Historical and Statistical
Gazetteer of New York State
Greene County

By J. H. French
1860


Transcribed by Arlene Goodwin


This county was formed from Albany and Ulster, March 25, 1800, and named in honor of Gen. Nathaniel Greene, of the Revolution. Parts were annexed to Ulster co. May 26, 1818. It lies upon the W. bank of the Hudson River, centrally distant 32 mi. from Albany, and contains 686 sq. mi. Its surface is very broken and mountainous. The main range of the Catskill Mts. commences 8 to 10 mi. W. of the Hudson and extends along the S. border of the co. to Delaware co. These mountains are 3000 to 3800 feet above tide. *1( High Peak has an elevation of 3804 feet above tide, Round top 3718 feet, and Pine Orchard 3000 feet. The Catskill Mountain House is situated upon the last named mountain.) the summits are broad, wild, and rocky, and their declivities steep and often precipitous. A branch from the main ridge extends in a N.W. direction through the co., separating the towns of Durham and Cairo from Windham and Hunter and dividing the co. into two nearly equal parts. This ridge is 2500 to 3000 feet above tide. It has a steep and wall-like front on the E. and on the W. it sends off numerous spurs, which extend to the valley of Schoharie Creek. The whole intermediate territory consists of high, rocky ridges separated by narrow valleys. The declivities are generally steep on the N., but more gradual on the S. *2(The N. side of these spurs are generally rocky and bare, and the S. sides covered with vast deposits of drift, indicating that a great current of water from the N. once swept over them. Nearly all the valuable land in this section lies upon the N. side of this valley.) Another branch from the main ridge extends northward through the extreme W. part of the co., between the towns of Halcott and Lexington, and forms the series of highlands that rise upon the W. bank of Schoharie Creek. This range forms the watershed between Schoharie Creek and Delaware River. The E. half of the co. is hilly and broken. An irregular line of bluffs, extends along the Hudson, with an average elevation of about 100 ft. Parallel to these bluffs, and 2 to 4 mi. further W. is a range of hills 500 to 700 ft. above the river. These highlands are known as the Potick Hills in the town of Athens. Between this ridge and the E. foot of the Catskills the surface is moderately hilly, gradually sloping toward Catskill Creek.

The principal streams of the co. are Hudson River, forming its E. border, Schoharie Creek and its tributaries, draining the W. slope of the mountains, and Catskill Creek *3(Named by the Dutch from wild cats found in this vicinity. Kaaters Kil has a similar signification, but is limited to the male animals.) and its principal tributary the Kaaterskil, draining the E. Slope. Small branches of these streams flow through narrow, rocky ravines, which break entirely through the mountains and form passes locally known as "cloves." The principal of these cloves are the Kaaters Kil, opening westward from the Hudson into the valley of Schoharie Creek, and the Bushkil Clove, Stoney Clove, Mink Hollow, and Plattekil Hollow, opening southward from Schoharie Creek into the valleys of Ulster co. In many places these ravines are bordered by naked cliffs, nearly perpendicular, and 1000 to 1700 ft. above the streams. The small streams that drain the W. slope of the range in Halcott from branches of the Delaware. Schoharie Creek rises in the town of Hunter, within 12 mi. of the Hudson, flows W. and N., and forms a branch of the Mohawk. The streams are mostly rapid, and are subject to sudden and violent freshets. The E. slope of the mountain and the outcropping strata of the Catskill and Kaaterskil Creeks present to the geologist one of the most interesting and comprehensive fields of investigation to be found on the continent. Within the distance of 12 mi. from the village of Catskill to the Mountain House may be seen nearly all the strata composing the New York system. The gray grits and conglomerates forming the floor of the coal measures are found 110 ft. deep at the summit of the Pine Orchard. The depth of the whole series, within the 12 mi. referred to, is scarcely less than 4000 feet. Few or no metallic veins or valuable minerals, except building and flagging stone, are found in the co.

