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Greene County
Historical Quiz


Quizzes and answers were located in the Coxsackie News, in 1952 and were written by George W. Bagley, President of the Greene County Historical Society at the time.

Transcribed by Sylvia Hasenkopf

Click here for questions

Historical Quiz #1

The Dutch in New Amsterdam shortly after their arrival called the river which we designate as the Hudson, by a new name, which was the "North River". The reason they gave for this new name was one of the following:
5)    To distinguish it from the Delaware River. The Dutch claimed south to the Delaware which they called the South River, and to northward where they called the Hudson the "North River" merely to designate between these two great bodies of water.

The French when they discovered the lake we call Lake George gave it a name:
2)    Lake St. Sacrament.

The Dutch started the slave trade in New Netherlands and all but one of the following statements are true: Which is false?
3)    Governor Stuyvesant freed all slaves in 1664. In fact slavery continued in the colony long after the Revolution

Hans Vos, one of the earliest settlers at Catskill, is remembered:
2)    Because a creek was named after him. Hans Vos built on the stream which has taken his name, called today the "Hans Vosenkill." It flows into the Catskill, near the foot of Jefferson Hill. Hans Vos was an early settler, and at times helped other settlers to build their homes near the creek. He had considerable difficulty with the authorities from time to time and while he eventually got a political appointment in Albany, he does not appear to have been an outstanding citizen.

Roeliff Jansen, after whom the Roeliff Jansen Kill was named (a creek which empties into the Hudson almost across from Catskill) was in charge of the farming for Patroon Van Rensselaer. All but one of the following statements is true:
4)    Her descendants sued and recovered the property. For years the descendants of Annetje Jans fought to recover the property from Trinity Church, but never succeeded. This was some of the most valuable real estate in the lower part of the city. Dominie Bogardus, Annetje Jans second husband had a great deal of trouble with Governor Kieft, and they were enemies. Eventually they both went to Holland on the same ship to present their arguments. The ship foundered just off the coast, an Governor Kieft and Dominie Bogardus both were drowned.

Historical Quiz #2

About 1650 Andreas de Yeoman, as he was called by the Dutch, or more familiarly, "Johnny the Irishman" became the first of his race to settle on the banks of the Catskill. He was quite a man, hereabouts! All but one one of the following happened to him:
5)    He was said never to have had an enemy among the Indians
Johnny the Irishman was quite a man! He was not only the first of his race to settle in Catskill, and after marrying Van Brunswicks widow, he set up a good farm, but history states that he got into difficulty several times with the authorities over that complaint so often brought, and for which punishment was severe, selling spirits to the Indians. Later he moved to Stockport and undoubtedly some of his old Indian friends did not think so highly of him as he would have liked, because old records indicate his house was burned, and he and his family scalped. Hence a sad end came to Catskill's pioneering Irishman.
History related that both Governor Kieft and Governor Stuyvesant were anxious to get hold of land in the Catskill Mountains. The reason, well founded by contemporary reports of the time, was one of the following:
1)    Because the Indians possessed a great deal of gold that they claimed had come from these mountains.
Several instances are reported of gold having been found in the mountains, and for this reason the governors were anxious to reserve the property, and not sell or give it away. In one case the ore was sent to England and is reported to have been lost on the ship, when the ship foundered. If you have time, perhaps you can locate these lost mines!
Although a novel by Cooper was entitled "Last of the Mohicans" the legends on the Indians indicate that the Mohawks virtually exterminated the Mohicans, as a tribe, in the seventeenth century. The great battle between these two tribes is supposed to have culminated, where:
4)    On the island we now call Rogers Island in the Hudson
Old histories claim that the scene of the great battle was Rogers Island. Others think it may have been some other smaller island. The legend states that the Mohawks had been defeated in a battle with the Mohicans, and had retreated to Rogers Island. Expecting a night attack, these same Mohawks built their small fires, and grouped around the fires their blankets, stuffed with leaves and sticks. Retiring into the woods they awaited the Mohicans, who stealthily landed on the island and surrounded the camp fires supposing the Mohawks were asleep. Leaping on the Mohicans from behind, virtual annihilation followed. Remnants of the Mohicans left the region and moved into New England, where they affiliated with other tribes. This is one of the more colorful legends of our region.
In the Indian War called "The Esopus War". between the Dutch and the Esopus Indians, in 1663, a famous Walloon's family were captured. Many of his descendants live in the vicinity of Catskill, today. If you know your local history, you will know that this man's name was:
1)    Louis DuBois
Louis DuBois, the great leader of the Walloons was the first of the name in the colony. While Louis did not live on the Catskill, his son moved there, and many Greene County families today can trace their lineage, from this nineteenth century pioneer. The capture of the Dubois family by the Indians is a fascinating story.
The following Dutch vessels of the seventeenth century all had one thing in common. Of the list, only one does not properly belong in the group. Which one?
3)    The Princess
Sea-faring men will recognize the Princess as the ill-fated ship in which Governor Kieft and Dominie Bogardus perished in the storm off the coast of England. All others were names of famous Dutch slavers, that were engaged in the slave trade between Africa and New Netherland.

Historical Quiz #3

One of the earlier names of Coxsackie was " KOIXHACKING"  meaning "Owls Place". From what language was this taken?
5) Algonquin
There are many different spellings of the name for the "Owls Place" which was taken from the Algonquin, and translated into Dutch by the earliest settlers.

In 1663 the "Esopus War" broke out. Wiltwyck and Hurley were burned, and the Indians on the Esopus massacred many persons. At this particular time an important man name Eldert G. Cruyf lived on the Catskill Creek. In one of the following ways he effected this situation. What did he do?
3) He kept the Catskill sub-tribe from joining the war.
Eldert G. Cruyf had his hands full keeping the local Catskill Indians from entering the war. These Catskill Indians were a sub-tribe of the Esopus Indians. It appears that Cruyf was successful, though it is questionable as to just what tactics he used. Cruyf was an important man in these parts, though in his later years he appears to have had considerable financial difficulties, which was not an uncommon thing, among the earliest settlers, in the early years of the colony.

The first settlement known as "Catskill" was located at one of the following places:
4) Near the present day Leeds Bridge
Most people know that the village of Catskill today, is not the same village that was called Catskill back in the days before the revolution, but they are not quite sure where "Old Catskill" was. If you will drive around Leeds, and look over the Historical Markers, you will find that the first village of Catskill was near the Leeds bridge. Several markers indicate locations of old original buildings.
Indian names are difficult to pronounce, and worse to spell, but over a period of time, certain pronunciations and spellings prevail and become more or less fixed in our history. The six Indian names of places in our region are important in our history. One of them, however, has no connections with the others. Which one?
1) Ma-wig-nack
Ma-wig-nack was the Indian name of the place near the junction of the Catskill and Cauterskill creeks, which was bought by early settlers on the lower region of the two creeks. The other five Indian names are those of the five great plains near the present village of Leeds, which were part of the so-called Catskill Patent, of Martin Van Bergen and the Salisburys. Many of these old patent lines over-lap one another, but there seems to have been so much land in the early days that this didn't bother the owners to any great extent.

