia was granted to Abijah Hammond July 9th 1790.

Hallenbeck Patent: A tract of 1,000 acres was petitioned for by Johannes Hallenbeck, and a patent under Governor Hunter was granted for the same in 1717. It lies mainly in Greenville, but extends into Durham and Cairo.

Holland, Matthew: A tract was surveyed to him and others April 12th 1769, having been petitioned for April 6th 1768, situated in Catskill.

Hasbrouck, Elias: A tract of 200 acres, in the town of Windham, was located for this individual February 23rd 1797. It lies on the Batavia Kill.

Kiskatomatje Patent: August 22nd 1718, a patent was granted to Henry Beekman, for 370 acres lying under the “blue hills,” adjoining the Catskill Patent, in the south part of the town of Catskill. This grant was confirmed by patent of Governor Hunter June 11th 1719, to Henry Beekman, and Gilbert Livingston, including also an additional tract of 2,000 acres.

Koyamans Old Patent: This was granted by Governor Lovelace to Barent Peters, April 7th 1673. It was for a “kill” to the north of a place “by the Indians called Kaxkacxks,” as far as the place where “Jacob Flodder did use to roll down his timber;” and the adjoining land as far into the woods as the right of the Catskill Indians extended. A condition of the grant was that Peters should erect a saw-mill upon the stream.

Loveridge Patent: The initial part of this tract was granted by Peter Stuyvesant to Peter Thumissen (Van Brunswyck) October 25th 1653. It was increased in size by an additional grant November 16th following. A patent for this was granted by Governor Nicolls May 16th 1667, to Eldert Gerberts Criniff and Harmen Harmens Gansevoort. William Loveridge, the owner in 1682,  repurchased it of the Indians with an additional tract, July 19th, and a patent for this enlarged tract was granted to his son William Loveridge jr. February 8th 1686. It lay in Catskill near the Great Imboght.

The Lindsey Patent: This covered the site of the present village of Catskill, and embraced 460 acres. It was purchased of the Indians, Cuspuwaen and others, by Gysbert Uytden Bogaert, July 26th 1684, but a patent was not obtained until August 22nd 1738, when it was owned by John Lindsey, to whom a grant bearing this date was issued.

 Loonenburg Patent: A tract, called Caniskek, now mostly in the town of Athens, was purchased of the Indians by Johannis Clute, Jan Hendrick Bruyn and Jureaen Theunessen, April 20th 1665. A patent for the same was granted by Governor Nicolls, May 25th 1667. The northern part of this, down as far as the hill Stevesink, was sold to Martin Garretse, March 28th 1681, and was included in the patent to John Bronk and him May 23rd 1687, which is spoken of under the head of Bronck’s Patent, and is also sometimes called the Coxsackie Patent.

Lockerman Patent: This lay at the Great Imboght in the town of Catskill. It was bought of the Indians April 5th 1686. A patent was granted for it by Governor Fletcher to Jacob Lockerman, November 21st 1695. It is sometimes called the Caaterskill Patent.

Lydias Patent: (See Rosenboom).

Lamb, John: Two hundred acres, lying “under the Blue Mountains,” in Catskill, were surveyed September 24th 1771, pursuant to warrants of March 1st 1769, and March 7th 1770, for John Lamb, “late Corporal in His Majesty’s 78th Regiment of Foot.”

Lowcas, Daniel: A tract of 50 acres was surveyed for him May 19th 1772, on the west side of the Kaaterskill, in the town of Catskill. He had been a private I the 55th Regiment.

McLean and Treat: (See Treat & McLean).

Matthews, Vincent, Patent: A tract was granted December 20th 1731, to Vincent Matthews, John Cornwell, Samuel Heath and Abraham Looge. It contained 500 acres in the south part of Catskill.

Meales & Hayes Patent: This was for a “Vly” or meadow, partly in the extreme southern portion of Catskill, partly in Saugerties. It was granted to George Meales and Richard Hayes May 31st 1687, and contained 1194 ¾ acres.

Maitland Patent: This covered a tract of 5,000 acres, in Durham, surveyed for Lieutenant-colonel Richard Maitland June 16th 1767.

Moore, Thomas: For him and others a tract in Cairo, was surveyed April 12th 1769, for which petition had been made April 6th 1768.

McCarty, John: Pursuant to warrants dated March 1st 1769, and March 7th 1770, 200 acres, in two tracts, lying in the town of Catskill, were surveyed for John McCarty, “late Drummer in His Majesty’s 18th Regiment,” September 24th 1771.

Millet, Thomas: This patent was surveyed for Thomas Millet and others March 9th 1772. It contained 600 acres in two tracts, located in Cairo.

McIntosh, Daniel and others: Six hundred acres in Windham, adjoining the southwest bounds of the Batavia Patent, were surveyed for Daniel McIntosh and two other non-commissioned officers, March 28th 1772.

Morrison, Kenneth: A tract of 200 acres on the western side of the Kaaterskill, in the town of Catskill, was surveyed for Kenneth Morrison, “late Sergeant in the 55th Regiment,” May 19th 1772.

Mushier, Jacob: Thirty acres of land under water, on the line between Catskill and Saugerties, were surveyed for him February 5th 1798.

Northrop, Isaac: To him was granted land under water at the village of Athens. Surveyed March 28th 1803.

Prevost Patent: This covers 12,000 acres in Greenville and Durham, patents for parts of which were granted to Augustine Prevost, August 15th 1765, March 10th 1768, and another the same year.

Rosenboom Patent: This was a tract lying on the north limit of the Catskill patent, encroaching upon it, west of the Loonenburg Patent, in the towns of Athens and Coxsackie. The patent was granted April 12th 1751, to Jacob, John Jacob, and John G. Rosenboom. The latter conveyed his share (one-third) to John Henry Lydias, July 5th 1751, from which circumstance it is sometimes called the Lydias Patent.

Rightmeyer’s Patent: This lay mostly in Schoharie county, but a portion of it lay within the northwest part of this county. It was sometimes called Dice’s Manor. A patent was granted May 6th 1754, to Ury Rightmeyer, containing 8,000 acres.

Scott, John Morin, Patent: This embraced two tracts, purchased of the Catskill Indians, in 1766, through Governor Henry Moore. This purchase and the subsequent patent included also a third tract not in this county. These two tracts lay in Cairo, one containing 3,160 acres, and the other 1,500 acres, and were granted by patent to John Morin Scott, Martin Geritsen Van Bergen and seventy-four others, January 2nd 1770, surveyed May 2nd 1768, and June 28th 1769.

Seaton’s Patent: Sir Henry Seaton, Baronet, received a patent July 18th 1767, for a tract of 3,000 acres of land adjoining the Manor of Rensselaerwick. It is in the town of Durham.

Stewart’s Patent: Two thousand acres, now in Durham, were granted to Lieutenant Walter Stewart, September 7th 1771. It adjoined Rensselaer Manor on the north and Frazer’s Patent on the south.

Schoonmaker, Henry: He had a grant of 200 acres, in Durham, near Dice’s Manor, July 16th 1800.

Swords, Harper & Spaight: A tract of land partly in Ulster county and partly in Hunter was surveyed for Thomas Swords, Josiah Harper and William Spaight, November 4th 1767.

Sutherland and Henry: A tract of 100 acres, lying “under the Blue Mountains,” in the town of Catskill, was surveyed for George Sutherland and John Henry, “late private soldiers,” September 24th 1771.

Stephenson Grant: On the west side of the Kaaterskill, in the town of Catskill, 200 acres were surveyed for William Stephenson, “late Corporal in the 55th Regiment,” May 19th 1772.

Treat & McLean’s Patent: The first tract lay diagonally on the north Hardenburgh line, mainly within the town of Hunter. The second tract lay above it and was granted to Donald McLean, Malachy Treat and Neal McLean, November 11 1768.

Ten Broeck, Cornelius, Patent: About 800 acres lying on both sides of the Kaaterskill, in the southern part of the town of Catskill, was granted by patent to Cornelius Ten Broeck, November 29th 1749.

Ten Broeck, Wessel, Patent: A tract of 825 acres, lying on the Hudson River, in the southern part of Catskill, was granted to Wessel Ten Broeck, November 25th 1733.

Walter, Robert: A tract of 200 acres, lying on the west of the Katskill, in Cairo, was surveyed for Robert Walter, October 24th 1788.

Woodworth & Van Rensselaer: A tract of 600 acres on Batavia Creek, town of Windham, was surveyed for Robert Woodworth, John Van Rensselaer and their associates, June 8th 1796.

Williams, Elisha: A grant was issued to him April 12th 1813, for several lots of unappropriated land on the mountain at Pine Orchard, now partly in the town of Catskill and partly in Hunter.

Van Bergen Patent: What is called the Third Van Bergen tract lies in the northwest part of the county, extending into Schoharie county upon the mountains. It contained 35,500 acres, and was surveyed for Martin Garretson Van Bergen and others, June 23rd  1767. Another tract in Greenville and Cairo containing 950 acres was granted to the same, June 12th 1741.

Van Vechten Patents: Derick Tunisse Van Vechten received a patent for land in Catskill from Governor Dongan March 21st 1686. Teunis Van Vechten received a grant for land under water (the Katskill) opposite to his farm, September 26th 1770.

Van Bremen Patent: Peter Stuyvesant, October 24th 1653, granted to Jan Van Bremen a tract of about 70 acres in Catskill. This was confirmed by a patent from Governor Nicholls, August 1st 1668, and was afterward included in the patent granted to Van Vechten. 

CHAPTER V

THE REVOLUTION AND THE WAR OF 1812 

Having no organization at the time, this county, as such, could take no part in the exciting scenes accompanying the development and progress of the war for independence. Its towns likewise have left no record of their action, because they were not then organized. The people did play a part in that great drama, but most of the facts concerning their action were buried with them or have only been preserved in isolated and scattered records which have fallen into obscurity too deep for the means at our disposal to bring to the surface and unite so as to give a generalized or at all complete detailed view of the revolutionary period here. The people were moved by the great commotions which stirred the hearts of the colonies, but we may suspect that the phlegmatic Dutchmen moved slowly, and many of them took but an indifferent interest in the success of the colonies, and the English settlers were here in numbers too few to bear any important part in the work. None of the battle scenes of the war were enacted upon the soil of Greene county. Neither has any strategic or demonstrative exploit been written to its honor. Its rocky and mountainous wilds afforded a retreat for those who fled from the more active fields of the war, and tradition disgraces its soil by making it the home of the traitor and the tory who instigated their Indian allies to deeds of blood as well as joined themselves in the persecution of their loyal neighbors.

But amid all these circumstances, the people of this section, the Great Imboght District and the District of Coxsackie, furnished their quotas of men and means for the prosecution of the war. We find but an imperfect glimpse of the military representation of this section at that time in the following lists, but such as they are we present them as taken form “a Muster Roll of Captain Samuel Van Vechten’s Company in Collonel [sic] Cornelius D. Wynkoop’s Battallion [sic] of Forces raised in the State of New York and now in the Service of the united States of America.” The date immediately following thename is the date of appointment or enlistment, and in every case is the year 1776.

Commissioned Officers: -- Captain, Samuel Van Vechten*, March 2nd 1776; First Lieutenant, John Hooghkirk*, March 1st 1776; Second Lieutenant, John Ball*, March 4th 1776; Ensign, Daniel Evarts, April 11th 1776.

Sergeants: -- Ralph Cole*, March 1st 1776, sick at Albany; Charles Shaver*, March 4th 1776; Isaac Overbaugh*, March 4th 1776; “deserted October ye 21”; Joseph Bettyes, March 13th 1776, “Reduced to Corporal June 3rd”; Tunis Van Wagganen, June 3rd 1776, promoted Adjutant, July 20th.

Corporals: -- Andrew Dunlap*, April 8th 1776, sick at Albany; Justus Valkeneer*, March 11, 1776, sick at Claverack; Ambrose Tuttle*, March 11th 1776; Gilbert Van de Bogert*, June 30th 1776, sick at Albany; Stephen Mason, July 30th 1776, died October 29th.

Fifer: -- David Floyd*, May 12th 1776, died July 11th.

Drummer: -- Elijah Manrole*, June 12th 1776.

Privates: -- Moses Akins, March 4th 1776, deserted March 20th; Valentine Asten*, March 14th 1776, “On furlo to Catts Kill”; John Barnet*, April 20th 1776; Joseph Bettyes*; “On Com’d on board the Fleet”; Atcheson Bullock*, March 20th 1776, “on furlo to Albany hosp’l”; Abraham Camer*, April 3rd; Robert Canady*, April 9th , discharged May 21; William Canneff, Apr 22nd, deserted April 24th; Joseph T. Concklin*, March 9th; Michael Coombes*, March 15th, deserted May 15th; Peter Coombes*, March 23rd; Peter Crapo*, March 9th, sick on furlough; David Duff*, April 14th, sick at Albany hospital; William Eavans, May 4th, deserted May 6th; Johannis Emerigh*, March 20th, deserted September 22nd;  Jacob Farrington, March 22nd, deserted April 24th; William Flaghler, May 13th, deserted May 21st; Francis Flamin* March 7th, died June 15th; William Grimesly, March 12th, deserted May 9th; James Gires, April 24th, deserted May 1st, John Griffiths, March 24th, deserted April 4th; Mathew Halenbec*, March 18th, died June 17th; Michael Harp*, March 11th, on furlough; James Halstead jr.* March 23rd, deserted October 3rd; Nathaniel James*, March 9th; William King*, March 23rd; Peter Larawa*, April 18th, “deserted April 25th, taken up July ye 22nd, now on furlough”; Jacob Livingston*, March 11th, on furlough to Albany hospital; John Low*, March 9th, deserted May 20th; Isaac Marick*, March 13th, died August 9th; Stephen Mason*, March 11th, promoted corporal July 30th; David Miller*, March 18th; John McIlmoil*, March 13th, discharged November 1st; John Mizner, March 12th, discharged May 6th; Peter Ostrander*, March 11th, deserted October 3rd; Joseph Parker*, April 11th, deserted May 16th; Edward Ray, March 14th, deserted March 21st; John Roberts, March 13th, deserted April 10th; Benjamin Sammons*, March 4th, died September 24th; Solomon Schut*, March 28th; Thomas Staats*, March 6th, deserted May 19th; Francis Smith*, March 11th; Jacob Van Tesey*, March 15th, deserted September 22nd; Cornelius Taylor*, March 4th, deserted May 20th; John Taylor, April 22nd, deserted May 20th; Ambrose Tuttle, June 30th, sick at Albany; Christian Van Vorst*, June 4th; Gilbert Van de Bogert, June 11th, promoted Corporal June 30th; Jermiah Wolfe*, June 20th, deserted September 22nd; John Young*, June 15th, deserted September 22nd.

Those names marked with a * appear also on another list which is headed by the memorandum “1676, April 13th Muster’d 27 men who Received the articles sot opposite their Names.” These articles, which we have not space here to tabulate in detail consisted of a small supply of “Bagnet Slings,” “Carrying Slings,” “Shurts,” “Shoes,” “Stockings,” “Hatts,” “Jackets,” “Coats,” “Blankets,” “Canteens,” “Knapsacks,” “Tomahawks,” “Cartrich Box’s,” “Bayonets,” “Guns,” “Pair Britches,” “Coats,” “Hunting Shirts,” “Pistle,” “Fife.” In addition to those marked above the list contains the following: Daniel Taylor, John Picketts, Robert Thomas, Captain Tyrenes Callens, Thomas Williams, Captian Cornelius Santfort and “Peter the Indien.”

            The following, a weekly return of the same Company, may also be of interest;

            “A Weekly Return of Captain Samuel Van Vechten’s Company in Colonel Wynkoops’ Battallion.”  Ticonderoga, June 29, 1776.”

“Present fit for duty

27

“Sick in barracks at Albany

2

“Sick in barracks here

3

“Absent on command

7

“Officers’ servants

1

“On recruiting service

2

“Dead

1

“Deserted

17

“Doctor’s servants

1

“Coll’s servants

2

“Total

63”

When the second war with Great Britain occurred – the war of 1812 – the people of this county were better organized, and perhaps more in harmonious unity on the subject. Their military powers had been developed by discipline, and they were better prepared to take an active position if called upon. But the scenes of that war were far removed from this locality, and the people were not called upon to bear heavy burdens in its prosecution.

When it was pending, the Union Volunteers of Catskill held a meeting at the house of Messrs. Baker and Wright, in the village of Jefferson, July 25th 1807, and after an exchange of patriotic sentiment unanimously resolved to tender their services to the commander-in-chief, by their captain, Jacob Haight, through the medium of Brigadier General Daniel Brown jr. This company was fully equipped, and ready to take the field whenever it should be called upon. Captain Haight made the offer July 27th 1807. To this General Brown replied, in a letter dated at Durham, August 17th, assuring the Union Volunteers of his “warmest approbation and thanks for their manly behavior, at this important crisis of our national concerns.”

The following abstract of the muster roll of Captain Van Vechten’s company indicates that it was in the government service in that war, but in the absence of any evidence to the contrary, we presume they were not called into action.

Corporals: -- William Horacthroop, Mathew Sayre, John Kenyon, Isaac Blanchard, Moses Waters, Jay Rowley, Robert Shaw.

Musicians: -- Drummer, John Munden; fifer, Mills Carrington.

Privates: -- John Ashley jr., William Ashley, Daniel Basset, Eben Beach, Richard Brownell, William Brandow, Teunis Brink, Dexter Brigham, Stephen Burgess, James Brady, Abraham Brandow, Peter Brandow, Isaiah Brandow.

“Muster Roll of a Company of Militia under command of Capt. John Van Vechten, in the 61st Regiment of N.Y.S.D. Militia, commanded by Lieut. Col. Barnabas Covva from the Sixth day of Sept. 1814 to the 10th day of Nov. 1814 in the service of the United States.”

Commissioned Officers: -- Captain, Gerret Person jr.; first lieutenant, John Van Vechten; second lieutenant, John Fiero; ensigns, Benjamin Sayre and Benjamin Maltby.

Sergeants:-- Abraham Van Vechten, Lora Nash, James C.D. Voorhis, Reuben Allerton, Tobias Britt, William Wells.

Privates: -- Isaac Cooper, Orrin Cole, Elisha Cole, Henry Conall, Horace Cantine, Jeremiah Cuyler, Egbert Dederick, Ransom Davenport, Augustus Donelly, Nicholas Egbertson, Benjamin Echler, Wilbur Earl, Silas Finch, Jacob Ferry, Amos Finch jr., Amos Finch, Jacob Tryover, Abraham Finch, John V. Fitch, Lewis Greene, Chauncy Goodrich, Camaranzaman Griswold, John Gardiner, Samuel Green, Joseph Hedding, Thorn Heusted, John G. Hermance, George G. Vanderberg, Wines Hubbard, Jeremiah Hamlin, Stephen Hyde, Wm. Huntington, Jacob Hollinbeck jr., Pittick Jones, George Knox, John H. Keller, Jeremiah Kiderhouse, Cornelius Lee, Lucas Longindyke, Alfred Mann, Peter Munden, Hezekiah Milligan, Augustus Murray, Benjamin Myer, Ebenezer B. Morehouse, William Ostrander, Peter J. Overbaugh, Reuben Palmer, John Plank, John Pattock jr., William Person, John Phillip jr., John Robertson, William Raymond, Nicholas Rowe jr., John Rogers, Thomas Richley, Thomas Sutton, John Stewart, Albert Salisbury, Peter Scutt, John P. Sax, Jacob Sax, Henry I. Van Hoesen, William Webb, Esek Wilbur, Mathew Winnie, Jason Youngs, James Lewis, Henry Stebins, Benjamin Storey jr., Christian Sax, John Stevens, Thomas Smith, David Stout, John Turner, Conrad Turner, Nicholas Turner, Benjamin Tryon jr., Palmer Thompson, Ebenezer Thayer, Abraham Onderdonk, William G. Van Bergen, Benjamin Van Atten, Thomas F.Van Steenburg, Cornelius Vanderzee, Martin G. Van Bergen, Smith Wright, Amasa Wood, William G. Wolvin, Thomas Burns, Abraham Munday.

“I certify that the foregoing Muster Roll exhibits a true statement of a Company of N.Y.S.D. Militia under my Command. Dated the 10th day of Nov. 1814.” “JOHN VAN VECHTEN, CAPT.”

CHAPTER VI

POLITICAL DIVISIONS – THE COUNTY AND ITS TOWNS – FORMATION AND ALTERATIONS

The first organization of the province of New York into shires and counties was made November 1st 1683. In this division the county of Albany was to contain besides the towns of Albany and the colonies of Rensselaerwick and Schenectady “all the villages, neighborhoods and Christian plantations on the East Side of Hudson’s River from Roll of Jansen’s Creeke and on the west side from Sawyer’s Creeke to Sarraghtoga.” This is the first definite political organization, less than the Province, including the territory of Greene county. Sawyer’s Creek was Saugerties Creek, and a line running west from the mouth of that creek was by an ordinance of 1733 made the dividing line between Albany and Ulster counties, and so continued till near the close of the century.

By an act of July 3rd 1718 the “Inhabitants of the Precinct of Catskill and Coxhackey, and all of the Inhabitants dwelling to the Southward of Renselaerwyck, on the West Side of Hudson’s River, as far as the county of Albany extends,” were allowed to elect and be represented by a supervisor. At that time all this precinct had one justice of the peace and a constable. The justice was directed by this act to issue his warrant to the constable to notify all the inhabitants to convene on the third Thursday of August following to elect a supervisor, who should serve until the first Tuesday of April of the next year, which was the annual day for electing that officer. This organization continued until 1772, when the districts were organized with some powers that belong to towns. This had reference to keeping highways in order, raising money for the public expense, taking care of the poor, &c. The nucleus of Greene county was then comprised in two districts. This division and organization of the county of Albany was made by an act of the Colonial Legislature, passed March 24th 1772. By this act the county was divided into fifteen districts, and the two referred to were described as follows:

“That all that part of the said county of Albany, which lays to the south of Rensselaerwick District, and the United Districts of Duanesburgh and Schoharie, and to the north of a West Line drawn from the South Bank of the Mouth of Kat’s-Kill, to the West Bounds of this Colony, and to the Westward of Hudson’s River, shall be one separate and distinct District, and be henceforth called and known by the name of Coxsackie District.”

“That all that Part of the said County of Albany, which lays on the West Side of Hudson’s River, and on the South of Coxsackie District, shall be one separate and distinct District, and be henceforth called and known by the Name of the Great Imbocht District.”

The freeholders and inhabitants of each district should annually, upon the first Tuesday in May, elect or appoint a supervisor, two assessors, one collector, two overseers of the poor, two constables, two fence viewers, and one clerk. They were to be invested with the same powers and charged with the same duties as similar officers in the several counties of the colony had under the act of 1703, for the more perfect system of raising money for the public expense, and taking care of the poor and preventing vagabonds. The number of constables and fence-viewers might be increased by an order of the Court of General Sessions of the county.

The next change in the political lines of this territory occurred in 1788, when the dividing line between Albany and Ulster was established a “beginning at the most northerly End or Part of Wanton-Island, in Hudson’s River, and running from thence to the Head of Kaater’s-Creek or Kill, where the same issues out of the southerly side or end of a certain Lake or Pond, lying in the Blue Mountains; from thence to a small Lake called Utsayantho.”

This was accompanied by the formation of the two towns. These are described by the following sections of the Act of March 7th 1788, dividing the county of Albany into towns:

“And that all that Part of the said County of Albany, bounded westerly by the Counties of Mongomery and Ulster, northerly by Schoharie and Watervliet, easterly by the County of Columbia, and southerly by a line beginning at the South Bank of the Mouth of the Murderer’s-Kill, at Lunenburgh, and running from thence North, Eighty Degrees West, the County of Ulster, shall be, and hereby is erected into a Town by the Name of Coxsackie.”

“And that all that Part of the said County of Albany, bounded northerly by Cocksackie, easterly by the County of Columbia, and southerly by the County of Ulster, shall be, and hereby is erected into a Town by the Name of Cats-Kill.”

Coxsackie was divided and the town of Freehold erected by the Act of March 8th 1790, which is as follows:

Be it enacted,” *** “That from and after the first Monday in April next, all that part of the town of Cocksackie, in the county of Albany, which lies west of Coeyman’s confirmation, and a fourth line to be drawn from the southwest corner thereof to the south bounds of the said town, shall be and become, and is hereby erected into a distinct and separate town, by the name of Freehold, and that the first town meeting of the inhabitants of the said town shall be held at the dwelling-house now occupied by Stephen Platt, in the said town.”

To find a starting point for the town of Windham let us go back to the original organization of the counties in 1683. We find then that the town of Hurley was one of the original towns of Ulster county. Woodstock was formed from that town April 11th 1787. The following year the bounds of the latter town were enlarged by the alteration then made in the line between Albany and Ulster counties, which has already been noticed. Windham was taken from the territory of Woodstock  by an act of March 23rd 1798, which is as follows:

Be it enacted,” *** “That all that part of the town of Woodstock, in the county of Ulster, beginning at the easternmost corner of Middletown, in the county of Delaware, running from thence easterly to the north end of Shen’s Lake; thence northeasterly, to the northwest corner of Kingston, and the bounds of the county of Albany; thence westerly along said bounds, to the line of the county of Delaware; thence southerly and southeasterly along the same, to the place of beginning, shall, from and after the first Monday in April next, be, and hereby is, erected into a separate town, by the name of Windham; and that the first town meeting in the said town of Windham, shall be held at the dwelling house of Richard Peck, in the said town.”

Another change was made by the act of April 5th 1798, which enacted “That the town of Catskill, now in the County of Albany, shall be, and hereby is annexed to the County of Ulster.”

With the close of the eighteenth century the question of the formation of a new county arose, to be composed of the towns of Freehold and Coxsackie in Albany county, and Catskill and Windham in Ulster. Petitions, with numerous signatures, were presented to the Legislature, some praying for the new county, and others as urgently opposing it. The result however was the erection of the new county, which was named in honor of General Nathaniel Greene of revolutionary fame. It will be noticed that the name is written without the final e, which seems to have been the custom during the first two or three years of its existence, since which time it has been spelled almost without exception with the final e. The act of erection being difficult to fine we insert it entire.

“Chapter LIX”

            “An act to erect part of the Counties of Ulster and Albany into a separate Couny.

            Passed March 25th 1800.

            “Be it enacted by the people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly,

“That all those parts of the counties of Albany and Ulster, beginning at Hudson’s River, on the line between the town of Kingston and Catskill, running along the southeast bounds of the town of Catskill, to the northwest corner of the town of Kingston; thence along the town of Kingston opposite to the southeast corner of the town of Windham; thence to the southeast corner of the said town of Windham; thence along the southerly bounds thereof to the southwest corner thereof adjoining the county of Delaware; thence along the division linebetween the town and county aforesaid to the northwest corner of said town and to the southerly boundary of the town of Freehold; thence westerly to the most westerly extremity of the said town of Freehold; thence easterly along the northerly bounds of said towns of Freehold and Coxsackie  to the northeast corner thereof; thence to the middle of Hudson’s River aforesaid; thence down the middle of said river to the intersection of a line drawn from the place of beginning easterly on the course of the line first mentioned and then to the place of beginning, shall be and hereby is erected into a distinct county by the name of Green.

And be it further enacted. That there shall be a court of common pleas and a court of general sessions of the peace in the said county of Green, and that there shall be three terms of the said courts, the first of which courts shall commence on the first Tuesday in May next, the second on the third Tuesday in September next, and the third on the last Tuesday in January in the year one thousand eight hundred and one. And that there shall be two terms of the said courts of general sessions of the peace, the first of which courts shall commence on the said first Tuesday in each of said months. Each of which said courts shall continue until the Saturday following, unless previously adjourned. Both of which courts shall have and exercise the like power and authority within the said county as the like courts have and exercise in the respective counties in this State. Provided, That nothing in this act contained shall injure or affect any proceedings, civil or criminal already commenced or to be commenced before the first day of June next, or in wise to affect the same. But all such civil and criminal proceedings shall and may be prosecuted to final judgment and execution as if this act had not been passed.

And be it further enacted, That until further legislature provision be made in the premises the said courts of common pleas and general sessions of the peace in the said county shall be held at the Academy, in the town of Catskill, and at the dwelling-house of John R. Vandenburgh, in the town of Coxsackie, in said county alternately.

And be it further enacted, That the freeholders and inhabitants of said county shall have and enjoy all the rights, privileges and powers which the freeholders and inhabitants of other counties in this State legally have and enjoy.

And be it further enacted, That it shall and may be lawful for all courts and officers of said county of Green, in all cases, civil and criminal, to confine their prisoners in the gaol of the county of Columbia until a gaol shall be erected in said county of Green.

“And be it further enacted, That it shall not be the duty of the justices of the supreme court, once in every year, to hold a circuit in the said county of Green, unless in their judgment they shall deem it proper and necessary, any law to the contrary notwithstanding.

And be it further enacted, That the said county of Green shall be a part of the middle district of this State.

And be it further enacted, That from and after the passing of this act, it shall and may be lawful for the county of Albany to elect eight, the said county of Green, two, and the county of Ulster four members of Assembly, and no more, any law to the contrary thereof notwithstanding.

“And be it further enacted, That all that part of Woodstock included in the said county of Green, shall be, and is hereby declared to be a part of the town of Catskill.

“And be it further enacted, That all the losses which may arise from deficiencies on loans by the loan officers made on lands mortgaged, and which are situate within the said county of Green, shall be borne and paid in manner following, that is to say, such deficiency as shall arise from lands mortgaged, while part of the county of Albany shall be borne by the inhabitants residing in that part of the county of Green, taken from the county of Albany, and the like shall prevail as to any deficiency which may in like manner arise in the county of Ulster; and for that purpose the loan officers of said counties shall respectively certify the amount of such deficiencies to the supervisors of the said county of Green, who shall thereupon assess, levy and collect the same upon the principles aforesaid, and pay the same to the loan officers of said counties respectively in which such deficiencies shall arise.