The soil on the W. slopes of the Catskill is chiefly a reddish, gravelly or shaly loam extensively underlaid by hardpan. The surface is stony, except upon the river bottoms, where the soil is fertile and productive. North and E. of the mountains the soil is greatly diversified by sections of gravelly, shaly, clayey, and sandy loams; but a stiff clay predominates. Where properly cultivated, it is moderately productive. The whole region is best adapted to grazing; and the principal agricultural exports are butter, cheese, and pressed hay. Oats, barley, and potatoes are extensively cultivated, but, like most of the other eastern course, the grain grown is insufficient for the consumption of the population. The principal manufactured products are brick, leather, and paper. Brick are extensively made on the banks of the Hudson, in Catskill, Athens, and Coxsackie, for the New York market. The co. has a considerable interest in the commerce of the Hudson, but less, perhaps, than it had many years ago. No co. has been more seriously damaged in its commercial and manufacturing prospects by the public works of the State than Greene. Before the Erie Canal was completed, Catskill, the co. seat, commanded the trade of the adjacent cos. W., and of the S. tier through to Lake Erie, and some portions of Northern Penn. It was a large wheat market; and at the falls of Catskill Creek, 3 mi. W. of the village, were the most extensive flouring mills in the State. *1(Of this place Spafford’s Gazetteer (ed. of 1813) says, "Catskill has considerable trade already, and must probably experience a rapid growth as the market town of an extensive back country. At some place in this vicinity, and on the W. bank of the river, future ages will probably find the third, if not the second, city on the Hudson, in wealth, population, and commercial importance.") The canals and railroads have limited the commercial transactions of the co. strictly to home trade. A change scarcely less marked and important has taken place in the industrial pursuits of the mountain towns. About 1817, upon the discovery of improved methods of tanning leather, tanners rushed into the Catskill Mt., purchased large tracts of mountain lands covered with hemlock timber, and erected extensive tanneries. The valleys of Schoharie Creek, Batavia, and West Kils soon teemed with a numerous, active laboring population, and the solitude of the deep mountain glens was made vocal by the hum of industry, the buzz of the waterwheel, and the rattling of machinery. Villages of considerable magnitude, with churches, schools, stores, and taverns, rose up in the wilderness as if by magic. Thirty years ago Greene co. made more leather than all of the State beside. The supply of bark in this region was soon exhausted, and the proprietors gradually abandoned their establishments and followed the mountain chain S., erecting new factories in Ulster and Sullivan cos.; and their successors are now pursuing the hemlock into the heart of the Alleganies. The result of all this was to facilitate the occupation of the lands in the mountain towns, and in many cases to carry cultivation to the summits of the most lofty ranges, thereby opening one of the finest dairy and wool growing regions in the State.

The county seat is located at Catskill, on the Hudson. *2(Ira Day, Isaac Dubois, Orin Day, Joseph Klein, Ezra Hawley, and Lyman Hall, having executed to the supervisors a bond, under a penalty of $16,000, to procure a lot and build a courthouse, and act was passed May 26, 1812, allowing the judges to accept the premises when completed. Courts were previously held at the academy, and the prisoners confined in Albany co. jail.) The first courthouse was a wood building, erected under act of May 26, 1812. *3(The first co. officers were Leonard Bronk, First Judges; Ebenezer Foot, District Attorney; James Bill, Co. Clerk; George Hale, Sheriff; John H. Cuyler, Surrogate.) Some years since, this building was burned, and a new brick edifice was soon after erected in its place. It contains the court and jury rooms, and district attorney and co. clerk’s offices. A stone jail was erected in 1804, and a fireproof clerk’s office in 1812. The co. poorhouse is located on a farm of 130 acres in Cairo, 10 mi. W. of Catskill. The farm yields a revenue of $900. It has an average of 130 inmates, supported at a weekly expense of $.75 each. A school is taught in the house most of the year. The condition and adaptation of the building, and the management of the building, and the management of the inmates, are not thought creditable to the co. authorities.

Six weekly news papers are published in the co. *4( The Catskill Packet, the first paper in the co., was published prior to 1800.

The Catskill Recorder was started in 1801 by Mackey Croswell. In 1817 Edwin Croswell assumed its control and continued it until 1822. In 1827 it was published by Field & Faxton, and in 1828 it was issued as

The Catskill Recorder and Greene Co. Republican, by Faxton, Elliott & Gates. In 1849 it was united with The Democrat, and issued as:

The Catskill Recorder and Democrat, under which name it is still published by Joseph Josebury.

The American Eagle was published at Catskill 1810 by N. Elliott & Co.

The Greene and Delaware Washington was commenced at Catskill in 1814, by Michael J. Kappel. In 1816 was changed to:

The Middle District Gazette, and published by W. L. Stone.

The Greene Co. Republican was established at Catskill in Nov. 1826, by ___Hyer, in 1827 it was sold to Ralph Johnson; in 1828, to C. Hull; and in 1829 in was merged in The Catskill Recorder.

The Catskill Messenger was started in 1830, by Ira Dubois. It was subsequently issued by Wm. Bryan, C. H. Cleveland, and Trowbridge & Gunn. In 1849 it was changed to: the Green Co. Whig; and in 1857 to:

The Catskill Examiner, by which name it is now published.

The Catskill Democrat was started in 1843, by Joseph Josebury, and in 1849 it was united with The Recorder.

The American Eagle was started at Prattsville in 1854 by E. & H. Baker, who removed it to Catskill the same year. In 1855 its name was changed to:

The Banner of Industry, and published by Jas. H. Van Gorden. In 1857 it was sold to Henry Baker, by whom it is now published as: The Catskill Democratic Herald.

The Greene Co. Advertiser was started at Coxsackie in 1832, and published for a time by Henry Van Dyck. In 1836 it was changed to:

The Standard, and published by Thomas B. Carroll. It was subsequently issued a short time as: The Coxsackie Standard.

