Early Dutch Records
Light On the History of Kingston of Long Ago
How Two Citizens Fought Over the Work of a Pig.
The Raines Law of Two Centuries Ago.
From the Kingston Daily Freeman
July 29, 1897
Transcribed by Arlene Goodwin
It appears that sometimes the Kingston people shipped merchandise to distant points. The following entry, though not executed, points to this fact, and seems to show that even at this early date the Kingston merchants were bent upon getting some share, at least of the world’s commerce:
"Appeared before me W. Lamontagne, Secretary of the hon. court at Kingston, in America, and the after-named witnesses, Dirck Jansen Van Deventer, owner of his sloop named the ‘N. Yorck’ and Balthazar Stuyvesant, who declares having agreed in the following manner: The aforesaid Dirck Jansen declares having leased his sloop named ‘De Eendracht,’ and to employ on the same five sailors and a boy, for the purpose of sailing with the help of Almighty God to Curacao. (This island was and still is a Dutch possession in the West Indies.) For which Balthazar Stuyvesant is to pay for every month for the use of the said yacht and the aforesaid sailors the amount of hundred and thirty pieces of eight in good silver money. But the aforesaid Dirck Jansen will have to risk all the danger of the sea, and also pirates, privateers, or whatever else there should be. And the aforesaid Stuyvesant shall furnish at N. Yorck sufficient security for the yacht of said Dirck Jansen that it will be secured against the Holland ships after it shall have, with the will of Almighty God, arrived at Curacao. Parties promising to comply with the foregoing under obligations as per law, in the presence of me, W. Montagne and the Skipper Jan Potters."
Besides renting farms, lands, houses and other real estate, it was customary in those days to also rent cattle with them, and sometimes it even occurred that cattle was without any real estate going with it, as the following entry seems to show:
"Appeared before me W. Lamontagne, Secretary for the hon. court at Kingston, and the below named witnesses, Lambert Huyberson, who promises to pay to the Heer Petrus Stuyvesant a quantity of fifty sch. of wheat for the use of five horses during one year, and further for the use of two cows during one year ten sch. of wheat. Further Lambert Huybertson promises to pay for a cow which has died twenty-five sch. of wheat, which before named amounts Lambert Huybertsen promises to pay next spring."
The scarcity of ready money in those early days was so great that not only wheat and other grains, beaver skins and cattle were made use of as mediums of exchange, but even liquor, as appears from the following:
"Appeared before me, etc., Thomas Hermansen, who declares having sold and Reynier VanderCoelen, (who declares) having bought a certain house and lot and everything fixed by nail and fastened in the ground on the same. The lot as large as the same is at present surrounded by its fence. For which house and lot VanderCoelen promises to pay a quantity of twenty-two anckers of good merchantable distilled waters, to be delivered in four installments, viz.: on December 1st next, five anckers, and two months afterward again six anckers. And again on the 1st of December, a year after the first installment, five anckers more, and then for the last installment again six anckers, and then Thomas Hermans is obliged to grant a free and unencumbered conveyance."
A few weeks after Lambert Huybertsen had rented the horses and cows of Stuyvesant, he in partnership with Gerrit Cornelissen, bought of Gommert Poiulus "six cows and a calf, for which (they) promise to pay the quantity of two hundred forty schepels of good, clean winter wheat, to be delivered in the middle of next March, 1671," nearly a year after the purchase, which took place on April 10, 1670.
Several merchants and capitalists of New Amsterdam had dealings with their countrymen at Wildwyck. Sometimes those transactions consisted in advancing moneys on lands, houses, cattle or crops, to the farmers; at other times in supplying merchandise to the merchants or material to the manufacturers and other business men. In this connection the names of some New Amsterdammers like Nicolaes and Wilhem DeMaer, Jeonimus Ebbingh, Petrus Stuyvesant, Balthzsar DeHardt and Asser Levy, a dealer in horses and cattle, appear quite often in the records, and transactions like the following one often took place:
"Appeared before me, etc., Matthys Matthysen, who acknowledges to really and actually owe to Asser Levy a quantity of 72 schepels of clean winter wheat, origination from a mare, which said Matthys Matthysen has bought of Asser Levy, whereof he is to pay next fall, at the favorable time, while the sloops can still sail, a just one-half of the said quantity, and the other half of said seventy sch. in the month of April or with the first sloops in 1671, to be delivered free at the Roudout on the bank."