"And be it further enacted, That the said county of Green shall be annexed to and become part of the district now composed of the counties of Columbia and Rensselaer, as it respects all proceedings under the act, entitled “An act making provision for the more due and convenient conducting public prosecutions at the courts of oyer and terminer and gaol delivery and general sessions of the peace.”

We now have the organization of the county, with four towns, -- Catskill, Coxsackie, Freehold and Windham. Numerous changes in the number of towns and their form, boundaries and names, were subsequently made. These we shall proceed to notice in their chronological order, giving the boundaries of those only that have been materially changed by the erection of later towns from parts of their territory.

Canton was organized from parts of Catskill, Coxsackie and Freehold, March 26th 1803. The same day the town of Greenfield was organized from parts of Coxsackie and Freehold. On the same date all those parts of the towns of Catskill and Freehold lying west and southerly of the summit of the Catskill Mountains were annexed to the town of Windham.

The name of Freehold was changed to Durham March 28th 1805, and that of Canton to Cairo April 6th 1808. On the latter date the name of Greenfield was changed to Freehold, which was again changed to Greenville, March 17th 1809.

New Baltimore was formed from the northern part of Coxsackie, March 15th 1811.

The dividing line between Catskill and Saugerties was changed June 6th 1812.

January 27th 1813, the territory of Windham was divided and three towns erected from it. These were Greenland, embracing all that part lying east of the easterly line of Great lot No. 22 in the Hardenburgh Patent and south of the height of land between the East Kill and Big Hollow; the new town of Windham, embracing that part which lay north of the ridges between the East Kill and the Great Hollow and between Batavia and the South Mountain settlement; and New Goshen containing all the remaining part of old Windham, that is the eastern part. The name of New Goshen was changed to Lexington, March 19th 1813, and Greenland was changed to Hunter, in honor of John Hunter, an early proprietor in the Hardenburgh Patent, April 15th 1814.

The town of Athens was formed from parts of Catskill and Coxsackie, February 25th 1815.

In 1816 land was taken from Hunter and added to Saugerties. The Supervisors, in consequence, deducted $5,000 from the assessment of Hunter.

A part of Saugerties was annexed to Catskill, April 17th 1822.

Three islands in the River, known respectively as Scutter’s Island, Little Island and Willow Island were annexed to New Baltimore from Kinderhook April 23rd 1823.

Prattsville was formed from Windham, March 8th 1833. This town was named in honor of Colonel Zadoc Pratt, and comprehended that part of the town of Windham lying westerly of a line drawn from the north line of  Lexington north to the mouth of Lewis Brook, up that brook and thence north to the north line of Windham.

Ashland, named in honor of the home of Henry Clay, was formed from Prattsville and Windham, March 23rd 1848.

March 25th 1848, all that part of Hunter comprehended in lot No. 23 of the Hardenburgh Patent lying between the height of land between the Schoharie Kill and West Kill and extending south to the county line was annexed to Lexington.

Jewett was erected by the board of supervisors November 16th 1849, acting under the authority of Chapter 194 of the Laws of 1849, passed April 3rd. The new town was composed of parts of Hunter and Lexington.

Halcott was formed by the board of supervisors acting under authority as before mentioned, November 19th 1851. It was formed from the territory of Lexington and was named in honor of George W. Halcott, who was then sheriff of the county.

A small part of the town of Jewett was annexed to Lexington November 17th 1851.

November 25th 1865, the line between Jewett and Hunter was altered by the supervisors, by extending the south line of Jewett eastwardly along the top of the mountain to the Cairo line, so as to place all residents along the East Kill in the town of Jewett. 

CHAPTER VII

THE COURTS

The first court of Common Pleas, in and for the county of Greene, was held at Catskill on the 6th of May 1800. The court was composed as follows:

Leonard Bronk, first judge, Samuel Van Vechten, Stephen Day, Thomas E. Barker, judges.

The commissions of the various officers of the court were read and the following counselors and attorneys were admitted to practice: Dorrance Kirtland, Stoddard Smith, Frederick H. Gebhard, Henry J. Brush, Isaac Hansen, Jesse Brush, John W. Crane, William Frazer, James Thompson, Elihu Chauncey Goodrich and James Pinckney. A committee, composed of Messrs. Goodrich, Pinckney, Kirtland and Thompson, was appointed to report rules for the practice of this court. They reported the following, which were adopted:

“RULES.

“1st.  That a Capias  be issued as the first process in all cases, and if not executed previous to the return, then an alias and pluries, and repeated as often as necessary, but when an attorney of this Court is plaintiff he may proceed by attachment of privilege except he is joined with others or sues in Autre Droit.

“2nd.  In all cases where a non-resident shall apply for a writ in person the Clerk before he shall issue it, shall take a Bond from such person to Defendant with one sufficient freeholder residing within the jurisdiction of the Court in the penalty of Fifty Dollars with condition for payment of costs in case costs in such suit shall be adjudged in favor of the Defendant.

“3rd. That the mode of proceeding against Judges, Attornies, Counselors, or the Clerk of the Court, shall be by Bill of privilege; Except where they are sued with others filed on motion for that purpose.

“4th. That Bail to the arrest & Bail to the action be given in all cases (except in suits on Bail Bonds and against heirs, Executors or administrators) unless in case of a Devastavit.

“5th. That every attorney residing without the County & Practising in this Court, shall appoint an agent within three miles of the Clerk’s Office & cause notice of such appointment to be affixed in the Clerk’s Office all rules, motions, and pleadings served and delivered to such agent shall be deemed good service upon the attorney of record, and upon default of such appointment the opposite attorney may proceed as if no attorney is employed.

“6th. That all notices of special motions shall be attended with a copy of an affidavit on which such motion is founded, & be served on the attorney of the opposite party. Two days, exclusive, before the day on which the motion is intended to be made.

“7th. That no person shall be hereafter admitted to practice in this Court as an Attorney or Counsellor, unless such person shall exhibit to the Court a certificate or License by which it shall appear that he has been Regularly admitted to practice in the supreme Court, or shall produce a certificate from some practicing attorney of this Court certifying that the person so applying has served a regular clerkship with him for the full term of three years next immediately previous to such application for admission, and shall in the latter case be examined b the court, and if found duly qualified shall be licensed by the first Judge.

“8th. That all rules for Judgments  in this Court be entered Nisi Causa, &c., but if not four days remaining in the term then Sedente Curia.

“9th. That the Sheriff, his Deputy & one constable at least from each Town in the County give their personal attendance in the Court every day during the sittings thereof, & that the  Inspection of the attornies & others having Business with said Court.

“10th. That each of the attornies of this Court shall file with the Clerk a Docket of his Rules within twenty Days after the End of each Term and that no Docket be received by the Clerk after the time so limited.”

The court adopted a device for its seal, which is described in the record thus: “A sword erect, supporting a Balance, the motto round the seal, County of Green.” A committee was appointed, Messrs. Brush, Smith and Crane, on the application of Charles Thompson for admission to the bar. On their favorable report he was admitted. Gilbert Drake was appointed crier to this court, and the following committee was appointed to make a survey of a “plat of ground for the liberties of the Gail of the County of Green:” Joseph Graham, Benjamin Van Orden and George Hall. They made their survey and reported and their report was ratified by the court. We append the calendar of that first court.

“Abram Varick vs. James Rose.”

“The defendant by his attorney, James Pinckney, in the cause, confesses Judgment by his plea of Cognocit Actionem to the plaintiff for the sum of seventy-five dollar.

“On motion of Mr. James Thompson, Attorney for the Plaintiff, ordered judgment Nisi Causa.

“Benjamin Sears vs. Linus Hopson & Lyman Hopson.”

“James Pinckney Attorney for the Defendant in this Cause by his plea of Cognocit Actionem, confesses Judgment to the Plaintiff for the sum of one Hundred Dollars

“On motion of Mr. Thompson Attorney for Plaintiff, Ordered Judgment, Nisi Causa.”

The September term for that year was held at the house of John R. Vandenburg, in Coxsackie, but afterward it was regularly held at Catskill.

This court was composed of a first judge and several associate judges and justices of the peace. It was held in January, May and September of each year. The causes coming under its jurisdiction were very numerous. During the first four years of its existence the calendar for each term contained the following number of cases: 1800, September, 58; 1801, January, 134, May, 135, September, 173; 1802, January, 225, May, 169, September, 235; 1803, January, 257, May, 254, September, 173. It granted licenses to the ferries on the river from year to year, and established their rates of ferriage. It frequently appointed committees to survey the jail limits. In May 1804 it directed that those limits should not exceed “60 rods from the gaol in any direction.” Insolvent debtors and prisoners for debt were frequently the subjects of its action. The following persons were, during its early years, admitted to practice at its bar: September term, 1800, Ambrose Spencer, John M. Canfield, Hezekiah Burhans, Hezekiah L. Hosmer, John Van Der Spiegle Scott; January term, 1801, David Horsford, Reuben Horsford; May term, 1801, Alexander Fraser, Elisha Williams, Abraham Van Dyke, Philip Gebhard; September term, 1801,  Moses J. Cantine; January, 1802, Francis Pruyn; May, 1802, Philip Parker, William W. Van Ness, John Champlin; September, 1802, Mr. Foot, assistant attorney general, “Ex honoris respectus;” May 1803, Mr. Glover; September, 1803, Joseph D. Monnell; January 1804, Thomas P. Grosvenor; May 1804, Amos Eaton; Robert Dorlan; January 1805, John Adams.

An amusing instance of the promptness demanded by the court is seen in the record that in 1802 Gilbert Drake, the court crier, was fined $1.00 for being absent when his services were needed.

The number of judgments docketed in this court in 1845 was 77, with an aggregate of damages amounting to $27,622.37. The costs on this amounted to $1,206.80.

            The following attorneys and counselors at law were admitted to practice in the Court of Common Pleas for the county of Greene. The dates given are those on which the prescribed oaths were taken:

Caleb Day, September 4th 1821, Herman M. Romeyn, May 30th 1822, Lewis Benton, May 30th 1822, G.W. Ludlum, January 28th 1823, Allen Jordan, January 27th, 1824, Gerrit Van Bergen, January 30th 1824, A.L. Jordan, May 25th 1824, J. Houck jr., January 26th 1825, Leonard Bronk jr., September 7th 1825, Malbone Watson, February 1st 1826, Robert Colvard, May 31st 1826, Benedict Bagley, February 1st 1827, John Van Vleck, September 4th 1827, Edgar B. Day, September 5th 1827, Amasa Mattoon, September 5th 1827, George W. Bulkley, January 31st 1828, George White, September 3rd 1828, Richard Van Dyke, September 5th 1828, Darius Peck, May 27th 1829, John Sanders jr., January 5th 1830, Theodore Romeyn, September 9th 1830.

The office of the first judge of the Common Pleas, which was afterward called the County Court, has been held by the following persons, who were are first appointed by the governor and Senate, but under the constitution of 1846 were elected. The dates given indicate the times of their appointment or election: Leonard Bronk, March 28th 1800; Garret Abeel, April 3rd 1810; Moses I. Cantine, June 19th 1818; John V.D. S. Scott, February 1st 1821, Dorrance Kirtland, April 19th 1828; Perkins King, March 29th 1838; Lyman Tremain, June 1847; Alexander H. Bailey, November 1851; F. James Fitch, March 19th 1855, appointed to fill vacancy caused by resignation of Bailey, and afterward elected. John A. Griswold, November 1863; John Olney, November 1867; A. Melville Osborn, January 11th 1870, appointed to fill vacancy caused by death of Olney and present incumbent; Manly B. Mattice, November 1870.

COURT OF GENERAL SESSIONS.

The following is the record of the first Court of General Sessions held in and for this county:

“At a Court of General Sessions of the peace held at Cats Kill in and for the County of Green on the 6th day of May 1800:

“Present, Stephen Day, Thomas E. Barker & William Beach & Andrew N. Hermance. Esquires.”

“The Court opened, and after reading the Commission, no business coming before them, the Court adjourned to the third Tuesday of September next, at the house of John R. Vandenburg of Coxsackie, the place appointed by law.”

In accordance with this adjournment, the court was held on the third Tuesday of September. There were present, Stephen Day and Thomas E. Barker, judges; Philip Conine, jr., Samuel Reed and Peter A. Van Bergen, assistant justices; Deliverance Backus and Josiah Warner, justices of the peace. The first grand jury of this court was then organized and sworn. It was composed of the following: Andrew N. Heermance, Esquire, Foreman; Stephen Truesdell, Innkeeper; Joseph Heath, Waggoner; Peter Bronk, Inn-keeper; Richard Bronk, Yeoman; Leonard Conine, Yeoman; Philip Wossram, Yeoman; Baltas Van Slyck, Yeoman; John Gay, Yeoman; Henry C. Houghtaling, Yeoman; Joseph Sherman, Tanner; Conradt Houghtaling, Yeoman; Isaac Platt, Yeoman; James Keeler, Merchant; William Ray, Yeoman; Peter Van Slyck, Yeoman; Jacob Parish, Merchant; Jesse Wood, Yeoman; Robert Burrell, Gentleman; Eliakim Reed, Gentleman; Wilhelmus Van Den Berg, Yeoman; Thomas Clark, Merchant; Richard R. Van Den Berg, Yeoman. After the grand jury withdrew the court adjourned till afternoon, and from time to time until Wednesday morning, when the grand jury appeared in court with the following indictments:

“The People vs. Benjamin B. Boyce”

    “Indictment for Assault and Battery on Elizabeth Boyce. Defendant arraigned; pleed not guilty: Bound by Recognizance with Jonathan Cutter.”

“The People vs. Michael Smith”

“Indictment for Assault & Battery on John Simpson. Bench Warrant Issued.”

The grand jury then withdrew and the court adjourned from time to time again until Thursday afternoon (Sept. 18th) when the following indictments were brought in:

“The People vs. Elizabeth Boyce.”

    “Indictment for Assault and Battery on Benjamin B. Boyce. Bench warrant issued.”

“The People vs. Commissioners of Highways of the Town of Coxsackie.”

    “Indictment for neglect of duty.”

    “Witnesses, Stephen Truesdell, Joseph Heath.”

After the discharge of a prisoner from the jail the court adjourned, to meet at the same place on the first Tuesday in May, 1801. Subsequently, however, a different order changed the place of meeting to the academy at Catskill, where the court opened on the first Tuesday of May, 1801.

At this time the case of the “People vs. Benjamin B. Boyce: was brought to trial, Mr. Spencer, assistant attorney general (the title then given to the office now known as district attorney) prosecuting and Mr. Brush defending. The first petit jury of this court was sworn for this case. It was composed of the following men: Joel Tuttle, John Goodfellow, Jonas Bronk, Casper Spoor, David Rundell, Casper U. Hallenbeck, Nathan Brace, Stephen Truesdell jr., Isaac Van Loan, Henry C. Van Bergen, James Matthews and Benjamin Hine. The witnesses for the prosecution were Elizabeth Boyce, Mary Coffin and Mary Miller. The witnesses for the defendant were Stephen Truesdell and James Beach. The jury returned a verdict of “guilty of the Assault and Battery whereof he is Indicted,” whereupon the court passed sentence that he pay a fine of $25.

The next case taken up was “The People vs. Elizabeth Boyce,” indicted at the last term for assault and battery on Benjamin B. Boyce. The following jury was sworn: Thomas Bedell, John Goodfellow, Jonas Bronk, Zebadiah Dickinson, David Rundell, David Brewster, Ebenezer Booth, Gidion J. Palmer, Casper Spoor, Nathan Brace, James Matthews and William Van Orden. The witnesses for the people were Benjamin B. Boyce, James Beach, Mary Coffin and Polly Beach. The jury without retiring declared a verdict of not guilty.

CIRCUIT COURT.

The first session of the Circuit Court in and for the county of Greene was held at Catskill on the fourth Tuesday of September (22nd) 1801. “Present, His Hon’r Mr. Justice Kent.”

The calendar contained 29 cases, and the following jurors were in attendance: Argulus White, William Parker, Sheldon Graham, Ezekiel Ramsdale, Johannes Hallenbeck, Ichabod Andrews, John A. Van Buskirk, Ezra Jones, Nathaniel Yeomans, George Stimpson, Peter Dubois, John Buck, John Tuttle sen., William Bedell, Peter Van Orden, Joachim Hallenbeck, Frederick Challet, David Johnson, William Edwards, Wilhelmus Brandow, Noah Wheeler, Nathan Elliot, John W. Hallenbeck, Isaac Hine, Stephen Root and John Lawyer.

The judges presiding at the successive sessions of this court have been as follows:

James Kent, September 1801, July 1804, September 1807, August 1813. Brockholst Livingston, June 1802. Morgan Lewis, July 1803. Smith Thompson, June 1805, September 1810, August 1812. Daniel D. Thompkins, July 1806. Ambrose Spencer, December 1806, August 1811, November 1818, October 1820. Joseph C. Yates, September 1808. William W. Van Ness, December 1809, August 1814, November 1816, December 1819, November 1821. Jonas Platt, September 1815. William A. Duer, June 1823, April and September 1824, April and September 1825, September 1826, September 1827, April and September 1828, April and October 1829. Reuben H. Walworth, April 1826. Ogden Edwards, April 1827. James Vanderpoel, April and October 1830, April and October 1831, April and October 1832, April and October 1834, April and September 1835, April and September 1836, April 1837, and September term that year omitted on account of his sickness. Charles H. Ruggles, October 1833, May 1845. John P. Cushman, April and September of 1838, 1839 and 1840, April and November of 1841, 1842 and 1843. Amasa J. Parker, May and September 1844, September, 1845, May 1846, May 1847, in general term October 1847, December 1848, November 1852, November 1854. John W. Edmonds, September 1846. John Willard, September 1847. Ira Harris, October, 1847, in general term same date, April 1848, October 1849, November 1853, April 1854, February 1856, November 1856, November 1859. Malbone Watson, general term October 1847, November 1850, November 1851, November 1855, June 1856. Alonzo C. Page (of Schenectady, in fourth district), June 1849. William B. Wright, April 1850, April 1852, April 1853, June 1855, November 1858, June 1861. Richard P. Marvin (of Jamestown, Chautauqua county, eighth district), June 1851. Augustus Bockes (of Saratoga Springs, in fourth district), April 1855. George Gould, February 1857, February 1858, June 1860, February 1863. Deodatus Wright, June 1857, November 1857. Henry Hogaboom, June 1858, February and June 1859, February 1860, November 1861, February 1862, June 1863, January 1864, February and November 1865, June 1866, November 1867, February and June 1868, June 1870, June and November 1871. Rufus W. Peckham, November 1860, June 1862, June 1867, November 1868. Theodore Miller, November 1862, November 1863, November 1864, June 1865, November 1866, June and November 1869, February 1870. Charles R. Ingalls, June 1864, February 1866, February 1867, February 1869, February 1871, February 1872, February 1873, June 1874, June 1875, May 1876, May 1877, May 1880, May 1882, May 1883. William L. Learned, November 1870, June 1872, June 1873, December 1874. Peter S.Danforth, December 1872, December 1873. Theodoric R. Westbrook, February 1874, December 1875, December 1876, December 1877, May 1878, December 1878, December 1879, December 1880, December 1881, December 1882. A. Melville Osborn, December 1875, February 1876, February 1877, February 1878, February and May 1879, February 1880, February and May 1881, February 1882, February 1883.

Under the constitution of 1846 this county is included in the third judicial district, which is composed of the counties of Albany, Columbia, Greene, Rensselaer, Schoharie, Sullivan and Ulster.

COURT OF OYER AND TERMINER.

The following is the record of the opening of the first session of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, transcribed from the minutes:

“At a Court of Oyer and Terminer and Gen’l Gaol Delivery held at Cats Kill in and for the County of Green on the fourth Tuesday of Sept. 1801. Sept. 22nd.

“Present His Hon’r Mr. Justice Kent.

“Samuel Van Vechten, Thomas E. Barker, Rufus Stanley – Judges of the Court of Com. Pleas.

“Peter A. Van Bergen, Ass’t Justice”

“The pannel of the Grand Jury being Returned the following Gentlemen appeared & were sworn: James Bennet, C.K., Esq., Forem’n, Chas. F. Davis, Do., Esq., Tunis Van Slyck, Cox., Yeo’n, Jas. Dunn, Do., Merch’t, Simeon Guild, F., Yeom’n, Ephraim Garrit, Cox., M’t., Samuel Haight, C.K., Merch’t, John Schuneman, Do., Yeom’n, James Borgardus, Do., Merch’t, Daniel Green, Wind’m, Merch’t, Benj’n Johnson, Do., Yeom’n, Matthew B. Anger, F., Yeom’n, Eliphalet Ackley, Do., Do., Levy Stedman, Do., Do., Michael Hann, C.K., Merch’t, Thos. B. Cook, Do., Do., John Rouse, Do., Yeom’n, Hen’y L’Homedieu, Cox., Merch’t, Arch’b’d McVickar, Do., Merch’t, Isaac Minard, Jr., Do., Black Smith, Thos. Kellar, Do., Hatter, Stephen Warren, Do., Showmaker, Tim’y Mapes, Do., Merch’t.”

The grand jury found bills of indictment in one case of assault and battery, two of grand larceny and one of horse stealing. The court acted upon five cases of assault and battery, two of petit larceny and one of grand larceny.

SURROGATES.

The surrogates of Greene county have been as follows; at first appointed by the governor and Senate, afterwards by the constitution of 1846 the office in this county was united with that of county judge: John H. Cuyler, appointed March 29th 1800; Dorrance Kirtland, appointed June 18th 1808; John Adams, appointed March 15th 1810; Dorrance Kirtland, appointed February 5th 1811; Malbone Watson, appointed April 18th 1838.

DISTRICT ATTORNEYS.

The office of district attorney (first called assistant attorney general) was created by the act of April 4th 1801. Greene county was then included in the third district which embraced the counties of Columbia, Greene and Rensselaer. The incumbents of this office, appointed by the governor, ere as follows: Ebenezer Foot, August 13th 1801; Moses I. Cantine, March 5th 1805; John V.D.S. Scott, March 10th 1806; Moses I. Cantine, February 8th 1808; Thomas P. Grosvenor, April 3rd 1810; Moses I. Cantine, February 15th 1811 to 1818.

By a law passed in April 1818, each county was made a separate district for this purpose and had a district attorney. Under the constitution of 1821 they were appointed by the court of General Sessions. The dates affixed in the list below are only approximate to the time of their holding office. The list has been gathered from imperfect data: Alexander Fraser, 1819; Erastus Barnes, 1821; Lewis Benton, 1824; Malbone Watson, 1832-37; Lucius Robinson, 1838; Danforth K. Olney, 1840-45; Lyman Tremain, 1846-7.

Under the constitution of 1846, the office became elective, and since that time the following have been elected to it on the dates accompanying: Rufus W. Watson, June 1847; Danforth K. Olney, November 1850; Peleg C. Mattoon, 1853; John A. Griswold, 1856; James B. Olney, 1859; the same, 1862; A. Melville Osborne, 1865; William E. Leete, 1868; Sidney Crowell, 1871; Addison C. Griswold, 1874; Eugene Raymond, 1877; G. Howard Jones, 1880.

PRACTICING ATTORNEYS – PAST AND PRESENT.

The following attorneys were practicing in the courts of this county about the year 1860: John Olney, Alonzo Greene, A. Melville Osborne, Samuel P. Ives, James B. Olney, Ezekiel P. More, Lucius D. Hill, Augustus Hill, Peleg C. Mattoon, Rufus H. King, Henry Mott, John A. Griswold, Addison C. Griswold, Sheldon A. Givens, Charles C. Givens, Charles F. Bouton, Manly B. Mattice, Herman Winans, William E. Leete, Henry C. Van Bergen, Lemuel C. Bennett, Charles H. Porter, Danforth K. Olney, Rufus W. Watson, Ebenezer Haight, J.C. Dewitt, Augustus R. Macomber.

The following list comprises the attorneys now belonging to the Greene County Bar, with their several locations:

Athens: Charles E. Nichols, John Sanderson

Catskill: Frank H. Burroughs, Emory A. Chase, Sidney Crowell, Jeremiah Day, Orrin Day, Andrew C. Fancher, Addison C. Griswold, John A. Griswold, Joseph Hallock, W. Irving Jennings, Hallock, Jennings & Chase, G. Howard Jones, Rufus H. King, Manly B. Mattice, Arthur M. Murphy, James B. Olney, Frank H. Osborn, William Palmatier, Eugene Raymond, James H. Van Gelder, Jacob I. Werner, Fred Werner.

Coxsackie: F.H. Brandow, John B. Bronk, N.A. Calkins, William Cochran, Alfred W. Curtis, D. Henry Daley, E.C. Hallenbeck, James W. Hiseerd, William E. Leete, J.L.B. Silvester.

Cairo: Augustus Hill, Lucius D. Hill.

Durham: A.C. Cowles.

Hunter: C.N. Cartwright.                                                                               

New Baltimore: Augustus Sherman.

Prattsville: John H. Caughn, James F. Fitch.

West Kill: D.H. Hubbard.

Windham: Leonard B. Cornell, J.B. Daley, Cicero C. Peck, Peck & Cornell, Josiah C. Tallmadge.

Windham and Catskill: Raymond & Tallmadge.

CHAPTER VIII.

THE MILITIA. 

The organization of the militia of this county has been similar to that of other sections of the State. The following militia officers took the required oaths of office at the dates affixed. These oaths were first, allegiance to the State of New York; second to support the constitution of the United States; third, freedom from any complicity or concern in any duel, heretofore or hereafter; and fourth, faithfully to perform the duties of the office.

During the year 1818: -- Platt Adams, col., 49th regt., June 15th; Joel Peck,  capt., June 29th ; John Jenkins, capt., June 26th; Frederick Plank, major, June 27th; Hervey Chittenden, capt., June 27th; Jeremiah Miller, capt., July 7th; Clark Fuller, lieut., July 7th; Samuel Theater, lieut., July 8th; Peter Schermerhorn, ensign, July 9th; Hobart Bulles, ensign, July 9th; Olford Lockwood, lieut., July 9th; William Bliss, lieut., July 11th; William Van Hoesen, lieut., July 11th; William Darby, lieut., July 11th;  Dayton Cook, ensign, July 11th; Stephen Scovill, lieut., July 14th; William Stimson, lieut., July 22nd; John Green, ensign, July 22nd; Michael Bronk, ensign, August 4th; Abel Avery, ensign, August 8th; John Wildie, adjutant, August 8th; John Spoor, capt., August 15th;  Andrew Van Buskirk, ensign, August 15th; Benjamin Davenport, ensign, August 17th;  Anthony C. Houghtaling, capt., August 19th; Martin G. Van Bergen, lieut., August 19th; Benjamin Townsend, ensign, August 20th; Daniel D. Howel, quartermaster, August 22nd; William Regeia, lieut., August 22nd; Anthony M. Van Bergen, ensign, August 22nd; Aaron Steel, capt., September 1st; Perez Steel jr., capt., September 1st; William Tolley, capt., September 1st; Wyllys Hosford,  capt., September 11th; Isaac McCagg, lieut., September 16th; David Johnson jr., lieut., September 25th; Isaac Slover, ensign, September 30th; Lemuel Stimpson, ensign, October 5th; Norman Ticknor, ensign, October 7th; Johathan Miller, ensign, November 4th.

During the year 1819: --   Lamon Pritchard, capt., January 28th; George G. Hardenburgh, lieut., April 19th; Barent Dubois jr., ensign, April 19th; Ira Camfield jr., ensign, April 19th; Addison Porter,  lieut., April 21st;  A. Van Vechten, capt., April 22nd; Enoch Blakeslee, lieut. col., April 24th; Frederick Plank, lieut. col., April 30th; Abraham Overbaugh, capt. May 3rd; Casper Van Loon, capt., May 3rd; Samuel Miller jr., ensign, May 5th; Henry Bagley, ensign, May 8th; George Wickes, lieut., May 13th; Daniel D. Howell, adjutant, May 13th;  Ambrose Kirtland, capt., May 20th; Sylvester Nichols, capt., May 20th; William F. Fraser, lieut., May 20th; Charles B. Benson, lieut., May 20th; Gilbert Pierce, ensign, May 21st; William Norton, capt., May 24th; Samuel Baldwin, paymaster, May 25th;  Henry Laraway, capt., May 25th; Levi Tremain, lieut., May 25th; Hiram Carter, ensign; William McHinch, capt., June 3rd; Charles S. Hitchcock, quartermaster, June 4th; Ambrose Chapman, ensign, June 4th; Jacob Petrie, ensign, June 5th; Matthew Williams, ensign, June 5th; James Wildey, lieut., June 11th; Christian O’Brine, lieut., June 18th; Jehial Tuttle, brig. gen’l, June 19th; Cyrenius Lennon, major, June 19th; Orrin Parsons, ensign, June 29th; Peter Schermerhorn, lieut., June 30th; Lyman Strong, capt., July 2nd; Deliverance B. Hervey, lieut., July 8th; Daniel Rowley, capt., July 10th; William Stimson, capt., July 17th; Michael Bronk, lieut., July 22nd; Orin Kinsley, ensign, July 31st; Isaac McCagg, capt., July 31st; Abraham H. Houghtaling, July 31st; John L. Decker, capt., August 1st; Levi H. Alden, adjutant, August 24th; William Darby, capt., August 28th; Bartholomew Gedney, major, August 30th; Absalom Gedney, lieut., August 30th; Jonathan Miller, capt., August 30th; Jesse Miller, ensign, August 30th; Benjamin Maben, lieut., September 1st; Russell Judson, ensign, September 2nd; John R. Cheritree, lieut., September 3rd;  D. Alanson King, lieut., September 3rd; James Robertson, col., September 7th; John Green, lieut., September 8th; Anthony Van Bergen, quartermaster, September 8th; Samuel King, lieut., September 8th; Buell White, lieut., September 9th; Abram Bruir, ensign, December 9th; John Tuttle jr., 2nd lieut., December 30th.