The Coxsackie Union was established in 1851 by Fred. W. Hoffman, In Jan. 1857 it passed into the hands of D. M. & B. S. Slater, by whom it is still published.

The Prattsville Bee was started in 1852.

The Baptist Library was started at Prattsville in 1843 by L. L. & R.H. Hill. In 1845 it was removed to Lexington.

The Prattsville Advocate was established by John L. Hackstaff in 1846, and was discontinued in 1858.

The Mountaineer was published at Prattsville in 1853 by Chas. H. Cleveland.

The Windham Journal was started in Windham Center, March 21, 1857, by W. B. Steele.

The Athens Visitor was commenced in 1858 by R. Denton.)

More than two centuries have elapsed since the settlements in the valley of the Hudson commenced at various points between New York and Albany. It was 150 years later when a few, small isolated settlements were made in the valleys of the streams in the interior of Green co. The great Hardenburgh Patent, granted by Queen Anne, covered nearly all of that portion of the co. lying W. of the mountains. The N. Line of this grant commenced at the headwaters of the Kaaters Kil, being the head of the upper lake at Pine Orchard, and ran a N. W. course to the headwaters of the W. branch of the Delaware, in Stamford, Delaware co. This line was run at three different periods, near the close of the last century, by three different surveyors, no two of them agreeing by the width of whole farms. This disagreement has proved a prolific source of litigation in the courts of the State for 50 years. The patent included all that part of Delaware co. lying E of the W. branch of Delaware River, and nearly all of Ulster and Sullivan cos. When the settlements commenced, the tract was owned by a great number of individuals, who had purchased by townships. At an early period, Stephen Day (from Conn.) purchased a large tract in Greene co., embracing a considerable portion of the old town of Windham, now forming the towns of Windham, Ashland, Jewett, and a portion of Lexington and Hunter. This tract was principally settled by immigrants from Connecticut.

Ashland—named from the home of Henry Clay—was formed from Windham and Prattsville, March 23, 1848. It lies in the N.W. part of the co. Its N. and S. borders are occupied by two parallel spurs of the Catskill Mts., 800 to 1000 ft. above the valley. Batavia Kil flows westward through the town at the foot of the S. range. This stream is bordered upon the N. by steep bluffs 150 to 200 ft. high; and from their summits the surface gradually slopes upward to the S. foot of the N. ridge near the N. border of the town. Lewis Creek and several smaller streams are tributaries of Batavia Kil. About two-thirds of the land in the town is improved. Ashland, (p.v.,) on Batavia Kil, in the S. part of the town, contains 2 churches and a collegiate institute *1(the Ashland Collegiate Institute was founded in 1854, under the care of M. E. denomination. The present number of boarding pupils (1858) is 100). Pop. 400. East Ashland is a hamlet. The first settlement was made in the valley of Batavia Kil, previous to the Revolutionary War, by a few Dutch families from Schoharie co. During the war, being harassed by the Indians, and tories, the settlers returned to Schoharie co. The first permanent settlement was made in 1788, by Elisha Strong and several brothers named Stimpson. *2(Among the early settlers were Agabus White, John Tuttle, Jairus Strong, Solomon Ormsbee, Dr. Thomas Benham, and Medad Hunt, most of whom were from Connecticut. The first birth was that of Deborah Stone, in 1789. Sandford Hunt kept the first store, and Medad Hunt the first inn, in 1795. Ex. Gov. Washington Hunt, son of Sandford Hunt, was born in this town. There are 6 churches in town. *3(3 M. E., Prot. E., Presb. and R. C.)

Athens—was formed from Catskill and Coxsackie, Feb. 25, 1815. It is situated on the Hudson, near the center of the E. border of the co. Its surface is broken by several rocky hills and ridges lying parallel with the Hudson, with uneven or undulating intervals between. A range of high clay bluffs borders upon the river; and a high rocky ridge, known as Potick Hill, extends through the W. part of the town. Several small streams flow southerly through the town, and Potick Creek forms its W. line. In the W. part of town are 3 small lakes. In their vicinity, 4 or 5 mi. W. of the Hudson, are extensive beds of the Helderbergh limestone, large quantities of which are quarried for building purposes and for the manufacture of lime. Near the river the soil is a tough clay, bordered by sand; elsewhere it is a sandy and gravelly loam of a good quality. Brick and lime are the principal articles manufactured, and these, with hay, from the exports of the town. Athens, *4(Formerly called "Loonenburgh" and "Esperanza." The steamer Swallow, on her way to New York with a large number of passengers, was wrecked in the river opposite this place on the evening of April 7, 1845, and about 20 persons were lost—Senate Dec., No. 102, 1845) (p.v.) incorp. April 2, 1805, is situated on the Hudson, opposite the city of Hudson. Pop. 1747. The E. part of the town was settled at a very early period by immigrants from Holland. *5(A tannery was erected in 1750,by Nicholas Perry.) There are 5 churches in town. *6(Bap., Friends, Luth., Prot. E., and Ref. Prot. D.)