In early grants of land, and deeds, mention is often made to the Indian trail, known as the "Catskill Path" that ran from Catskill to:
1) Athens
A historical marker, near the country club road in Jefferson Heights tells that the Indian footpath of colonial times, ran north to Coxsackie. It had several branches and was not like our present day highways. Strangely enough the new Thruway will follow this path to some extent. The Indians knew the best places for their trails and kept to the higher ground. No one liked to struggle through a swamp in 1620 or 1952

Historical Quiz #4

In 1674 the Scotsman Robert Livingston arrived in New York and was able to procure a huge tract of lands along the east bank of the Hudson. These lands extended ten miles, opposite present Greene and Ulster counties. He became the First Lord of the Manor. All but one of the following statements is true:
3)    He is always remembered for his kindness to the Palatines

History will not always judge a man, as did some of his contemporaries. Livingston's tactics with the "Tar Maker's was considered an exploitation, by many, and they resented his hold over their lives. History does tell, however, that the Palatines were anxious to get away from Livingston's Manor, since they could not buy land there, as they had hoped. The great migration to Schoharie was partially prompted by these differences in opinion.
Which Dutch Governor did not wear a pair of shoes?
4)    Peter Stuyvesant

Peter Stuyvesant had one leg. Consequently, he did not wear a pair of shoes. Stuyvesant lost his leg before coming to New Amsterdam, in an engagement with a Portuguese man-of-war. A cannon-ball was supposed to have done the trick.

In Jefferson Heights, during colonial times, was only one of the following:
5)    A race track

Early Dutch colonials had a race track in the section now known as Jefferson Heights. The flat land was suitable for  for racing, and stories have been told of many exciting races held there. Some of the Indians rode as "jockeys" for the Dutch owners. To those os us who imagine the early days as being ones of hardship, it comes somewhat as a relief to know that even the Dutch farmers could relax and have a good time once in a while.

The Iroquois, known as the Five-Nations, were composed of the following tribes: Mohawks, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas. Early in the eighteenth century it was then referred to as the Six-Nations. The Sixth tribe was:
5)    The Tuscaroras

The Tuscaroras were southern Indians who had been forced out of their hunting grounds by inroads of settlers, and moved northward into New York where they became the Sixth Nation of the Long House.

The Canadian French and Iroquois were about to complete a lasting peace in 1688 when one of the greatest pieces of duplicity in history happened. All but one of the following facts is true: Which is false?
3)    The Hurons claimed to be mortified when they heard from the Iroquois survivors the purpose of their trip

The Dionondodies, a subtribe of the Hurons, had a profitable trade with the English at Michilimackinack. Their leader Adario, called "the Rat" by the French, conceived the plan to set the French against the Iroquois and vice versa, thereby driving a wedge between people who might have been friends, but served his purpose better if fighting between themselves. Ever afterward the French and Iroquois were enemies, each believing the other guilty of duplicity. The only statement untrue was part of the last statement, that the Hurons were offered membership in the Iroquois Confederacy. The Hurons were always enemies of the Iroquois, and were never asked to join their confederacy.

Historical Quiz #5

A prominent land mark on the Hudson River was designated by the English sailors by what name?
4)    Flying Corner

Just south of Athens is a prominent bend in the river and to the west is the point designated as "Flying Corner". It was later called by other names, such as Brandow's Point.

The early Dutch families often permitted their children to become indentured servants of other families. History tells us that all but one of the following is true:

3)    A strong union was established of these servants

Oftentimes it was necessary to allow children to work for other families, and since there was a "help-shortage" in Dutch days, every child who could do so worked for someone. This was not considered demeaning, and oftentimes master and servant enjoyed complete social equality in the community. The children sent over from alms-houses often married well, in time, and became social leaders. Of course, all servitude was not considered pleasant, and many a servant ran away. Perhaps if they had organized some sort of a union, like workers do today, they might have fared better, but nothing of this sort happened, of course, and this is probably true because these indentured servants worked at all kinds of jobs from clerks, to field hands, and domestics. Many amusing instances are on record of young children being returned by their parents to the person who hired them, despite the child's homesickness, which caused the child to "run away" and return home!

While Indian tribes tended to move from one locality to another, the Indians located near the village of Catskill, during the earliest colonial days were mostly those of the tribe known by what name:
1)    Esopus

The Esopus Indians, one of the branches of the great Delaware tribe, inhabited this area. Each region had small sub-tribes scattered about, and the so-called Catskill Indians were one of these. Important to note is that the Mohawks never claimed Iroquois territory as far south as Catskill, but their hunting grounds seem to have come down nearly to Coxsackie. Occasional raids of war parties infiltrated the region around Catskill, and the Mohican-Mohawk battle of an earlier period indicates that the Mohicans were at one time a very strong tribe in this neighborhood.

On July 30, 1673, the Dutch fleet sailed back into the harbor of New York, and demanded the colony surrender. This was a surprise and Governor Lovelace had quite a problem in his hands. Captain John Manning, who was in charge of the fort did all but one of the following:
2)    After the messenger returned, the British soldiers defended the fort to the last man.

Not a shot was fired. The fort surrendered peacefully though critics of Manning said he need not have done this. Later the King broke his sword, and disgraced him, which, though a disgrace for Manning, was preferable to being shot, for his meek surrender of the fort!

England secured New York for the second time after peace was signed and in 1678 we find that the Colony of new York was listed with the following facts except one. Which one?
3)    Lutherans were the predominant religious sect.

The Dutch Reformed Church was the strongest church in New Netherland in 1678. 

Historical Quiz #6

The oldest building in Leeds is a barn, which is still in use, and which was erected by Marte Gerritse in what year?
1)    The oldest building near Leeds is a barn built by Marte Gerritse in 1680, according to the Historical marker in front of the barn. It is still in use, after 272 years.

When the new monarchs, William and Mary, ascended the English throne in 1689, their adherents in New York City seized the garrison. All but one of the following statements is true. Which one?
2)    Leisler was not English. He had lived in the colony for many years prior to the English regime. In fact the record of baptisms in the Dutch Church in New York indicate he had seven children baptised there between 1664 and 1676, their names, if you are interested being: Susanna, Catharina, Jacob, Mary, Johannes, Hester and Francina.