During the year 1820: -- William W. Edwards, capt., February 18th; Apollos Cooke, capt., February 28th; S.A. Baker, 1st lieut., March 28th; Hiram Comfort, 2nd lieut., March 28th; Wells Finch, capt., May 2nd; Reuben Adams, capt. of rifle company, May 2nd; John Pline, ensign, May 5th; John C. Johnston, capt. rifle company, May 17th; Joseph Clark, lieut. rifle company, May 17th; John M. Donnelly, ensign rifle company, May 17th; Amos Botsford, surgeon, May 22nd; Joshua G. Houghtaling, ensign, May 24th; Jacob Sharpe, quartermaster, May 30th; William Bliss, capt., June 3rd; Thomas Burroughs, ensign, June 3rd; Clark Lawrence, lieut., June 3rd; Addison Porter, brigade major and inspector; June 7th; Walter Secor, capt., June 8th; Henry Townsend, ensign, June 8th; Spencer Palmer, lieut., June 8th; Jacob Patrie, lieut., June 9th; Leonard Lampman, lieut., June 10th; John Commer, ensign, June 12th; Andrew Van Buskirk, capt., June 15th; William Jerome, ensign, June 15th; Anthony C. Houghtaling, major, June 21st; Anthony M. Van Bergen, lieut., June 21st; Hiram Carter, judge advocate, June 28th; Jesse Miller, lieut., June 29th; Henry Williams, ensign, June 29th; Jason Mapes, capt., July 1st; Abraham Ramsen, ensign, July 1st; Mark Spencer, major, July 5th; John Laraway, lieut., July 21st; Andrew Decker, ensign, July 21st; Michael Bronk, capt., July 25th; Neely Lawrence, capt., August 3rd; William Requea, capt., August 5th; Andrew T. Van Slyke, ensign, August 5th; Robert Bulles, lieut., August 7th; Abraham Hall, col., August 16th; John Munson, ensign, August 19th; Havillah Blakeslee, quartermaster, August 19th; Alanson Saxton, lieut., August 22nd; Seth Dutcher, ensign, August 28th; Albert Parsons, ensign, August 31st; John Rice, ensign, September 1st.

During the year 1821: -- George G. Vandenburgh, capt., May 16th; William W. Van Vechten, lieut., May 16th; Francis N. Wilson, adjutant, May 16th; Benjamin Van Loan, ensign, May 17th; Abraham Richtmeyer, capt., May 17th; Jacob S. Scofield, capt,; Samuel King, May 19th; David Fraser jr., lieut., May 24th; Deliverance B. Hervey, capt., May 25th; John Cammer, lieut., May 25th; Roland Root, capt., May 28th; Ransom Barker, ensign, May 28th; Henry Camp, surgeon, May 28th; Ambrose Kirtland, major, May 28th; Jacob Patrie, capt., May 30th; Orrin Parsons, capt., May 30th; Joseph H. Miller, May 30th; Ezekial Griffin, May 31st; Jacob Krieskern, ensign, May 31st; Horace Austin, lieut., June 1st; Olford Lockwood, June 1st; James Freeland, quartermaster; Henry Mers; Joel Dickerman, 1st lieut., June 5th; David Johnson, 1st lieut., June 5th; P.U. McKean, ensign, June 5th; Obadiah Caldwell, lieut., June 11th; David Hall, ensign, June 11th; Ebenezer Brocket jr., June 11th; William Post, capt., June 11th; Alvin Bushnel, 1st lieut., June 18th; Gilbert Pierce, lieut., June 18th; Anthony C. Houghtaling, lieut. col., May 14th; Ephraim A. Borgardus, ensign, May 14th; Zadock Pratt, capt., June 28th; Smith Hopkins, capt., June 29th; Timothy Baldwin, July 12th; Wyllys Hosford, major, July 12th; Henry Edwards, ensign, July 26th; Darius Winans, lieut., July 26th; Ira T. Day, major.

During the year 1822: -- George Wickes, quartermaster, April 23rd; Calvin Balis, lieut., April 23rd; Richard Titus, capt., April 23rd; David Bush, lieut., April 23rd; John R. Osborn, paymaster, May 6th; George Hawley, capt., May 9th; Benjamin Comfort, lieut., May 9th; M.C. Van Loan, ensign, May 9th; Ira Dubois, adjutant, May 11th; Samuel Atwater, capt., May 15th; John Kinyon, lieut., May 15th; Christian O’Brine, capt., May 20th; David G. Abeel, col., May 20th; J. Van Valkenburgh, lieut. col., May 20th; W. Telfair Gifford, surgeon, May 20th; James Stoutenburgh jr., capt., May 21st; Seth Dutcher, lieut., May 25th; Abraham Overbaugh, major, May 25th; Albert Buel, paymaster, May 25th; Russell Judson, lieut., May 25th; Ralph Olmstead, capt. of artillery; Martin Wetzel, lieut.; William H. Dewitt.

William Bask, October 22nd 1826; Harvey B. Webb, capt., June 4th 1827; Ebenezer Jennings, lieut., June 4th 1827; John Bogardus, lieut., 1827; Thomas Bishop, ensign, August 8th 1827; Lewis Benton, aid-de-camp, September 24th 1823 [sic. Out of chronological sequence]; James Olmstead, major, 120th reg’t; Cornelius Rouse, capt., July 30th 1828; William C. McKinstry, August 30th 1828; John H. Demorest, ensign, September 10th 1828; Horatio W. Orcutt, hospital surgeon, August 5th 1828; Martin Wetsell, capt., June 20th 1829; Benjamin Sherman, lieut., June 20th 1829; James Olmstead, lieut. col., 120th reg’t, August 5th 1829; William Wilder jr., capt., August 5th 1829; Nathaniel H. Hinman, ensign, August 5th 1829; William C. McKinstry, August 12th 1829; Peter Van Vechten, col. 120th reg’t, September 3rd 1829; Edward Sherman, lieut., September 8th 1829; C.N. Botsford, paymaster, August 20th 1830; Jesse H. Miller, lieut., July 20th 1830; James D.Gardiner, lieut., August 21, 1830; James Olmstead, col., March 31st 1831; Francis Corbine, lieut. col., March 31st 1831; Hiram Clark, April 12th 1831; John Wardell, August 31st 1831; Samuel Ormsbee, August 31st 1831; John H. Martin, September 6th 1831; Levi Plank, September 6th 1831.

A notice issued by Brigadier General William Salisbury at Catskill, under date of August 16th 1844, called upon the officers and musicians of the several regiments of the 37th brigade to meet and drill two days previous to the meeting of the regiments for training and review. This brigade, as will appear below, was comprised mostly within this county. Complying with the brigade orders the 120th regiment officers assembled for preliminary drill August 26th and 27th at the house of Z. B. Osborn in Catskill; the 116th regiment on August 27th  and 28th at the house of P. Hunt in Windham Center; the 49th  regiment on August 28th and 29th at the house of Edgar Russell in East Durham; the 110th regiment on August 29th and 30th at the house of Mr. Shears in the town of Coeymans; the 6th regiment on August 30th and 31st at the house of Jason Mapes at Coxsackie. The regiments assembled for inspection, review and drill in military exercises soon afterward; the 6th Colonel C. H. Houghtaling, September 30th at the house of Jason Mapes in Coxsackie; the 110th,  Colonel David McCarty, October 1st, at the house of Mr. Shears in Coeymans; the 49th, Colonel C.L. Kiersted, October 2nd, at the house of Mr. Dickinson in the village of Prink; the 116th, Colonel H. Kipp, October 3rd, at the house of H.Kinsley in Scienceville; the 120th, Colonel P.D. Freligh, October 5th, at the house of D. Smith in Leeds.

CHAPTER IX.

CENSUS OF 1810.

The manuscript “cencus’ of 1810, the earliest census of Greene county existing among its records, is now in a dilapidated condition, and within a few years will probably become illegible, and beliving [sic] that a list of the names of those who were heads of families at that early period will be of much interest to future generations, we copy it entire. This list contains the names of all white persons, heads of families, at that time living in the towns of this county as they then existed, with the number of persons in each family, not including colored servants or slaves.

Town of Coxsackie: -- Zebulon Green 8, Morris Edwards 4, John Prudent 4, John Dederick 6, Casper Price 4, Barent Vosberg 11, Timothy Hollister 8, Elizur Holmes 6, William Edwards jr. 3, Stephen Edwards 3, Jehiel Webster 7, Leonard Witbeck 7, Jacob Bush 8, David Botsford 9, John Robbins 5, Sarah Deny 6, John C.Clow 4, Jeremiah Dederick 6, Jacob Cornwell 10, Samuel Hollinbake 6, Archibald Trowbridge 5, Gilbert H. Cornwell 7, Stephen Lantman 5, William Edwards 9, David Dickenson 4, Ephriam Ford 5, Samuel Cornwell 7, William Roe 4, William Jenks 8, John Webber 10, Robert Palmer 5, Johathan [sic] Palmer 7, James Underhill 11, Elizabeth Lantman 5, Casper Dederick 8, Daniel McGuire 4, Joab Cable 3, Stephen McFarland 3, Laman Bunce 3, Thomas Wright 6, James Smith, Benjamin Davis 2, Samuel Gerrish 6, Gregory Smith 7, Alsop Carpenter 5, Thomas I. Alsop 2, John F. Case 9, Bluman Nelson 3, Obediah Dickinson 8, Jedediah Osborn 6, Robert Delemater 5, David Carles 10, Elisha Smith 5, John Haruh 4, James Palmer 4, David Palmer 4, Thomas Gan 3, Richard Thorn 5, John Barber 6, Asa Palmer 9, Rachael Tryon 10, Joel Palmer 4, Moses Dickinson 8, Abraham Cable 4, Isaiah Cannif 6, Gabriel McFarland 5, Benjamin P. Tryon 4, Stephen Benedict 4, William Wright jr. 3, Henry Signor 6, Jotham Smith 10, John Stephens 10, Patimer Gue 3, Totten Marshall 8, Timothy Mapes 6, Moses Barber 4, Isaac Reynolds 4, Pinjah Ely 4, Coenrad Delong 5, Cornelius Van Deusen 9, John Carles 2, James Colley 6, Timothy Powell 6, Gideon Palmer 5, Sanford Babbet 4, Thomas Kelly 4, John Salter 9, Charles Treaver 8, Obadiah Hallock 7, Thomas G. Powell 8, Deborah Powell 3, Nehemiah Meed 5, William Cochrain 5, Solomon Palmer 3, Nathan Burrows 10, Samuel Lure 5, Silas Nicholas 9, Robert Simpson 7, Shaddrach Hubbell 5, Phoebe Mead 5, George Eldridge 3, Peltick Eldridge 9, Minor Hubbell 7, Stephen Truesdale 6, Tobias Cole 7, Ephraim Ganet 6, Abraham Purdy 6, Hollet Titus 2, Abraham Guer 3, Robert G. Palmer 11, Ira Palmer 11, Gideon Palmer 3, Thomas Powell 6, Israel Gregory 1, Samuel Fansdick 7, Noah Wheeler 11, Solomon Tipple 4, William Pierce 8, John G. Powell 8, Elisha Powell 6, Aaron Beagle 10, Simeon Winn 10, Leonard Palmer 4, Isaac Linnot 7, David Kiffer 6, Nathan Hubbell 5, Jacob Louks 6, David Hall 7, James Tayler 4, William Steward 5, Storm Rose 8, Timothy Green 4, Caleb Gage 11, Zebulon Hallock 7, Longett Potts 5, Jonathan Miller jr. 7, Isaac Dickinson 4, Elisha Purdy 1, Gideon Palmer jr. 5, Reuben Palmer 4, Nathaniel Palmer 4, Stephen Chidester 4, Solomon Yarles 7, Justus Miller 6, Abel Butler 3, John Powell 9, David Halstead 11, Daniel Herrick 10, Theodorus Smith 4, John Soliss 6, Eli Nelson 5, Martin Brower 4, David Horton 4, Westus Slark 5, Samuel McCabble 5, Elmore Chase 0, George Husen 6, Caleb Thompkins 11, Joseph Weeks 5, Schuyler Baker 3, Stephen Barber 6, Robert Golden 4, Ebenezer Weeks 6, Christopher Haley 11, John Lawton 3, Benjamin Lisk 8, Samuel Baker 6, Isaac Yarles 8, Culver Smith 3, Caleb Griffin 3, Daniel Yarles 9, Jeremiah Root 4,  Sareca Griffin 5, James Halstead 11, Joseph Smith 7, John Smith 11, Thomas Haight 9, Daniel Soliss 5, Elias Palmer 9, Samuel Yeomans 8, Joseph Winn 2, Frederick Stark 4, Benjamin Houston 7, John Titus 4, Elijah White 3, James Chidester 5, JohnsonWinn 16, Solomon Weeks 7, Israel Wood 8, Reuben Sniffin 10, Thomas Golden 7, Joshua Gidney 10, Caleb Saries 11, Levi Dewitt 5, Caleb Carmen 5, Peter Gidney 3, Michael Garret 6, Gilber Travers 6, Gersham Griffen 6, Sarah Caldwell 2, George Coenby 6, William Spencer 8, Henry Litcher 11, Daniel Smith 6, Gilbert Begle 3, John Osborn 6, Thomas Hoash 5, Abner Hoash 3, Asa Wilson 5, Johan Mumptier 1, John J. Smith 4, Peter Garrett 6, Jeramus Claw 4, Jonathan Miller 13, Jesse Morton 5, Thomas Hallock 10, Aaron Haight 6, Charles Titus 4, Peter Hoghtaling 6, Thomas Hoghtaling 7, John Brown 9, Peter Ostrander 6, Anthony Van Bergen 5, Nillis Cuer 2, Elisha Roberts 7, John Wolf 9, William Beadle 8, John Armstrong 9, John Youngs 6, Peter Wolf 6, Thomas Bayls 11, Jacob Carman 5, Jeremiah Begle 5, Caleb Carman 5, Isacous Osborn 3, Stephen Voorhis 8, William Wilson 6, George Wilson 7, Samuel Wilson 9, Jacob Spoonburgh 10, David Owens 8, Silvester Beagle 5, Peter F. Claw 4, Mary McCabe 8, Daniel Sarles 7, James Holley 6, William Porter 2, Samuel Dodge 9, After Yeomans 12, Hendrick Van Durk 7, Matthew Hoghtaling 9, Thomas Hogtaling 9, James Roberts 5, Leonard C. Conine 4, Nathan Brour 5, Jeremiah Beadle jr. 7, Daniel Gregory 5, Barnabas Hicks 4, Matthew Sitzer 6, Enoch Post 3, John Coenby 7, John Garrett 7, Thomas Jones 3, Solomon Skinner 9, James Miller 4, John Boast 6, John Boom 4, Russel Hamilton 6, John Bashford 7, John McMullen 2, John Trueman 6, Benjamin Guerny 8, Charles Lisk 11, Abraham Cannof 4, James Cooke 8, Joseph Lasue 5, Peter C. Bronk 5, Peter Van Denburgh 3, Lewis Liramno 4, George Hill 4, Charles Agor 12, Baltus Van Slyck 8, Barent Van Slyck 5, William Mansfield 8, Coenrad T. Hoghtaling 7, Samuel Mansfield 6, John C. Hogtaling 7, Cornwell Wilkes 6, Jacob W. Hilton 5, Jacob Garrett 5, Simeon Garrett 5, Peter Jones 3, Martin Armstrong 4, Solomon Hoash 4, William Bowdish 4, Dennis Ver Plank 3, Teunis Wolf 10, Hendrick Bogardus 5, Hendrick Schoonmaker 4, Enoch Tompkins 11, Henry Hoghtaling 10, Peter Bronk 10, Charles McCarl 5, Peter Conine 12, William Billingham 3, Leonard Conine 4, John P. Dervier 6, Samuel Totten 2, John C. Copper 8, John Gay 8, Teunis Van Slyck 9, William Moss 3, Henry C. Hogtaling 11, Barent Hogtaling 6, Horace Bull 5, David Dunmore 10, Garrett Hogtaling 11, Richard Shaw 5, Stephen Panvar 11, Joseph Llaunaer 2, John Marshall 6, James Plumb 7, Shelden Ensign 7, Smith Parks 4, Asabel Braynard 8, John Anderson 7, William Bartholomew 5, Joseph Regna 12, John H. Brown 6,  Cheney Ensign 6, Daniel Squires 6, Ebenezer Davis 9, Benjamin Gilliry 6, Jesse Smith 3, Matthew Miller 6, John Remkens 5, Benjamin Baker 3, Storm Vandersee 3, Albert Vandersee 8, Richard Van Slyck 7, Peter Gears 8, Peter Van Slyck 4, Garrit Van Slyck 5, John Van Slyck 4, Henry Van Slyck 4, Benjamin Peer 5, Edee Clapp 10, Brazilla Peas 7, James Lawrance 9, William Ensign 2, Daniel A. Pault 2, Folger Halsey 4, Nathan Squires 1, Ephraim Bogardus 3, Benjamin Fanhard 6, John Van Dyck 9, Benjamin Bowers 9, Paul Sherman 10, JamesMatthews 4, Coenrad Shatton 3, William Bradley 5, Tennis Van Slyke 2, Isaac Parker 6, Elisha D. Hall 6, Allen Plumb 7, John Ruggles 6, Teunis A. Van Slyke 4, Matthew Scott 7, Baltus Van Slyke jr. 7, Ephraim Bronk 8, Isaac Bennett 6, Jabez Busnell 4, Herman Pickot 4, Thomas Gelson 4, William Fraligh 6, Martin G. Van Bergen 9, Joseph Chase 13, Casper Bronk jr. 5, John Bronk 3, Peter Bogardus 10, Ephraim Bogardus 9, John Burns 7, Robert Titus 7, Elizabeth Cuyler 4, Samuel Akely 2, Joseph Godfrey 3, Anthony Redmiks 6, Leonard Parse 3, Patrick Falkner 10, David Sharp 5, Henry Smith 8, Jeremiah Dean 4, John Dederick 5, Samuel Williams 7, Gideon V. Valens 3, Henry C. Van Bergen 3, Nicholas Wells 5, Gilbert Claw 5, Peter R. Bronk 7, Wilhelmus Vandenbergh 2, Peter Casey 3, Barent Gay 10, Joseph Straken 5, Richard Van Denbergh 6, John Camel 2, William Ray 7, John Bogardus 4, Peter Claw 5, Michael Kriefer 10, Alexander McKinny 6, Ensign Godfrey 3, Cornwell Bachus 9, John Betts 5, Ann Stone 6, William Hart 5, Sarah Read 7, Levi Mead 2, John Cuyler 5, Thomas Brower 5, Zacharias Lannon 2, Stephen Warren 9, John Van Denbergh 6, Tallmadge Fairchild 5, Eytje Brogden 4, Peter Van Den Bergh 5, Hendrick Hoghtaling 8, David Lane 7, Samuel Rockwell 5, John Robbins 8, Thomas Gay 3, William Gay 5, Samuel Howell 2, Peggy Kennedy 4, Sally Kennedy 4, Matthius Van Denbergh 3, Dick Bronck 4, Samuel Brown 13, Hezekiah Schoonmaker 4, Richard P. Van Denbergh 7, George Hill 5, Peter Robbins 7, John R. Vandenbergh 5, Peter Van Bergen 8, Dorrance Kirtland 7, Peter Conine Sen. 4, Walton Street 4, Samuel Field 11, Stephen Burk 4, Isaac Bogardus 3. Gersham Torcey 6, John Gibbs 7, Joseph Chaplain 7, Henry Dickinson 6, William Judson 4, Henry L’Homedieu 13, William Van Ote 7, Edward Wells 3, Isaac Wells 6, Benjamin Acker 5, Philip Bronk 5, Abraham Hallenbeck 11, Abraham Van Dyck 6,  Martin Hallenbake 6, Samuel F. Lamphere 8, Isaac Foote 4, Benjamin Van Orden 4, Robert Vandenbergh 5, Peter C.Adams 10, John V. Moser 3, Philip Conine 5, Henry Van Bergen 7, Robert W. Vandenbergh 8, James McVicar 5, Eleazar Stebbins 5, Henry Johnson 8, Thomas Clarke 7, Reuben Sanderson 9, James Ray 6, Arthur Besty 7, John Henry 4, Epenetus Reed 8, Ralph Barker 6, Ebenezer Barker 9, Joseph Hogh 10, Laman Reed 6, Jabez Weaver 6, William Bartow 1, John Adams 7, Benjamin Morse 9, Jonas Bronk 9, Leonard Bronk 11, Casper Hallenbake 5, Jacob Bogardus 12, Jonathan Goes 5, John Spoor 9, Casper M. Hollenbake 7, Caleb Bingham 3, Jacob Johnson 5, Isaac Lampman 5, Durrean Kenedy 3, Mary Hollenbake 6, John W. Truesdale 6, John C. Claw 5, John G. Claw 6, George Tolly 5, Jacob Prevost 3, Ezekiel Truesdale 7, Josiah Warner 4, William Brooks 3, William J. Warner 9, William Truesdale 7, John I. Hollenbake 2, Henry Lamphiere 9, Jane Hollenbake 4, Samuel Goodridge 5, William Scott 3, John Brown 5, Roswell Reed 12, William Goes 3, Anthony ------ 4, Martin Hollenbake 5, Peter Bartow 3, Philip Vosburgh 5, John V. Schack 9, Catherine Dewitt 2, John Ostrander 9, John M. Hollenbake 7, Peter Murphey 1, Garrett Egbertson 1, William Dederick 6, John Lampman 10, Casper Claw jun. 7, John Claw jun. 9, William Tolly 6, Clement Scram 2, Joshua Brooks 5, Peter Groom 5, Lucy Horton 4, John Van Wee 5, Moses Gouns, Hendrick Lampman 3, Richard Hollenbake 3, Josepe Huntley 5, William Bartow 4, Absalom Buskirk 4, John Buskirk 6, Susan Goss 7, William Wills 9, Albert Van Loan 6, David Sherman 7, John D. Spoor 5, Derick Spoor 2,  Casper Spoor 6, John C. Spoor 8, Francis Clow 3, Jacob L. Sharp 5, Nicholas Van Loan 6, William Gardner 9, Nicholas W. Van Loan 8, William W. Hollinbake 4, John Buskirk 6, John W. Hollenbake 4, Henry B. Tolly 6, Abel Baker 8, Hendrick Everson 6, Jesse Emmons 3, John Scribner 4, Amos B. Swift 2, Zacharias Roach 6, Casper Collins 7, David V. Vleet 8, John Brandow 5, Jeremiah Oute 9, Thomas Stebbins 2, Aaron Van Scheick 6, Henry Myers 8, Francis Salisbury 9, Jacob Van Loan 5, George Edwards 7, Cornelius Hollenbake 7, Abraham Hollenbake 3, Jacob Sharpe 5, Jehoiakim Hollenbek 6, Samuel Gardner 11, James Gardner 5, Abraham Prevost 7, Edward Palmer 6, Garret Claw 6, John Hardwick 6, Evert Claw 12, Samuel Salisbury 7, John F. Tolly 5, Evert Evertson 4, Rebecca Van Hoesen 3, Isaac Slover 4, Andrew Slover 4, Caleb Bingham 3, John Hollenbeck 4, John Casper Hollenbeck 10, Casper W. Hollenbake 1, William Hollenbake 10, Matthew Goes 6, John C. Conine 7, John Bogardus 5, John Wolfen 7, Philip L. Conine 5, Aaron Van Dyck 6, Jacob Van Wert 7, John A. Van Loan 7, Nicholas Van Hoesen 8, James Davis 5, John Out 7, Thomas Day 8, William Sutherland 4, Samuel Duncan 6, Teunis Whitbeck 9, John Brooks 8, Isaac Van Valkenbergh 13, Francis Van Hoesen 7, Abraham Van Wort 5, Toomas Van Wort 3, Isaac Hallenbake 6, Joseph Rosebatses 7, Lawrence Perry 5, Nathan Bruce 9, Samuel Miller 6, Jehoiakim Hollenbake 8, John Read 6, Casper Van Hoesen 12.