Cairo—was formed from Catskill, Coxsackie, and "Freehold," (now Durham,) March 2, 1803, as "Canton" and its name was changed April 6, 1808. It is situated at the E. foot of the Catskill Mts., the crest of the mountain forming its W. boundary. Its central and E. parts are broken by several high, rocky ridges. Round top, also called the Dome Mountain, is a rocky, isolated hill 500 ft. high. The Catskill Creek flows S. E. through the town, and receives from the N. John Debackers Creek and Platte Kil, and from the S. Shingle and Hagel Kils. The soil is a clayey, gravelly, and shaly loam, fertile in the valleys and of medium quality among the hills. Cairo, (p.v.,) situated near the center of town, on the Old Susquehanna Turnpike, contains 4 churches and several manufacturing establishments. Pop. 353. Acra, (p.o.) in the W., S. Cairo, (p.o.) and Cairo Forge, about 1 mi. S. of Cairo, are hamlets. Settlements were made on the Shingle Kil previous to the Revolution. *7(A Family by the name of Streobe, living on the Shingle Kil, were murdered by the Indians during the war.) A Presb. Church was organized May 22, and a Bap. May 25, 1799. There are 7 churches in town. *8(3 M.E. Bap., Presb., Prot E., and Union).

Catskill--*1(Great Imbocht District, including this town, was formed March 24, 1772.) was formed March 7, 1788, as part of Albany co. It was annexed to Ulster co. April 5, 1798. A part of Woodstock (Ulster co.) was annexed March 25, 1800; a part of Cairo was taken off in 1803 and a part of Athens in 1815. It lies upon the Hudson, in the S. E. Corner of the co. The surface is broken by several rocky ridges parallel to the Hudson; these ridges are principally composed of shales and gray grit. In the later formation are extensive quarries, from which a fine quality of flagging stone is obtained and largely exported. A swamp, covering an area of several hundred acres, extends along the Hudson below Catskill Village. The Catskill Creek flows S. E. through the N. E. corner to the Hudson, and receives the Kaaters Kil after the latter has pursued an irregular course through the center and S. W. part of town. The other streams are Kiskatom Creek, and Jan Vosent Kil. The soil is principally tenacious clay, with sections of gravelly and shaly loam. Hay is the principal agricultural export. Large quantities of brick are manufactured and exported. Catskill Village being the chief entrepot for the co., commerce forms one of the leading pursuits of the people. Catskill, (p.v.,) the co. seat, was incorp. March 14, 1806. It is situated on the Hudson, at the mouth of Catskill Creek. It contains 5 churches, 3 newspaper offices, 2 banks, and a large number of mercantile and manufacturing establishments. Pop. 2520. Leeds, (p.v.) situated at the falls on Catskill Creek, contains 2 churches and several manufactories. Pop. 450. Palenville, (p.v.) on the Kaaters Kil, in the W. part of the town, contains 2 tanneries, a woolen factory, and 18 dwellings. Kiskatom is a p.o. Settlements were made upon the banks of the Hudson, at a very early period, by immigrants from Germany. The flats in the valley of Catskill Creek W. of Leeds were first settled by Martin G. Van Bergen and Sylvester Salisbury, who in 1677 purchased the Indian title to an extensive tract. There are 9 churches in town. *2(2 M. E., 2 Ref. Prot. D., Bap., Presb., Prot. E., and Union.) The Catskill Mountain House is one the line of Hunter. See page 333.

Coxsackie, *3(Pron. Cook-sock’ey.) Derived from an Indian word signifying "Owl-hoot.") was formed, as a district, March 24, 1772, and as a town, March 7, 1788. Durham was taken off in 1790, a part of Cairo and Greenville in 1803, New Baltimore in 1811, and a part of Athens in 1815. It lies upon the Hudson, N. E. of the center of the co. A range of clay bluffs about 100 ft. high extends along the course of the river, and a range of hills 500 ft. high through the center of the town. The surface is level or undulating in the E. and is hilly and broken in the W. The principal streams are the Coxsackie, Potick, and Jan Vosent Creeks. The soil in the E. is clayey and sandy, and in the W. It is a gravelly, shaly, and clayey loam. Brickmaking is extensively pursued. Coxsackie, (p.v.) situated near the Hudson, contains 6 churches and academy, a newspaper office, a bank, several manufactories. *4(Shipbuilding was largely carried on at the lower landing near this place; and several of the early Hudson River steamboats were built here.) Pop. 1,800. Coxsackie Landing is 1 mi. E. of the village. Jacksonville, in the W. part, is a hamlet. The Dutch settled in town about 1652, on a tract about 6 mi. sq. purchased of the Indians. There are 8 churches in town. *5(2 Ref. Prot. D., 2 M. E., Prot E., R. C., Union and Af. M. E.)