Rumors of a French Invasion in 1689, under Count Frontenac caused hurried plans to build forts, and recruit an army. Several young men, including Francis Salisbury (his home was near present day Leeds) answered this call to the colors. Brothers Dirk and John Van Vechten (who lived near present day Rushmore's Dam), went to Albany and enlisted as privates. Army pay was not high. How much do you think they got?
3)  The private soldiers were signed up at 12 pence a day. In those days it was probably not as common to have someone ask, "brother, can you spare a dime?"

While in 1689 preparations were underway, winter came, and out of the north, Count Frontenac descended in a surprise attack on the village of Schenectady. All but one of the following statements is true. Which one is false?
5)    The party of horsemen Colonel Schuyler sent to relieve the village of Schenectady thought they would face an army estimated at fourteen hundred French and Indians. Actually, there were not as many as supposed, but the British did not dare attack and the French escaped with about forty of the best horses, loaded with spoils, and all the cattle they could find. There was no battle, between the British and French at this time. However, the damage was done and Schenectady was in ashes.

The first Dutchmen to settle among the Indians in "Old Catskill" (now called Leeds) built a log house about 1675. His name was one of the following. Can you identify him?
1)    Jan Bronk was the first Dutch settler near Leeds. The historical marker near the bridge tells that his cabin was near the creek, a short distance south of the present Leeds bridge.

Historical Quiz #7

If you are familiar with the "place names" around Catskill, you will quickly identify the name below, which is most directly associated with the village of "Old Catskill", now known as Leeds.
5)    Pacquaick
Pacquiack was the Indian name for one of the great plains of Leeds, and a historical marker indicates this fact  on Route 23. Het Strand meant, "The Landing", which was the name assigned to the present village of Catskill, as late as 1790. Ten-Pund-Island was the name of Rogers Island. before Rogers bought it. The Plaatje us a small island opposite Catskill in the Hudson, and the Grote Imboght District was the name used for the region where Catskill, village and town are located.
Sylvester Salisbury was sent by the Duke of York to take command of the fort at Albany in 1670, which was five years after the English had captured New Netherland. He had an exciting life, all but one of the following things happened to him.
6)    At a ripe old age, he died in the Salisbury Manor house.
After procuring the grant of land, Salisbury never was able to enjoy it, as he died before the patent was actually confirmed. His widow and sons however lived there and built some of the finest homes in the region.
In 1693, Count Frontenac, perennial scourge of the Iroquois, again invaded their country. Colonel Schuyler and Iroquois allies went against Frontenac. Historians report that all but one of the following happened in this devastating campaign:
3)    Chasing the French back to the upper reaches of the Hudson river, Schuyler's forces abandoned the pursuit, when ice blocked their way.
The French never seemed to be discouraged. They continued to raid the Iroquois country, and kept it up til they were defeated, a hundred years later by the colonists and British, acting together. Since the English monarchs had pledged to defend the Iroquois the colonial forces  were always drawn to where the French attacked the Indians in the Mohawk valley. A student of history becomes confused with the constant Indian campaigns and wars which seem almost endless.
Herman Schuneman, father of Johannes Schuneman, who became the famous Dutch Dominie of the Catskills, was one of the following:
2)    Captain of the Palatine Germans in East Camp
Herman Schuneman, the father of the famous Dutch Dominie of the Catskills, was born in Hamburg in the year 1680, it is reported. He arrived with the Palatines in New York in 1708, and went with the immigrants who were to become "The Workers of the Hudson" to East Camp, now called Germantown. Herman was made a captain or leader of one of the groups.
The Main Street in Catskill was laid out in what year?
1)    1773
The local residents soon realized that they would have to make some provision for a main street at the Landing as Catskill Village was called, and in 1773, two years before the revolution they laid out the line of Main Street. When the road was slowly developed it was muddy and rutty and full of sink holes and springs, but those later were filled in and bridged, and Main Street today is just at the place, where it was laid out 170 years ago.

Historical Quiz #8

The answers appeared in the Greene County News on May 23, 1952.

Governor Fletcher's administration from 1692 to 1696 was one of turbulence and dissatisfaction for the colony of new York. All but one of the following happened during this period.
3)    He was tolerant, and broadminded in administration.
Governor Fletcher had considerable hard luck, but perhaps he brought some of it on himself. He is reported as being in constant dispute with the colonial assembly and many people considered him narrow, avaricious, and bigoted in his administration. It was not a happy time for those who liked peace and quiet. In the embarrassing instance in which he tried to take command of the Connecticut militia, against their will, lots of folks must have chuckled to hear the Governor yelling his head off against the sound of the rolling drums. When you do not want to hear a royal edict, it just goes to prove that there is more than one way of skinning a cat!
The Hardenburgh Patent, one of the largest grants ever made in this country was approved by Queen Ann. Though its extent was somewhat vague and irregular, the eastern boundary was about as follows: (Only one of the following is correct. Which one?)
3)    It divided the watersheds of the Delaware and Hudson
The eastern boundary of the Hardenburgh patent was supposed to be the centerpoint of the watershed between the Hudson and Delaware Rivers. Theoretically, therefore, if the stream you lived on was flowing into the Delaware, you lived in the patent. If it flowed to the Hudson you lived outside. This is not an exact line, but it served the purpose, and hardly any settlers lived there anyway, so it didn't make much difference.
The largest group of colonists in colonial days, to come to the New World at one time occurred when one of the following events transpired:
4)    When the Palatines were sent to New York by Queen Ann in 1709
The Palatine Germans numbering about 3000 sailed from England to become workers on the Hudson under Governor Hunter in the cropping of naval stores for Her Majesty's fleet. The saga of these Palatines is one of the greatest in our history and one of the least told. Thousands of Greene County-ites carry palatine blood in their veins, mistakenly believed, in some cases, to be "Dutch". They receive scant notice in most histories because their mother tongue was neither Dutch nor English, but German and they came as laborers, and not as lords and ladies. History will correct this in time. It was the largest migration of any in the early days.
David Abeel, an early settler on the Cauterskill Creek, built a house that still stands today, and is in use. The place where it was situated was described in the Dutch tongue as:
5)    Bak-oven (Bake oven)
David Abeel, one of the most outstanding characters of our Revolutionary times, built his home in the "Bak-Oven" of "Bake-Oven", as it was called. This house still stands, and is occupied, It should be one of our local historical shrines. The capture of David and his son by the Indians in 1780 and their removal to Canada and the escape, is as dramatic as any novel you ever read.
Under Governor Hunter and Commander Nicholson a gigantic campaign was launched against the French in Canada in 1711 to break the French power in America. This included over ten thousand men by land and sea. In this campaign all but one of the following occurred:
5)    The Palatines were anxious to fight for Queen Ann because of her treatment of them.
The Palatines never wanted to fight the French. They had all the fighting they ever wanted in the old country, but they did not shirk their responsibilities and although they were disappointed in their opportunities here, lots of them fought in the French and Indian wars, for their adopted sovereigns.