Town of Windham – Austin Wright 5, Joshua Parminton 4, Levi Perkins 2, Samuel Perkins 9, William Underhill 7, William Hanes 11, Samuel Hanes 4, James McGregory 3, Benjamin Hanes 3, Robert Underhill 5, Joshua Baker 7, Zebulon Townsend 10, Moses Townsend 10, Samuel Brewer 8, Joseph Felt 4, Solomon Doty 8, James Richards 6, Nathan Field 5, Samuel Hanes jr. 8, Elisha Hanes 12, Nathaniel English 4, David Burges 5, Samuel Merritt 11, Robert Burdsell 8, Smith Hadden 6, James Haddon 5, Duncan McGregory 4, Benjamin McGregory 2, Dyer Shephard 5, Elihu Townsend 10, Moses Shaw 7, William Underhill jr. 7, George Walton 4, John Wilson 5, Nevin Wilson 2, Joshua Wolfen 4, James Eaglestone 8, Charles D. Haddon 2, Edward Eaglestone 12, William Miller 9, Joseph Haddon 6, Obadiah Griffin 5, Gershom Griffin 5, Abijah Griffin 7, Lunnen Parminton 6, Elisha Latimer 4, Ephraim Lions 5, Seth Bunson 5, Lewis Green 4, Michael Showers 10, John Phillips 8, Benjamin Jones jr. 4, John Euman 7, John J. Ackman 8, William Burns 6, Lewis H. Chamberlain 6, Nathaniel Skiff 5, John Gass 8, Benjamin Chase 7, Laben Andrews 2, Gerard Johnson 2, John McCann 6, John Wilson jr. 4, Tobias Rose 4, John Williamson 4, Daniel Bloomer 8, Frederick Smith 6, Aaron Haddon 7, Moses Demance 3, Nathan Salisbury 7, David Demance 4, Jacob Carr 7, James Carr 1, Lydia Palmer 4, Seth Greene 7, Elias Lyons 4, Roger Bunner 4, George Swap 7, Elijah Scofield 7, Nathaniel Messenger 5, Eliphalet Lord 2, John Johnson 8, Benjamin Jones 6, Nicholas Gass 6, Israel Holdridge 6, William Gass jr. 4, Zepheniah Chase 11, Roger Holkem 6, Stephen Johnson 7, Munson Buel 8, Isaac Buel 5, Israel Thomson 4, Jesse Lockwood 3, Eshan Barley 11, Samuel Kelsey 2, John Niles 6, Charles Kelsey 3, Caleb Carr 5, John Carr 6, Levi Brandow 2, Abel Mix 5, Benjamin Fairchild 4, Lemuel Woodworth 9, John Goodsell 7, Garret Vandusen 7, Thomas Townsend 4, Thomas O’Brien 12, Elizabeth Arnold 6, William Arnold 19, Timothy Lockwood 7, Jehial Winchell 5, Nathaniel Millard 10, Collins A. Brown 5, Asa Brown 7, Holmes Mills 7, Gass Niles 13, Adonijah Ford 6, Alvin Ford 4, Justin Squires 9, Ira Johnson 3, Isaac D. Johnson 7, Bennet Osborn 4, Elijah Towner 10, Daniel Williams 4, David Moore 4, Enoch Moore 4, Nathaniel Miller 5, Asa Lord 5, Hezekiah Mills 8, Jonathan Fairchild 8, John Beach 2, Matthew Winter 11, Joseph Chatterton 5, Rogers Winter 5, Eishia Calkins 10, James Paddock 7, Philip Mead 18, Jeremy Lockwood 3, Jonathan Main 6, John Breng 7, James Miller 8, Isaac Butts 11, Ezra Barker 2, Samuel Baldwin 11, Harvey Baldwin 4, John Connelly 9, William Beach 13, Harvey B. Avery 3, Isaac Doolittle 6, Joel Dickerman 1, Justus Coe 9, Daniel Miles 7, Ebenezer Johnson r, Asahel Hull 6, John Doolittle 8, Samuel Peck 12, Theophilus Peck 5, Jonathan Beach 10, William Distan 6, Reuben Hosford 7, Gideon Hosford 5, Harvey Hosford 4, Stephen Burgess 10, Cornelius Deckar 8, David Johnson 6, Isaac Johnson 2, Silas Fowler 8, Ralph Fowler 7, Erastus Beach 4, Joseph Chase 6, Henry Miller 6, Nathaniel Corsin 5, Samuel Galloway 4, Leonard Hogeboom 6, Peter I. Smith 6, Samuel Peck 9, Samuel Hall 3, Seth Lockwood 5, Isaac Miles 6, Adney Beach 8, Harvey Johnson 5, George Cross 5, William Parker 11, Chester Hull 6, William Smith 4, Willis Miles 5, Amos Peck 6, Abel Holcomb 12, Elisha Thomson 6, Samuel Walcott 10, Samuel Murren 10, Thomas Murren jr. 7, Thomas Murren 2, Daniel Murren 8, Ichabod Andrews 9, Benajah Rice 7, Gerard Rice 7, Ira Rice 8, Luke Olds 6, Benjamin Crispell 5, Benjamin Chase 7, Samuel Adams 3, John Miller 3, Benjamin Miller 5, Philemon Chamberlain 6, Joseph Brooks 9, William Falkner jr. 7, Jacob Smith 3, Lambert L. Van Valkenbergh 7, William Chamberlin 7, William Kirk 8, William Falkner 4, Alexander Conklin 4, Frederick Klein 5, Sunderland Patterson 4, Israel Whitcomb 2, Israel Whitcomb jr. 10, Joel Beckwith 5, Ephraim Dunham 8, John Frent 7, Jeremiah Barker 10, Michael Hamilton 6, John Valentine 3, Cornelius Van Hoesen 11, Joel Ford 12, Robert Thompson 7, James G. Miller 9, Abraham Van Valkenbergh 11, Derick L. Schermerhorn 8, Benjamin Chamberlin 7, Jacob Van Valkenbergh 6, Nathan Stanton 7, Timothy Tyler 11, James Andersen 2, Munson Shephard 4, Darius Briggs 7, Nathan Rowley 8, Solomon Huestis 4, Asa Butler 5, Jacob Angie 6, Solomon Lamer 3, Elijah Moore 7, Tenant Peck 5, Titus Heaton 10, Nathaniel Wilcox 9, Henry Goslin 9, Moses Porter 4, Samuel Chamberlin 3, William Streeter 7, William Stall 8, Jonathan Lord 13, John Gardner 5, Jerome Gardner 6, William Davis 8, Joseph Cross 4, John Maben 7, Caleb Hyde 5, Isaac Van Valkenbergh 10, Richard Peck 6, Daniel Brounell 4, John Savage 7, Jacob Holsty 6, Andrew Klein 6, Henry Kleine 4, Elihu Umphrey 8, David Gregory 8, Jacob Miller 8, Abraham Turk 8, Jacob L. Van Valkenbergh 10, Robert Maben 6, Cornelius Leaman 5, William Allen 4, Peter L. Van Valkenbergh 6, Tunnis Van Valkenbergh 9, Jerome P. Van Valkenbergh 12, John Turk 3, Elijah Bushnell jr. 7, Elijah Bushnell 5, Aaron Bushnell 8, Amos Newton 4, Lewis Bushnell 5, Isaac Holdridge 6, Hezekiah Pettit 8, Daniel Gregory 9, David W. Foster 4, David Foster 3, Nehemiah Foster 2, Solvin Chafer 8, Isaac Deckar 5, Edmond Richards 3, Henry Ostrander 8, David Van Dyck 2, Isaac Becker 6, Stephen Myers 5, Peter Mead 3, Jehoiakem P. Van Valkenbergh 7, Peter Vandenburgh 5, Henry Gardiner 5, Amos Finch 9, Amos Craw 7, William Hall 2, Timothy Tompkins 9, Susan Philips 7, Nathaniel Appleby 6, Abiel Cornish 7, John Newton 5, Jedediah Hitchcock 8, Benjamin Way 6, Charles Clarke 7, Wilkes Rowley 7, Eder Barnum 3, Benjamin Kipp 7, John Clum 5, Derick Van Dyck 4, Joshua Cross 7, Lawrence Decker 9, James Deyoe 10, Jacob Martin 8, Pelitia Ruland 6, Derick Decker 11, Jacob I. Schermerhorn 8, Thomas Becker 9, Stephen Myers jr. 4, James Wiltsey 5, Arthur Ellsworth 8, Jacob Sole 5, Henry Schoonmaker 5, Daniel Rivenb’gh 6, Lemon S. Shutts 4, Harman Sanby 2, Isaac Camp 12, David Crankhite 10, Robert Van Dusen 2, Richard Stanley jr. 8, Rufus Smith 3, William Chamberlain 5, John Brandow 9, Jasper I. Robbins 5, James Price 2, Jesse Blakesley 1, David Blanchard 5, Luther Pond 3, Warren Brackett 3, Thomas Disbrow 2, John L. Sherman 7, Asahel Disbrow 6, Cornelius D. Beers 9, Nathan Disby 6, Meker Disbrow 7, Asahel Disbrow jr. 5, Stephen Van Deusen 7, William Eigun 4, Henry Carver 4, Martin Haner 4, Henry Schoonmaker jr. 6, William Shomaker 4, Abraham Haner 4, John Haner 5, Jacob Jacobie 4, Daniel Hogeboom 9, James Hogeboom 4, Harman Garlick 7, John Laraway 19, John Van Loon 3, Lawrence G. Decker 14, David Levart 9, Henry Carr 8, Gideon Walcott 8, Andrew Tall 8, Uni Cooke 9, Pitt A. Hosford 6, Munson Brackett 7, Derick Conine 9, Elias Bates 5, Robert Hall 3, James Disbrow 6, Joseph Dimond 8, Coenrad Knoll 7, Jasper Robinson 4, Enos Northrup 7, Jacob Haner 8, David Winters 3, Daniel Kelley 7, Obadiah Murrey 2, Peter Van Loan 8, Jeremy Miller 7, Tobias Hogeboom 6, Elihu Rogers 2, Phineas Benjamin 6, Amos Paugman 6, James Wares 7, George Teal 9, Daniel Post 7, John Hamilton 4, Levi Babcock 8, George Babcock 6, Isaiah Babcock 2, Aruna Hubbert 6, Robert McFall 6, Eliphalet Wheeler 2, John Decker 11, Peter Lewis 9, Lawrence Mickle 3, John D. Decker 4, Samuel Ives jr. 7, Palatier Farington 7, Solomon Almsbury 7, Nathaniel Butler 3, James Chase 8, Benjamin Kirsby 7, Tobias Van Hoesen 7, Jacob G. Dies 8, Silas Sawyer 6, John Van Deusen 4, Jacob West 2, William Clarke 7, Amos Meloy 6, John Meloy 6, Edmond Richards 6, James Fraser 6, John McFall 3, Peter McLean 7, Andrew Richards 3, John Bryans 8, Minor Cob 6, Frederick Homell 6, Adam Fink 6, Stephen Vincent 3, Thomas Wheeler 5, William Brandow 9, Lott Towsley 2, Jacob Teal 8, John Ives 9, Asa Larington 2. Isaac Malery 9, Arnold Newcomb 8, Elijah Strong 10, Jairus Strong 11, William Hood 8, John Tuttle jr. 6, John Tuttle 6, John A. Williams 4, Thomas Bonnum 8, Henry B. Stepson 9, Jacob Snow 5, Artemus Gilbert 3, Samuel Ives 4, Jedediah Hubbert 6, David Arnold 8, Robert M. Turney 7, John Turney 2, Ephraim Turney 4, Daniel Gunn 5, Jehiel Tuttle 10, William Tuttle 7, Josiah Braynard 7, Samuel Graham 13, Ebenezer Blakesley 8, William Stimson 8, Nathaniel Stimson 5, Foster Morse 11, Orami Munson 5, Levi Munson 2, Phineas Hovey 8, William Decker 5, Zebe Osburn 2, John A. Pryout 5, Ebenezer Lake 8, Sanford Hunt 11, Augustus R. Benjamin 10, Argalier White 8, Daniel Ives 5, John Prout 10, Amos Hubbert 8, Timothy Hubbert 7, Russel Glanin 6, Chancy Hubbert 6, Nathan Bates 4, Gurdon Braynard 3, Jedediah Hubbert 6, Medad Hunt 3, Ephraim Stimson 11, Perez Steele 7, Perez Steele jr. 2, Caleb Elmore 8, Samuel Chatfield 8, George Stimpson 10, Noah Pond 5, Asaph Tyler 6, Gideon Greene 5, John Barber 3, John Barber jr. 5, Jeseman Smith 8, Aaron Clafland 5, Nathaniel Lewis 6, Henry J. Brandow 12, Amos Cooke 6, John Hensen 9, John Groat 7, Jonathan Preston 10, Samuel Brandow 6, Russel Gladden 7, Amaziah Doolittle 3, Ezekial Tuttle 8, Samuel Tuttle 2, Nathan Osborn 15, Benjamin ---------- 6, David Freng 8, Stephen Freng 4, Joses Munson 8, Ira Smallen 5, John Smallen 6, Eben Osborn 8, John Clover 3, William Johnson 5, Henry Davis 6, Elum French 11, Orrin Cole 3, Sylvester Andres 5, Gad Andrews 3, Elnathan Munroe 5, Jason Peck 3, Nathan White 7, Silas S. Fordham 4, Abijah Wolcott 11, Asa Richmond 5, Nathaniel Butler 10, Asahel Crandell 3, Bostwick Tuttle 10, John Fraer 5, John Sneathen 8, Solomon Wolcott 10, Enoch Blakesley 8, Silas Lewis 11, Esther Brunson 7, Zachariah Cayill 9, Josiah Chatfield 7, Enos Osborne 6, John Rice 6, Abel Blakeley 3, Benjamin Blakeley 3, Smith Palmer 4, John Stedman jr. 7, John Stedman 2, Solomon Stedman 4, Wells Finch 4, Abraham Dudley 9, James Addin 6, John B. Pratt 4, Elizabeth Burhans 10, Gilbert Saxton 8, Eli Robinson 4, John Waterman 7, Elias Preston 6, William Hitchcock 6, Reuben Robinson 6, Joseph Alwood 9, Samuel Baldwin 3, Benjamin Osborn 8, Jabez Badow 10, Joseph Burnum 5, Joel Tuttle 10, Abijah Stone 8, Benjamin Baldwin 5, Susan Saxton 4, Solomon Rogers 6, Phobe Minor 3, Jabez Brown 4, Elisha Wheeler 4, John H. Decker 4, Samuel Reynolds 5, Stephen Spencer 11, Philetus Reynolds 13, Samuel Crooker 8, William Tombs 5, Oliver Spencer 8, Joseph Bokes 2, Thomas Tayler 7, Abijah Mallery 6, Increase Clafland 7, Beriah Pratt 5, Bernardus Rider 2, Samuel Hensen 8, Lewis Barnum 6, Israel Morris 3, Eli Osburn 4, Ard Osburn 5, Caleb Hitchcock 4, Jacob Hitchcock 6, John Hitchcock 3, Jemima Osborn 3, Aaron Steele 7, Simon Pratt 10, James Robertson 8, George Robertson 2, Israel Minor 5, John West 6, Oliver Loomis 8, Nathan Dudley 7, Aaron Barney 3, Jairus Gates 8, Nabby Fitch 3, John Jones 9, Simon Pratt 6, William Ward 10, Daniel Reynolds 4, Jonathan Reynolds 4, Hannah Jones 9, Cornelius Fuller 14, Mary Harvey 4, Jehiel Winchell 3, William Hensen 10, Samuel Law 7, Daniel Loomis 7, Thomas Hitchcock 5, Lemuel Hitchcock 7, Freeman Snow jr. 5, William Read 5, Ebenezer Platt 9, James Moody 3, Edward Boardman 7, Gerusha Spencer 7, John Hotchkiss 5, Timothy Person 8, Caleb Haight 7, Isaac Puck 7, Jesse Haight 7, Isaac Paine 3, Phineas Barker 9, James Diner (colored) 4, James Tucker 7, Ezra Dibble 6, Jacob Reynolds 4, Reuben Smith 10, Robert C. Spencer 5, John Coy 9, Freeman Snow 4, John Purson 9, Eleazar Miller 7, William Crooker 6, Richard Peck 7.

Town of Greenville – Samuel Earles 7, Robert Holenbeck 12, Elisha Blackmore 4, William Steward 8, Silas Bullock 2, Daniel Palmer 6, Henry Decker 2, Parks Beard 7, Semer Winnans 15, William Curtis 7, Thomas Robison 5, Thaddeus Dan 5, Isaac Soles 8, Michael Holenbeck 6, Aron Dibble 5, Asa Bullock 3, William Yeoman 9, Shubal Newman 6, Hendrick Brant 5, John Winters 9, William Morris 7, Jacob Carter 8, Stephen Lockwood 4, Jeromus Henry 8, Lidia Platt 6, Luther Carter 11, Joshua Alisworth 6, John Husford 8, Christian Kriskern 11, Benjamin Decker 3, Robert Limor 9, William Wright 8, Daniel Hubbard 7, John Garison 5, Levi Rogers 13, Russel Norton 8, Amos Perrie 8, John Stanton 5, Jonathan Stokes 11, Ambrose Norton 5, William Barker 15, James Slanson 8, Isaac Norton 5, Horace Smith 4, Daniel Dilson 7, Alexander Anderson 8, David Moss 4, Martin Moss 3, John Finnton 4, George Renny 7, Ebenezer Tuttle 8, Peter Weaver 7, Daniel Norton 5, Isaac Norton 13, Timothy Page 9, Abel Blackmore 8, Garret Becker 8, Harvey Lusk 2, William Williams 6, James Townsend 4, Daniel Maxy 3, Charles Grigs 4, Camrad Simons 9, Pavimin Bolan 9, Jacob Page 4, Simon Moss 6, William Hallick 4, Joel Norton 3, Joseph Wilkins 3, Denison Hawley 4, Jonathan Brent 7, William Hallisk 8, Jesse Belters 4, Thomas Dibble 5, Israel Moredock 4, Lewis Stone 9, Lewis Stone jr. 4, Philip Norton 4, Samuel Boyd 3, Heman Calhoon 5, Augustus Norton 5, Rachel Page 4, Peter Skert 7, Christopher Dale 6, Abraham Post 3, Abraham Post jr. 8, Ezekiel Ransdale 7, James Ingles 4, J. Slingster 4, Samuel Spalding 3, Joseph Hotskis 4, Mark Rose 1, Josiah Rundle 4, Gideon Havork 2, Peter Paddoe 4, Oliver Gibbs 4, Daniel Bullock 2, Elisha Curtis 5, Norris Butler 5, Benjamin Smith 5, Ichabod Warner 7, John Armstrong 8, Samuel I. Haight 6, Benjamin Adams 4, John Andrews 5, John Lashley 2, Nehemiah Tomkins 13, Ezra Powell 5, Joseph Glover 5, Bethel Henman 9, Aliazer Knold 5, Benah Hotchram 5, Jesse Grant 6, Thomas George 5, Nathan Morris 5, Lemuel Holkis 10, Augustus Provost 22, Ezra Ferra 7, Truman Johnson 7, Nathan Davis 3, Gideon Hevork jr. 10, Samuel Hall 3, David Whiteford 7, Ezra Lake 4, Benjamin Gifford 10, Benjamin Wolsey 2, David Scofield 11, Azel Crane 9, Elisha Rusco 6, Ebenezer Carter 3, Amos Cook 9, David Wilson 8, Eustirra Wilson 2, Matthew Salisbury 6, Benjamin Abrams jr. 6, Ebenezer Carter jr. 6, Peter Curtis 6, James Adams 3, Underhill Budd 11, Amos Botchford 5, Hannah Hind 2, Levi Callendar 7, Abijah Read 6, Eliakim Read 4, Ephraim J. Silvers 10, Ebenezer Kirkland 9, Francis Heacock 7, Isaac Blakely jr. 4, Samuel Benet 7, Reuben Brington 7, Reuben Cheriten 9,  Henry Talmage 14, Samuel B. Shaw 7, George Dudley 7, Edward D. Lake 8, Nathan Botchford 7, Japt Collins 11, Thomas Tuttle 9, John Christer 9, John Chapman 8, John Ely 14, Abraham Colwell 12, John Sweet 5, Haddan Shields 3, Gideon Baker 10, Isaac Homes 3, John Blimus 9, Halsey Brown 7, Sarah Shaw 5, Joshua Nelson 8, Paul Cregs 5, Jonathan Sherral 13, Eli J. Enolds 8, Benona Austin 4, Elexander Calhoon 5, Simeon Screpter 6, Abel Wakely 7, Joseph Betts 5, John Baley 5, William Hooker 2, Benjamin Spear 3, Isaac Blakeley 5, Truman Lake 9, Aaron Lake 7, Truman Stamford 7, Aaron Dibble 11, Rebecca Hansen 5, Clark Squire 8, Phineas Lake 6, Betsey Hancock 7, Timothy Whitman 7, Eli Anibal 4, Henry Lee 8, Daniel Miller 21, Dennis Banarbus 8, Stephen Holly 12, Charles Pursell 6, Joshua Holsbad 3, Abestus Crusper 4, Prudence Rundle 6, John Lake 3, Joseph Collins 7, Samuel Collins 6, Perin Parish 5, Benijah Palmer 7, William Hull 7, Joseph Mott 6, Nathaniel Sheperd 5, Azel Newell 11, Richard Henton 3, William Green 3, John Betts 7, Zebulon Forse 4, Aaron Starker 6, Caty Blossom 6, Stephen Benedict 8, William Lantman 6, Ephraim Bogardus 8, Jacob Bogardus 4, Nanning Bogardus 2, Nanning Bogardus jr. 7, Stephen Beardsly 7, Thomas Smith 10, Reuben Rundle 5, Samuel Cornell 9, David Ferry 3, Amos Bolan 5, Barly Boots 7, Nathan Palmer 6, William Lake 9, Gonard Collins 6, Eanus Collins 5, Jesse Bell 4, Robert Holiday 8, Eanos Dean 8, James Palmer 2, Elizer Baker 3, Ishamer Cobb 12, Anthony Stepman 2, David Baker 6, David King 5, Stephen Losee 9, Hiram Losee 10, Stephen Lantman 2, Obadiah King 6, Lewis King 5, David King 6, William Stephens 9, Thaddeus Stephens 3, Samuel Stephens 4, Hill Sturgis 4, Samuel Pierson 6, Benjamin Reynold 3, Jonathan Jeromins 3, Stodard Smith 9, Joseph Hadman 5, George Anderson 6, Ebenezer Brison 9, James Simily 2, Nicholas Carpter 7, Thomas Stephens 6, Henry Stephens 9, James Stephens 4, Aaron Newman 5, Christopher Townsend 10, Jacob Picket 4, Ezra Barker 5, Elkana Barker 4, Henry Bogardus 7, Ezra Finch 7, Samuel Jones 4, William Pitts 10, Jacob Foster 3, William Jump 8, Martin Horwin 4, Orange Newell 4, William Allen 5, John Huntington 3, John I. Huntington 2, Jonathan N. Scaak 5, Semour Eggot 3, John Clash 6, Isaac Smith jr. 3, Nathaniel Smith 3, Enos Smith 3, Harvey Smith 3, Jack Boyd 7, Elijah Henmen 6, Thadeus Hind 5, Jonas Scofield 10, Sarah Cummins 5, Thaniel Janther 6, Isaac Smith 7, Solomon Hansen 4, William Parks 3, John Palmer 6, Zuby Jump 5, Robert Jenkins 6, David Swan jr. 4, Isaac Foster 3, Richard Runder 5, Nehemiah Stephens 4, Reuben Stephens 8, Nathaniel Fancher 4, Joshua Baker 6, Shubel Newman jr. 5, Amos Stephens 3, John Bullus 4, Isaac V. Schaak 4, James Fuller 7, Henry Souper 6, Andrew Fancher 11, Elias Rockwell 7, Samuel Webb 8, Thomas Place 5, William Thorn 9, John Brown 4, Joshua Lounsburt 7, Widdow Saturly 4, Bortus Segrew 3, Joseph Waldron 9, Nathaniel Palmer 9, William Drake 6, Jonathan Scofield 5, Isaac Huyk 3, Wilhelmus Brandow 6, Peter Brandow 8, Stephen Tryon 3, Enoch Hoyt 6, Jacob Wilbeck 6, Jacob Rundles 8, David Rundles 18, Samuel Rundles 6, Richard Walters 7, Henry Edget 7, Daniel Swan 3, William Thorn jr. 7, Michael Cotton 8, Peter Sigmor 4, Joseph Blasdel 8, Peter Degraaf 8, Thompkins Stephens 5, Smith Sutherland 6, Henry Stephens 11, John Drake 4, John Brandow 4, Uriah Mead 8, Jonathan Davis 2, Nicholas Goes 9, William Goes 3, Casper Deyo 7,  Aaron Starker 5, Lemuel Ferris 6, Alexander Ferris 4, Gilbert Ferris 6, John Ferris 5, Josiah Bullus 4, Peter Brandow 10.

Town of Cairo – Widow Elsie Salisbury 4, Matthew Brandow 4, Peter Rouse 5, Roswell Bump 9, Abner Waters 2, Widow Hannah Bar 5, Abial Wilber 10, William Signor 6, Joshua Allerton 7, Jacob Taylor 8, Zephaniah Tidd 13, John Hendrix 8, Joseph Bullis 5, Wane Parks 9, John Brown 3, David Horton 3, Peleg Horton 5, Gilbert Yeomans 9, Joseph Shepherd 7, Peter Rossmore 3, Joseph Read 6, Peter Fisk 3, Jeremiah Yearls 3, Jonathan Husted 9, John Pine 4, William Gritman 7, James Earls 7, Benjamin Story 10, William F. Salisbury 9, John Winnea 10, Muford Hinyon 9, Wessel Salisbury 6, Abraham W. Salisbury 5, William Thomas 2, John Bullock 5, Widow Hannah Bunt 5, Jacob Bunt 6, Lemuel Drake 6, Jacob Kip 8, Peter Steward 4, Benjamin Tidd 8, Benjamin Tryon jr. 3, Jonathan Howard 11, William Wright 3, Tucker Tabor 5, James Lassly jr. 5, James Lassly 2, David Brewster 5, Widow Barshebe Ellerton 5, Ebenezer Tamys 9, John Pine jr. 5, Abraham Perin 4, Jonas Perin 3, Amos Finch 9, Jonas Finch 5, Amos Finch jr. 3, Reuben Brundridge 10, William Brownell 5, William Husted 3, Wilber Earls 8, Staats Salisbury 4, William Davis 6, Peter Shevelien 11, Widow Anna Scott 5, Gideon Palmer 8, Nicholis Delamater 9, Peter Ladeu 13, Robert Crawford 4, Uriah Griffin 4, Aaron Roberts 7, John Basset 4, Job Howard 9, Samuel Adams 5, Elipha Basset 7, John I. Harver 3, Mead Hungerford 2, Joseph Colson 7, Henry Phillips 5, Albert Salisbury 4, Richard Grimes 7, Joseph Gilbert 8, Joel Johnson 2, William Densey 5, Asher Husted 7, James Gale 8, Asa Cob 6, Dadd Vining 7, Peter Simpoor 6, Henry Weeks 15, Oliver Palmer 5, Jacob Bush 5, John Van Etten 7, Philip Jinkins 6, Abner Lantern 4, Richard Thorn 5, Uriah Davis 1, David Stratton 7, David Dickerson 4, Black Oliver (colored) 1, Joseph Hunt 14, Joseph Blackmore 13, Stephen Durphy 2, Nathan Elliot 6, Seneca Steward 7, Josiah Orsbon 8, Thaddeus Parker 7, Robert Baley 5, Jacob Philips 5, John Steward 6, Julius Steward 5, John Balis 7, Evan Ruuyon 10, Robert Root 3, Elijah Alden 9, Eli Brooks 5, Charles Strong 4, Edward I. Stephens 1, John Wolenberk 5, Stephen Bently 10, Silvester Woodruff 5, Jervis Wright 9, Robert B. Field 6, Nathaniel Jacobs 6,  Peter Van Orden 12, David Stratton jr. 6, Peter Davis 4, Thomas Gilbert 4, John Renny jr. 7, Sanford Worth 7, William Wright jr. 2, Daniel Mead 4, Andrew Wood 8, Ezekiel Roberts 2, Joel Roberts 1, Seth Warner 7, Russel Tubs 10, Joseph Wright 11, John Renny 6, James Renny 7, Etham Roger 7, John Baker 9, Thomas Taylor 7, I. Morrison 5, Ezekiel Smith 5, Nathaniel Nobles 2, Amos Smith 5, Jacob Tryover 4, James Goodrich 11, Isaac Hyne 11, Stephen Tudd 5, Salmon Barith 4, Ager Tredwell 8, Simon Sayers 9, Silvenus W. Stephens 7, William Post 4, Daniel Sayers 9, Jeremiah I. Bennet 8, Jira Bennet 9, Widow Phebe Barns 4, Martin Russel 5, Jesse Wood 6, William Tubs 8, Ezra Miller 9, Robert Holenbeck 10, Nathan Lockwood 10, Jeremiah Mandige 9, Jacob Acre 9, Henry Person 8, Abraham Pierson jr. 6, Jacob Dewit 2, Berant Acre 6, John Weed 6, Ebenezer Baley 7, Amma Perrie 4, Judson Minor 8, Samuel Peter 10, William Wright 5, William Emgar 7, John Emgar 5, Jacob Emgar 5, William Hulet 8, Ibson Laws 3, Michael Steel 3, Silas Senbren 9, William Rodes 7, Sally Finch 6, Benjamin Hyne 2, Elijah Hyne 8, Joseph Utter 10, Richard Marks 4, Abner Judd 4, Richard Olmstead 2, Russel Webster 6, Moses Olmstead 9, David Lyons 6, Timothy Webster 7, James Webster 4, Elijah Smith 10, Samuel Sherman 6, Joseph Mott 6, F. Shears 4, Peter Marquat 5, Zenies Weed 4,  Elisha S. Cole 9, Widow Deborah Matthew 7, Obadah Ames 13, David Horton 9, Josiah Baker 5, Harry Poke (colored) 6, Abner Benedict 6, Widow Halsey 4, Elisha Wooneff 6, Frederic Dedrick 5, Robert Chapple 6, John Dedrick 6, Allen Upham 3, Daniel Read 9, Daniel Briggs 5, David Higby 5, Jonathan Nutoren 4, Goodman Nobles 6, James M. Sanford 10, William Philips 6, John Pilsher 5, Jonathan Moss 12, Zina Plina 11, Stephen Webster 3, John E. Darby 16, Joseph Parker 5, Aaron Stone 6, Jabez Olmsted 7, John How 8, Daniel Hall 5, Abraham Linly 7, John Howel 6, Moses Scofield 7, Ebenezer Malery 8, Joseph Rundle 18, John Morrison 9, Samuel Darby 6, Serenus Linner 7, James Linner 2, Daniel Linner 4, Henry Van Buren 5, William Head 5, Henry Kelder jr. 3, Henry Kelder 5, Jacob Kelder 4, William Wilbeak 9, Elihu Slauter 7, Amasa Woods 7, Abel Eaton 6, Abel Eaton jr. 4, Martin Eaton 4, Ebenezer Beach 9, John Feiro 7, Benjamin Gillet 8, Ashbel Stanly 7, Ebenezer Hale 7, Benjamin Bagly 10, Dennis Webster 5, Truman Lewis 8, Uriah Lee 7, William Briggs 6, Thomas Briggs 4, Samuel Johnson 5, John Benham 8, Martin Benham 6, Jabez Cook 7, William Hamlin 5, Jacob Riesdoph jr. 3, Warren Heaslin 8, Stephen Martin 6, James Cummins 7, Elias Stone 8, Jacob Riesdorph 3, Moses Merrils 4, Elias Ducher 3, Mimeon Murils 5, Neri Stodard 9, Joseph Beach  8, James Eastin 8, Nehemiah Smith 4, Eli Slauter 5, William Vandenburg 10, John Welch 11, Russel Emmins 7, Isaac Slover 5, Enoch Hyde 6, Robert Chandlor 6, Arthur Hataway 5, Thomas Toby 6, Barry Butler 11, Robert Purdy 4, Mindert V. Dyke 5, John Smith 4, Jame Vandenberg 6, Samuel Drake 6, Jesse Terylor 7, Montgomery Stephens 7, Charles Hinman 7, James H. Steward 6, James Hoyt 4, Seneca Steward 8, Joseph Moor jr. 7, Joseph Moor 6, Wilhelmus Ostrander 7, James Ames 8, Thomas Horars 12, John Van Etten 7, Abraham Van Etten 6, Cobus Van Etten 8.