Another dealer in live stock was Skipper Jan Poppen, of whom Thomas Hermans Brouwer, on August 11th, 1670, bought five mares and three colts, for which Brouwer was to pay three hundred and four sch. of wheat in two installments, the last one to be delivered before August 11th, 1671, at Kingston.
The building of bridges in those days does not seem to have been a public function, but appears to have been left to the initiative of those having a pecuniary interest in their maintenance, as will appear for the following contract:
"Conditions and terms whereupon the collective householders whose lands are situated across the Great Kill, intend to contract with the lower bidder to make a bridge which is to be fit to bear horses and wagons and sleighs, and to keep the same in good repairs, passable for vehicles, for the time of six consecutive years, which shall commence on this date. But if, during harvest time, the waters should rise high, on account of which some repairs to the bridge should be necessary, than all the principals shall assist him, the contractor, each with one man, provided the contractor shall pay one sch. of wheat a day for such man, viz.: if the contractor should need any help. The bridge is to be delivered passable and fit for horses and wagons at the end of the time. The contractor shall be obliged, during the period of the six years names above, to maintain a serviceable gate with a lock, but all the principals shall, at their own expense, have a key made, which they shall not give to anybody not having land across the Kill, under penalty of twenty-five gldrs. Fine, in behalf of the contractor. The payment shall come from, and be paid out of, the number of morgens (a morgen is two acres) in proportion, and each one will have to pay his share every year to the contractor in wheat at six gldrs. And other grain in proportion. And if anybody shall be a year in arrears, the same shall be pay double his share to the contractor for the year he is in arrears.
Jan Willemsen (Hoochteylingh), Cornelis Wynckoop, Hendrick Jochems (Schoonmaker), Jacob Jansen (Stoutenburgh), Michiel Modt, Cornelis Vernooy, Thomas Matthys, Dirck Hendricks, George Hall, Ann Brodhead, Jan Gerrits, Louiys Hermans Brouwer.
"Contractors under the above conditions are Corn. Wynkoop, Jan Willems, Jacob Jansz Stoutenburegh, and Hendr., Jochemsz, for one sch. of wheat or other grain in proportion for every morgen per year for the period named above. An in case, owing to negligence on their part, any one should suffer loss on account of the bridge, they, the contractors, shall make good the same. But in case high floods (should cause damage) they shall be required to repair the same as quickly as possible. For the purpose of complying with the above pledge their persons and estates, under obligation 1670, at Kingston.
Once at a time a free Negro at Kingston had contracted so many debts that he seems to have despaired of ever being able to pay them, and he sold himself to one of his creditors, who bought the claims of the other creditors, and the debtor was to work for the principal creditor at a certain amount per day, until the entire debt should have been earned, when he would be free again. Sometimes, also, people would purchase something and then pay for what they had bought with labor, instead of with money:
"Appeared before me, etc., Thoomas Harmensen and Dominikus Manuel who declare having agreed in the following manner: Diminikus declares having bought of Thoomazs Harmensen a mare named ‘De bonte Koe,’ for which Dominikus is to work eight months in the service of Thoomas Harmensen, and shall commence to work as soon as the next harvesting season begins and not leave said Thoomas Harmensen’s service until the said period shall have expired. Thoomas Harmansen shall deliver the aforesaid mare as soon as he, Dominikus, enters his service, and in case the mare should have a colt, he is to have the same with the mare. Promising to comply with the above, under obligations as per law, have subscribed to the present besides the witnesses, this December 23, 1670, at Kingston."
(Follow the signatures.)