Durham—was formed from Coxsackie as "Freehold," March 8, 1790, and its name was changed March 28, 1795. Parts of Cairo and Greenville were taken off in 1803. It lies near the center of the N. border of the co. Its surface is hilly and broken, the N. E. corner being occupied by the S. slopes of the Helderbergh Mts., and the W. border by the Catskills. The principal streams are Catskill Creek, flowing S. E. through the E. part, and its tributaries Fall, Bowery, Posts, and Brink Street Creeks. The soil is generally a heavy clay, with occasional sections of gravel. There are several mills and tanneries on Catskill Creek, which stream affords a fair amount of water power. Oak Hill, (p.v.) on Catskill Creek, has pop. of 320. Durham, (p.v.) 1 mil W. of Oak Hill, contains 2 churches and 30 houses, East Durham (p.v.) 17 houses, Cornwallville, (p.v.) in the central part of the town, 15 houses, and South Durham (p.v.) 10 houses. Centerville is a hamlet. The settlement of the town was commenced in 1776. Capt. Asahel Jones and Rozel Post, from Conn., settled in 1788. *6(Mr. De Witt built the first gristmill, in 1788, and Jared Smith the first sawmill, about the same time.) There are 7 churches in town. *7(2 Cong., 2 M. E., Bap., Presb., and Prot. E.)

Greenville—was formed from Coxsackie and "Freehold," (now Durham) March 26, 1803, and "Greenfield." Its name was changed to "Freehold" in 1808, and to Greenville, March 17, 1809. It lies on the N. border of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is hilly,--the southern extremity of the Helderbergh Mts. Occupying the central and W. parts of town. The principal streams are Potick, John Debackers, and Basic Creeks. The soil is chiefly a heavy, clay loam, well adapted to grazing; but much of it has been exhausted by too frequent croppings with hay. About 1 mi. W. of Greenville Center is a sulphur spring. Greenville, (p.v.,) N. of the center of the town, contains 3 churches, The Greenville Academy, and 35 homes; Freehold, (p.v.,) in the S. W. part, 1 church and 24 houses; Norton Hill, (p.v.) in the N. W. part, 16 houses; Greenville Center 15; and East Greenville 1 church and 10 houses. Gay Head is a p. office. In 1768 the British Government granted 2 patents—one for 2000 and one for 5000 acres, located together in the W. part of town—to Major Augustine Prevost, of the 6th British infantry, who served in this country during the Old French War. *1(Major Prevost erected a fine mansion on one of these tracts, a little W. of the village of Greenville, in which he resided until his death.) Stephen Lantiman, Godfrey Brandow, and Hans Overpaugh, who settled in the town in 1774, were among the earliest settlers. *2(Abraham Post, Eleazar Knowles, Bethuel Hinman, Peter Curtis, and Edward Lake, from Conn., settled in the town in 1783. David Hickock and Davis Denning erected the first gristmill, in 1785.) There are 7 churches in town. *3(2 Bap., 2 M. E., Prot. E., Presb., and Christian.)

Halcott—was formed from Lexington, Nov. 19, 1851, and named from George W. Halcott, then sheriff of Greene co. It is situated in the S. W. corner of the co., and is separated from the other towns of the co., by a mountain ridge 1000 feet high. This ridge is crossed by difficult and unfrequented roads. A considerable portion of the territory is covered with forest. The surface is mountainous, comprising four valleys, in which rise the sources of the E. branch of the Delaware. The soil is chiefly a gravelly loam of medium quality, and stony, but is well adapted to grazing. From it isolated position among the mountains. *4(Wild game is still found in the mountains and the pure, limpid streams abound in trout.) The chief avenue of communication with the outside world is on the S., by way of Middletown, Delaware co. West Lexington (p.o.) is in the central part of the town. The first settlement was made on the Bush Kil, in 1790, by Reuben Crysler, ____Thurston, Joseph Brooks, and Timothy Tyler. *5(Ralph Coe and Henry Hosford built the first sawmill, in 1820. Ralph Coe kept the first inn, and Henry Hamican the first store. There is now no tavern, lawyer, nor doctor in town.) There are 2 churches in town; O. S. Bap, and M. E.