Town of Durham – Silvester Pearce 4, John Van Loan 8, Adallah Davis 4, Ebenezar Davis 9, William Davis 6, Cromwell Pearce 6, John Wood 10, Joab Webb 4, George Wright jr. 7, George Wright 10, Richard Townsend 8, Peter Miller 4, Lavine Cleveland 5, Thomas Clarke 5, Russel Pearce 9, Joab Pearce 5, Micah Pearce 7, Benoni Pearce 5, William Leet 6, Benjamin Wright 4, Phebe Winon 4, James Wright 6, Rossel Rood 9, Louisa Benton 5, Philip Moore 9, Joel Weeks 6, John Edger 8, William Heed 7, John Sherman 13, John M. Pearce 3, Hull Bigsby 7, Ancie Stone 8, Haun Conradt 4, Catherine Seabolt 6, John Garrison 14, John Dunham 6, David Bugg 9, Daniel Benjamin 7, Eliakim Souard 16, John A. Sherman 8, Richard Benjamin 10, Richard Benjamin jr. 6, Edward Harman 9, Gideon Skeels 5, Dennis Spencer 8, James Utter 6, Jonathan Pratt 2, Jonathan Pratt jr. 5, Eliab Skeel 6, Ira Pank 6, Adonijah Skeel 8, Barnabas McKean 5, William Smith 4, Jacob Ruggen 7, Solomon Henderson 7, Peter Dewitt 12, Moses M. Brasseen 7, Jacob Baringer 6, Jesse Butler 8, Joseph Howell 9, Hary Rightemberg 11, Michael Rightemberg 9, Henry Strope 5, John Combs 5, Oliver Head 5, Wis. Wright 10, Ambrose Wright 10, William Ares 7, Cornelius Egbertson 8, Nathaniel Kindle 7, Harry Plank 2, Solomon Coles 3, John Davison 8, Grove Cooley 5, James I. Hase 5, Peter Stanard 5, James Utter jr. 4, Richard Wheeler 8, Ashbel Walker 5, Daniel Park 9, Luke Dewitt 8, James Crane 4, James Austin 8, Abner Flower 4, Georges Flower 10, Peter Stanard jr. 6, Amos Hamlin 8, Josiah Strong 11, Isaac Johnson 6, Charles Casso (col’d) 7, John Chapman 9, Ichabod S. Spencer 7, Calvin Spencer 5, Elnathan Norton 8, William Ingraham 8, Nathaniel H. Doty 4, Israel Hubbut 5, Cornelius West 7, Allen Smith 6, Samuel Scofield 10, William Newman 6, Giles Sutton 10, James Elting 6, Erastus Day 6, Raphael Newell 6, Charles Brawton 3, Zachariah Braynard 7, Arnold Braynard 3, Barnard Alberte 8, Jesse Braynard 7, Asa Thomson 5, Stephen Atwater 5, Jared Hitchcock 3, Charles Parker 6, William Dryer 8, Peter Strong 6, Josiah Doan 6, David Baldwin 6, Orren Burnham 7, Curtis Baldwin 9, Gideon Holbert 11, Elijah Hubbard 9, Benjamin Hubbard 9, John West 12, Jerome Doty 6, Thomas Adams 7, William Groom 10, Jonathan Tayler 4, Stephen Vigil 7, Thomas Scofield 6, Amasa Scofield 5, Aaron Norton 3, Luther Wade 6, Joshua Howland 4, Samuel Tolds 7, Clarke Hubbard 6, Isaac Anderson 5, Stephen Scofield 4, William Scofield 2, Elliott Deiggs 5, John Burn 4, Reuben Scott 8, I. Harris 7, Robert Steele 6, Asa Bouton 5, Augustus Noyes 7, Jonah Gilbert 8, Elihu Moss 9, John Newell 6, Martha Boulton 6, Abner Hubbard 4, David Coe 6, Eben Boothe 4, John B. Hall 8, Giles Ingaham 8, William E. Farmer 6, Levi Austen 5, Luthan Ells 8, Phineas Chapman 2, Samuel Cooley 5, Lemuel Hotchkiss 10, Thomas Gray 6, Henry Hotchkiss 3, Reuben Bushnell 7, Samuel Lee 2, Francis Wilcox 7, Samuel Wells 4, Benjamin Walker 6, Josiah Hand 6, Thomas Smith 8, Harris Gideons 9, James Goof 5, Nathan Fraer 7, Bartholomew Driggs 1, Thomas Cook 2, Seth Newell 9, Elijah Warner 9,  William Wilkins 3, Isaac Umphrey 13, Silvester Umphrey 4, Silas Bartow 2, Leauth Chittenden 9, Jires Chittenden 5, George Keith 6, Jed Chapman 6, James Chapman 6, Abel M. Grosvenor 4, John Palmer 6, Adiah Dewey 7, William Chapman 7, Benjamin Chapman 12, Jared Matthews 7, Amaziah Rice 5, Herman Rice 3, Charles Kirtland 2, Jeremiah Hummel 5, Joseph Adams jr. 5, Benjamin Gideons 6, Jabez Hubbard 5, Isaac Hubbard 6, John Clafland 4, Patience Champion 6, Seth Smith 8, Seth Baldwin 9, Abiel Gardner 11, Isaac Leary 9, Abraham Elmendorf 8, John Wright jr. 3, Daniel Cornwell 8, Moses Austin 11, Edward Hill 14, Silvester Bunyon 8, Sarah Stocking 2, John Fayatt 6, Jesse Canfield 12, Harvey Puck 8, Barnabas McKean 6, Daniel Brown 7, James Ware 5, Samuel Marvin 5, Enoch Hutchinson 9, John Hull 7, Richard Tryon 11, David Mervin 10, Jehiel Cooley 10, Daniel White 7, Nathan Price 3, Francis Bouton 12, Jacob Wingar 4, Joshua Austin 8, Stephen Dunsbre 4, Anson Strong 6, Elias Snyder 6, Allin Clark 5, Heman Hobson 11, Elkanah Perceval 4, Luther Bristol 4, Amos Cornwall 12, Ebenezer Rose 5, Ambrose Squires 9, John Davison 7, John Adams 8, Abiel Baldwin 7, Mary Hitchcock 3, Joel Chittenden 11, Jeremiah Plank 6, Lovira Hart 6, James Rose 2, Constant Bushnell 9, Stephen Tibbles 8, Titus Munger 6, Timothy Munger 3, Solomon Perry 5, Benjamin Bidwell 10, Christopher Post 12, Richard Kirtland 7, Jared Hitchcock 6, Daniel Kirtland 8, Ephraim Higgins 9, William Pratt 10, Jacob Andrews 7, Samuel Chapman 10, Augustus Pratt 5, Augustus Pratt jr. 5, Selah Strong 6, William Hendrixen 4, Edward Daily 9, Walter Field 5, Peter Shoe 7, Frederick Crooker 6, John Haimes 5, Levi Stedman 9, William H. Reed 8, Silas Fordham 7, Jesse Tounsend 7, Aaron Clarke 8, William Cooke 9, Thomas Canfield 7, Samuel Everth 7, Joseph Wade 6, John Wright 8, Selagh Strong 4, Recompence Smith 4, Samuel Hill 4, John Cleveland 8, Eleazur Hedges 10, William Johnson 5, Charles Johnson 10, Asa Tryn 9, Tehiel Tudd 5, Frederick Pratt 3, David Coles 11, Daniel Kirtland 4, Joshua Austin jr. 6, Cyrus Field 5, Jonathan Baldwin 6, James Baldwin 6, Noah Baldwin 11, Augustus Shoe 7, Josiah Tuyler 5, Timothy Percival 2, Chester Patterson 7, Luther W. Hart 4, Elthan Pratt 9, Thomas M. Spalding 5, James Thomson 7, William Tucker 9, Hannah Saring 7, John Skenk 7, Cyrus Peck 5, Thomas E. Barker 3, James Dewitt 11, Isaac Woodworth 2, Ebenezer Allen 13, Seth Carter 3, Ira Carter 2, Joseph Adams 6, Chancy Hobson 4, Samuel Peck 5, Truman Smith 9, Amos Cleaveland 7, Ezra Post 7, Thomas I. Barker 11, Thomas Carter 4, Elias Hoghtaling 4, Jerard Woodward 8, Roswell Post 7, Ethan Plank 6, Isaac Carter 6, John Gideons 8, Christopher Waters 5, Israel Heels 10, William Shofelt 6, Isaac Wheeler 8, Fowler Bryant 8, Eli Pain 10, Isaac Hoghtaling 3, John Wiley 9, William Early 9, Joseph Griggs 5, Stephen Slawson 5, Christopher Keeler 10, Joel Linley 13, Samuel Wheeler 7, Jacob Shears 9, Luther Hayes 8, Nathaniel Umsted 5, Thomas Root 7, Theodosius Van Tassel 8, Betsey Hull 2, Fowler Bryant 8, John Avrey 6, Joseph Peck 9, John Phenix 2, Berea White 6, Sarah Whittlesy 4, Obid Hames jr. 3, Joseph Tudds 13, Gilmore Ricketson 7, Barey Bagley 4, George Hotchkiss 7, David Franie 10, Richard Griffin 4, Joseph S. Bullis 7, Silas Pierce 13, John Perry 7, Nathaniel Mead 11, Elon Hallock 8, George Crandle 3, Jacob Van Sneg 5, Selock Lawes 11, Moses Earles 6, Nathan Hallock 10, Obadiah Avery 9, Wilsey Stilwell 5, John Bagley 10, John Earles 7, David Lawter 8, Gilbert Smith 2, Ebenezer Brackett 14, Elias Galusha 8, Thomas Albro 8, Roxy Butler 7, Reynolds Verner 6, Joseph Vincent 6, Harman Harey 7, Ebenezer Knapp 4, Jonathan Tripp 4, Cutting Bagley 12, Papillean Barker 4, Aaron Russel 7, Philip Goof 6, Phebe James 1, Abraham Boomhorn 7, Lemuel Judsen 7, Peter Harris 7, Williams Avery 3, Peter Cortright 2, Eli Morris 8, John M. Bagley 8, Phineas Tyler jr. 10, Moses Dodge 3, John Howes jr. 13, Jeremiah White 14, Ichabod Umstead 14, Eliphalet Ackley 9, William Pain 3, Joseph Johnson 8, Abel Avery 3, Giles Butler 10, Samuel Holmes 7, Andrew Miller 12, Obid Harvey jr. 8, John Stewart 3, Elisha Tyler 5, Phineas Tyler 4, Herrick Aldrige 3, John Hawley 9, Jemima Cory 9, Obadigh Stephens 8, Stephen James 9, Zimri Welke 4, Michael Boomhorn 3, Daniel Morison 4, Nathan Stone 5, William Lewis 4, Joseph Arnold 8, Alvin Doty 8, John Plank 6, Henry Hendrixen 4, Abel Ives 8.

Town of Catskill – Anthony Dumond 4, Henry Van Gorden 10, Rufus Moore 5, Samuel Cole 6, Samuel Hull jr. 7, Mackey Crosswell 7, George Taylor 8, Ira Day 10, Benjamin Sole 6, Sibel Ogden 3, Tortullus Luddington 8, John Morrison 10, Enoch Calkins 7, Charles Rogers 7, Jesse B. Porter 3, Tunis Ryer 6, Joseph Weed 3, Peter Dubois 10, Andrew McFarland 6, Adam Stewart 7, James Cole 8, John Hamlin 5, John Hicks 2, William Sheffield 11, Caleb Carpenter 3, Ebenezer Baldwin 3, Charles Clark 9, John Pack 2, John Clements 4, Jacob M. Hollenbake 5, John Doan 10, Zachariah Cole 6, John Buel 2, Amos Gillet jr.9, Lyman Hall 7, Peter Breasted 7, Stephen Day 4, Peter Ousterhout 12, Cornelius Acker 3, James Powers 5, John Low 7, Francis Sayre 4, James Garish 6, David Winans 5, Aristobulus Merrick 7, John Depuy 5, Nathaniel Dunbar 7, Daniel Donovan 2, Joseph Cleveland 5, Samuel Pierce 6, Adonijah Sherman 10, Cyrus Sweet 4, Joseph E. Simmons 2, John V.D.S. Scott 11, Jesse W. Smith 6, John Wetsel 5, Naomah Prout 4, Daniel Crane 13, William Brown 6, Ephraim Rice 6, Jared Stocking 5, John Grant 3, James Pinckney 9, James Bogardus 8, James Cain 4, Simon Smith 4, Theophilus Dimick 5, Thomas B. Cooke 10, William Robb 7, James Collier 5, Adonijah Baker 5, John E. Ackerman 3, Lemuel Hall 8, Thomas O’H. Croswell 5, Francis Botsford 8, Henry McKinstry 6, Peter Thurston 4, John Shaw 8, Barent Dubois 7, Ann Tout 5, Archibald Thorp 8, Beman Brockway 4, Robert Pauley 2, Henry Ashley 8, Elijah Wells 8, John Brown 4, Noah Gardner 4, John Ashley 8, Terrence Donnelly 10, Peter Davison 9, Solomon Chandler 7, Cornelius Clark 7, John Dogherty 5, Theo’s Limbrick 5, Jacob Dunham 6, Thomas Hale 10, William Scott 3, Wilkes Hyde 7, Moses I. Cantine 7, Abraham Fonda 8, Peter Coon 6, Jacob I. Bogardus 6, Henry Brink 3,Charles Backus 7, Ephraim Baker 6, Peter Bogardus 4, Orrin Day 8, Ellis Thompson 6, Ralph Stebbins 4, John Blanchard 3, Ezra Hawley 9, Lawrence Mullenix 7, Arnold Gates 7, Nathaniel Jacobs 4, Jacob Haight 6, John P. Bolen 10, John Hyde 9, Nathaniel Ells 12, Robert Dorian 3, Jacob Coon 3, Joseph Kleim jr. 9, Peter Thorp 8, Ashley Calkins 4, Hezekiah Thayer 6, Horace Willard 5, Hiland Hill 8, Richard Hill 7, Jonathan Bill 7, Benjamin Hide 4, Joseph Vail 5, William Stewart 3, David Hamlin 8, David Porter 10, James Bill 10, Egbert Bogardus 6, Henry Sileck 6, Isaac Dubois 10, Samuel Magee 7, Amos Weeks 5, Andrew Whiteford 5, Nathaniel Hinman 10, Caleb Benton 6, Peter L. Donaldson 5, Sally Bridgen 2, John M. Canfield 8, Isaac Hardenbergh 7, Jonathan Hill 8, Jehiel Preston 7, William Seaman 5, Amos Eaton 9, William Hibbert 4, Elisha Meiggs 7, David Thorp 4, Garret Abeel 11, Matthew Bounds 3, William Gibbs 6, George Henry 7, George Reed 5, Deborah Shattuck 2, William Hammond 5, John S. Olcott 11, Nathan Elliott 6, John Reed 10, Abraham Van Gorden 3, Samuel Henry 3, Andrew Brosnaham 5, Chancey Stow 8, Samuel Haight 3, Aaron Hall 9, Phineas Meiggs 7, Chester Blodgett 4, Coenrad Shout 3, Jesse Duncan 2, John T. Lacy 15, Garrit Van Hoesin 7, Stephen Johnson 8, Samuel Norton 4, Garius Leet 5, Isaac Mansfield 4, Garrit Person 6, Asa T. Bailey 5, Jacob Bogardus 3, James Rowe 5, John Reisdorph 4, John Merrifield 6, Luke Kiersted 3, Philip Gephard 6, William Schuneman 13, John Folger 8, Jehn I. Van Hoesen 4, Margaret Egbertson 3, Jacob Van Hoesen 3, Nicholas Price 4, Jacob Feely 2, Nicholas Weeks 2, Jeremiah Rushmore 9, James I. Van Valkenbergh 6, Noah Lindsey 4, Peter Sousor 6, James Rogers 4, William Shortman 6, Ezra Shephard 6, John Franklin 7, Henry Race 5, Jason Thorp 3, John Dubois 12, Abraham Hoghtaling 2, Egbert Schoonmaker 3, John Olcott 5, Eli White 6, Abraham Post 6, Henry Demaurs 6, James Brown 3, Martin Van Bergen 2, Peter Bortle 9, Abraham Simmons 3, Ephraim Conkling 2, John C. G. Van Hoesen 7, Moses Hedden 6, Abraham Van Valkenbergh 4, James Van Valkenberg 5, Shubal C. Bingham 6, Aaron Brandow 8, Aaron Allen 2, Jacob Gotchers 9, Michael Casey 5, Joseph Cadwell 7, Daniel Benton 11, James Pierce 3, Nathan Benjamin 15, Mary Van Loan 5, David Dutcher 5, Elias Winan 3, Philip Ruger 14, Jacob Wetsel 4, James Wetsel 6, Michael Plank 8, Jeremiah Plank 6, Nicholas Brandow 6, George Plank 3, William Plank 12, Garrit Van Bergen 7, Jacob J. Elmendorf 5, William B. Salisbury 6, John Egbertson 6, William Greene 5, Peter Munden 5, Numan Smith 6, John E. David 3, James P. Stoutenbergh 5, Conrad T. Elmendorf 6, Matthew Bellamy 3, John Sutton 8, Jonathan Keyes 9, Jonathan T. Haight 3, Jacob Bates 7, Abraham A. Salisbury 3, Nicholas Dick 7, Maria Sparling 5, Garret Claw 3, Samuel Cochran 2, Samuel Van Vechten 7, John Collier 6, David Palmer 8, James Donnelly 7, Clement Leamen 8, William Johnson 5, John Leaman 4, Catherine Leaman 4, George Burke 7, Henry Dingman 5, Zenas Goodrich 10, Jacob Hollenbake 9, John Rouse jr. 5, John Rouse 6, Joel Bellamy 4, William Prout 3, Samuel Fowks 8, Clement Schram 6, James Bostwick 2, Selick Dan 5, Joseph Wardell 6, William Sturgis 7, Emma Day 11, John Newkirk 7, David Smith 4, Justus Warner 7, Sally Osborn 5, Frederick Smith jr. 5, Martin G. Schuneman 5, George Brendt 9, Jacob Newkirk 3, William Van Bergen 6, Jacob Philips 3, Andrew Brezee 5, John Person 5, James Cooper 9, Samuel Chidester 3, Waldron Dumond 7, Henry Richtmyer 7, John Walcott 8, Ezekial Benton 15, John Pollock 6, Adam J.P. Reid 6, Nathaniel Cooper 14, Henry Rouse 5, Francis Salisbury 3, Samuel A. Chidester 11, William Chidester 5, Lydia Chidester 4, John Brandow 6, Henry Brandow 5, Wilhelmus Layman 5, Jacob Timmerman 11, Joseph Doan 3, Peter P. Sax 7, Vincent Bruzee 7, Garret Person jr. 4, Simeon Fowler 10, Harmanus Veeder 2, John Veeder 10, Casper Van Hoesen 9, Wilhelmus Brandow 8, John Munden 4, John Schuneman 8, Samuel Davis 3, Abraham Basset 8, Peter Sax jr. 7, Michael Smith 5, Asa June 3, Green Blevin 8, James Welch 7, William Turner 7, John Ousterhout 7, William Elting 7, Abraham Salisbury 10, Samuel Powell 2, Frederick Sax jr. 5, Powles Fiero 5, Margaret Rowe 7, Peter C. Sax 7, Nicholas Rowe 5, Jeremiah Griswold 7, William Timmerman 3, Christian Kellerhouse 4, John Sax 13, Michael Mower 3, Peter Van Bergen 8, Isaac German 4, Joseph Allen 3, Joseph Allen jr. 5, Frederick Sax 9, Peter Overbagh 3, Jonathan Rowe 8, Stephen Root 9, Christian Myer 6, Henry Pelham 10, Isaach Pelham 6, Lee Brandow 7, Timothy Babcock 4, Jonathan Smith 10, Peter Van Bogart 6, William Travers 4, Joshua Travers 4, Edward Haines 8, Caleb Townsend 4, Phineus Curtius 5, Russel Beebe 8, Isaac Blanchard 2, Edward Coates 3, Tobias Myer jr. 2, Peter I. Overbagh 6, George Overbagh 3, John Leaman jr. 3, John Leaman 6, Frederick Wall 6, Frederick Chollet 8, James Cargill 6, Richard Thomas 4, Solomon Cook 12, William Overbagh 5, Conrad Barringer 5, John Best 9, Cornelius Myer 10, Peter Brett 7, Samuel Smith 3, John Emerick 3, John Gardiner 2, Frederick Schermerhorn 7, Frederick S. Smith 8, James Webster 8, Jeremiah Smith 8, Isaac Robbins 7, David Lawrence 5, Gaun Watts 3, Merchant Lawrence 11, Jonathan Purinton 9, John Remsen 5, Jacob Beecker 8, Phineas Goodin 7, David Garrison 8, Catlope Cannight 6, Austin Everston 9, Silvanus Cash 2, Bradford Cash 8, Charles L. Meach 6, David Abeel 5, David G. Abeel 5, Jacob Tremper 6, Benjamin S. Du bois 6, Philip Eaman 5, John Starr 4, Isaac Van Loan 4, Joseph Moore 5, Matthew Leaman 8, Peter Eckler 13, John Eckler 10, Zachariah Dedrick 11, William Dedrick 8, Peter Dedrick 5, John Dedrick 4, Jacob Dedrick 3, John Dedrick jr. 5, Godfrey Wolven 7, Philip Frayerd 5, Jeremiah Lasher 7, George Musier 7, Christopher Musier 7, Ephraim Magee 6, Jonathan Kittle 2, Frederick Martin 5, Peter Scutt 3, Nicholas Shoulders 2, Gideon Leaman 4, Joseph Townsend 8, Thomas Wait 5, John Fiero 7, William Martin 5, William E. Whitaker 4, William Overbagh 7, Clement Overbagh 6, John Overbagh 6, Thomas E. Gardiner 8, Abraham Dedrick 4, James Van Aten 3, James Milligan 5, Ruluf Voorhis 11, Abraham Van Gelder 8, Peter Van Gelder 6, Peter Brandow 8, Peter Wolven 6, Peter Sax 4, Peter Camp 3, Thomas Mosher 2, John Lasher 5, William Demott 7, Jacob Ten Broeck 3, John I. Dewitt 8, Peter Dewitt 3, William Musier 5, James Person 10, John Bogardus 13, William Van Orden 5, Samuel Foster 6, Elias Overbagh 10, Nicholas Danah 4, Frederick Smith 6, John Decker 6, Henry Benham 5, John Van Orden 12, Adam Burgot 11, Peter Overbagh 6, J. Van Hoesen 9, John H. Van Hoesen 9, John C. Van Hoesen 4, John Van Loan 10, Matthew Van Loan 11, John Cook 7, Lewis Wheeler 5, Henry Ritter 9, Samuel Hamilton 8, William Fraser 6, John Patterson 5, Henry Well jr. 7, Stephen Horton 4, William Dusenbury 10, Thomas Cook 7, Edward Hinman 4, Simeon Franklin 9, Roswell Wade 3, Samuel Hollenbeck 5, John Pollock 3, Coerad Saltpagh 3, Solomon Scott 8, Michael Philips 7, Frederick Tremper 2, Peter Dewitt 8, Henry Dewitt 5, William Wynkoop 7, John A. Overbagh 9, Joseph Groom 6, John Conine 9, William Scutt 8, Philip Scutt 8, Benjamin Van Buskirk 6, Henry Scutt 3, Ephraim Wheeler 6, Joseph Prentiss 5, Benjamin Haviland 5, Benjamin H. Haviland 9, Dirk Collier 12, Andrew Williams 5, Hezekiah Keeler 3, Casper Hollenbake 5, Chester Sayre 4, Levi Mix 2,Gersham Olds 4, Jared Cook 5, John Adams 2, William Dobson 7, Henry White 8, Henry Deal 3, Cornelius Barnad 4, Juba Hillyer 6, David Thayer 2, Andrew Backus 6, Thomas C. McGraw 7, Phebe McGoun 3, Jacob Dunham 7, John Cook jr. 4, William Woodward 7, Samuel Reynolds 6, John Nichols 5, Whiting Backus 7, Thomas Spencer 7, Timothy Bunker 8, Thomas Stiles 4, Gordon Williams 5, John Bogardus 6, Patrick Hamilton 4, David Duncan 5, Alexander Fraser 2, Thomas Lawrence 7, Thomas Dillon 10, Samuel Doxsy 3, Jesse Sackett 8, Nicholas J. Van Loan 7, John Williams 8, Peter Van Gorden 6, Chester Huntington 6, Solomon Wilber 3, Ebenezer Whiting 3, William Byrne 7, John Haviland 4, Aaron Barnard 4, David Olcott 6, Edward Austin 8, William Patterson 3, Jacob Cook 3, Deliverance Backus 3, Shubal Hotchkin 8, Joseph Colson 2, Thomas Augustus 4, Thomas Howe 6, Shubal Coffin 5, Solomon Coffin 5, Samuel Woodworth 2, Hugh Stephens 10, Seth Hamilton 2, John Nichols 8, Samuel Raymond 11, Isaac Northrup 9, John Colson 4, Thomas Sheffield 7, James Titus 7, Orange Benton 5, William Graves 4, Robert I. Hollenbake 6, Henry Post 6, Augustus Spencer 4, Casper Claw 5, Abraham Hollenbake 6, William Slade 2, James Harington 7, John Schermerhorn 7, Samuel Waring 4, Josiah Hubbard 5, John Williams sen. 2, John Folger 6, Peter Aikens 5, Martin Evarts 7, Calvin Bales 9, Silvanus Macy 7, Bazela Bunker 5, Elizabeth Howland 4, James B. Root 5, Aaron Reed 7, John W. Hays 4, Joseph L. Baldwin 5, Thomas Simmons 5, Tideman Hazard 7, Charles Brown 6, Nehemiah Brown 5, John M. Crows 7, Alexander Allen 4, Ezra Stannard 5, Jesse Story 7, Ira Canfield 7, Isaac Van Wort 6, Russel Lefinguel 9, Mary Nash 7, William Mellin 7, Justus Wheeler 9, Matthew Graves 5, James Aikins 9, Samuel Aikens 3, Silas Person 5, Lee Hill 5, John Fraser 10, Aaron Gilbert 8, James G. Foster 6, John Alsop 7, Richard Barker 5, Nathaniel Howland 10, John T. Nettenille 10, David Shaw 11, Uriah Coffin 4, Abijah Fosdick 12, Samuel Brooks 4, Matthias Fonda 5, Charles Barrington 5, Benjamin Turner 5, Isaac Cain 6, Richard Pultney 5, Francis Gayler 5, Timothy Witheride 4, Deborah Folger 3, Reuben Moulton jr. 6, Reuben Moulton 3, Ann Hamlin 3, Abraham Van Buskirk 6, William Brandow 5, Reuben Whippey 7, Ebenezer Thornton 6, Joseph Seely 9, Mary Hard 4, William  J. Bresach 4, Richard E. C

CHAPTER X.

TURNPIKES AND STAGE LINES

 

“We hear no more of the clanging hoof,
And the stage-coach rattling by;
For the steam-king rules the travelled world,
And the old pike’s left to die.
The grass creeps o’er the flinty path,
And the stealthy daisies steal,
Where once the stage-horse, day by day,
Lifted his iron heel.
 
“No more the weary stager dreads
The toil if the coming morn;
No more the bustling landlord runs
At the sound of the echoing horn;
  For the dust lies still upon the road,

And the bright-eyed children play
Where once the clattering hoof and wheel,
Rattled along the way.”

REV. JOHN PIERPONT

The principal roads of this county were laid out and constructed as turnpikes, by chartered companies who were authorized to collect tolls of those using them. The labor required to make a road over the rocky and uneven surface of this region was very great, and the turnpike company was the pioneer that did the work that in many sections of the country was done by the corporate people.

Some provisions for laying out and maintaining the great roads of the State, as well as local roads, had been made before. By an act of May 4th 1784, the towns were authorized to elect three to five commissioners of highways for this purpose. An act had been passed previous to that, i.e. March 24th 1772, and under that act the commissioners for the district of Coxsackie, June 18th 1773, were Theunys Van Vechten, Jacob Hallenbeck, Anthony Van Bergen and Hendrick Hoghtaling. The progress of these public improvements was augmented in those early years by the aid of lotteries. March 28th 1797, the State Legislature made provision for raising $45,000 by three successive lotteries, the money to be expended in opening and improving the great roads connecting the eastern and western and northern and southern parts of the State. In the disposition of this sum the act decrees that $6,510 “shall be and hereby is appropriated for improving the great road leading from Catskill landing in the county of Albany to Catherine’s town in the county of Tioga, and which improvements shall commence at or near the house of Stephen Platt in the town of Freehold”

March 30th 1802, the Legislature directed that four commissioners should be appointed to investigate the road leading from Albany to Kingston and thence to the turnpike in Orange county. They were to report its condition and any alterations that might be advisable, and the probable expense of making such alterations. This commission reported to the next Legislature (1803) and in accordance with their recommendations that body, April 6th 1803, appointed Charles Selden, Benjamin Smith and Albert Pawling, commissioners with power to lay out a road beginning at the southern boundary of the city of Albany and running over the route which to them should seem the most convenient to the toll bridge at Catskill Landing; thence to Kingston and so on to the Orange turnpike. The commissioners of highways in the several towns through which the road was to pass were directed to open the road in their several towns without delay.

In the early years of this century the chartered turnpike took the precedence over all other schemes for road making. There was much that was substantially uniform in the charters of these old turnpikes. To save repetition in individual cases we will give some of the main points which they possessed in common. The charter was issued to a number of men, whose names were given, and their associates; commissioners were appointed to receive subscriptions; the stock was to consist of a specified number of shares, the value of which was usually fixed at twenty dollars each, and a certain amount of it was to be paid at the time of subscribing. When a certain number of shared had been subscribed for, the commissioners were to give notice of a meeting for the election of directors, at which meeting they should preside, and the stockholders were to elect nine directors. The president and directors, who ere to hold office for one year, were to call for installments on the shares of stock, at their discretion, and failure on the part of stockholders to respond within 30 days would result in the forfeiture of the payments already made. The president and directors were to make by-laws and regulations, such as they thought necessary, so long as they were “not repugnant to the laws of this State or of the United States.” The number of shares that any one person could hold was limited. A road was to be constructed upon the most direct and convenient route practicable between the two points of termination, the road bed to be 18 feet or more in width, to be made of stone, gravel, or other hard substance, crowned in the center and compacted so as to form a solid road with a smooth, hard surface. On the completion of the whole or specified parts of the turnpike, inspectors who were appointed for the purpose, were to issue certificates upon which the governor of the State was to give permission for the erection of a gate or gates at points named in the charter, which points were usually ten miles apart along the line; and the first one to be four or five miles from the starting point. The direction and route of the turnpike were to be decided by commissioners (disinterested parties) to be appointed by the governor, and in case of disagreement with any land owner as to the amount of damage, a jury of six disinterested freeholders was to assess the damage. Heavy fines were imposed for the destruction of any gates, or injuries to the road, or passing the gates without paying toll.

The directors were to declare dividends of the clear income of the turnpike semi-annually, and to render annual accounts of the finances of the company to the controller of the State. Whenever the income from a turnpike should have compensated fully for all the expense of making, improving and repairing it, and realized an interest of ten to fourteen per cent. additional on the money invested, the Legislature might dissolve the corporation, when the road was to revert to the State. The charter of a company was to be null and void in case the road was not begun or completed within a specified time. The governor was to appoint commissioners to inspect the turnpike, and when found out of repair these inspectors were to cause the gates to be thrown open until proper repairs were made. No toll was to be exacted of any person passing to or from any place of public worship, or to or from his common farm business, or to or from the mill where he had his grain ground into flour for use in his family, or going to or returning from funerals. The appended table shows the rates of toll allowed by some of the principal turnpike charters:

 

Susquehanna, 1800.

Albany and Greene, 1806.

*Albany and Greene, 1806.