In a former article attention was called to the fact that sometimes New Netherlanders sent attorneys to Old Netherlands for the purpose of claiming estates. Often they were friends or relatives, returning for the sake of visiting the fatherland, but in the instance mentioned below it seem that the attorneys went there on business, and also for the purpose of several parties who entrusted those interests to him:
"On March 15th, 1671, there appeared before me, W. Montagne, Secretary of the hon. court at Kingston. Claes Teunensen Klier, about 43 years old, born in Netherland, situated (sic) near Gorcum, who declares to constitute and confer full power of attorney, as he is by the present constituting full power of attorney upon Mr. Nikoaes De Mayer, merchant Nove Jorck, in America, for the purpose for him calling in, demanding, suing for, and received such patrimonial estates, money and effects as have fallen to the share of him, Claes Teunissen, by way of inheritance from parents, friends or others at Gorcum or thereabouts, and wherever the same shall be, etc. In testimony have subscribed to the present with my own hand, in the presence of Matthys Matthysen (VanKeuren) and Thoomas Van der Marck, at Kingston, on the above date."
With the power of attorney was the following letter:
"Good friend and brother-in-law Jacobus Aernoudt: After wishing you every good thing the present serves (to inform you) that I have well received your letter, and have learned from the same of your and the friends’ health. In regard to ourselves here, I and my wife Styntie and the children are yet robust and in good health, and hope that the same may continue long on both sides. I have been informed by the letter concerning the condition of the estate which is legally coming to me, and in regard to which I have conferred power of attorney upon Mr. Nicolaes De Meyer, merchant at N. Jorck. What ever he does in said business will be done as well as if I, in own person, was there. I therefore request your honor to give him as much assistance in said business as possible. Whenever I shall be able to render you any friendly service I will do so as much as is in my power."
Though Secretary Montagne usually was at this post in the secretary’s office, yet once in a while he was obliged to be absent, on which occasions Schout Beeckman took his place, as is evident from the following transfer of real estate:
"Appeared before me Wilhelm Beeckman Schout, at Kingston, in the absence of the Secretary, the worthy person, Antony Cripsell and Peter Cornelissen, besides the aforesaid witnesses, who declare having agreed in the following manner: Anthony Cryspel declares having sold and Peter Cornelissen having bought certain parcel of arable land, situated under this village of Kingston on this side of the Kill, next to the land of Mattys Matthysen, which parcel of land is a portion of a farm of Aert Martens (Doorn), the extent of which is expressed in the deed when bought of Aert Martens, for which Peter Cornelissen promises to pay in ready cash twenty-eight sch. of wheat; and said parcel of land I specially sold according to an estimation of its size, and with all such rights as the grantor, Antony Cryspel, has bought the same of Aert Martens on July 8, 1666. By virtue of which deed and conveyance said Antony Cryspel conveys by the present all his rights to the aforesaid Peter Cornelis, and declares having been satisfied for the 28 sch. of wheat and therefore relinquishes all claims and right to the same. In testimony has subscribed to the present, with his own hand, besides Antony Kouck and Jan Cornelissen, as witnesses, this April 3, 1671, at Kingston, in Esopus." (Follow the signatures.)
Transcriptions of the one below where a second party assumed to obligations of the principal were of quite frequent occurrence in the early history of the settlement and seem to point to the fact that there existed a pretty strong sentiment of solidarity among the settlers. "Appeared before me W. Montagne, secretary for the hon. court at Kingston, Tierck Claesen DeWit who declares to become security as principal for Marten Hofman for the quantity of hundred sch. of wheat to be paid to Frederick Phlipsen, which Marten Hofman owes said Phlipsen, which quantity said Tierck Claesen promises to pay, viz: 50 sch of wheat next fall this year and the balance, 50 sch of wheat next spring. Promising to comply with the foregoing pledging person and estate, movable and immovable, submitting them as per law. In testimony have submitted to the present Walleran DuMont and Jeroen Douwesen, as witnesses requested for the purpose this August 8, 1671, at Kingston."
On August 26, 1671 William Trophagen made a statement before the secretary concerning his family and connections in Europe which is fuller and more explicit than any having ever appeared either before or after in the records, and which shows that the deponent or his family was in possession of valuable fiefs or rather prebends in the western portions of Germany.