Hunter--*6(Named from John Hunter, an early proprietor of a part of the Hardenbaugh Patent.) was formed from Windham as "Greenland," Jan. 27, 1813. Its name was changed April 15, 1814, a part of Saugerties was taken off in 1814, and a part of Jewett in 1849. The surface is rocky and mountainous, not more than one-fourth being susceptible of cultivation. Several of the highest peaks of the Catskills—among which are High Peak, Round Top, and Pine Orchard—lie within the town. *7(The Catskill Mountain House, upon Pine Orchard, is situated upon a precipice overlooking the Hudson, and 2212 feet above tide. It was built by the Catskill Mountain Assoc’n, at a cost of $22,000, for the accommodation of visitors. Among the hills, ½ mile. W. of the house are 2 small lakes, each 1 /2 mi. in circumference, --their outlet forming the Kaaters Kil. Upon this stream, a little below the lakes, are the Kaaters Kil Falls, where the stream plunges down a perpendicular descent of 175 ft., and in a few rods, another of 85 ft., falling into a deep, rocky ravine or clove, and finally finding its way into Catskill Creek. The views from the Mountain House, and the scenery among the mountains, are among the finest in the country, and the place is visited annually by thousands of tourists.) Two narrow valleys extend quite through the mountains and cross each other at nearly right angles near the center of town. The first of these is the valley of Schoharie and Stony Clove. The soil is generally a heavy, clayey and shaly loam, very stony, and poorly adapted to agriculture. Hunter, (p.v.,) situated on Schoharie Creek, in the N. W. part of the town, contains 2 churches and several manufacturing establishments. Pop. 393. Tannersville, near the center, is a p. office. Settlement were made during the Revolution, by "Cowboys" from Putnam co. Their property was confiscated by the Whigs. *8(Samuel, Elisha and John Haines, and Gershon Griffin, entered the mountains by way of Kingston and Mink Hollow, and settled on Schoharie Kil. Their locations was discovered a year or two after by some Dutchmen from the E. side of the mountain, while hunting bears. They were followed, in 1786, by a number of Shay’s followers, from Mass., who, on the suppression of this rebellion, fled to the mountains. James and Jacob Carl settled in the town in 1785; Saml. Merritt, and Saml. and Wm. Hayes, in 1791. Roger Bronson was the first settler at the village of Hunter. The first birth was that of John Haines. Mr. Olmsted built the first gristmill, in 1794, and subsequently the first tannery, and kept the first store and inn.) Col. Wm. W. Edwards and his son Wm. W., from Northampton, Mass., moved into town in July, 1817, and erected the first extensive tannery in the State in which the then new method of tanning was adopted. Within a few years after, other tanneries were built, and a very large amount of leather was made in the town annually for a long series of years, until the hemlock bark was exhausted. Most of the establishments are now abandoned. There are 3 churches in town; Presb., M. E., and R. C.

Jewett—was formed from Lexington and Hunter, Nov. 14, 1849. It lies near the center of the W. half of the co. Its surface is principally occupied by high and rocky spurs extending W. from the principal N. branch of the Catskills. A high and almost precipitous ridge extends along the S. W. border of the town. Schoharie Creek and it tributary East Kil are the principal streams. The soil is a heavy, reddish, gravelly loam of medium quality, often stony and rocky, and largely underlaid by a tough hardpan. Jewett, *9(Formerly called "Lexington Heights.") (p.v.,) in the N. W. part of the town, contains 2 churches and 14 houses. Jewett Center, at the junction of East Kil and Schoharie Creek, and East Jewett are p. offices. The first settlement was made near Schoharie Creek in 1783-84, by Wm. Glass, a Scotchman. *1(Zephaniah Chase, from Marthas Vineyard, (Mass.) settled in the town in 1787; and Chester Hull, from Wallingford, Conn., a soldier of the Revolution, in 1789. Among those who settled soon after were Zadock Pratt, Theop. and Sam. Peck, Eb’r David, and Stephen Johnson, Laban, Ichabod, Abraham, and Amherst Andrews, Benajah, John and Jared Rice, Henry Goslee, Justus Squires, Daniel Miles, Adnah Beach, Isaac and Munson Buel, Gideon, Reuben and Joel Hosford, and Samuel and Daniel Mervin. The first birth was that of Henry Cosless, Jr. Wm. Glass kept the first inn, in 1790, Elisha Thompson the first store in 1795, and Laban Andrews built the first gristmill the same year.) There are 4 churches in town; 3 M. E. and Presb.

Lexington—was formed from Windham as "New Goshen," Jan. 27, 1813, and its name was changed March 19, 1813. A part of Jewett was taken off in 1849, but reannexed on 1858, and a part of Halcott was taken off in 1851. It lies on the S. border on the co., W. of the center. More than one-half of the surface is occupied by the lofty peaks and ridges of the Catskills. Schoharie Creek, flowing through the N. E. corner of the town, is bordered by high and steep rocky ridges. West Kil, its principal tributary, drains a valley 9 mi. in length, everywhere bordered by lofty mountains except on the W. Bush Kil Clove is a natural pass in the mountains, extending from the Schoharie Valley S. into Ulster co. The soil is a slaty and gravelly loam. Only about two-fifths of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. Lexington, (p.v.,) on Schoharie Creek, N. of the center of the town, contains 2 churches and 27 dwellings, and West Kill (p.v.) 1 church and 31 dwellings. Bushnellsville is a p.o. on the line of Ulster co. The first settlement was made in 1788, on the flats of Schoharie Kil. *2(Among the early settlers were Amos Bronson, Saml. Amos, Richard Peck, David and Benj. Bailey, and Benj. Crispell. John T. Bray built the first tannery, in 1791 or ’92; Thaddeus Bronson the first gristmill, in 1792; and Richard Peck opened the first inn, in 1795) There are 3 churches in town; 2 Bap. and M. E.