Coxsackie, 1805.

Little Delaware, 1805.

Schoharie, 1802.

 

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Cts.

Score of sheep or hogs

8

8

6

4

8

5

Score of cattle, horses or mules

20

20

14

10

20

12

Horse and rider or leader

5

4

3

3

5

4

Single horse sulky, chair or chaise

12 ½

12 ½

9

7

12 ½

12

Cart, with one horse

6

6

4

3

6

4

Chariot, coach, coachee or phaeton

25

25

18

12 ½

25

25

Stage, wagon, or other four-wheel carriage drawn by two horses, mules or oxen

12 ½

12 ½

9

6

12 ½

12

Additional horses, &c., each

3

3

2

2

3

3

Cart with two horses, oxen or mules

12 ½

12 ½

9

6

12 ½

6

Each additional horse or ox

3

3

2

2

3

3

Sleigh or sled drawn by two horses or oxen

6

6

4

3

6

6

Each additional horse or ox

3

 

 

2

3

3

*The Albany and Greene Turnpike had different rates of toll for different gates.

In connection with the building of turnpikes the following advertisement, which appeared in the Recorder in 1807, is filled with suggestions:

“WANTED at New Baltimore, 20 miles above Catskill, by the subscriber, 10 or 15 sworn TURNPIKERS to work on the Baltimore and Renssellaer Turnpike, to whom good wages will be given. No Dutchman need apply unless he is pretty well Yankeyfied; and no Irishman unless he can demolish a quart of Rum per day.”

“DANIEL IVES.”
“New Baltimore, June 9th.”

In the following paragraphs we will give a brief sketch of each of the turnpikes that have been built within or through this county, as far as reasonable diligence has enable us to obtain the facts concerning them.

The Susquehanna Turnpike: -- This turnpike was authorized and the president and directors made a corporate body, by an act of Legislature passed April 1st 1800. The men whose names appear in the charter were John Livingston, Stephen Day, Henry Livingston, Caleb Benton, George Hale, Samuel Haight, Garret Abeel, Martin G. Schuneman, Benjamin Van Orden, Sherman Wattles, Solomon Martin, and John Cortright. The stock was limited to $12,000, and was to be held in twenty dollar shares. The charter granted the right to survey and lay out the road, over whatever route seemed most practicable to them. The road was not to be less than four nor more than six rods wide. Twenty feet of its width was to be bedded with wood, stone, gravel or other hard substance. It was to run from the town of Salisbury in Connecticut, to the ferry near the store of John Livingston, in the town of Livingston, and from the landing at Catskill to Wattles’ Ferry on the Susquehanna River. By the latter part of the following August twenty-five hundred shares had been taken. This fact shows the eagerness with which the people, having full confidence that it was to fill a great want, took hold of the enterprise. By an act of March 20th 1804, the organization and its jurisdiction was divided, and that part of the turnpike lying east of the Hudson River was incorporated as the Ancram Turnpike, while the Susquehanna Turnpike covered that part of the route which lay west of the river. The stock of the corporation was now limited to $11,600, or 5,800 shares. Its management rested in the hands of nine directors. They were to erect mile-stones marking the distance from the river, and gates at intervals of ten miles, the first one to be three and a half to four miles from the river. Its rates of toll are given in the table printed above.

This turnpike route ran out through the northern part of Greene county, from Catskill westward, striking on its way the villages of Cairo and Durham. The first section of the road, four and one half miles, which was necessary to the placing of the first gate, was completed ready for inspection, August 20th 1801. The road soon became a profitable investment, and during the years between 1820 and 1830 saw its most prosperous period. But the opening of the Erie Canal and the Erie Railroad, and other channels of traffic, diverted the tide of inland commerce, which from a large back territory previously found its way over this route to an outlet at Catskill, and it soon felt a decline. The turnpike at first had ten gates on it, but soon after the year 1830, the western part of it was abandoned. In 1842, we find it had but five gates. This length carried it beyond the line of this county. On the 12th of December, 1856, all the western part of the road down to the fifteenth mile-stone, which is in the town of Durham, was abandoned. The road is held to that point at the present time, and there are three gates on it. The tolls, since its incorporation, have been several times changed. During the days of its prosperity they were reduced to about one-half the original charges. In 1867 they were advanced, but in 1879 the former charges were re-established. The successive presidents of the corporation have been: Stephen Day, July 25th 1800; Caleb Benton, July 24th 1801; John Livingston, July 24th 1082; [sic 1802?] Caleb Benton, July 24th 1804; Ezra Hawley, July 25th 1831; Abram Van Vechten, July 24th 1856 to the present time.

The Albany and Greene Turnpike: -- This company was incorporated April 7th 1806. The incorporators were James Van Rensselaer, Francis Nichol, David McCarty, Levi Blaisdell, Benjamin Baker, Abraham Van Dyke, Thomas Lawrence and Samuel Haight. The road ran from the Albany and Bethlehem Turnpike by Coeyman’s Landing as near the river as practicable to Warner’s Bridge over Murderer’s Creek, to the drawbridge at Catskill. The number of shares was limited to 2,005, at $20 each. It had four gates: the first, half way between the north end and Coeyman’s Landing; the second between Coeyman’s and Coxsackie; the third between Coxsackie and Athens; and the fourth between Athens and Catskill. In 1838, that part between William street and the bridge in Catskill was made a public highway. In 1852 that part of the road north of Coxsackie was abandoned. In 1857 that part lying within the corporate limits of Catskill village was abandoned. April 1st 1868, Harmon Van Woert purchased the part lying between Athens and Coxsackie and abandoned it February 22nd 1869. There still remains one gate on the road between Athens and Catskill.

The Schoharie Turnpike: -- This turnpike was incorporated April 5th 1802. The act named Isaac Northrop, Thomas E. Barker, Storm A. Becker, Henry Wells jr., William Frazier and Alexander Alexander as incorporators. The stock was limited to 3,000 shares, which was in 1806 increased by 900 shares additional. The road was divided March 13th 1807, the western branch comprehending thirty miles, and the eastern branch twenty-five miles. The road was then placed in the hands of two companies. The same year the Legislature authorized the eastern branch to sell the road with all their rights. In 1834, ten miles of the western end was abandoned. In 1844 the road west of Potick Creek was abandoned. The remaining part from Potick Creek to Athens was sold October 27th 1855  by Volney Danforth, Thomas P. Danforth, D.B. Danforth and Harmon Becker to Sylvester Nichols for $2,000.

The Schoharie-Kill Bridge Company: -- We have not learned when this company was incorporated. It was probably not long before 1827. In that year the company altered their road from the top of the mountain eastward through the towns of Durham and Cairo. Commissioners were appointed to assess the damages to land owners on account of this alteration. These commissioners were Willis Miles, Henry Hosford and Henry Goslee of Lexington. Other alterations were made during the year under the direction of the same commissioners, from a place called the Clippe, on top of the mountains in Cairo, west to the town of Blenheim. That part of the road from the hotel of Cyrus Smith in Prattsville, to the western end of the turnpike was abandoned November 7th 1861. So much of the road as lay west of the line separating the farms of James Christian and Aaron Garrison in Ashland was abandoned October 14th 1869. That part west of Addison W. Brisack’s, Ashland was given up September 15th 1874. The remainder, which has two gates upon it is now owned by Harvey Sherman.

The Little Delaware Turnpike Company: -- Alexander McKee, John T. Moore, Hezekiah Wynkoop, and John Du Bois were incorporated under the above title March 16th 1805. They were granted the privilege of constructing a road from the western end of the drawbridge at Catskill Landing by the most direct and convenient route to the western bank of the Delaware River, in the town of Delhi. The stock was limited to 5,000 shares. The first gate was to be erected not less than four miles from the bridge. In 1815 the Legislature granted five years extension of time for the completion of the road.

The Coxsackie Turnpike: -- This company was incorporated by an act of March 2nd 1805, which named as incorporators Robert H. Vanden Bergh, Leonard Bronck, Peter C. Adams, Dorrance Kirtland, Roswell Reed, Archibald McVickar, and their associates. They were to make a road from Coxsackie, starting at the east end of Coxsackie Bridge, and running thence in the most direct and convenient route to the Susquehanna Turnpike, between the twenty-first and twenty-second milestones, in the town of Freehold. John H. Cuyler and James Thompson were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions to the stock, which was to consist of 1,250 shares. Two gates were to be erected on the route. That part of the route between the Schoharie and Susquehanna Turnpikes was abandoned by permission of Legislature, March 10th 1815, also so much of the branches of the road as lay west of their intersection with the road leading from the house of Leonard Bronck westerly. That part west of the store of Levi Chandler, Greenville, was abandoned in 1828. That part west of Medway four corners was abandoned May 12th 1879.

The Coxsackie and Oak Hill Plank Road: -- This road was organized many years ago. March 27th 1852, the company was authorized to raise a loan on its credit of $10,000. In 1856 a short piece of the western end of the road was abandoned. The western part of the road in the neighborhood of Greenville was abandoned about three years ago, and the remainder has recently been given up.

The Athens Turnpike: -- This was incorporated March 24th 1809. The act named as incorporators Patrick Hamilton, Thomas Lawrence, Aaron Reed, David Shaw and Timothy Bunker. The route was to begin near the head of Market street in Athens, and run westward to intersect the Susquehanna Turnpike, between the half-toll gate and the bridge near Martin G. Schuneman’s. The stock was fixed at four hundred shares. One gate was to be erected within a half mile east of Kalkberg. Alterations in the route were allowed by an amendment to the charter, March 6th 1818.

The Hunter Turnpike: -- The first meeting to organize this company was held November 20th 1823, the act incorporating it having been passed by the Legislature April 12th 1822. The turnpike extends from Palenville to Lexington. The original stockholders were William Edwards and son, Jonathan Palen, Tobias Britt, Joseph Palen, Benjamin P. Burhans, Asa Bigelow, and Stephen Kellogg. The contract to build the road was given to Abel Avery. A receipt dated November 18th 1824, for $4,572, in full for the work appears on the books. The original route lay from or near the store of Jonathan Palen & Co., through the Kaaterskill Clove, to the New York Tannery, at the house of William Edwards, in the town of Hunter. The present stockholders are Jacob Fromer, S.S. Mulford, George N. Eggleston, George Campbell, Gilbert Haines, Aaron Roggen, estate of Hiram Roe, Owen Glennon and Jacob H. Meach. It is now leased to George Harding, proprietor of Kaaterskill Park.

The Catskill and Mountain Turnpike: -- This road was chartered April 6th 1827, by Lewis Benton, Jonathan Palen and Wilkes Hyde, for the purpose of constructing a turnpike from the west end of the drawbridge in Catskill to a point near the home of widow Gilbert E. Palen in the same town. The stock was limited to 300 shares of $25 each. One gate was to be allowed when five miles of either end of the road was completed. John Remsen, Jonathan Rowe jr. and William Edwards were appointed commissioners to lay out the road. All of the road lying west of the red school-house at Kiskatom was abandoned February 19th 1856. This left about five miles. That part of the road west of the drawbridge as far as the corporate limits of Catskill village, was abandoned June 6th 1877.

The Catskill and Ulster Turnpike: -- This road was chartered April 14th 1838, for 30 years. The route began at the junction of the lower road with the Catskill and Mountain Turnpike, and followed the former through West Camp to the village of Ulster, a distance of about 12 miles. The capital stock of the company was $5,000 in $25 shares. Joseph B. Lynes, Mackey Croswell, William Adams, Judson H. Calkins, and Jeremiah Russell were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions.

The Cairo and East Kill Turnpike: -- The first charter of this road was dated June 15th 1812. Nothing appears to have been done until April 14th 1831, when the charter was renewed, and the time for completing the road extended to December 1st 1836. The road was to begin near the eighth mile-stone on the Susquehanna Turnpike, and run thence to the Forge, and so over the mountain, and through the East Kill valley. The stock consisted of 800 shares of $20 each.

The New Baltimore and Rensselaer Turnpike: -- This turnpike was incorporated April 2nd 1806, by Albert Van Der Zee, Pelatiah Whitmore, Paul Sherman, John K. Brown, Joseph Platt, Stephen Parsons, Henry C. Houghtaling, Samuel Skinner, Tunis A. Van Slyck, John Van Dyck, David Densemore, and Joseph Requa. The route lay from New Baltimore northward to its intersection with the Albany and Delaware Turnpike in the town of Rensselaerville. In 1812, the road having been completed, and the bridges built, the public dissatisfaction in regard to the western gate became so great that the Legislature, May 26th, made a public highway of all that part of the road between the intersection of the old State road and the village of New Baltimore; also the road from Peter Shear’s blacksmith shop to the west end of the turnpike. A corresponding reduction was also made in the tolls. The road was sold to the Coeymans and Westerlo Plank Road Company, in 1850. Soon after that the new Baltimore Plank Road Company was formed and built a plank road to the Albany line.

The East Kill Turnpike: -- This road was incorporated May 1st 1829, with a capital stock of $10,000 in shares of twenty-five dollars each. Moses Olmsted, Josiah Brown and Henry Goslee, were appointed commissioners to lay out the road. It was to run from a point near the house of West Chase, in the town of Lexington, along the valley of the East Kill “to or near the east line of the farm lately occupied by Smith Parks, in the town of Hunter,” thence by the most eligible route to the Schoharie Kill Bridge Company’s road, near the house of Andrew Highdeck in the town of Windham. We have learned nothing further of its history.

The Greenville and Potter’s Hollow Turnpike: -- This road was a continuation of the Coxsackie Turnpike, from the village of Greenville through part of the town of Durham to Potter’s Hollow, where it formed a union with the Gilboa and Potter’s Hollow Turnpike. It was incorporated May 13th 1845, with a capital stock of $10,000 in twenty-five dollar shares. The commissioners for laying it out were Erastus H. Straton, Peter Roggens and Walton S. Stoutenburgh.

The Blue Mountain Turnpike: --  This company, incorporated by an act of March 11th 1814, consisted of John Hunter, Geo. B. Everson, Jeremiah Eligh, Robert L. Livingston, Tobias Wynkoop jr., Jacob Trumpbour jr. and John Tremper. They were to make a road “to begin at or near the head of the caderskill clove on the said Blue Mountains, at or near the house of Worster Perkins in the town of Greenland,” and to run thence through the clove into the town of Saugerties. The stock was to consist of 600 twenty-five dollar shares.

The Cauterskill Turnpike: -- This road was incorporated April 15th 1814. The act named Joseph Klein and Isaac Dubois incorporators. The route commenced near the house of Peter Fiero or Elias Dutcher in the town of Cairo, and ran on the south side of the hill called Round Top to Joseph Klein’s factory on the Kaaterskill, and so on to the Little Delaware Turnpike near the house of Henry Race, in the town of Catskill. The stock consisted of 400 twenty-five dollar shares, and the number of directors was five.

The Bristol Turnpike: -- Asa Bigelow, Jonathan Palen, Abraham Fiero, Stephen Kellogg, William Edwards and their associates were incorporated as a turnpike company April 21st 1825. The route of their road was from the landing at Bristol, now Malden, to the tannery of G.E. & J. Palen in the town of Catskill, at which point it intersected the Hunter Turnpike. The stock was limited to 300 shares, and its affairs were to be managed by five directors. The name was changed to the Malden Turnpike Company April 20th 1830, at which time it was allowed to make some alterations in the route, which were to be made under the direction of Aaron Bushnell, William Edwards and Moses Olmstead, commissioners. Their work was confirmed by the Legislature April 23rd 1832. Further alterations were made in 1837.

The Prattsville Turnpike Company: -- This was incorporated April 17th 1843, for the purpose of constructing a road from a point on the Kingston and Middletown Turnpike in Shandaken, through Lexington to a point near the big rock in Prattsville. The line of this road was surveyed in July 1843, by Asa B. Bushnell, under the direction of Alvin Bushnell and Arland T. Humphrey, commissioners. It entered the county at Bushnellville, which then contained a few houses, a tannery, a chair factory and a saw mill. Its stock was fixed at 480 twenty-five dollar shares. By an act of April 2nd 1848, the inhabitants of Lexington living on the turnpike were allowed to work their assessment under the turnpike directors, and to use the road toll free. The road was sold under a foreclosure of mortgage, and the sale was confirmed by the Legislature April 10th 1848. The purchasers were Aaron Bushnell, Silas Fowler, Justus D. Bushnell, Hiram Wheeler and Asa B. Bushnell. That part of the road north of the store of Abram Hare, in the town of Lexington, was abandoned August 27th 1856, and the remainder within this county on the 6th of the following October.

The Greenfield Turnpike was incorporated by an act of March 14th 1806. The route began at or near the house of Daniel Miller in Greenfield, and ran to its intersection with the Albany and Delaware Turnpike in the town of Rensselaerville. The incorporators were John Ely, Stoddard Smith, Daniel Miller, Isaac Hyde, Apollus Moore, David Smith, Thomas Smith, Thomas Conklin and Jared Reynolds. The capital stock allowed was 1300 shares. An amendatory act, April 4th 1807, permitted the extension of the road to the Coxsackie Turnpike and an increase of the stock 200 shares. An act of March 5th 1813 extended the time for the completion of the road to March 5th 1815. That part of the road lying south of the house of Daniel Miller, in Greenville, was abandoned in 1820, and May 5th 1837 the charter was repealed and the road given into the charge of the commissioners of highways of the several towns through which it passed.

The Greene and Delaware Turnpike: -- Bruce C. Smith, Jeremiah Martin, David Dopp, Joel Ford and Aaron Bushnell were incorporated as a turnpike company by act of April 21st 1828. They were authorized to make a road from the New York Tannery in the town of Hunter, down the valley of the Schoharie Kill to Bruce C. Smith’s store, thence up the West Kill near the tannery of Aaron Bushnell, from which point it was to run through the “great hollow” to intersect the Esopus road in Middletown, Delaware county. It was also to run from Smith’s store” to the great rock east of John Brandow’s.” The stock was fixed at 500 shares of $25 each. Elijah Bushnell jr., Noah Dimick and Amos C. Treat were appointed commissioners to lay out the road.

The Canton Bridge Company: -- This was incorporated April 9th 1805. The incorporators were John E. Darby, James Gale, Isaac Hine jr., Rufus Dodge, Luther Carter and their associates. The act granted the right to build a bridge across the Katskill, near the mills of Henry Person in the town of Canton. The stock was limited to 300 shares, and whatever surplus arising from the sale of stock should remain after building the bridge, the directors were to use in improving the road and bridges between the villages of Freehold and Shingle Kill (Cairo). In accordance with a provision of the charter Smith Sutherland, Jonathan Nickerson and Caleb Benton were appointed commissioners October 15th 1805 to inspect the work.

The Plattekill Turnpike Company: -- Abijah Griffin, William Miller, William Edwards, Jeremiah Russel and Asa Bigelow were incorporated April 2nd 1819 as a turnpike company with the above title. They were authorized to build a turnpike from the south side of Plattekill Creek to a point at or near the farm of Aaron and Alvin Bushnell in the town of Hunter. The charter also granted the privilege of extending the road from Bushnell’s farm to the East Kill, provided no interference with the rights of other companies should be caused thereby.

Another incorporation of a Plattekill Turnpike Company was made April 28th 1834, with the right to build a road from some convenient point on the Saugerties and Woodstock Turnpike through the Plattkill Clove, so as to continue the Cauterskill Turnpike by intersection or otherwise through the town of Lexington, to intersect the Windham Turnpike at a large rock near the bridge across the Batavia Creek in the town of Prattsville. The stock of this company was fixed at 800 shares of twenty-five dollars each. George A. Gay, John Kiersted and Levi Myer were appointed commissioners to lay out the road and open subscription books. The time for completing the road was extended by act of April 30th 1841, five years from that date.

The Rensselaer and Durham Turnpike: -- This was incorporated in March 1808, for the construction of a road from the town of Durham northwardly to a point on the Albany and Delaware Turnpike in the town of Rensselaerville. May 21st 1836 the Legislature allowed them to abandon their road, and directed the commissioners of highways in the several towns through which it passed to take charge of it as a public highway.

The Ulster and Greene Turnpike: -- Jeremiah Russell, John Kiersted, George A. Gay, Jacob Trumpbour and John Eldridge were appointed commissioners under an act of incorporation, April 23rd 1821, to sell stock and open a road from the Saugerties and Woodstock road at a point in Saugerties town through the Plattekill Clove to the village of Hunter. The stock was fixed at $10,000 in twenty-five dollar shares, and the capital might be increased to double the amount at the discretion of the corporation.

The South Durham Turnpike: -- This was incorporated March 27th 1839, for a term of thirty years, for constructing a road beginning near the dwelling house of Montgomery Stevens n the town of Durham, and running southerly through the south part of that town to the Schoharie Kill Bridge Company’s road between the dwelling house of Michael Broomhower and the toll-gate on that road on Catskill Mountain. The capital stock was fixed at $4,000 in twenty-five dollar shares. The commissioners to receive subscriptions were Montgomery Stevens, George Robinson and Isaac Bogardus. One toll gate was allowed.

The Stoney Clove Turnpike: -- The commissioners appointed to open the subscription book for this company, which had been incorporated April 30th 1873, were Lemuel Chichester and H.R. Winter of Phoenicia; Artemus Shapler of Kingston; and Orin B. Crosby, A.S. Kerr, H.S. Lockwood and C.W. Burgess of Hunter. The road was to run from the fork of the road near and north of the dwelling house of Peter Saxe in the town of Hunter, through the Stoney Clove to the plank road at Phoenicia in Ulster county. The capital stock was fixed at $8,000 in shares of twenty-five dollars each.

The Kaaterskill Park Turnpike: -- This road was built as an approach to the famous Hotel Kaaterskill, up the steep side of South Mountain, from Palenville. It is the most wonderful example of turnpike engineering to be seen within this county. Its route was laid by mountain men after the project had been pronounced by railroad engineers an impossibility. It was constructed in1881 at an enormous expense.

Other turnpikes have been established of which we have not been able to learn the facts necessary to form the basis of a sketch. Among these are the Windham Turnpike, established in 1808, and the Windham and Durham Turnpike, incorporated in 1800. 

EARLY STAGE ROUTES

We come now naturally to notice the early stage routes that were established upon these turnpikes and early roads. The earliest of these stage routes of which we have any knowledge ran from Albany to the northern boundary of New Jersey. This was established under an act of Legislature passed February 26th 1803. This act granted to Terrence Donnelly, Isaac Slote, Jacob Vanderhoff, William Tremble, Hiel Brockway, James Bennet and Israel Ransom the exclusive right of running stages between the points named for a term of seven years. They were to provide at least four covered wagons, and to run over the road at least once a week. They were allowed to charge five cents a mile for each passenger, who was allowed to carry fourteen pounds of baggage free. Any additional weight of baggage was to be charged for at the rate of five cents per mile for every one hundred and fifty pounds. A fine of five hundred dollars was decreed as a penalty for interference with their right. This line commenced running October 1st 1803, passing through this county in either direction every Tuesday and Friday. The following extract from the advertisement of the proprietors will be interesting:

“As punctuality must be observed, those gentlemen and ladies who shall please to favor this line with their custom are requested to be ready to start precisely at the time appointed. The public may rest assured that the utmost attention will be paid by the proprietors to render this line respectable. For that purpose they have furnished themselves with sober and careful drivers, gentle and substantial horses, and strong, convenient carriages.”

By an act passed March 28th 1805, the monopoly of running a stage line from Catskill Landing to Unadilla in Otsego county was granted to David Bostwick, Stephen Benton, Lemuel Hotchkiss and Terrence Donnelly, for seven years. The act fixed a penalty of fifty dollars for any infringement of this right. It is also specified that two wagons or sleighs with a sufficient number of horses should be kept on the line. This grant was renewed to Terrence Donnolly June 8th 1812, for an additional term of seven years. The stages were required to make the round trip as often as once in eight days. The fare for passengers was fixed at five cents per mile with an allowance of fourteen pounds of baggage free. The stage leaving Catskill on Wednesday morning would arrive at Unadilla Friday evening, and leaving that point Sunday would arrive at Catskill on Tuesday. These stages on their way passed through the villages of Cairo, Windham, Roxbury, Stamford, Kortright, Delhi, Meredith, Franklin, Unadilla and a few years later through Oxford, Green and Lisle to Ithaca. A few years later other names appear. The stages of N. Steele & Co. ran over the line already mentioned, and at the same time the stages of H. Watkins & Co. ran from Catskill through the villages of Cairo, Durham, Broome, Blenheim, Stamford, Harpersfield, Meredith, Franklin, Sidney, Unadilla and so on to Ithaca. The fare at that time had been reduced to four cents a mile.

The stage coach business in its glory is a thing of the past. Many interesting episodes connected with it live in the memory of the older inhabitants, but space forbids their insertion here. Some of the drivers of forty years ago and more were characters in their day. Among them may be remembered Peter Prime, “Bill” McQueen, “Bot” McQueen, Oscar Sage, “Jim” McQueen, “Bill” Shufelt and “Pone,” whose surname is forgotten. 

CHAPTER XI.

THE RAILROADS. 

Greene County abounds in railroads that have been built on paper, but fifty miles will probably cover the length of all the lines that have reached actual construction.

The Catskill and Ithaca Rail Road was the first of these enterprises. It was incorporated April 21st 1828, for the purpose of constructing a railroad from Catskill to Ithaca “to transport, take and carry property and persons upon the same, by the power and force of steam, of animals, or any mechanical or other power, or of any combination of them which the said corporation may choose to apply.” The capital stock was fixed at $1,500,000 in fifty dollar shares, and the State reserved the right to subscribe for one thousand shares. In case this right was exercised, the controller was to become ex-officio a director. Jacob Haight, Thomas B. Cook, Francis A. Bloodgood, Ebenezer Mack and associates were named in the act, and Jacob Haight, Thomas B. Cook  and Orrin Day were appointed commissioners to open subscription books at Catskill. The corporation was authorized to allow persons to use the railroad with “suitable and proper carriages” by paying tolls at the gates which the company might erect as soon as ten miles of the road were completed. An act of March 21st 1829, extended the time for opening subscription books to the following year. With this beginning the first attempt at railroad building failed.

The Canajoharie and Catskill Rail Road: -- The scheme of constructing a railroad from Catskill to the West, which gave birth to the Catskill and Ithaca project found another expression in this enterprise. The act of incorporation was passed April 19th 1830, naming as incorporators, William Deitz, Thomas B. Cook, Clarkson Crolius, Henry Leiber, James Lynch, George Spencer, Israel Foote, John Adams, Herman J. Ehle, Harmon J. Quackenboss and George Spraker. The capital stock was to consist of $600,000 in fifty dollar shares. Thomas B. Cook, Orrin Day, Henry Leiber, John Gebhard, John Mason, Isaac Bronson and Thaddeus B. Wakeman were appointed commissioners to open books and receive subscriptions to the stock. The commencement of the work was celebrated with great éclat as may be seen by the following programme:

“ORDER OF
“ARRANGEMENTS

For celebrating the breaking of ground of the

“CANAJOHARIE AND CATSKILL
“RAILROAD,

“On Thursday, the 27th of Oct. 1831.

---------o---------

Thirteen Guns at Sunrise.

“The procession will be formed at 11 o’clock A.M. in front of the Catskill House and the Greene County Hotel.

            “Procession to move at the ringing of bells, to the lot west of Capt. Allen’s house, where the ceremony of breaking ground will be performed by the President.

 “ORDER OF PROCESSION.

Marshal, -- Gen. John C. Johnson
Assistant Marshal, -- Col. J. Olmsted.

“Martial Music.

“MILITARY.
Band of Music.

“ Committee of Arrangements.
“President and Orator.
“Directors of the C. and C. Rail Road.
“Engineers and Assistants.
“Contractors.
“Trustees of the Village
.
“CLERGY.
“SHERIFF.

“Judges of the Court.
“Mechanic’s Society.
“Citizens Generally.
“Fire Company No. 2.
“Fire Company No. 3.”

“ISAAC VAN LOAN”
 “Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements.”

“Catskill, Oct. 25th 1831.”

The company was organized and ready for business early in the summer of 1835, but nothing was done on the road except surveying, until the fall of that year, when the ground was broken near the creek at Catskill. In 1836, contacts were given out through the whole length of the line, and it was expected that the road would be completed by the close of 1837. The charter was amended April 20th 1837, so as to increase the capital stock to $1,000,000, and authorized the directors to borrow money to the amount of $400,000, for the completion of the road, and to secure the loan by a mortgage upon the property and stock of the company.

The management of the affairs of the railroad was severely criticized, some of the papers charging that the management was a scheme operated for purposes of speculation, founded on false pretenses, and that the managers had no honest intention of completing the road for legitimate purposes. Whatever foundation there may have been for these charges is not known, but the Senate in 1839, appointed a committee of which Samuel I. Edwards was chairman, to investigate the affairs of the railroad.

By an act of April 18th 1838 the controller was authorized to issue special certificates of stock to the extent of $300,000, in installments, upon evidence that specified sums had been paid into the treasury on the capital stock, and the same expended in constructing the road. These certificates were pledged by the State, and were to be sold at public auction to the highest bidder. They were to be reimbursable at the pleasure of the Legislature, at any time after twenty years from the date of their issue. In case of the failure of the company to meet the interest or principal when due, the controller had power to sell the road and its appurtenances to the highest bidder.

The road was completed from Catskill to Cooksburgh, a distance of twenty-six miles. The stringers which rested on the cross-ties were of Norway pine, five by six inches in size. An iron strap about five-eighths of an inch in thickness and two or three inches wide nailed upon each stringer formed the rail.