On September 8, 1671, Henry Pauling shot a pig belonging to Tierck DeWitt. DeWitt flew in a rage, Pauling kept cool. DeWitt at last so far forgot himself as to exclaim "That he would avenge it upon some Englishman or another" (dat hyt soude verhaelen of de eene Englsman of dander). With that he drew his knife, and calling out "If you are a man, stand firm," went for Pauling. The other being a younger and more agile man, not only successfully parried De Witt’s onslaught before much damage had been done, but wounded him so dangerously between the ribs that DeWitt had to be carried home and was confined to his bed. Pauling was arrested but bailed out by George Haland secretary Montagne. Happily, however, Doctor Kierstede’s skill and his own strong constitution saved DeWitt’s life.
A leaf somehow or another got in the wrong place, containing an entry made on August 21, 1673, while it is immediately succeeded by other entries date January and February, 1672. The entry dated August 21, 1673, contains a contract about the building of a house for Tierck Claessen DeWitt, and commences as follows:
"Appeared before me W. Montagne Secretary for the court at Kingston, admitted by the Lord’s High Mightiness (the States General of the United Netherlands), Tierck Claesen, resident here, of the first part, and Cornelis Cornelissen Sterrevelt, master carpenter, of the first part" Cornelis Cornelissen was to receive hundred sch. of wheat as the completion of the work.
It was customary in the early days of Kingston’s history for farmers to enter into co-partnership for the purpose of cultivating a farm, and often also the partnership was dissolved after the remaining partner had found another one to carry on the farming.
The following is one of many instances where the principal of co-partnership was applied to farming:
"Appeared before me, W. Montagne Secretary of the hon. court at Kingston, Sweer Teunesen, Hendrick Aertsen and Cornelis Fynhouddt, who declare having agreed in the following manner: Hendrick Aerdsen and Fynhoudt declare having bought of said Sweer Teunes a farm, house and barn, as they are now standing and occupied by Gerrit Cornelis, with a plow which Gerrit Cornelis is to deliver which they are to receive by May, but the sown land after the crops shall have been harvested. Wherefor the purchasers are to pay a quantity of 845 sch. in February, 1672, and there upon one-half of 745 sch. in February, 1674. The Sweer Teunesen is obliged to grant a free and unencumbered conveyance. The purchasers are obliged to pay one for all, and the seller is at liberty to call on each of them as principal. The land remains mortgaged until the full and effective payment. Parties promise to comply with the above, under obligation as per law. And parties, besides Jacobus Elmendorp and Hend. Jocbems, as witnesses invited for the purpose have subscribed (to the present) this February 8, 1671, at Kingston." (Follow six signatures.)
Nor were exchanges of property of rare occurrence, and several times even property situated in Albany was traded for real estate in Kingston. The following is only one among many. The Sweer Teunesen referred to in these documents was Sweer Teunesen VanVelsen, who had married the widow of Barend Wempel of Albany, and in consequence thereof had come in possession of much real estate at Kingston and other places:
"Appeared before me, W. Montagne, Secretary of the hon. court at Kingston, Sweer Teunesen, who declares to convey, as he is conveying by the present, to and in behalf of Pieter Cornelisen, a certain garden which said Sweer Teunesen had received in exchange of Pieter Hillebrandts for a lot in this village, which garden he, Sweer Teunesen, now conveys in its whole extent, with all such right and title as he has ever possessed the same, relinquishing the same now and forever. And has subscribed to the present with his own hand, this February 13, 1671, at Kingston."
In nearly all transactions wheat was the principal, often the only payment stipulated, and very seldom other grains were mentioned as the principal or only payments. In the following real estate transaction it will be noticed that wheat was not mentioned at all as means of payment: "Appeared before me, etc., Roelof Swartwout of the first part and Wessel Wesselsen TenBroeck of the second part, who declare having agreed in following manner: Roelof Swartwout declares having sold and Wessel TenBroeck having bought a certain parcel of land and valley of the same extent and limits as expressed in the deed existing of the same, with everything being fixed in the ground and fastened by nail to the same, with all such right and title as the aforesaid Swartwoudt has possessed the same. For which parcel of land said Wessel will and must pay a quantity of 450 sch. of white peas and 50 sch. of oats, to be paid precisely in four years from this date anno 1676, under condition that Swartwoudt is at liberty to appropriate the fruit trees," etc.