Historical Quiz #9

The Germans from the Palatinate migrated in great numbers to England in 1700, in the hopes that they could reach America. This migration was encouraged by the English, but with thousands of Palatines quartered near London, things became different. All but one of the following statements is true. Which one is false?
2)    The British welcomed any Palatine who wanted to come to England whether Lutheran, Calvinist or Roman Catholic.
One of the reasons Queen Ann welcomed the Palatines to England was because she was anxious to help the protestants and to appear at least, as though she was their protector. The was in which Britain was involved at the time and which held the northern part of Europe in constant turmoil was partly between Protestant forces and Roman Catholic forces. Therefore, in permitting the Palatines to come to England as a haven, the British endeavored to screen out all Roman Catholics. In fact, numbers were turned back and refused transportation. Despite these regulations, many Roman Catholics were able to smuggle themselves aboard, and into England along with the protestant Palatines. This, however, was not in accordance with Queen Ann's desires.

A century after the Dutch came to the Hudson River, and about fifty years after the English took over, how many people do you believe were living in the Colony of New York?
1)    50,000
A century after the Dutch had colonized New Netherland, and about a half century after the British had taken over, the records show that there were only about fifty thousand persons in the New York colony. Most of the early comers were those who were looking for escape from restrictions of one sort or another, and their ranks were filled with opportunists and adventurers who wanted easy pickings and a chance to make a lot of money. Later migrations were prompted by other motives, but the chance to "get rich quick", undoubtedly prompted most of the earliest settlers.

After the failure of the Tar-Producing Project, the Hudson Palatines did all but one of the following:
2)    A large group purchased outright their farms from Patroon Livingston on the east bank in what is now Columbia county.
One of the evils of the Patroon system of manors, was that the land belonged to the Lord of the Manor and descended to his eldest son. It was therefore virtually impossible to buy land outright from Livingston, and the colonists bitterly objected to this. Eventually this system of feudal land ownership resulted in the breaking up of the manors, and the rent-wars of the eighteenth and nineteenth century. Livingston refused to sell the land, and the "tenants" had to pay yearly rents to him.
A famous Tavern-Keeper in what is now Jefferson Heights, during the Colonial period was one of the following men:
4)    Peter Souser
A historical marker, in Jefferson Heights, indicates the site of Peter Souser's tavern in colonial times. All the other men whose names are listed were well known in this region, but none of them made his livelihood by dispensing food and drink to his neighbors.

During Colonial times, many were the conferences held between the Iroquois Indians and English governors. They both talked to each other through interpreters. In the Iroquois language, a certain word was used to designate the English governor, when addressing him, and another word was invariably used to designate a French governor. Reports of these conferences invariably use the title of an English governor as one of the words below. Which one?
1)    Corlear
In Iroquois, the chiefs invariably used the title of "Corlear" when addressing an English Governor. In the same way, when addressing a French Governor, they invariably seem to have used the title "Yonnondio". Manitou was a designation of one of the Indian gods.

Historical Quiz #10

In pre-revolutionary days, one of the women listed below was the owner of a famous landmark, known as the "Old Stone Jug", which was built on the bank of the Catskill creek, opposite the DuBois property and near the site of the present Plusch's boat yard. The Old Stone Jug, so called, was a splendid mansion, and unfortunately it was torn down a few years ago, to make way for industrial development. Which woman was the owner?
3)    Jane Dies

Jane Dies was the owner of the Old Stone Jug, and she was one of the notable personages hereabouts. her husband appears, from historical references, not to have been of as high calibre, and little that is favorable has been reported of him. The building was erected in 1763.

The Palatine settlements on the East Bank of the Hudson were called "The East camp" and later the region was designated as Germantown. Those on the west bank were called the "West Camp", which is still known today by that title. In all, these two camps included seven villages. Of the eight names below, one of them should not be included. Which one?
8)    Evesport

Evesport is a more recent name. The original villages have been absorbed, and their outlines are either lost or very vague. However, many old buildings still stand, and a curiosity seeker will be able to identify them. One of the outstanding institutions of the Palatines, remains in the West Camp Church.

In 1703 the Rev. Justus Falkner became the first pastor of the Lutheran Church in Loonenburg (Athens). He is remembered as an outstanding personage. All but one of the following statements is true:
5)    His body was buried in the church building

The Rev. Justus Falkner is not buried at Zion Church, in Athens, although a later pastor is buried ther. This practice of burying a renowned pastor in the church is not unusual. At West Camp Church, you will find the grave of the Rev. Joshua Kochertal, Pioneer of the Palatine migration.

During both Dutch and English administrations of the colony, Piracy flourished, and one of the men listed below is directly connected with piracy on the high seas as well as on the Hudson River. Which one was he?
3)    Captain William Kidd

None other than the famous Captain William Kidd, sailed the Hudson, and as a pirate he had a few equals. Legend has it that Kidd's treasure has been buried on the various banks and islands, but so far we have learned of no startling discoveries of its whereabouts, though history records many attempts to locate it. Kidd may have been more sinned against than sinning, if we believe some accounts. However, that he paid for his piracy by execution, cannot be questioned. Piracy was very common in the seventeenth century.

The province and colony of New York, during the French and Indian Wars, did not intend to its present geographical limits as found on a 1952 road amp. The French occupied Canada and for all practical purposes, how far south do you estimate the French influence extended?
4)    As far south as Lake George, and the surrounding region

While French claims and French conquests were not one and the same thing, it can be stated with a reasonable amount of justification that the French influence extended down to Lake George and further south, at times. It seems as though many inroads, and expeditions attempted to force the claims nearer to Albany, but were repulsed by the English and Iroquois. However, the realists among the French undoubtedly felt that they could consider Lake George and the surrounding region as part of Canada. This seems hard for us to conceive, because it places Albany, less than 50 miles from the frontier. It does not explain, however, the desire of the English to maintain a strong defensive line on the Mohawk River.

Historical Quiz #11

Churches were never organized in a wilderness, but awaited the time sufficient colonists were grouped together in hamlets or villages. Which is the earliest organized of the following churches?
4)    The Lutheran Church at Loonenburg, now known as Athens

While the general impression seems to be that Dutch Reformed, or Calvinist churches were the most common because of the Dutch influence, this is not true, so far as our immediate region is concerned. A large percentage of the Dutch were, or became, Lutherans and Zion Church in Loonenburg (Athens) is a testimonial to the fact. It was organized many years before the church at Leeds. Zion Lutheran will celebrate its 250th anniversary in 1954. This is a ripe old age for any church! Later on, the Dutch Reformed Churches exceeded the Lutherans in membership.