The railroad was not successful. It was used mainly for the transportation of freight in connection with the great tannery interests. It had one small engine, which upon one occasion became disabled. There was no machine shop nearer than Paterson, N.J., where the engine could be repaired. It was taken on board of a steamboat to Jersey City, whence it was trundled across the country, drawn by horse power over the commons roads to Paterson. After being repaired it was returned and placed in position upon the road. Fire and water were applied, and steam generated, and the engine hissed and spluttered but would not go. A discovery was made of some point in the mechanism, the adjustment of which would correct the evil. The engine was forthwith sent back to the machine shop, and the adjustment being made, was returned and placed again upon the track. But in vain did the force of steam act upon its parts. The engine was a failure; it was abandoned, and the old stage horse placed upon the line to do its work. The road, not meeting its liabilities, was sold by the controller. The State had pledged its credit to the amount of $200,000. The road was bought by the Catskill Bank for $11,000. After passing through the hands of different speculative skirmishers, several attempts being made meanwhile to resuscitate the enterprise, it was given up in hopeless despair, and Mr. Hiram Van Steenburgh took up the iron under a contract with the parties who had bought it, and bought and took up the timber on his own account.

The Coxsackie and Schenectady Railroad Company was incorporated May 15th 1837 for a term of fifty years. It contemplated a line, starting at a point in Coxsackie between the ship-yard of William Mahew and Cuyler’s Point, and running to Schenectady. The capital stock was to consist of $500,000. The charter was renewed April 16th 1838, and the time for completing the road extended, but nothing more was done.

The Schenectady and Catskill Railroad Company was incorporated May 13th 1846, with a proposed capital of $1,000,000. Its proposed route was from Catskill to Schenectady. The commissioners named for Catskill were Sherwood Day and James Powers. March 3rd 1848 the charter was amended so as to allow two years longer time in which to begin work, also to increase the stock by $300,000, and to lay the track with iron of not less than fifty-six pounds weight to the linear yard. Another extension of time for commencing the road was allowed by act of March 2nd 1855. April 21st 1864, a map of this route was filed, showing its starting point to be at the landing at Catskill Point, and the route thence along near the river till it strikes Murderer’s Creek, then following up that creek through the hills, and northward along the valley till it crosses the county line about one and a quarter miles west of the Hudson River. The road was never built.

The Schoharie and Otsego Railroad Company was organized April 25th 1832, with a capital stock of $300,000. It was proposed to make a connection of the New York Central Railroad with Catskill and the Susquehanna, but nothing more was done.

The Saratoga and Hudson River Railroad: -- This enterprise was headed by Daniel Drew. In accordance with the requirements of the general railroad act of April 2nd 1850, a map of the proposed route was filed in the county clerk’s office, June 23rd 1864. The directors at that time were A. Boody, John Ross, William Colburn, M. Courtright, Henry Keep, John P. Acker and William Williams. The route began at the mouth of Murderer’s Creek, and ran along the Hudson River northward, diverging from the river inland as it proceeded. It was sold by Daniel Drew, May 2nd 1867, to the Central Railroad Company, who used the road for a few years as a summer connection. Its advent was hailed by the inhabitants of Athens as the harbinger of an era of great prosperity to that village. But the expectations thus aroused were never realized.

The New York and Albany Railroad: -- A map of this route was made February 26th 1868. J.H. Ramsey appears as its president. The route of this proposed railroad crossed the northern county line upon the shore of the river, and following near the shore it crossed Katskill Creek at its mouth, and crossed the Ulster line on Wanton Island. This railroad had no real existence.

The Catskill and Schoharie Railroad Company was organized in 1879, and went so far as to make ready its surveys and engineers’ working specifications, but the enterprise was afterward given up. The map, which was filed June 17th 1871, shows the proposed route starting at the Katskill Creek and running westerly and northwesterly across the towns of Cairo and Durham and through East Durham and Oak Hill, and crossing the line into Albany county.

The New York, West Shore and Chicago Railroad Company: -- The articles of association of this company were filed in the office of the Secretary of State, July 13th 1870. The survey was made and the map showing the route and profile of the proposed line was made May 8th 1873. This follows the course of the river, and at some points crossing bends in it, and at others running more inland, and makes a distance of twenty-four and one-twentieth miles between the northern and southern county lines.

The Stony Clove and Catskill Mountain Railroad: -- The map of this road was filed January 18th 1881. Thomas Cornell was its president. Coming from Phoenicia in Ulster county, the road enters this county on or near the land of Edward Lane, in the town of Hunter. Its course is along the valley of the Stony Clove Creek. The elevation at the county line is 1,196 ½ feet, and the road at this point ascends by a grade of about 187 ½ feet to the mile, which is continued about two-fifths of a mile. For the next five miles it rises by varying grades of 168 96-100, 163 68-100, 158 40-100, 108 24-100 and 153 12-100. At this point the road has reached an elevation of 2,071 feet, being just above the head of Stony Clove Creek on the land of Burgis and Douglass. It then descends by grade of 184 8-10 feet to a point on the land of William Blair, and then by easier grades along the valley of the Schoharie Creek two and three-fifths miles to its terminus. Here it has descended to an elevation of 1,605 feet.

The Catskill Mountain Railroad: -- The map of this route was filed December 20th 1880. It is a narrow guage [sic] road and runs from Catskill to South Cairo on the bed of the old Canajoharie and Catskill Railroad. The road, beginning at the steamboat landing at the Point, ends at Palenville, making a length of sixteen miles. It was built for the accommodation of travel to the mountains, and is operated only during the summer season. It was opened in 1882. The profile of the road shows an average rise from an elevation of 13 feet at Catskill to that of 535 feet on the land of Mrs. Frederick Martin near the western terminus. The elevation at Kiskatom Creek is 378 feet and at the depot at Palenville, 513 feet. The elevation at the Mountain House station is 520 feet. The steepest grade is one of seventy-eight feet to the mile which occurs a short distance below South Cairo.

The Kaaterskill Railroad Company was organized in 1882, and has its office at Rondout. The map was completed and certified to, November 23rd 1882. This is a narrow guage [sic] road and runs from a junction with the Stony Clove Railroad on the land of Mrs. Lydia Blair, about three miles from the terminus of the latter road to South Lake on the mountain. The length of this road is about seven miles, and it rises by a grade of 75 5-10 feet for a part of the distance, near the eastern terminus increasing to 124 6-10 feet to a mile. At the foot of South Lake it reaches an elevation of 2,135 feet. It is proposed to extend it to a point near the old Mountain House. The road was completed thus far and put in operation in June 1883. By an act of February 27th 1883, it is allowed to collect a fare of ten cents per mile.

The West Shore Hudson River Railroad was a projected scheme, the date of which we have not learned. It was to begin at the Athens and Schenectady depot and run southerly along the shore of the river, crossing Katskill Creek below the village, just at the foot of the hill, passing the edge of the Great Imboght, and crossing the county line on Wanton Island.

The South Cairo and East Durham Railroad was projected in 1881, a map of the proposed route being filed August 25th. The projectors were John H. Bagley jr., William Donohue, Isaac Pruyn, Omar V. Sage, Manly B. Mattice, A.P. Jones, John Avery, H. Van Steenburgh and H.A. Pierson. The road has been surveyed from a junction with the Catskill Mountain Railroad at South Cairo to East Durham, but the work of construction has not yet begun.

The New York, West Shore and Buffalo Railway, one of the most substantially built and elegantly equipped railroads in the country, runs along the river shore of this county, making a length of twenty-four and five one hundredths miles within its limits. It enters the county at Smith’s Landing about one hundred rods from the river and crosses Imboght Bay in a straight line about 1,000 feet long from the Hopkins brick-yard property to the land of Abram Post. Crossing the Katskill at the upper end of the village, it follows the rich flats lying between the ridges of hills, from one to two miles from the river, until it crosses the northern line of the county. The grades nowhere exceed thirty feet to the mile and the line has few short curves. The elevations of the road at different points are: at Charles Anderson’s, 145 13-100 feet; at Catskill depot, 133 16 100 feet; at the Schoharie Turnpike crossing 154 feet; at the crossing of Murderer’s Creek, 145 feet; at Coxsackie 135 feet; at Sickles’ Creek 112 feet; at Haunacroix Creek, 183 2-10 feet; and at the Albany line, 198 feet. Surveys of this route were filed in February, 1880, April 2nd 1880, October 20th 1881 and January 16th 1882. The line is laid with a double track of 67 pound steel rails. It is ballasted with stone, the road bed made of extra width and the bridges, which are of iron, are proportioned to carry locomotives of 85 tons weight. The Saratoga and Hudson River Railroad has been absorbed by it. This line was opened for traffic through this county, Monday, July 9th, 1883, and to Buffalo, December 15th.

CHAPTER XII.

CIVIL LIST – LEGISLATIVE AND EXECUTIVE OFFICES. 

The representatives of Greene county in the State Assembly from 1801 to 1883 have been as follows:

1801, Thomas E. Barker, Caleb Benton; 1802, William Beach, Philip Conine jr.; 1803, George Hale, Martin G. Schuneman; 1804, Stephen Simmons, Stoddard Smith; 1805, Patrick Hamilton, Daniel Sayre; 1806, John Ely, James Thompson; 1807, Samuel Haight, James Thompson; 1808, Coeradt T. Houghtaling, Perez Steele; 1809, James Gale, Eliakim Reed; 1810, Benjamin Chapman, Ira Day; 1811, William Beach, Jonas Bronk; 1812, John Ely, Simon Sayre; 1813, John Adams, Perez Steele; 1814, William Fraser, Abraham Van Dyck; 1815, James Gale, Martin G. Van Bergen; 1816, James Powers, Jacob Roggen; 1817, Levi Callender, Justus Squire; 1818, John I. Bronk, Jairus Strong; 1819, James G. Foster, Isaac Van Loan; 1820, Abijah Reed, Perez Steele; 1821, Platt Adams, Aaron Reed; 1822, James Powers, Jacob Roggen; 1823, Reuben Hosford, William Seaman; 1824, Edward Daley, Caleb Coffin; 1825, Alvin Bushnell, Gilbert Bedell; 1826, William Seaman, Addison Porter; 1827, Perkins King, William Tuttle; 1828, William Faulkner jr., Elisha Bishop; 1829, Castle Seeley, Moses Austin; 1830, Herman I. Quackenboss, Jonathan Miller; 1831, Lewis Benton, John J. Brandow; 1832, Erastus Hamilton, Dumah Tuttle; 1833, Henry Goslee, William Pierson; 1834, Sylvester Nicholas, Benedict Bagley; 1835, Anthony Van Bergen, David Ingersoll; 1836, Luke Kiersted, Ambrose Baker; 1837, John Watson, Stephen Tryon; 1838, Thomas B. Cooke, Peter Hubbell; 1839, Thomas B. Cooke, Platt Adams; 1840, Sylvester Nicholas, Gilbert Bedell; 1841, Turhand K. Cooke, Daniel G. Quackenboss; 1842, John Laraway, Andrew T. Van Slyke; 1843, Aaron Bushnell, Philip Teats; 1844, Robert C. Field, Samuel C. Stimson; 1845, Garret W. Sager, Deliverance B. Hervey; 1846, Neeley Lawrence, Peter W. Van Bergen; 1847, Almeron Marks, William V.B. Adams; 1848, Alexander H. Palmer, Frederick A. Fenn; 1849, Alexander H. Bailey, Albert Tuttle; 1850, Alonzo Green, Theodore L. Prevost; 1851, J. Atwater Cook, Henry Kinsley; 1852, Thomas Bedell jr., Norman H. Gray; 1853, Elijah P. Bushnell, Darius Winans; 1854, Joshua Fiero jr., George Robertson; 1855, Martin L. Rickerson, John C. Palmer; 1856, Buel Maben, Manly B. Mattice; 1857, David Whiting, Hezekiah Baldwin; 1858, Daniel B. Strong; 1859, Augustus R. Macomber; 1860, Gerry Coonley; 1861, Gilbert Bedell; 1862, Jonathan B. Cowles; 1863, Luke Roe; 1864, William W. Pettit; 1865, Prentiss W. Hallenbeck; 1866, Ezekiel P. More; 1867, Thomas A. Briggs; 1868, James Loughren; 1869, Baldwin Griffin; 1870, Hiram Van Steenburgh; 1871, Hiram Van Steenburgh; 1872, Augustus Hill; 1873, Augustus Hill; 1874, Horatio S. Lockwood; 1875, Benjamin F. Barkley; 1876, Burton G. Morss; 1877, Oscar T. Humphrey; 1878, Cicero C. Peck; 1879, George S. Stevens; 1880, Albert Parker; 1881, Orlando L. Newton; 1882, Samuel H. Nichols; 1883, Francis S. Decker.

Under the constitution of 1777 the State was divided into four great senatorial districts. Greene county was a part of the middle district. Under the second constitution (1821), which divided the State into eight districts, it was included in the third. Under the constitution of 1846 Greene with Ulster made the tenth district, which was changed to fourteenth by act of 1866. In 1879 Schoharie was added to the district.

The following residents of this county have represented the district in the State Senate:

Peter C. Adams, 1806-09; Moses Austin, 1819-22; Leonard Bronk, 1797-1800; Moses I. Cantine, 1815-18; Jacob Haight, 1824-27; Samuel Haight, 1810-13; James Powers, 1836-39; Herman I. Quackenboss, 1831-34; Mitchell Sanford, 1840; Peter A. Van Bergen, 1802-04; Platt Adams, 1848, 1849; George Beach, 1864, 1865, 1868, 1869; Joshua Fiero jr. 1860, 1861; George S. Nicholas, 1856, 1857; Addison P. Jones, 1878, 1879, 1882, 1883.

In Congressional representation the district of which Greene was a part has been many time changed. In 1802 it was made with Ulster the seventh district; in 1809 Schoharie was joined to these two to form the fifth district; in 1812 Greene was joined to Delaware and the two composed the eighth district; in 1822 the number of this was changed o the eleventh; in 1832, Greene was joined with Schoharie and Columbia to form the eighth district, which was then entitled to two representatives; in 1842, with Columbia only, it constituted the eleventh district; in 1851 it was associated with Ulster in the eleventh district, which in 1862 became the thirteenth; in 1873 to these two counties was added Schoharie, and the district thus formed made the fifteenth.

The following residents of this county have represented the district at the times specified:

John Adams, 1815 to December 16th, when, his election being contested, he was succeeded by Erastus Root of Delaware; John Adams, 1833-35; Thomas B. Cook, 1811-13; John Ely, 1839-41; Perkins King, 1829-31; Dorrance Kirtland, 1817-19, Zadoc Pratt, 1837-39, 1843-45; Edwin N. Hubbell, 1865-67; Rufus H. King, 1855-57; Peter H.Sylvester, 1847-52; John H. Bagley jr., 1875-77, 1882-84.

Greene county has been represented in the electoral colleges by the following men:

1818, Thomas Lawrence; 1820, Mark Spencer; 1836, Zadoc Pratt; 1848, Robert Dorian; 1852, Zadoc Pratt, who was also president of that college; 1860, Rufus H. King; 1868, Manly B. Mattice; 1876, Addison P. Jones.

The sheriffs of the county have been successively as follows:

George Hale, 1800-2; Peter C. Adams, 1802-6; Peter Ousterhout, 1806-10; Isaac Van Loon, 1810-11; Jacob Haight, 1811-13; Lemuel Hotchkiss, 1813-15; Jacob Haight, 1815-19; Peter C. Adams, 1819-21; Joel Bellamy, 1821-26; Sidney Tuttle, 1826-29; Platt Adams, 1829-32; Aaron C. Hall, 1832-35; John Laraway, 1835-38; Horace Austin, 1838-41; Isaac B. Hinman, 1841-44; Samuel Du Bois, 1844-47; Robert Fulton, 1847-50; George W. Halcott, 1850-53; Nathaniel Ormsbee, 1853-56; Franklin B. Lament, 1856-59; George L. France, 1859-62; Addison P. Jones, 1862-65; Milo C. Osborn, 1865-68; William H. Myers, 1868-71; Benjamin F. Barkley, 1871-74; Platt Coonley, 1874-77; Prentiss W. Hallenbeck, 1877-80; Addison J. Churchill, 1880-83; Francis G. Walters, 1883 to -----.

The county clerks of Greene have been as follows:

James Bill, 1800-11; Richard McCarthy, 1811-13; James Bill, 1813-15; William Van Bergen, 1815-21; Richard McCarthy, 1821; (February 13th to March 6th.); Elisha D. Hall, 1821-26; Charles C. Abeel, 1826-32; William V. B. Heermance, 1832-41; William Pierson, 1841-47; Isaac Van Schaack, 1847-50; Jacob Van Orden, 1850-56; Joshua A. Cooke, 1856-62; Elijah P. Bushnell, 1862-68; Horatio L. Day, 1868-74; Omar V. Sage, 1874-80; John Avery, 1880 to ----.

County treasurers were at first appointed by the board of supervisors. The constitution of 1846 made the office elective. Each treasurer held office until his successor was appointed. The following are the dates of appointments:

Garret Abeel, May 27th 1800; Isaac Du Bois, October 5th 1813; Thomas B. Cooke, October 25th 1821; James Powers, November 9th 1830; James W. Cooke, December 1st 1840 (died in office); Hiland Hill, jr., January 14th 1842; Caleb Hopkins, November 18th 1842; Hiland Hill, November 15th 1844.

The following have been elected; terms begin January 1st:

Hiland Hill, 1848, died in office, and Frederick Hill was appointed October 18th 1850, to fill out the term; Frederick Hill, 1851 to the present time.

Superintendents of the poor under the constitution of 1846, which made the office elective, have been elected at the fall election, for terms of three years, taking office on the 1st of the following January as follows:

Henry Van Loan, William Thorn, Clark Beckwith, elected for different terms, 1848; Elisha Blackmar, 1849; Darius Williams, 1850; John Feeney, 1851; Elisha Blackmar, 1852; James W. Elting, 1853; John Feeney, 1854; David W. Duncan and Edwin Graham (for vacancy), 1855; John S. Betts, 1856; John Feeney, 1857; John Thompson, 1858; Amasa Keith, 1859; John Feeney, 1860; William P. Roe, 1861; William Wilbur, 1862; John Feeney, 1863; Philander M. Peck, 1864; Benjamin H. Waldron, 1865; Ambrose L. Walters, 1866; Joshua Tanner, 1867; Benjamin H. Waldron, 1868; Horace A. Towner, 1869; Luke Roe, 1870, 1873, 1876; Ambrose L. Walters, 1879; Frederick Becker, 1882.

The first inspectors of election making returns to the county of Greene were:  

For the town of Freehold, Benjamin Spees, Benjamin Hubbard, Silas Lewis, James Thompson, Benjamin Hine, Obed Harvey jr. and Thomas E. Barker; for the town of Catskill, Garret Abeel, Josiah Warner, Stephen Root and Peter Ousterhoudt; for the town of Windham, William Beach, Samuel Gunn, Peter F. Smith, Stephen Simmons and Munson Buel; for the town of Coxsackie, Jonas Bronk, Jacob Parish, John Gay, Nathan Burroughs, Daniel Sayre, Abraham Hallenbeck, Benjamin Lisk, Samuel Squire and John D. Spoor. This election was held on the last Tuesday in April, 1800, and on the two days following. The town of Freehold gave 184 votes, Catskill 185, Windham 163 and Coxsackie 316.

Acts relative to the inspection of beef and pork were passed in 1788, 1798, 1800, 1804, 1805, 1808, 1815, 1823, and subsequently. The following names of inspectors of beef and pork appear on the books of this county:

Samuel Ackerley, August 25th 1818; Garit Schuneman, February 16th 1821; S.A. Baker, October 8th 1824; Nathaniel Wilson, September 25th 1823; March 7th 1825; ------ -------- August 21st 1827, July 2nd 1829, March 25th 1831; Alexander Shaw,  March 6th 1824.

An act of April 7th 1807 required all fish, packed and placed upon the market, to be inspected. It created the office of inspector of fish, and required that those officials should be provided with yards or store-houses in which the fish should be received for inspection; that every package containing fish should be made of oak or white ash, to have twelve hoops and be perfectly tight; that no fish should be sent out of this State that had not received the brand of the inspector; that every barrel should contain a bushel of salt, and should be treated conformably to the requirements which in detail we have not space to enumerate. Amendatory acts were subsequently passed at different times. Under the various acts constituting and maintaining the office of inspector of fish the following were appointed and qualified for the office:

William Tryon, May 13th 1819; Richard Tryon, April 24th 1827; J. Van Valkenburgh, January 19th 1830, May 2nd 1831; James Bogardus, April 24th 1834; Isaac Sandford, August 9th 1827; Lewis Penfield, ----- ----; N. Wilson, March 25th 1831.

In the early years of this century auctioneers were required to take certain oaths, The following appear as duly sworn auctioneers:

John F. Dorrence, May 7th 1819; Nathan G. Elliott, April 19th 1827; John McCagg, April 19th 1827; Samuel Hamilton, May 12th 1827; Gordon Dickson, April 25th 1828; Nathan G. Elliott, April 25th 1828; Josiah Herrick, April 22nd 1819.

Dueling was a crime that was looked upon with particular abhorrence. The following oath of office was required of judges, justices and several other officers:

“I do solemnly swear that I have not been engaged in a Duel, by sending or accepting a Challenge to fight a Duel or by fighting a Duel, or in any other Manner, in violation of the act entitled ‘An Act to Suppress Dueling,’ since the first Day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand Eight hundred and sixteen, nor will I be so Concerned Directly or Indirectly in any Duel during the Continuance of the said Act and while and inhabitant of this State.”

The following justices of the peace for this county took the oath of office on the dates following their respective names:

J. Pinckney, July 2nd 1818; Francis Sayre, July 3rd 1818; Jonathan Nickerson, July 6th 1818; Luther Carter, July 2nd 1818; John Beach, July 7th 1818; Jacob H. Tremper, July 8th 1818; Daniel Sayre, July 8th 1818; John J. Brandow, July 8th 1818; Samuel Hotchkiss, July 8th 1818; Alpheus Webster, July 8th 1818; Stephen Root, July 11th 1818; Peter Gamett, July 13th 1818; William V.B. Heermance, July 13th 1818; Walton Street, July 13th 1818; James Thorn, July 15th 1818; John W. Righter, July 16th 1818; Samuel Hamilton, July 21st 1818; William Tolley, July 21st 1818; Seth Hamilton, July 21st 1818; Zeba Clark, July 21st 1818; Peter T. Smith, August 1st 1818; John F. Tolley, August 1st 1818; Peter C.Adams, August 22nd 1818; Samuel Reynolds, August 22nd 1818; Benjamin Reynolds, August 25th 1818; Benjamin Baker, September 8th, 1818; Thomas Barker, September 1st 1818; William Judson, September 1st 1818; Thomas B. Cooke, September 2nd 1818; Daniel Bloomer, September 2nd 1818; Isaac Mallery, September 16th 1818; Edward Daley, November 14th 1818; Perkins King, May 3rd 1819; Lee Wheeler, July 24th 1819; Waldron Dumond, August 3rd 1819; Truman H. Bagley, March 23rd 1820; Major Curtiss, May 10th 1820; John D. Meers, May 19th 1820; Aaron Hall, May 30th 1829; Ephraim Turney, June 9th 1820; Storm Rosa, June 14th 1820; Samuel Dodge, June 18th 1820; John E. Prouts, March 3rd 1821; Ambrose Kirtland, March 3rd 1821; Timothy Lawrence, March 5th 1821; Joel Curtis, March 5th 1821; Luke Kiersted, March 5th 1821; Francis Sayre, March 8th 1821; Jacob A. Van Valkenbergh, March 9th 1821; Asahel Strong, March 9th 1821; Joseph Butler, March 9th 1821; Seth Hamilton, March 10th 1821; William Tolley, March 10th 1821; Nathan Clark, March 10th 1821; William Roe, March 10th 1821; William V. B. Herrmance, March 10th 1821; Deliverance B. Hervey, March 12th 1821; Alpheus Webster, March 12th 1821; John J. Brandow, March 13th 1821; J. Pinckney, March 13th 1821; Jonathan Miller, March 19th 1821; Oliver Coe, March 20th 1821; James Stevens, March 21st 1821; Joseph Blanchard, March 21st 1821; Perkins King, March 21st 1821; William Thorn, March 27th 1821; Truman Sanford, March 27th 1821; Seth Green, April 18th 1821; Joshua Collins, April 5th 1821; Samuel Dodge, April 5th 1821; Samuel Reynolds, May 9th 1821; Henry Goslee, March 8th 1821; Isaac Mallory, March 12th 1821; Major Curtis, June 2nd 1821; Leonard Haight, June 3rd 1822; Henry Goslee, February 19th 1823; Joseph Blanchard, February 19th 1823; William Tolley, February 19th 1823; Robert Dorian, February 20th 1823; Alexander Frazer, February 20th 1823; Luke Kiersted, February 22nd 1823; W. Dobson, February 25th 1823; John J. Brandow, February 25th 1823; J. Pinckney, February 26th 1823; John G. Prouts, February 26th 1823; Joel Curtis, February 26th 1823; James C. Blanchard, February 26th 1823; Timothy Lawrence, February 27th 1823; William Roe, February 27th 1823; James Earl, March 4th 1823; Jonathan Miller, March 10th 1823; Samuel Dodge, March 10th 1823; Deliverance B. Hervey, February 21st 1823; Abner Flower, February 21st 1823; Seth Green, March 12th 1823; John Beach jr., April 9th 1823; Samuel Reynolds, April 23rd 1823; William V.B. Heermance, February 21st 1823; Ambrose Kirtland, February 21st 1823; Benjamin Baker, February 24th 1823; Israel Lisk, March 20th 1823; Truman Sanford, March 17th 1823; Matthew Williams, March 22nd 1823; Stephen Rennie, February 21st 1823; Jairus Stevens, February 22nd 1823; Samuel Hamilton, October 8th 1824; F. Sayre, October 7th 1825; Robert L. More, October 8th 1825; David Johnson, October 6th 1826; Tallmadge Fairchild, October 7th 1826; Seth Hawley, December 15th 1826; Jacob A. Van Valkenburgh, October 9th 1826; Truman Sanford, December 26th 1827; Stephen Rennie, December 26th 1827; Spencer Palmer, December 26th 1827; William Pierson, November 9th 1827; William V.B. Heermance, November 9th 1727 [sic 1827?], and January 1st 1829; Oliver T. Fuller, November 9th 1827; Luke Kiersted, November 9th 1827; W. G. Van Vliet, November 9, 1827; Joel Bellamy, November 9, 1827; Isaac J. Dubois, November 9th 1827, and January 1st 1831; Samuel  Hamilton, November 9th 1827; James Stoutenburgh, November 9th 1827; John J. Brandow, December 1827;  William Tolley, December 1827; James C. Blanchard, December 1827; G. W. Sager, December 1827, and January 1st 1829; Tallmadge Fairchild, December 1827; Morse H. Powell, January 1st 1828, and January 1st 1831; Jonathan Miller, January 1st 1828; Elisha Powell, January 1st 1828; James Muller, January 1st 1828, and December 29th 1830; Thomas C. Houghtaling, January 1st 1828, and December 29th 1830; Matthew Williams, January 10th 1828; Daniel Bloomer, January 17th 1828, and December 29th 1830; Alvin Bushnell, January 17th 1828; Gurdon Dickson, February 4th 1828; Harmon J. Quakenboss, February 26th 1828, and March 20th 1829; Abner Flower, January 4th 1828, and January 2nd 1830; Joseph Blanchard, January 2nd 1828, and January 1st 1831; Truman Sanford, January 11th 1828; Anson Strong, January 2nd 1828, and July 2nd 1829; Spencer Palmer, January 14th 1828, and January 1st 1829; Henry Kingsley, January 2nd 1829; Henry Gosley, February 27th 1829; Milton A. Purdy, November 19th 1829; William Campbell, November 19th 1829; Joel Curtis, January 1st 1830; Samuel Hamilton, January 1st 1830; James C. Blanchard, January 1st 1830; Francis O. Connor, January 1st 1830; Elijah Bushnell, January 1st 1830. 

CHAPTER XIII.

VOICE OF THE BALLOT BOX. 

A glance at the political history of the county as represented in the great partisan divisions may not be without interest. In a word we may say that the county has for many years shown a decidedly democratic tendency. A review of the results of important elections will give a correct impression of the party status through the decades. The four towns in 1800 gave for senators 840 votes, 628 of which were for William Thompson, Thomas Broadhead, James Oliver, Jacob Ford and John Johnston. At the first election of governor, in 1801, Green gave 429 for George Clinton and 494 for Stephen Van Rensselaer, and in 1804 Morgan Lewis received for the same office 644 against Aaron Burr 620. In 1807 Morgan Lewis received 854 against Daniel D. Tompkins 539. In 1810 Jonas Platt received 914 to Daniel D. Tompkins 762. Tompkins also appeared in the contest in 1813, and was again beaten in this county by Stephen Van Rensselaer who received 953 against 710 for Tompkins. The federal element we find thus firmly holding its ground through successive elections, and again in 1816 the federal ticket, headed by Rufus H. King, was supported by 851 votes against 698 for Tompkins at the head of the republican ticket. In 1820 the county gave Tompkins 817 and Dewitt Clinton 937. In 1821 Greene expressed a decided voice against a constitutional convention, by 1261 against to 998 for. The same spirit is shown in the vote on the constitution itself the following year, only more strongly marked – 1319 against to 878 for constitution. That year (1822), the county gave Joseph C. Yates 3,009 votes, and 34 scattering. From this time on the results of the elections for governor have been as follows:

1824, Samuel Young 1595; Dewitt Clinton 1410.

1826, William B. Rochester 1806; Dewitt Clinton 1456.

1828, Martin Van Buren 2491; Smith Thompson 1836.

1830, Enos T. Throop 2427; Francis Granger 1565.

1832, William L. Marcy 3084; Francis Granger 2216.