Nearly always business transactions needing recording took place before the secretary, but sometimes for which the reason is not plain, it was done before the schepens of the village: "Appeared before us, commissaries at Kingston, Jacob Jansen Stoutenborgh, who declares to convey to and in behalf of Hendrick Hendrickson Van Wseyen, certain farm across the Great Kill of the same extent as expressed in the deed and the renewal of the same in a real, and actual possession and property with all such rights and title as he had ever possessed the same. Promising to free and guarantee him, because he has received the full amount as per bill of sale, from the first to the last penny and that neither in his behalf nor by anybody else, any one has any claim upon said farm, Kingston, February 6, 1673-2, in the presence of Cornelis Barentsen [Sleght] and Cornelis Wyncopp, commissaries of the court at Kingston."
Perhaps earlier, but certainly in the beginning of 1673, Secretary Montagne had also been appointed from the following receipt:
"Appearing before me, W. Montagne, Secretary for the hon. court of Kingston and Hurley, Pieter Andriaensen, who declares having been fully satisfied by Cornelis Hoogenboom in regard to the obligation passed by Hoogenboom on April 4, 1659, before the Secretary D. Van Hamel, amounting to 670 gldrs., which amount has been honestly and actually paid to me by Hoogenboom. Declare not to have anything further to claim of him and free him from all ulterior claims, the amount having been fully settled up to the present date, liquidated on both sides. Kingston, this March 20, 1672-3.
(Signed) Pieter Adracnsz."
Several residents of Kingston had money coming to them from Holland, and every once in a while powers of attorney were made out to parties intending to visit, or having relations with, the fatherland. The following instrument, though it was not executed, shows that Secretary Montagne was one of the number:
"Be it known that before us, commissaries of the court at Kingston, there has appeared W. Monjeur De la Montagne, son of the old, deceased Johannes Monsijeur De la Montagne and of Ragel De Foreest. That said Wilhem Monsijeur De la Montagne has made out to Mr. Gabriel Minville, merchant at New York, a bill of exchange for 300 gldrs of Holland money, valued at 20 stivers per guilder, and that Mr. Minville or his order shall receive the same. Therefore the aforesaid Wilhem Monsijeur De la Montagne constitutes and confers full power of attorney, as he is doing by the present, upon his guardians and friends, Mr. Johannes Panhuysen and Mr. Davidt De Toy, living in the city of Levden, to draw, in his behalf and in the constituent’s name, from the orphan court of said city, from the money coming to him, the aforesaid 300 gldrs., and to deliver the same, in accordance with the bill of exchange, to Mr. Gabriel Minville or his order. Promising to hold valid whatever shall be done by them in said affair. In testimony have subscribed to the present with my own hand, besides the hon. commissaries, Cornelis Wyncoop and Joost Adriaensen, this March 27, 1673, at Kingston, the Esoopus."
Besides the several parties from New Amsterdam who had large pecuniary interest in Kingston and other settlements of Esoopus, there lived a man in Ulster county who was easily the greatest banker of his generation in this section of the colony, and large numbers of people were supplied by him with the necessary capital to carry on their business. This man was Mattue Blansjan, and transactions like the one below were of quite frequent occurrences:
"Be it known that before us the undersigned, commissaries of the hon. court at Swaenenburgh, there has appeared Jan Cornelissen Smit and his wife, Willemtie Jacobs who declare to honestly and actually owe Mattue Blausjan the amount, 1,944 gldrs. In seewan to be paid in all kinds of grain at current prices. And in case the said J. Cornelissen and Willemtie Jacobs should fail to pay on the day of payment, they shall pay interest at ten per cent per annum for the entire amount they fail to pay, for which interest Mattue Blansjan is at liberty to sell the effect of the said appearers until the interest shall have been paid, without being obliged to summon said appearers before the court on account thereof. But for the principal said Jan C. and W. Jacobs mortgage their house and lot, located in this village, not being permitted to alienate or dispose of the same until Blansjan chall have been fully satisfied."
And immediately thereupon:
"Appeared before us the undersigned Sdchepenen at Swaenenburgh, Dirck Jansen Schepmoes, who acknowledges to honestly and actually owe Matte Blansjan the amount of 330 sch. of wheat for merchandise and loaned money, received to my satisfaction."