During the eighteenth century the English and Colonists feared most of all one thing. What was it?
 5)    An invasion of the colony by the French and Indians

French and Indian invasions were a constant threat. As the Mohawks were the leading tribe allied with the British, the Hurons and Algonquin tribes of Canada were allies if the French. The river Indians were reduced to impotency or moved inland, soon after the English settlements became numerous, but the constant threat of the French invasion from the north. fills the historical record.

In 1727 the three brothers named Van Loon in Loonenburg presented a plot of land known as a "Glebe" to Zion Lutheran Church. With reference to this particular "glebe", all the statements below are true except one:
4)    After due consideration the church authorities rejected the offer, and instead purchased the land outright

Zion's glebe was accepted and remains in full force today, after nearly two hundred and fifty years. True, the glebe rents were small, but numerous. They do not constitute any real burden on the people who have built homes within the glebe. While unusual, this glebe is not by any means the only one in existence. Considerable in the way of legal technicality has hindered a change in the arrangement.

Colonial roadways were little more than widened paths cut thru the forest, but early in the eighteenth century the first road of any considerable importance in our region was built.
1)    From Catskill to Old Catskill (Leeds)

The first real road was completed early in the eighteenth century between Old Catskill (Leeds) and Cauterskill. This enabled the settlers in those regions to get back and forth to the settlement and church at Leeds. Other lesser roads were established , as time went on, but Indian trails were good enough for most travel through the woods, whether you were on foot or horseback.
EDITOR'S NOTE: We regret that a typographical error in this question last week inadvertently listed under 1) From Catskill to Old Catskill, when the correct question should have been From Cauterskill to old Catskill.

In 1734, nearly 110 years after the province was established, the Colonial Assembly made ready to defend its frontiers against war with the French in Canada. The outposts and garrisons considered necessary for this purpose included all but one of the following and funds were appropriated for that purpose. Which one should be excluded?
4)    500 pounds to fortify West Point

West Point was not fortified, as early as 1734, since it was well inside the frontier. However, a constant concern, judging by the appropriations of the Assembly, was the threat of the French from the Champlain and Ontario areas. Countless small local blockhouses and refuges were in existence, manned by the local militia when needed, and many of the earlier homes were constructed with loop hopes and escape cellars and tunnels. One had to be on the alert, to be sure he and his family survived.

Historical Quiz #12

The Rev. Johannes Schuneman, who is fondly known as the "Dutch Dominie of the Catskills" was one of the most outstanding patriots of his time. All but one of the following statements is correct. Which one is false?
4)    He died at the age of sixty-five at the height of the war.

Dominie Schuneman was active throughout the entire Revolution and for years afterwards. He lived till 1794, and was dominie until shortly before he died. The church for which he did so much still benefits from his will, which provides a small yearly income.

The year 1735 is notable because it established Peter Zenger in the hearts of Americans as a leader in the fight for Freedom of the Press. His tribulations included all but one of the following:
2)    He was editor of the New York Herald Tribune, which failed.

Zenger's New York Weekly Journal and not the Herald Tribune was the newspaper that caused the fight for Freedom of the Press, so ably handled by Andrew Hamilton. This freedom often contested, is a heritage of all Americans, which we hope will never be abridged.

Which of the five following statements or legends is not connected with the village of Coxsackie:
4)    Coxsackie was the birthplace of the famous Peter Bronk.

Many famous people come from Coxsackie, but Peter Bronk was not born there. He came to the colony, living in Beverwyck (Albany) and secured a grant from Governor Stuyvesant later confirmed buy English Governor Nicolls. Like the earlier grantees, he bought and paid for the lands from the Indians who claimed ownership, in addition to the Royal decree.

In 1741 a plot was uncovered of a slave uprising to burn New York City. All but one of the following is reported to have taken place. Which statement is false?
5)    The slaves which were deported were sent to Connecticut.

The so-called Slave Uprising was probably not planned as such, but culminated in through fears of Spanish instigation of the blacks and indentured servants. It was the most sanguinary of the alleged revolts, and the suffering blacks and a few white persons paid heavily with their lives. Records indicate that the 71 slaves were deported to Africa, and not to Connecticut. Most of the white persons involved, seem to have been indentured servants.

In 1741 there were an estimated twelve thousand people in the city of new York. Of these, what percentage were slaves?
3)    one-sixth

Figures are difficult to prove, but historians indicate that about one sixth of the population of New York City were slaves, at the time of the uprising of 1741, and the subsequent trials. Like many of the incidents of our early history if which we can not be very proud, historians tend to ignore incidents of this kind., although they were part of the fabric of the lives of the colonists, and constituted sources of dissention and difficulty.

Historical Quiz #13

In 1745 a surprise expedition by New England Troops and a British fleet was made against Louisburg, the capital of Cape Breton Island off the coast of Canada, held by the French. All but one of the following statements is correct. Which one is false?
2.  The second in command was Colonel Philip Schuyler of N.Y.

The campaign was not under Colonel Schuyler, since he was at home in Albany, preparing the defenses of the New York villages. This Louisburg expedition, however, was an outstanding example of the way the colonial troops and British could work together, in a siege. France lost most of her fisheries, and a great deal of trade, when the fortress fell. This campaign spurred on the British to eventually take all of Canada.

In 1745 during the action against Louisburg, vain attempts were made to hurry along the interior fortifications in the Albany region. Our New Yorkers had little success, and while they were doing this all but one of the following events took place:
5.  None of the outpost villages in New England were disturbed.

Neither the French nor the English were ever satisfied to do one campaign at a time, which was doubtless good sense, strategically, since it kept the opponents off-balance. The French and Indian inroads which devastated New York, swept into New England, at the same time. These attacks were made almost simultaneously, to divide the Colonial forces. While Saratoga and Hoosic were being attacked, many of the outskirt towns in New Hampshire, and Massachusetts suffered attacks. It was all our lives were worth to keep defenses covered in case of attack.

In 1746, flushed with the success of the Louisburg expedition, the Colonials resolved to take all of Canada. Plans were halted when a French fleet of forty warships and 4000 soldiers in transports was reported under way to relieve Louisburg. Disaster striking the French fleet, all but one of the following events took place:
3.  Too late, a cure was found for the sickness.