1834, William L. Marcy 3191; William H. Seward 2393.

1836, William L. Marcy 2983; Jesse Buell 1880.

1838, William L. Marcy 2770; William H. Seward 2753.

1840, William C. Bouck 3326; William H. Seward 2959.

1842, William C. Bouck 3059; Luther Bradish 2226.

1844, Silas Wright 3529; Millard Fillmore 2935.

1846, Silas Wright 2469; John Young 2737.

1848, John A. Dix 1445; Reuben W. Walworth 1616; Hamilton Fish 2673.

1850, Horatio Seymour 2828; Washington Hunt 2607.

1852, Horatio Seymour 3235; Washington Hunt 2824.

1854, Horatio Seymour 1707; Myron H. Clark 1760.

1856, Amasa J. Parker 2541; John A. King 1931; Erastus Brooks 1555.

1858, Amasa J. Parker 2940; Edwin D. Morgan 2218; Lorenzo Burrows 542.

1860, William Kelly 3373; Edwin D. Morgan 3115.

1862, Horatio Seymour 3755; James S. Wadsworth 2561.

1864, Horatio Seymour 3891; Reuben E. Fenton 3121.

1866, John T. Hoffman 3532; Reuben E. Fenton 3210.

1868, John T. Hoffman 3994; John A. Griswold 3422.

1870, John T. Hoffman 3755; Stewart L. Woodford 3102.

1872, Francis Kernan 3718; John A. Dix 3526.

1874, Samuel J. Tilden 3998; John S. Dix 3043.

1876, Lucius Robinson 4808; Edwin D. Morgan 3622.

1879, Lucius Robinson 4015; Alonzo B. Cornell 2957; John Kelly 102; Harris Lewis 529.

1882, Grover Cleveland 4481; Charles J. Folger 2808.

Since presidential electors have been elected by the people on a general ticket, the electors representing the principal candidates have received the votes of Greene county as follows:

1832, Andrew Jackson 3085; Henry Clay 2212.

1836, Martin Van Buren 2976; William H. Harrison 1883.

1840, Martin Van Buren 3258; William H. Harrison 2991.

1844, James K. Polk 3487; Henry Clay 2967.

1848, Lewis Cass, et.al. 3624; Zachary Taylor 2707.

1852, Franklin Pierce 3242; Winfield Scott 2803.

1856, James Buchanan 2346; John C. Fremont 3164; Millard Fillmore 1533.

1860, Stephen A. Douglas 3537; Abraham Lincoln 3137.

1864, George B. McClellan 3896; Abraham Lincoln 3087.

1868, Horatio Seymour 3954; Ulysses S. Grant 3447.

1872, Horace Greeley 3703; Ulysses S. Grant 3415.

1876, Samuel J. Tilden 4771; Rutherford B. Hayes 3678.

1880, Winfield S. Hancock 4405; James A. Garfield 3879.

The votes of the county on constitutional amendments have been:

1825: -- On the election of presidential electors: “By Districts,” 863; “By general ticket, plurality,” 1 3561; “By general ticket, majority,” 2.

1826: -- On the election of justices and extension of franchise. “For electing justices of the peace,” 1366; “Against electing justices of the peace,” 3; “For extending the elective franchise,” 1309; “Against extending the elective franchise,” 6.

1833: -- For authorizing the Legislature to reduce duties on salt, 794; against 426. For electing mayor for New York by the electors thereof. 1,047; against, 74.

1835: -- For restoring duties on salt and on goods sold at auction to the general fund, 2,825; against 1.

1839: -- For the election of mayors by the people, 31; against 0.

1845: -- For the amendment in relation to the removal of judicial officers, 2,206; against, 237; For the amendment abrogating the property qualification for office, 2,203; against 234.

1846: -- The excise act, involving the question of “License” or “No License,” was not voted upon by this county.

The vote taken on the question of a constitutional convention was 3,101 for and 550 against. In the convention, which met June 1st 1846, Greene was represented by Robert Dorian and James Powers. On the adoption of the amended constitution, when submitted to the people, the votes were 2,883 for and 1,266 against it. At the same time the question of the repeal of the property qualification for colored citizens was voted upon, receiving 234 votes for, and 4,143 votes against it.

1849: -- For the new free school law, 2,935; against it, 2,140.

1850: -- For the repeal of the new school law, 3,217; against it, 1848.

1854: -- For amending the constitution to provide for the more speedy completion of the canals, 992; against it, 1,980.

1858: -- For constitutional convention, 861; against it, 2,727

1859: -- For a loan of $2,500,000 to pay the floating debt of the State 1,240; against it, 2,524.

1860: -- For extending the right of equal suffrage to colored persons, 548; against it, 4,530.

1864: -- For allowing absent electors in the military service of the United States to vote, 2,533; against it, 1,973.

1865: -- For amendment providing for the appointment of commissioners of appeals, 550; against it 2,503. For the act to create a State debt, 4,660; against it, 439.

1866: -- For a constitutional convention, 3,082; against it, 3,280. The convention met at Albany June 4th 1867. Greene county was represented by Manly B. Mattice and Ezekiel P. More, both of whom opposed the adoption of the constitution by the convention. The constitution was rejected by the people, the voice of Greene county being 1,860 for it and 3,079 against it. On the judiciary article 2,194 voted for, and 2,654 against it; the tax article 1,919 voted for, and 2,988 against it; and the property qualification for colored persons 3,291 voted for, and 1,690 against it.

1870: -- For funding the canal debt, 2,396; against it, 3,406.

1873: -- For appointment of judges of the Court of Appeals , 778; against it, 3,153. For the appointment of county judges, 449; against it, 3,257.

1874: -- In the constitutional convention which was held that year Greene was represented by Joseph B. Hall. The amendments submitted to the people received the votes of this county as follows: “Relative to suffrage and bribery,” 2,244 for, 1,547 against; “Legislature and its organization,” 2,010 for, 1,785 against; “Powers and forms of Legislature,” 2, 173 for, 1,622 against; “the governor and lieut.-governor, their powers and duties,” 2,047 for, 1,744 against; “finance and canals,” 2,195 for, 1,597 against; “relating to corporations, local liabilities and appropriations,” 2,186 for, 1,605 against; “State appropriations,” 2,186 for, 1,610 against; “relative to compensations of certain officers,” 1,968 for, 1,824 against; “oath of office,” 2,264 for, 1,529 against; “relating to official corruption,” 2,379 for, 1,414 against; “time for amendment to take effect,” 2,265 for, 1,529 against.

1882: -- For amendment in regard to canals, 2,667; against it, 1,155. For proposed amendment to constitution in relation to judiciary, 203; against it, 1,117.

CHAPTER XIV.

PUBLIC EDUCATION.

In the early part of the present century the towns were divided into school districts, and the division and numbering, with occasional changes to meet the growth of certain localities, remain the same to the present time. The school system was at first under the care of three commissioners in each town. Private schools were maintained with success in some localities before the provision made by the state.

The following statistics, gathered from the reports of town superintendents for the year ending July 1st 1844, will show something of the condition of educational matters in this county at that time:

Towns.

Number of districts entirely within the town.

Number of districts partly within the town.

Average number of months school has been during the year.

Number of children attending school during the year.

Number of children between the ages of 5 and 16 in the town.

Amount paid for teachers’ wages.
$

Athens

4

7

7 ½

604

733

864.14

Cairo

12

10

9

950

825

1,322.81

Catskill

14

8

9

1,245

1,716

2,319.71

Coxsackie

9

7

8 ½

706

954

1,441.18

Durham

12

10

7

786

671

1,258.70

Greenville

8

11

8

763

640

818.81

Hunter

15

5

7

736

669

1,016.66

Lexington

19

7

8

1,052

881

1124.48

New Baltimore

13

5

8

770

670

1,281.94

Prattsville

6

4

8

478

536

568.93

Windham

14

3

8

781

721

957.44

 

 

 

 

 

 

12,974.80

The amount of library money received that year was $1,376.26. The average monthly wages of teachers was $9.58. Nearly all the school-books then in use are unknown to the children of the present generation. Of geographies Olney’s, Smith’s and Mitchell’s took the lead, while Parsley’s and Emerson’s were occasionally found. Old Daboll’s arithmetic was the popular standard around which the youth of that period rallied in their mathematical drill; then Smith’s, Adams’ and Davies’ were used in many of the schools, while Willett’s, Porter’s, Parker’s, Ostrander’s and Hawley’s were used by a few, and Underhill’s Table-book was a terror to many an urchin in his struggle with the abstract principles of numbers. Smith and Kirkham were the two principal authorities in English grammar. Gould, Brown and Lindley Murray had many adherents, and Bullion and Greenleaf were recognized by a few. Porter’s Rhetoric was also in use. Webster’s and Walker’s dictionaries were text-books in many schools. The old English Reader, and Hale’s History of the United States were used in every town, and were the popular reading books. Next to them came Sanders’ and Cobb’s, while the scattering books were Emerson’s, The Mt. Vernon Reader, The American Preceptor, Porter’s Rhetorical Reader, Watts on the Mind, and the Symbolic Primer. The New Testament was also in common use in the schools. The spelling books used then were Cobb’s, Webster’s, Town’s and Sanders’. Comstock’s Philosophy was in frequent use, and Day’s Algebra, Goodrich’s History, Irving’s History of Columbus, Burritt’s Geography of the Heavens and Blake’s Botany were not unknown to the common schools of the county.

The county superintendent for that year (Mr. John Olney) in making his rounds, visited 130 schools, that being the number then in operation in the county. He found the schools ready to receive and welcome him, an incident worthy of mention, in view of the fact that a popular prejudice had previously existed against the office of the county superintendent. He reported the schools mostly in good condition and not inferior to the neighboring private schools and academies, either in point of discipline or instruction. Yet, after all the flattering remarks the superintendent found occasion to make in regard to the good condition of the schools in the main, his published report contains some criticisms and suggestions, which are interesting as showing that certain common defects and needs were appreciated at that time as well as the present. We take the liberty to quote some of his most pertinent remarks:

“Many of the schools I visited scarcely deserved the name of schools; and the time of many teachers who had been permitted to enter the school-room in that capacity, might be profitably employed in improving their education in a common school for some time to come. There are others whose literary acquirements may be considered respectable, but who have not an aptness to teach, or in other words, they lack in judgment in adapting their instructions to the capacities and understandings of children. * * * The minds of their pupils are not trained to habits of thought and reflection. Mere isolated facts are substituted for ideas. In short, the whole course of instruction is devoid of interest to the scholars, and ill adapted to develop and strengthen the intellectual powers.

“Another fault in teachers is, they are not thorough in imparting instruction. Children are advanced too fast in their studies. Long and hurried recitations are encouraged. Lessons are usually recited from the book without any explanations from the teacher to the scholar, or any illustration given of the exercise; and the scholar leaves the teacher without receiving any real benefit from the recitation. There may be a great deal of labor performed in schools where this course of instruction is pursued, yet there is no progress. * * *  I have found scholars the past winter who were pursuing philosophy, chemistry, and the higher branches of mathematics, who could not bound their own State, or even their own town, read intelligently, or spell correctly * * * I found the same scholars backward in reading. This exercise is too much neglected in nearly all our schools. Its importance is not properly appreciated by most teachers. A dull monotonous manner of reading is tolerated in most schools. * * * No attention is paid to emphasis, accent or inflections. The ideas the author intends to convey are wholly disregarded, and little or no interest is taken in the exercise. * * * Scholars should be taught to read understandingly. If time is wanting, they should read less, and read it thoroughly, and then give the author’s meaning in their own language.

“Another obstacle in the way of improvement in our schools is, there is a want of interest on the part of the patrons of common schools. This indifference is manifested in various ways; in employing cheap and incompetent teachers; in permitting their children to be irregular in their attendance; in neglecting to repair their school houses; in not visiting their schools. One or more of these practices prevail to a greater or less extent in every school district I have visited. They are among the most formidable evils we have to contend with; and so long as they are suffered to obstruct the progress of instruction in our common schools, the incalculable blessings they are designed to secure to the rising generation will not be realized.”

Mr. Olney appears to have been a man of much energy, and took and earnest lead in educational matters. Doubtless it was owing to his active efforts, more than to any other influence, that a convention of town superintendents was called to consider and adopt measures for the improvement of the common schools, and the formation of a permanent association of town superintendents, teachers and friends of education. Such a convention met in the Methodist church in Cairo on Monday afternoon, September 16th 1844, and remained in session until Tuesday afternoon. A constitution and rules were adopted, and the following gentlemen were chosen its officers: president, Judge Fenn; vice-presidents, William Van Orden and Jacob G. Bedell; corresponding secretary, John Olney; recording secretary, Ruel P. Bascom; treasurer, Hulett P. Bedell. Mr. Thomas H. Palmer of Vermont, delivered four addresses on moral and intellectual education; committees were appointed on the topics, district libraries, town celebrations and conventions, teachers institutes, and vocal music. These committees (except that on teachers’ institutes) reported the results of their considerations and appended appropriate resolutions, which were adopted by the convention. They pronounced the district library a thing that was to become “of incalculable benefit,” the common school system “purely political in its organization,” and the effect of vocal music in the schools as tending to “promote the health and refine the feelings of children;” so they urged upon trustees and others to supply the libraries with useful and elevating literature, to co-operate earnestly in all efforts to elevate the standard of common school education, and to use their influence to procure at as early a period as practicable the introduction of vocal music in the common schools.

Teachers’ institutes were held in the county as early as 1845, and since that time they have been quite regularly maintained.

The statistics of the schools of Greene county for 1850 showed 176 public schools with 177 teachers and 8,216 pupils in attendance. There were also in the county 12 academies and other schools with 14 teachers and 325 pupils.

The following tables of school statistics, gathered from the reports of the commissioners for the year ending September 30th 1882, will give a correct and full view of the condition of the schools at the present time:

SCHOOL STATISTICS.
TOWN OF CATSKILL.

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attending school.

Expenses for the year.
$

Value of School-house and sites.
$

Assessed value of property in district.
$

Catskill

1

131.00

1,048

859

5,204

26,000

790,967

West Catskill

2

14.00

138

100

557

1,600

79,747

Saugerties

*3

 

8

1

 

 

 

High Falls, E.

4

6.00

30

32

203

350

23,700

Cauterskill

5

6.25

54

48

247

525

25,000

Kiskatom Grove

6

4.68

42

29

184

270

30,000

Kiskatom, W.

7

4.50

31

32

147

320

55,075

Lawrenceville

8

8.00

36

32

291

850

48,925

Leeds, S.

9

5.00

37

27

163

425

20,450

Leeds

10

17.00

134

127

789

1,400

200,000

Jefferson

11

8.00

77

38

368

550

62,600

Palenville, W.

12

10.00

86

68

1,481

1,300

25,000

Kiskatom, N.

13

5.50

44

18

147

175

15,000

Lawrenceville, N.

14

6.50

36

31

259

10

8,600

Smith’s Landing

15

8.00

60

64

300

1,100

53,100

Great Imboght

16

12.00

83

49

334

450

69,290

Palenville

17

7.50

73

53

319

525

21,455

Leeds, W.

18

5.00

37

38

299

300

28,000

Chidester Neighborh’d

19

6.00

14

12

186

350

7,925

High Falls

20

5.00

60

44

280

325

18,800

 

 

 

2,128

1,702

$11,764

$37,025

$1,583,634

                                        *The school-house is in Saugerties town.

No. 1 has 13 teachers; No. 2 has 2; No. 10 has 2. All the others have one teacher each.

No. 20 lies partly in Saugerties town.

TOWN OF HALCOTT.

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Halcott Center, N.

1

5.12

29

20

154

150

6,930

Halcott Center

2

6.12

21

21

205

200

5,555

“The Fly” Dist.

3

7.00

39

32

245

200

7,655

“The Fly,” N.

4

5.75

22

24

170

175

3,920

 

*5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

111

97

$774

$725

$24,060

                                         *School-house in Middletown, Delaware county.

TOWN OF ATHENS

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Upper Village

1

19.80

181

153

1,092

7,000

141,050

Athens

2

55.00

481

325

2,851

7,400

192,900

Athens, W.

3

6.00

54

32

217

540

53,150

Lime Street

4

7.00

56

37

253

150

3,500

Green’s Lake

5

6.00

78

28

220

510

25,990

Athens, N.

6

7.00

64

44

245

775

51,350

Hamburg

7

9.00

72

30

441

110

40,000

Leeds, N.

8

4.00

30

20

149

520

22,300

 

 

 

1,017

669

$5,472

$17,005

$530,240

                                        District No. 1 employs 2 teachers, and No. 2 employs 6.

TOWN OF CAIRO.

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Cairo

1

7.50

115

55

416

1500

52,285

Acra

2

7.50

62

70

318

350

20,880

Woodstock

3

5.00

81

62

240

900

31,305

South Durham

4

5.00

38

30

194

500

14,455

Round Top, W.

5

3.75

18

20

171

320

8,000

Forge

6

6.25

56

50

235

575

16,595

Sandy Plains

7

6.50

35

35

794

530

84,080

Acra, S.

8

6.00

44

36

161

210

12,325

Acra, N.

9

6.00

30

32

173

325

15,895

Round Top

10

3.75

30

30

129

310

8,000

South Cairo

11

7.00

34

32

253

550

25.725

Indian Ridge

12

7.00

22

17

205

250

49,820

 

 

 

365

469

$3,295

$6,320

$339,365

 TOWN OF HUNTER.

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Benjamin Notch

1

3.00

15

17

91

175

1,405

Hunter

2

19.75

181

111

3,239

2,000

20,240

Lanesville

3

5.00

66

40

177

160

2,940

Tannersville

4

6.00

55

51

269

600

9,205

Woodstock

*5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Platte Clove, W.

6

7.75

20

20

265

400

5,060

Hunter, E.

7

5.00

38

36

148

225

3,75

Haines Corners

8

7.00

66

40

276

175

39,267

Edgewood

9

5.00

64

36

171

350

5,180

Platte Clove

10

5.75

86

56

227

350

5,057

 

 

 

591

407

$4,866

$4,435

$92,129

                                        *The school-house is in the town of Woodstock. Number 2 has two teachers.

TOWN OF JEWETT

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

East Jewett, E.

1

4.50

34

23

166

425

4,165

Jewett

2

8.00

43

34

228

550

6,195

South Jewett

3

4.75

26

19

170

650

4,420

Goshen Street

4

6.25

21

21

163

150

3,625

Jewett, W.

5

6.00

25

18

151

145

5,190

East Jewett

6

7.00

23

23

194

250

5,035

Hensonville, S.

7

8.00

22

22

211

150

3,200

Beach’s Corners

8

7.00

24

25

193

525

2,700

Hunter, N.

9

6.50

17

15

185

295

1,600

East Jewett, W.

10

6.50

31

25

172

300

5,020

Jewett Centre

11

8.00

56

52

222

310

5,200

Jewett

12

5.00

27

28

143

550

6,225

 

 

 

349

305

$2,202

$4,400

$52,575

TOWN OF LEXINGTON

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Spruceton, E.

1

6.45

25

21

197

325

2,210

Spruceton

2

6.00

30

26

228

450

3,625

West Kill, E.

3

5.50

31

28

184

250

3,450

Lexington

4

7.50

65

45

279

700

11,090

Bushnellville

*5

5.00

40

12

155

310

4,420

Lexington, N.

6

6.25

15

14

147

320

5,190

West Kill

7

6.00

42

48

196

100

6,740

West Kill, W.

8

4.25

23

19

136

325

2,000

Little West Kill

9

4.50

22

9

216

100

3,760

Broad Street Hollow

10

5.00

70

52

154

260

1,800

Foot of the Ridge

11

5.50

35

29

162

340

4,435

Lexington, N.W.

12

5.12

21

14

140

60

3,810

 

 

 

419

317

$2,199

$3,540

$52,530

                                            *Partly in Shandaken, Ulster county. 

TOWN OF WINDHAM

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

East Windham

1

6.50

28

25

211

325

2,900

Upper Big Hollow

2

3.25

21

15

207

325

1,358

Windham

3

14.00

117

86

455

800

47,372

Hensonville

4

9.75

54

46

339

150

8,794

Lower Big Hollow

5

6.75

35

30

159

125

4,275

Stump Hollow

6

4.50

13

15

175

55

2,500

Mitchell Hollow

7

9.25

30

28

289

70

7,000

Big Hollow

8

5.00

30

18

108

200

2,600

Bell District

9

4.50

30

23

162

30

2,700

Pelham District

10

6.00

28

15

185

400

5,700

 

 

 

386

301

$2,295

$2,480

$85,289

TOWN OF COXSACKIE

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Coxsackie Landing

1

 [blank]

618

434

3,933

6,000

388,840

Loxea

2

5.75

48

44

149

20

25,050

High Hill

3

6.00

61

39

179

325

36,920

Coliburgh

4

7.50

55

37

318

250

34,895

Van Schaack District

5

5.50

40

40

256

400

75,725

Upper Village

6

10.50

68

68

378

1100

68,125

Lime Rock

7

10.00

86

68

378

1100

88,855

Jacksonville

8

6.50

29

44

190

300

45, 725

Union Church

9

3.25

73

49

137

175

27,830

Four Mile Point

10

7.00

54

47

248

800

25,650

Community

11

5.00

25

21

154

75

18,000

 

 

 

1,157

891

$6,478

$11,395

$835,615

TOWN OF ASHLAND

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Ashland

1

8.75

102

89

344

950

12,000

Prout District

2

7.50

38

23

221

100

5,540

Suttons Hollow

3

7.50

30

29

222

300

9,405

North Settlement

4

7.75

40

36

284

50

11,198

Richmond’s Corners

5

5.00

53

45

162

225

6,219

Tompkins District

6

5.00

24

25

146

350

2,635

 

7

7.50

39

37

200

420

6,505

 

 

 

335

284

$1,580

$2, 395

$53,502

TOWN OF DURHAM

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Joint with Albany Co.

1

*

11

12

 

 

 

Hervey Street

2

5.00

41

34

559

450

12,677

Van Wagoner District

3

5.00

23

19

148

425

14,670

Cornwallsville

4

5.00

32

32

155

350

14,975

Gulf District

5

6.00

20

13

190

225

8,040

West Durham

6

5.50

35

25

186

225

14,790

East Durham

7

8.75

52

48

302

90

27,755

Durham Center

8

5.00

22

25

168

400

11,220

 

9

*

2

6

 

 

 

Brand’s Hollow **

10

4.75

6

8

147

300

11,675

Wright Street

11

7.50

23

36

213

350

18,321

Durham Village

12

12.00

81

66

339

500

58,590

Fields District

13

5.00

25

20

206

420

16,010

R.E. Taylor District

14

7.00

38

26

255

15

16,532

Oak Hill ***

15

9.00

88

63

336

1,250

39,725

Centerville

16

5.50

29

26

169

500

16,777

 

 

 

528

459

$3,379

$5,500

$251,757

                                         *Joint district with Rensselaerville; school-house being in the latter town.

                                       **Partly in Rensselaerville and Conesville.

                                     ***Partly in Rensselaerville.

TOWN OF GREENVILLE

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Norton Hill

1

7.00

51

43

249

850

41,865

Freehold

2

7.50

60

68

345

75

51,930

Shaw District

3

4.50

17

18

136

55

21,795

Greenville

4

7.50

108

60

262

400

69,760

Greenville Center

5

5.00

35

29

392

550

26,100

East Greenville

6

7.62

42

38

343

400

32,895

King Hill

7

6.25

29

19

197

175

26,170

Newry

*8

4.50

8

12

122

250

22,875

West Greenville

9

4.00

53

48

150

250

21,210

Luman Baker District

10

7.50

32

31

217

180

21,900

Hill District

11

7.50

27

26

175

200

25,145

Place’s Corner

12

4.25

35

30

141

100

20,429

Maple Avenue

*13

4.50

18

14

153

300

13,990

Gayhead

14

6.50

46

37

204

35

36,675

Plaaterkill

15

3.75

15

15

115

160

18,620

Butler’s District

*16

5.50

12

10

165

250

13,600

 

 

 

588

498

$3,374

$4,230

$464,959

                                      *These districts are partly in Westerlo. 

TOWN OF NEW BALTIMORE

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

Robinson Hill

1

6.75

37

27

296

500

79,000

Lisk’s District

2

10.25

41

34

420

320

35,500

Baldwin District

3

7.00

56

29

357

550

36,400

Grapeville (East)

4

5.00

31

30

209

125

14,575

Staco

5

5.00

21

16

159

300

20,800

Sylvandale

*6

7.50

36

28

225

340

13,850

Bedell Hill

7

8.00

30

25

263

310

25,000

Dean’s Mills

*8

7.00

42

37

296

1,000

40,075

Rocky Store

9

8.00

46

30

231

800

39,325

New Baltimore

10

12.50

223

140

1,037

800

105,020

Van Slyke District

11

8.00

34

27

275

400

41,775

Searles’ District

*12

7.00

26

26

274

500

28,200

Honey Hollow

13

5.00

35

31

153

33

8,300

Van Bergen’s Mills

14

6.00

15

7

177

180

33,325

Medway

15

6.00

65

41

589

1,100

62,550

 

 

 

732

528

$4,969

$7,308

$583,695

                                             *These districts are partly in Coeymans. 

TOWN OF PRATTSVILLE

Location.

District No.

Weekly wages of teachers. Winter term.
$

Children of school age in district.

Children attend- school.

Expenses for the Year
$

Value of school-house and site.
$

Assessed value of property in the district.
$

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*1

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5

5

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Prattsville

2

12.50

125

102

544

1,500

22,712

Little West Kill

3

6.00

25

23

168

75

7,630

Big Rock

4

5.00

26

15

249

425

4,944

Thorington’s District

*5

5.00

19

19

176

200

3,731

Red Falls

6

6.00

53

70

221

125

6,376

Huntersfield

7

8.50

35

28

258

350

4,900

Albert’s District

8

6.00

31

26

198

275

6,931

 

 

 

310

288

$1,818

$2,950

$57,225

                                       *Parts of these districts lie in Schoharie county.

The first commissioner district of Greene county comprises the towns of Athens, Cairo, Catskill, Halcott, Hunter, Jewett and Lexington. It contains 73 common school districts and three union free-school districts. In 15 school districts the teachers “board around.” And their board is estimated to the credit of the districts at $1,642.87. In six districts teachers were paid wages while attending institutes, the wages so paid aggregating $214.14. Library money was appropriated to the payment of teachers’ wages to the amount of $120.46. There were 97 licensed teachers employed, of whom ten held licenses from the State superintendent or Normal School. There are 77 school-houses; 70 frame buildings, five of brick and two of stone. This district received $11,447.07 of public money, and there was raised by district taxes $16,759.46. The amount paid for teacher’s wages was $21,925.77; for libraries $84.98; for school and apparatus $85.20; for school-houses, sites, fences, out-houses, repairs, furniture, &c., $5,440.13; altogether making a total of expenditures for school purposes of $30,575.75.

In the second commissioner district, comprising the towns of Ashland, Coxsackie, Durham, Greenville, New Baltimore, Prattsville and Windham, there are 79 common school districts and one union school, in 31 of which the time honored custom of the teacher boarding around is still continued. In this district six school districts paid teachers’ wages while attending institute, to the amount in the aggregate of $88.55; library money to the amount of $115.56 was appropriated to the payment of teachers’ wages. In regard to the compulsory education law and its execution, no action whatever was taken, though out of 1,401 children between the ages of eight and fourteen years, there were 235 who did not attend the district school 14 weeks during the year nor were instructed in private schools or at home for the same time. There were 88 licensed teachers employed for 28 weeks or more, of whom nine taught under licenses from the State superintendent or Normal School. There were 80 school-houses, 73 of which were frame buildings, four of brick and three of stone. The public money apportioned to the schools of this district was $9,774.96, and the amount raised by tax in the districts, $11,347.06. The amount paid for teachers’ wages was $19,269.66 which included $2,090.50 credited on account of boarding teachers. There was expended for libraries $27.99; for school apparatus $60.56; for school-houses and sites, including appendages, repairs and furniture $2,448.14; altogether making the total expenses for school purposes, $23,896.25.

The average weekly wages paid teachers for the winter throughout the county was $6.57.

By an act of 1843, the office of county superintendent was created. That officer was to be appointed by the board of supervisors. Charles C.W. Cleveland, John Olney and William F. Terhune were appointed under it. The office was abolished in 1847, and the school system returned to town superintendence. Since the creation of the office of assembly district school commissioners, the following have been elected, and held office for terms of three years from the first of January of the year mentioned:

1858, John F. Ingersoll, Alexander Reynolds; 1861, Charles C.W. Cleveland, Martin L. Newcomb; 1864, Samuel S. Mulford, George C. Mott; 1867, Henry Wynans, Zina L. Newell; 1870, John Beardsley, Hiram Bogardus; 1873, Samuel S. Mulford, Robert Halsted;  1876, Clarence E. Bloodgood, Hiram M. Bouton; 1879, Clarence E. Bloodgood, George Townsend; 1882, Clarence E. Bloodgood, Lewis Litchfield.

CHAPTER XV.

ECCLESIASTICAL HISTORY

The church history of the county will appear in detail in connection with the various localities. The Dutch Reformed was the earliest and is to-day the strongest denomination in the river towns. As early as 1650, and before any definite church organizations existed, the Dutch Reformed practices prevailed in religious worship. The organization of the Evangelical Lutheran Zion Church at Athens in 1703 appears to antedate all others. The English in later years established the Presbyterian and the Episcopal Church, and still later the Methodist Church planted itself in nearly every village in the county.

The following table, from the census of 1875, gives a condensed view of the material status of these churches:

Greene County Churches

Organizations

Edifices

Sittings

Membership

Value of church property
$

Salaries of Clergy
$

African M.E.

2

2

450

150

13,500

950

Baptist

12

12