In a real estate transaction there occurs a clause which seems to show that the grantee was not a Christian. Probably he was an Indian, and that the most unusual stipulation was inserted to impress upon his mind the fact that in a civilized society he was to assist in bearing its burdens:
"Appeared before me ______tanxe, Secretary of the hon. court at Swaeneburg, Hermon Hekan, who declares having bought and received of Tierck Claesen a parcel of land, No. 14, ten morgens in extent, situated under the jurisdiction of marbledorp. The aforesaid Hermon promises to pay all village taxes and to observe the laws, and to behave as well as any Christian man."
Liber D. of the secretary’s papers commences with November 4, 1671, when the guardians of a child commissioned Nicolaes De Mayer to institute at Amsterdam, in Holland, a search after a will, in the following manner:
"On November 4, 1671, there has appeared before us Cornelis Barentsen Sleght and Gorge Hall, commissaries of the hon. court of Kingston, in America, Aerdt Martensen Doorn, husband and guardian of Geertruy Andriesen, formerly of the widow of Jacob Jansen Slicoten. And there further appeared the aforesaid Geertury Andriesen, assisted by the Heer Willem Beecgman, and Roelof Swartwout, they being the guardians of the son of Jacob Jansen Slicot, named Jan Jacobsen Slictoen, who conjointly constitute as attorney, and are granting full power, as they are constituting attorney and conferring full powers by the present upon Mr. Nicolaes De Mayer, merchant at New York, to inquire at Amsterdam after the last will of Jan Jacobsen Slicoten, grandfather of the aforesaid child, and also to learn what has been willed to Willem Jansen Slicoten, he being the uncle of the child Jan Jacobsen, which aforesaid which aforesaid uncle has been killed here during the war with the savages and has left no other heirs than the aforesaid child, Jan Jacobsen Slicoten. And, further, after a will made by the grandfather of Jacob Jansen Slicoten, and would now again come to this child. And for the purpose of having the child receive what is coming to it by rightful inheritance, therefore the aforementioned (principals) authorize the attorney, Mr. De Mayer, to enquire diligently, and after diligent inquiry and (consequent) discovery, to demand an accounting of the afternamed friends, and in case of unwillingness to being suit against them, and to proceed according to law; and humbly pray the hon. Heeren Orphanmasters of the city of Amsterdam to assist the aforesaid Mr. De Mayer in procuring the child’s inheritance."
A few days later, on November 7, 1671, "Appeared before me, W. Montagne, Secretary of the hon. court at Kingston, in the presence of Jan Willemsen and Cornelis Barentsen Sleght, Jacob Jansen VanStoutenborch, who declares to consitute and confer full powers of attorney, as he is doing by the present upon Mr. Nicolaes De Meyer, merchant at New Yorck, for the purpose of calling in, demanding, suing for and receiving that which has fallen to the share of appearer by way of inheritance from his father, Jan Evertsen Maeter, and from his mother Annetie Cornelis, and being with his uncle, Robberdt Evertsen, and Sara Eversten, and being the guardians of the aforesaid appeared, Jacob Jansen, which share or portion—as also the interest—is to be inquired after at Amersfordt, written evidence whereof will be found at the secretary’s office at Amersfordt."
On November 8 Jan Willemsen Hooghteylingh and his wife Barbara Jans made a joint will, for which it appears that they only had one child, a son Willem Jansen Hooghteylingh.
On November 11, 1671, the annual farming out of the tapster excise took place in the place in the following manner:
"Conditions and terms whereupon the hon. Heer Thoomas De la Vail, commissioner for the hon. Heer General Francis Lovelace, and the hon. court here intend to farm out the tapster excise of the villages of Kingston, Hurley and Mableton, viz: of wines and beers and distilled waters, on November 11, 1671.
"The farm shall commence on this November 11th, for the period of 12 months, and terminate on November 11, 1672. During the aforesaid period the farmer shall be entitled to receive for all wines, biers, distilled waters to be consigned to or sold by the tapsters at Kingston, Hurley and Mableton, as also of all burghers laying in rum for their own consumption, and who shall pay the full tapster excise.