New Baltimore—was formed from Coxsackie, March 15, 1811. Scutters, Little and Willow Islands were annexed for Kinderhook April 23, 1823. It lies upon the Hudson, in the N. E. corner of the co. The general surface is hilly and broken. A line of high, rugged clay and slate bluffs rises from the river to a height of 100 to 200 feet, and a range of high, broad hills extends S. through the center of the town. The W. part is comparatively level. The principal streams are Hanakrois Creek in the N. W. corner, Deep Clove Kil, Cabin Run, and the E. branch of the Potick Creek. Nearly all these streams flow through narrow and rocky ravines. The soil is chiefly a heavy, clay loam, with limited patches of sand and gravel. New Baltimore, (p.v.,) on the Hudson in the N. part of the town, contains 2 churches, and has a pop. of 709. Medway is a p. office. Settlement was commenced upon the Coxsackie flats at an early period. The Broncks, Houghtalings, and Conyns were among the first settlers. There are 9 churches in town. *3(3 Friends, 2 M. E., Bap., Christian, Ref. Prot. D., and Prot. Meth.)

Prattsville—was formed from Windham, March 8, 1833, and named from Col. Zadock Pratt. A part of Ashland was taken off in 1848. It is the N. W. corner town of the co. Its surface is principally occupied by broad mountain uplands bordered by steep and rocky slopes. Schoharie Creek and Batavia Kil flow through wild and narrow mountain gorges. The soil is a heavy, reddish, gravelly and clayey loam. Moderately fertile and profitable only for grazing. Prattsville, (p.v.,) on Schoharie Kil W. of the center of town, contains 3 churches and several manufactories. *4(At this place, at the extensive tannery of the Hon., Zadock Pratt, 60,000 sides of sole leather were tanned and 6,000 cords of bark consumed annually for 25 years.) Pop. 617. Red Falls, (p.v.,) on Batavia Kil, contains a cotton factory, a paper mill, and several other manufacturing establishments. Pop. 231. Settlements were made on the flats at Prattsville by Dutch immigrants from Schoharie co., during the period between the close of the Old French War in 1763 and the breaking out of the Revolution in 1776. *5(Among the first settlers were John Laraway and his sons, John, Jonas, Derick, and Martinus. Isaac Van Alstyne, _____Vrooman, John and Peter Van Loan, John Becker, and a family by the name of Schoonmaker. The first school was taught by Mr. Banks, in 1790. Martinus Laraway kept the first inn, soon after the Revolution, and, with his brother John, erected the first gristmill.) During the latter war the settlement was attacked by a body of Indians and tories led by a British officer. The inhabitants rallied, and a battle took place upon the bank of Schoharie Kil, a little below the Windham Turnpike Bridge, N. of the village, in which the Indians and their allies were routed. Rev. Cornelius D. Schermerhorn was the first settled preacher. There are 3 church in town; Ref. Prot. D., Port. E., and M. E.

Windham—was formed from Woodstock, (Ulster co.,) as part of Ulster co., March 23, 1798. "Greenland" (now Hunter) and Lexington were taken off in 1813, Prattsville in 1833, and a part of Ashland in 1848. A part of "Freehold" (now Durham) was annexed March 26, 1803. It lies upon the W. declivities of the Catskills, N. W. of the center of the co. Its surface is very broken and hilly. A high range of mountains extends along the S. border, at he N. foot of which flows Batavia Kil, *6(The Indian name of this stream was Chough-tig-hig-nick.) in a deep, rocky valley. The central and N. parts are occupied by mountains spurs divided by narrow ravines. The soil is a heavy, gravelly and clayey loam, of which disintegrated shale forms a large part. Windham Center, (p.v.,) on Batavia Kil, in the W. part of the towns, contains 3 churches, and has a pop. of 350. Hensonville, (p.v.,) on the same stream, S. of the center of town, contains 124 inhabitants, and Big Hollow, (p.v.,) in the S. part, 2 churches and 12 houses. East Windham and Union Society are p. offices. The first settlement was made in 1790, by Geo. Stimpson, Abijah Stone, and Increase Claffin. *1(Perez Steel and his son Perez, from Tolland, Conn., settled in town in 1795, and Joshua Jones, Wm. Henderson, and Lemuel Hitchcock (from New Haven co., Conn.) in 1796. The first marriage was that of Daniel Perry and Mamva Hitchcock; and the first death was that of Mrs. Lemuel Hitchcock, in 1804. Nathan Blanchard taught the first school, in 1809; Tobias van Duesen built the first gristmill, in 1793; Peter Van Orden kept the first inn, in 1796; and Bennett Osborn built the first tannery, in 1822.) Ref. Henry Stimpson was one of the earliest settled ministers. There are 5 churches in town. *2(2 Presb. 2 M. E., and Prot. E.)

Acres of Land, Valuation , Population, Dwellings, Families, Freeholders, Schools, Live Stock, Agricultural Products, and Domestic Manufactures, of Greene County.