The English and our colonies did not have any monopoly on bad luck, and the almost complete destruction of the French fleet, by tempest, shipwreck and disease, as well as the death of their commander, indicate that fortunes of war do not always hinge on man-made events. The diseases that broke out were never "cured". Doubtless this was smallpox but the outbreaks of smallpox were so common in our armies and those of our enemies in colonial days it is sometimes a wonder that there were any men left to carry on the war!

In 1776, a plague hit Albany proving fatal to many inhabitants and Indians living nearby. It was diagnosed by the doctors as being:
2.  Yellow Fever

Historians probably differ on what the disease was that broke out at Albany, and decimated the population. It is reported to have subsided in the cold weather, and was likened to "yellow fever". However, it apparently was a severe contagious fever of some sort, and caused great concern.

One of the last official acts of British Governor George Clinton in 1753, was to appoint James Delancey as Lieutenant Governor, a man whom he felt knew the job. However, the crown sent over a new man as governor, Sir Danvers Osborne. The remarkable thing about this last named gentleman is one of the following:
1.  His term of office was the shortest on record

Sir Danvers Osborne's wife had recently died, and he appears to have been much distressed in mind and spirit. Regardless of the cause, it is sad to relate that the man committed suicide, by hanging, within forty-eight hours after taking office, becoming the Governor with the shortest official record, in our history. He was succeeded by Lieutenant-Governor Delancy, who had been chosen by Osborn's predecessor for the post.

Historical Quiz #14

From 1748 to 1753 a semblance of peace prevailed under Governor Clinton. Here in Greene County, we find the following, except one, affecting our citizens:

5) The plan rejected by the crown as it gave too little authority to the colonial assemblies.

The plan of union was not carried to full completion being rejected, it is said, by the Crown because it gave too much authority to the colonies, and also rejected by the colonies because it gave too much authority to the Crown. Apparently, it was too advanced for its time. Twenty years later a Declaration of Independence would settle the matter!

The power of France in Canada was finally broken in 1759 removing the last major obstacle to prosperity in our colony. In the final campaigns of the French and Indian War, as we call it, all but one of the following incidents took place:

2) General Braddock was defeated in campaign against Fort DuQuesne

General Braddock's disastrous campaign against Fort DuQuesne was several years previous, and was not repeated in the final years of the war. In fact, when Fort DuQuesne finally fell, General Braddock had long since died.

For two decades after the war, an outstanding factor in our local History took place, that had not happened before. Which one of the statements below do you believe is correct?

2) Great numbers of British soldiers received grants of land in this region, in appreciation of services rendered.

This question is interesting for two reasons: First because of the impossibility of all but one of the answers. The First Cholera epidemics came in the 19th century. Schools of the size indicated hadn't even been thought of. Connecticut did not claim land here, though strangely enough there are some western parts of the state in which claims were actually made years later, and no serum had been developed for wholesale vaccination against the dread scourge of small pox. The one outstanding fact is that great numbers of British soldiers were granted land in this region. A review of the individual grants and patents indicates dozens of them, from colonels to lieutenants, from sergeants to drummer boys. It appears that many of His Majesty's men were anxious to locate in the colonies. During the Revolution many of these men were undoubtedly on the loyalist side, and constituted a "Tory threat" to the older families.

Abraham Van Vechten was born at Catskill in 1762. He was one of the local-boys-who-made-good. History tells us that he did all but one of the following things:

5) Served during the Revolutionary War in the army

Abraham Van Vechten was an outstanding individual and served his nation well, but there seems to be no record that he was an active soldier in the war recorded in the local histories. Everyone didn't shoulder a musket!

James Barker, an English lawyer settled near Cairo and Durham in the years before the Revolution. It is recorded that he contributed greatly towards the prosperity of the area. The statements below reflect some of the facts regarding him. One is false. Which one?

5) He was an active Patriot during the revolutionary struggle

James Barker like many Englishmen, appears to have attempted to remain neutral during the war. This has been found true of a number of the earlier residents. Some, of course, were active on the Patriot side, others on the King's side, while large numbers attempted to remain neutral. Barker had an enviable record as an attorney, and in one of his cases he is reported to have saved a friend from death by his defense in court.

Historical Quiz #15


After Canada was subdued in 1760 by the English, the Colony of New York and the Colony of New Hampshire worked themselves into war over the ownership of the land that we call Vermont. Which statement is untrue?

5) Colonel Philip Skeen applied for a charter, and was made Governor of Vermont, by the Kings Decree in 1775, ending the dispute.

Colonel Philip Skeen is reputed to have made earnest attempts to have had this contested region set up as a separate colony, and to have been names its governor. In fact the Crown apparently was willing to go along on the project. However, as we all know, the start of the Revolutionary War in 1775, brought things of this nature to a standstill. It remained for Vermont to be established as a state until 1791, the fourteenth of the union.

After repeal of the obnoxious Stamp Act in 1766 why did the British claim they would have to levy a tax on imports?

3) To support troops quartered in the colonies

The colonists claiming "taxation without representation" objected strenuously to the alleged taxation to support troops in their midst, which was the excusr given by the British crown.

In 1771 Lt. Col. Bradstreet protested to Sir William Johnson against what he called an outrage against the citizens and colonists. What was the basis of his complaint?

3) That in 65 years only ten families had settled in the huge Hardenburgh Patent, depriving others of land.

Lt. Colonel Bradstreet objected to the enormous Hardenburgh patent lying idle when land was needed. This patent, one of the greatest in size ever granted in the colonies, had not been developed to any great extent, though squatters had settled without title in many sections. The Colonel in his complaint to Sir William Johnson stated he felt this was against public policy, and an abuse. It is possible that the Colonel was right in his statement, but hardly correct in the numbers of people involved, since there were numerous settlers scattered along the streams, that he did not know of.

Five years before the Battle of Lexington, a clash between Americans and British soldiers took place at Golden Hill, New York City, on January 18, 1770. The Americans that were involved in this clash, several of whom were wounded, were known as:

3) Sons of Liberty

The Sons of Liberty were organized to protest against the actions of the King, and in various places they took upon themselves more responsibilities than they probably should have. This was natural when hot-headed young men get together. In the clash at Golden Hill, which was an earlier clash than most, the tempers of the young men flared up at the British soldiers, and the British whose temper had worn thin by the treatment they were receiving from the populace, reacted.

In March 1772, the Colonial Legislature divided Albany County into districts, the portion (of present day Greene County) along the river below Albany being called the Coxsackie District., and the southern portion being called the Great Imboght District. All but one of the following statements is true:

1) The Colonial Legislature considered naming the whole region "Greene County" but no action was taken at this time.