For a tun of domestic good bier…9 gldrs
For a tun of foreign bier ………..14 gldrs
For an ander of French or Rhine wine…..14 gldrs
For an ander of Rum Bandy, Distilled water….26 gldrs
"Larger an smaller casks in proportion.
"To be paid in grain at 6 gldrs. per sch. of wheat, or other grain in proportion, excepting maize, or in seewan, at 8 for a stiver.
"The farmer is obliged to furnish 2 satisfactory sureties, to the contentment of the Heeren principals, and to pay each month a just twelfth part of the promised farm money.
"For the purpose of preventing any cabal, misunderstanding and fraud, it is stipulated and conditioned that after the expiration of this farm, at the time of the new farming, the new farmer shall be at liberty, on the day of the farming, to gauge in the presence of the ex-farmer. For the wines and biers than found or yet remaining two-thirds of the received or yet to be paid excise shall be paid by the ex-farmer to the new one.
"The Heeren principals to retain to selves the simplification of the present, and promise the farmer all proper protection and assistance.
"The farmer shall also receive the burgher excise for bier:
"For 1 tun of good bier, 1 gldr. 10 stivers.
"For 1 tun of small bier, 9 stivers.
"Viz.: Kingston, but Hurley and Mableton this year are also to pay the burgher excise. [Originally it read thus: Kingston, but Hurley and Mableton are exempt for this year from paying the burgher excise for biers.’ Some words had been crossed out, others substituted so that the sentence reads as translated above.]
"The grain measurer is also authorized (to require) all (masters of ) vessels to show him their passport and to make to him a declaration of the strong drink they discharge here, which shall be made known to the farmer by list, and the excise is to be immediately paid. Hurley and Marbleton shall receive one-third of the farm money which has been allowed (to the villages) above the share reverting to the duke, viz.: eight hundred gldrs. And in case they are able to prove that they have consumed more, it shall be paid to them, and Kingston shall receive two-thirds
"Now distillers shall be permitted to distill until they shall have notified the farmer.
Mr. DelaVail, 2,000 gldrs.
Mr. Pauldin, 2,1000 gldrs.
Mr. DeVail, 2,200 gldrs
Capt. Backer, 2,250 gldrs.
"Increased (by the auctioneer) to 2,800 gldrs., (and then bid down). Jorge Hall became farmer for 2.550 gldrs."
From the following conveyance it would appear that neither land nor horses and cattle were very valuable in Esopus in 1671: "Appeared, etc., Aert Martensen Doorn of the first part and Willem Jansen Schudt of the second part, who declare having agreed in the following manner: Willem Jansen Schute declare having agreed Aerdt Martensen, who declares having sold to Willem Jansen eight morgen (16 acres) of land as the same have been granted to Aert Martensin, and further a garden in the Ruyge Hoeck, besides house, barn, lot and everything fastened to the same in the ground and fixed by nail for the quantity of 550 sch. of wheat. Aert Martensen is to furnish with the land three mares, with wagon and plow and also two milch cows." The purchase money paid for all this did not amount to 700 dollars in Untied States currency. Ten morgen, or 20 acres in extent was on March 21, 1672, leased by Annetic Gerrits to Cornelis Fryhout for forty sch. of wheat per year, for which he also was to have the use of the house, one-half of the barn and the grain stack. This was at the rate of about 48 dollars per year.
It had occurred a few time that one of the parties to a transaction had wanted to back out after the signing of the contract. For the purpose of providing against a similar emergency the following contract contained a clause imposing a fine upon the person who should want to annul the transaction:
"Appeared, etc., Jan Hendrie and Hans Vos, who declare having agreed in the following manner: Hans Vos declares having bought of Jan Hendries certain house and lot situated at Kingston. But the party wanting to back out tomorrow, will be obliged to give an anker of wine."
Liber E, the contents of which will furnish subjects for two sketches, contains some matter in regard to buying the land for settlement of New Platz, which will show that the Indians had long since forgotten the prominent part Louis DuBois, had played in liberating the captives taken prisoners by them at the Wildwyck massacre of June, 1663.
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