Names of Towns

Acres of Land

Valuation of 1858

Population

     

Schools

 

I
M
P
R
O
V
E
D

U
N
I
M
P
R
O
V
E
D

R
E
A
L

E
S
T
A
T
E

P  P
E  R
R O
S  P
O E
N R
A T
L  Y

T
O
T
A
L

M
A
L
E

F
E
M
A
L
E

No.

Of

D
W
E
L
L
I
N
G
S

No.

Of

F
A
M
I
L
I
E
S

F
R
E
E
H
O
L
D
E
R
S

No.   Of

D
I
S
T
R
I
C
T
S

C   T
H  A
I    U
L   G
D  H
R   T
E
N

Ashland

9,846 ½

4,198

$135,080

$9,500

$144,580

555

584

217

235

140

7

503

Athens

10,351 ½

4502 ½

499,308

54,050

553,358

1,470

1,400

438

551

343

7

1,046

Cairo

22,541

10,982

555,377

88,175

643,552

1,290

1,267

448

478

341

15

827

Catskill

19,146 ½

17,613

1,437,035

532,312

1,969,347

2,812

2,898

930

1,094

544

19

2,020

Coxsackie

17,698 ¼

4,516

782,710

165,334

948,044

1,891

1,791

592

603

432

13

1,354

Durham

20,273 ¼

5,855

394,145

68,300

462,455

1,239

1,301

482

491

393

15

935

Greenville

20,273 ¾

5,535 ½

580,315

70,632

650,947

1,088

1,085

415

450

342

16

909

Halcott

7,137

4,007

84,775

9,900

94,675

246

228

86

89

79

4

207

Hunter

10,264 7/8

40,456 ½

135,395

10,642

146,037

833

761

258

276

207

12

735

Jewett

15,167

10,468 ¾

136,200

25,620

161,820

578

551

205

220

176

10

491

Lexington

14,727 ¾

21,600

227,539

41,150

268,689

788

807

319

217

235

11

601

New Baltimore

18,279 ¼

6,124 ¼

804,599

103,820

908,429

1,248

1,154

425

455

306

15

865

Prattsville

8,784

4,854

11,200

29,250

140,450

746

842

267

290

225

8

665

Windham

14,840 ¼

9,892

244,283

41,100

285,358

807

877

327

258

188

12

531

Totals

212,223 7/8

150,604 ½

$6,127,961

$1,249,795

$7,377,756

15,591

15,546

5,409

5,707

3,951

161

11,869

 

Names of Towns

Live Stock

Agricultural Products

Bush, of Grain Daily Products

Domestic

Cloth in yards





Horses

Working

Oxen &

Calves

Cows

Sheep

Swine

Winter

Spring

Tons of

Hay

Bushels

Of

Potatoes

Bushels

Of

Apples

Pounds

Butter.

Pounds

Cheese

 

Ashland

251

897

727

962

487

1,935 ½

12,252

2,344 ½ 1

7,524

11,366

69,815

1,025

283

Athens

393

349

509

164

886

4,280 ½

23,373

4,493 ½

5,099

10.935

42,776

300

262 ½

Cairo

714

998

1,040

1,069

1,663

13,804 ½

27,991

4,350

8,254

22,771

96,675

937

1,114

Catskill

713

910

1,076

1,615

1,723

12,538 ½

39,337 ½

7,592

9,245

15,153

90,720

 

617

Coxsackie

635

523

791

397

1,565

8,705 ½

36,091 ¼

6,699

17,009

18,318

83,735

 

590

Durham

745

1,299

1,352

3,507

2,244

7,064

35,087 ¼

3,998

5, 821 ½

25,805

121,917

6,876

711 ½

Greenville

698

741

1,051

1,779

1,443

7,665 ½

37,193

6,067

5,679

25,703

109,906

2,079

1,011

Halcott

152

496

526

1,390

200

830

11,917

1,907

1,348

2,490

60,916

50

1,164

Hunter

192

1,019

605

1,205

286

870

3,610

2,495 ¾

8,264

2,504 ½

52,311

130

584

Jewett

236

1,401

1,163

1,869

467

1,869

8,978

3,391

5,864 ½

13,611

113,520

4,928

146

Lexington

354

1,657

1,144

2,013

591

2,449

13,176 ¾

4,468

6,092

13,128

105,290

1,285

779

New Baltimore

610

517

991

1,248

1,569

12,471 ½

35,093 ½

5,498 ½

21,789

19,361

90,589

 

720 ½

Prattsville

239

680

750

608

384

2,075

5,461 ½

1,834

3,536

3,380

73,780

50

385

Windham

271

1,160

867

1,556

566

2,019 ½

11,651 ½

3,386

10,536

8,253

79,980

3,657

244

Totals

6,203

12,647

12,592

19,382

14,074

79,578

301,213 ¼

58,524 ¼

116,871

192,814 ½

1,191,930

21,317

8,611 ½



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