The Colonial Legislature in dividing the counties into districts, had no intention of setting up a new county of Greene, at this early date. Greene County was not established until almost 30 years late, and long after the Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, the people of the Great Imboght and Coxsackie Districts were considered part of Albany County. In fact, in some old records it is confusing, because oftentimes the "Albany" is used, meaning the county, when actually the inference is to some place inside the county, such as Athens, Old Catskill, etc. Thus, we find old records stating that so-and-so was born at "Albany", when in fact he might have been born at some place fifteen or twenty miles distant from the city.

Historical Quiz #16

In 1774, a year before the Revolution, the New Hampshire and New York difficulties had reached such a pitch that open warfare between these two colonies was not improbable. The New York Legislature declared it a felony for any settlers in the disputed territory to resist the New York authorities by force. This felony was to be punished by one of the following penalties:

3)  Death

The New York Legislature set the penalty of "death" for those who opposed  the authorities with force, in their attempt to carry out the claims of our colony in the New Hampshire grants. The leaders Ethan Allen and Seth Warner were to figure soon in another role, as leaders of the "Greene Mountains Boys," patriot forces that helped free the north country, but this never entered the heads of the New York legislators as early as 1774!

To drive a wedge between the colonies and cause dissention and arguments between each of them, the British Government in 1775 did one of the following:

3)  Restrained the trade of all colonies except New York, Delaware and South Carolina

To get the colonies into arguments between each other, the British "restrained the trade," of all but New York, Delaware and South Carolina, but these refused to take the bait. They said what was fair for one was fair for all.

Governor Tryon, past of the pre-war British Governors, became alarmed for his own personal safety in 1775, and left by ship for:

5)  Halifax

Halifax was Governor Tryons destination. Many other Loyalists also followed from New York and New England. From Halifax they re-organized forces for eventual return to fight for the King.

At the outset of the Revolutionary War, in 1775, about how many families do you believe were living in the area which now constitutes the village limits of the Village of Catskill?

1)  10

There seem to be about ten families living in the area now included in the corporation limits of Catskill, in the year 1775. There were a number of others outside and if course a considerable number near present day Leeds, in Cauterskill, in the Imboght region, and Kiskatom. However, the "Landing" was not populated to any extent.

A month after the outbreak at Lexington and Concord patriots under command of Ethan Allen took Fort Ticonderoga in the name of "God and the Continental Congress". Co-incidental with this attack, the following happened:

5)  A battle for Lake Champlain ensued in which the British were defeated.

Ethan Allen and Seth Warner and their Green Mountain Boys did a good job of clearing Lake Champlain, but this was accomplished without any major battle. The British realizing they were outnumbered, and doing business with fellows who wouldn't take no for an answer, seem to have given up with little or no resistance. If it had been as easy to hold Lake Champlain as it was to take it, history would have been different. Unfortunate for our country, many bloody battles during the next three years followed this early easy victory.

Historical Quiz #17

Following a historical precedent, Americans determined to conquer Canada, and General Montgomery and Arnold were named, in 1775 for the campaign. All but one of the following events took place.

5)  After a sanguinary battle, General Arnold finally captured the city.

The first, last and only campaign of the Revolution against Canada, failed. Within an ace of taking Quebec, Arnold was unable to deliver the knock-out-punch. The American forces withdrew in the spring, after wintering in Canada. Small pox seriously weakened the American forces, and after a series of unfortunate events they returned to Albany, and the upper forts on Lake Champlain.

British Lord Howe made up his mind to keep communications open and fortify the Hudson. He wanted to meet the army he thought would come down eventually from Canada. All but one of the following happened:

5)  This was the last attempt the British made to take the Hudson

This was only the first, but not the last attempt of the British to take the Hudson. Its strategic position was recognized by both sides. All through the war, the British endeavored to control the river, as did General Washington. In this the only naval battle of the Hudson, early in the campaign, and before the British were firmly established in New York City, the American forces retired, to Spuyten Duyvil in safety.

Joseph Brandt, whose Indians raided our region during the Revolutionary War was all but one of the following:

2)  A brother-in-law of Sir John Johnson

Joseph Brandt of which much has been written, was first, last and always loyal to the elder Johnson, Sir William. Because of the loyalty the Johnson's had for the crown, Brandt was alligned with the British throughout the war. He was not, however, a brother-in-law of Sir John Johnson, though Brandt's sister was Mollie Brandt who lived with Sir William till his death. Brandt was a Mason, and historians have recorded numerous instances in which this affiliation was recorded to his credit.

After the British had occupied New York City in 1775, the Colonial Assembly as it was called, was forced to move, several times. It met in all the following places except one. Which one?

4)  Hudson

The Colonial Assembly had to move "early and often", and while it met in many of the larger Hudson River towns, Hudson was not one of them. Probably the outstanding meeting place was at Kingston, where the state Constitution was adopted, at the Senate House, which today is a museum.

In 1776 Independence having been declared, New York made ready to stem an invasion from Canada, British General Carlton. All but one of the following events occurred:

5)  Arnold was rewarded by the Continental Congress and made commander in chief.

If General Arnold had been properly rewarded for his activities on behalf of the colonies, and recognized for his undeniable talents perhaps the unfortunate betrayal of his country would not have followed. He was side-stepped, however, and sometimes not mentioned as having been the one responsible for successful planning and execution of the plans. Historians today, feel that much mis-management by second rate commanders, was responsible for some of the defeats in the Revolutions. General Washington recognized Arnolds talents and had confidence in him, but Congress did not feel as Washington did in these matters.

Historical Quiz #18

Captain Samuel Van Vechten's Company from Catskill served in what campaign?

3)  With the forces opposing General Carlton in 1776.

Much of the local historical material in these quizzes is taken from Beers' History of Greene County. In this record we find that Capt. Samuel Van Vechten's company was in the campaign of 1776. Considerable detail  is given of the activities of the company, roster of names, list of enlistments, discharges, deaths, desertions, etc. Since the record is not as complete as possible, it is unknown just what other campaigns, if any, this Catskill company was in. Persons having pertinent data which can be substantiated may supply it to this newspaper, as subject matter for a more detailed sketch at a later date.

In 1777 the most important military campaign ever to take place in New York was carried on. This was the famous "Burgoyne Invasion". The invasion plans included all but one of the following:

2)  Sir John Johnson with the Iroquois Indians were to march against and capture Fort Niagara

Fort Niagara was and remained a British base, throughout the war and it was not included in the objectives that needed to be taken. The patriots did not  hold Fort Niagara at any time till the end of hostilities.

There has always been a question as to just why Lord Howe did not carry out his part of the plan, which seemed to be the easiest and most important. The generally accepted belief is:

1)  That the war ministry neglected to advise Lord Howe until it was too late to make adequate preparations.

It is generally supposed that Lord Howe's directives from the British War ministry were pigeonholed, and therefore delayed. When Howe eventually got his directives, the campaign was far advanced, and this doubtless accounts to a great degree for his failure to carry out the extensive campaign up the Hudson. That he did make some attempts will be shown in subsequent quiz questions, but they were inconclusive and ineffectual, so far as any major help to Burgoyne was concerned. Burgoyne withered and died on the vine, so far as help from New York was concerned!

A half mile south of Catskill is a low hill called Kykuit (pronounced cake-out). It was used for what purpose?

3)  As a place for setting warning fires.

The Kykuit (pronounced cake-out) was a hill on which warning fires were lit, it is believed on several occasions, particularly when the British made their raids up the Hudson in 1777. Until recently the Kykuit carried a plaque explaining the purpose to which the hill was put, but the plaque has been removed, and the hill, which is on the left as one drives down Broome Street extension, commands a broad view of the lower Hudson valley.

Major Augustine Prevost, who became a leading citizen and benefactor in Greenville is credited with all but one of the following:

5)  He served on General Washington's staff during the Revolution.

The name of Prevost is honorably remembered in Greenville, but the family were Loyalists, and the Major appears to have served in the Third Royal American Regiment during the French and Indian War, and thereafter to have been on the King's side rather than that of the colonists. Beers' History, from which the information is taken, credits both the Major and his father as being active for the British throughout the Revolutions. The Prevosts came to Greenville after the Revolution.

Historical Quiz #19

When it was finally decided to to Burgoyne's assistance Sir Henry Clinton and his British army in New York did all but one of the following things:


To follow

Historical Quiz #20


To follow

Historical Quiz #21

Earliest settlers in the Cairo area were the Strope family, who lived near Round Top. They were Loyalists, and friendly with the Indians. They are remembered in the locality for one unusual fact:

3) Was it because of his treatment by the Indians?

The Strope family, earliest settlers in the Round Top region of present day Cairo, have an unusual place in local history. Believing the Indians were friendly, Strope returned to his home one day to find the Indians ransacking the place. Both he and his wife protested, and in return both were killed. The Indians sometimes did not differentiate between the scalp of a friend or foe, especially when they had some real or fancied grudge against a particular settler. scalps brought a good price at Niagara.

Frederick Schermerhorn was one of the few young men of our region who was captured by the Indians in 1780 and lived to tell the tale. He reported that all but one of the following befell him:

5) Finally, watching his chance, he escaped and came back to his home.

Frederick Schermerhorn, a relative of Mrs. Strope, was captured at the time of the raid and taken to Canada by the Indians. Being a Loyalist at heart we suppose he had no great aversion to joining the Loyalist forces, since it was not easy to choose the alternative. His saga is an interesting one, but it was after peace was signed that he was discharged. There is no record that he ever attempted to escape once he had enlisted with the British.

Robert R. Livingston, son of the owner of "Clermont House" and the patron of Robert Fulton was one of American's most famous statesmen. He did all but one of the following things:

3) He was in charge of the defense of New Jersey during the Revolutionary War.

Not Robert Livingston, but his eminent brother William became war-time governor of New Jersey and was placed in charge of the defense of the colony. He was of great assistance to Washington in this capacity.

Henry Brockholst Livingston, great-grandson of the First Lord of the Livingston Manor was born in 1757, and had an exciting time during the Revolution. He did all but one of the following things. Which one?

5) He studied law in 1783, after the war, and remained a lawyer the rest of his life.

Henry Brockholst Livingston, a great grandson of the first lord of the Manor, after studying law, eventually became a Justice of the US Supreme Court. There are few families in American history that can boast of so many eminent men. They were part of the life-blood of our Hudson Valley. Many were criticised, especially in the rent-wars, but that they had the interest of the Patriotic cause at heart cannot be doubted.

Even before the end of hostilities, settlers were drifting into the region now known as Greene County. The largest population of these new settlers came from one of the following regions. Which one?

2) Connecticut

Reading Greene County history, and that of the neighboring regions, one can not help but be impressed with the fact that hundreds of persons migrated into this area from Connecticut. The history of all our towns abounds with names of Connecticut settlers. They even gave their place-names to some of the new villages.

Historical Quiz #22

No history of the Catskill region would be complete without reference to the story of David and Anthony Abeel, who lived in the old house known today as "Bak-oven", near Kiskatom. All but one of the events listed happened to them.

3) Both men were forced to run the gauntlet, and nearly killed.

David Abeel was not compelled to run the gauntlet of squaws and young Indians which stoned, pummelled and struck young Anthony, since the Indians spared him this humiliation and pain. Anthony, however, was not injured but lived to spend an active life, back in Catskill. In one the most fascinating stories of our revolutionary history, he and Captain Jeremiah snyder, also a prisone, escaped late at night from prison, and after nearly starving in the Vermont wilderness after their escape, finally got back to Catskill.

After the Revolution, thousands of Loyalists felt much bitterness that they could no longer remain in the colony, under the new government. Large migrations, including whole regiments of Loyalist troops and their families left the country. The largest number of these people went to what place?

1) Nova Scotia

Loyalists in the Valley by the hundreds, shipped down river to New York, and embarked for Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, where they started new settlements. Their descendants are there today. Many historical novels have been written about these people, who felt that the revolution could not and should not succeed. Time has healed the wounds, but many a family today, living in Nova Scotia, got it's start right here in the Hudson Valley.

In 1786 the town of Coxsackie reported a total population of 3288. Those were about evenly divided between men and women, but over 1400 were children under the age of sixteen years of age. Slavery was common in Coxsackie at this time. How many slaves would you estimate there were in Coxsackie in the year 1786.

5) 395

Coxsackie included considerably more territory in 1786 than it does today, but the tabulation for that year stated that there were 395 slaves in the district of which two hundred and nine were males, and one hundred and eighty six were females. More than a quarter of a century later the slaves were freed, in New York State, but many persons owned slaves until 1823.

The mountain called "The Colonel's Chair" is named after which colonel?

4) Colonel William Edwards, born in New Jersey, 1770

The Colonel's Chair, a mountain near Hunter, was named after Colonel William Edwards, who came to the region and was instrumental in its early development. Hunter, at one time was called Edwardsville.

About 1794 several enterprising speculators attempted to do all but one on the following:

4) Were compelled to change the name to "The Landing."

Esperanza never turned out as well as the speculators had hoped. Eventually it became the village of Athens that we know today. The name "The Landing" was not used to designate Esperanza, but was the title used to designate the present site of the Village of Catskill, until almost the end of the eighteenth century. Both Catskill Village and Athens Village were incorporated after the turn of the century.

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