A. Bullock, Inventor
Contributed by Juanita Bennard
Born in Greenville, Greene Co., N.Y.
Became an orphan when his father died and was raised by his
1832 (Oct. 14)
Married Angeline Kimball in Catskill, Greene Co., N.Y.
Running his own machinery shop.
Son William Woodbury Bullock was born in Greene Co., N.Y.
Residing in Prattsville, Greene Co., N.Y.
Son William Woodbury Bullock died, buried in Greene Co., N.Y.
Son Hobart Bullock was born in Greene Co., N.Y.
1838-1839 Went to
Savannah Georgia to try to market his invention a
Went to N.Y.C.
Daughter Mary Lavina Bullock was born in N.J.
(in August) Son Charles B. Bullock was born in N.J.
(in July) Daughter Caroline Bullock was born in N.J.
Franklin Institute of Penn. Awarded him second prize for his
invention: a Grain drill. He also was the editor of The Banner of
the Union Newspaper in Penn.
1850 (Sept. 15)
Philadelphia census: Dock Ward, Philadelphia, Penn.
William Bullock, 40, Agent, Angeline,
13, Mary, 10, Charles,
Kimber, 22, (Angeline's sister: Emily Kimball), Sarah Differn, 21, Susan
Haney, 19, Note:
Angeline Kimball died.
1850-1853 After Angeline's death, he moved back to Greene Co., N.Y. and also married her sister, Emily Kimball. In 1853 he was the editor of a Whig paper, The American Eagle.
(June 5th.) His daughter Angeline Bullock was born in Red Falls,
Greene Co., N.Y.
(August 1st) Patent No. 11464: Improvement in Seed- Planters. Residence
at time of application: Red Falls, Greene Co., N.Y.
1855 In census in
Greene Co., N.Y., William
Bullock, 40, Emily
L., 15, Charles B., 12, Caroline,
1. The printer of his newspaper sold his business and the new owner
would not print William's Whig newspaper. So, William built his first
printing press: a wooden flatbed press, and he didn't miss a week of printing.
1856 Sold his
1857 Moved to
Brooklyn, New York.
(July 7) William Walter Bullock born in Williamsborough,
(Sept 21st) Patent No. 21,591: Automatic Paper Feeder: Residence at time
of application: Newark, Essex Co., New Jersey.
(January 1st) Son Harry Smith Bullock born in Brooklyn, New
York. (June 24th) in New York census: 13th Ward, Brooklyn City, New
Burlock, 45, Manufactor of Printer Press,
6, William 3
1861 (September) Listed in 1861-1862directory as "patent right agent". Address: St. Nicholas Hotel, Fourth and Grant St. Built his first complete rotary press for the "Cincinnati Times".
1862 Went to England and applied April 4th for a British Patent for his press through his British agent, Frederick Collier Bakewell, Haverstock Terrace, Hampstead, London. British Patent No. GB955: Letter Printing Machines: Patent Granted: September 25th
Directory: Listed as "Manufacturer of printing
presses": Address: 61 First Avenue.
1863 (February 18th)
Buried son Hobart in Union Dale Cemetery, Pittsburg,
Pa. Lot Location: 29-13-G-2 (April 14th) Patent No. 38,200: Printing Press:
1863-1864 Pittsburgh Directory: Listed as "Inventor of Bullock's Press": Address: 172 Second Street.
Listed as "Printer".
Listed as "Proprietor of Bullock's Printing Press".
(February12th)Patent No. 61996:Improvement in Printing Presses. Residence at
time of Application: Philadelphia, Penn.
(April 12th) Died from tragic accident with Printing Press.
Buried in Union Dale cemetery: Lot Location: 29-13-G-2.
1870 (March 1st and
backdated to February 23rd) Patent
No. 100367: Improvement in Rotary Paper-Cutting
Machines. This patent was taken out by his nephew-in-law,
Richard Vose of N.Y , appointed executor of his estate, but
William Bullock was credited as the inventor.
PETERSBURG, VA. TUESDAY, MARCH 5, 1867 NUMBER
NEW PRINTING PRESS.-There has just been completed and put in running order at the Government Printing Office one of the most wonderful pieces of mechanism in the shape of a printing press that has ever been exhibited, The press is of the Bullock patent, and as an exhibition of some of its powers, we will mention: The press will print in one hour 20,000 sheets of 64 pages of document matter; while doing this it feeds itself, the paper being in rolls, wets the paper, cuts the sheets, folds them, and by a dial connected to the press keeps tally of the number of sheets printed. Only two men are required to have entire control of the press, thus doing away with the necessity of persons to supply it with sheets, (or, as they are called, feeders). The invention is certainly a wonderful one, and has been visited since Wednesday by a large number of persons, who could not realize the power and utility of the machine.
We understand that Mr. Parsons, pressman at the office, has been engaged to set up and bare charge of one of these presses at the Paris Exhibition.
Mr. Cornelius Wendell is the agent for these presses in this part of the country.
Article Published in Pittsburgh’s Family Magazine: Sunday July 12, 1964, by George Swetnam
Pittsburgh has given the world some great inventions, especially in the mechanical field. But an unmarked grave in Union Dale Cemetery holds the body of a forgotten genius and an industry’s lost opportunity here.
The grave is that of
William Bullock, whose great invention revolutionized an industry that has
almost completely neglected its benefactor, while basing its growth on his work.
Who was William
Bullock? He was the man who made modern newspapers possible when he devised a
Until he built the
first one in 1861 the size and circulation of any newspaper was limited by the
speed with which a man could feed sheets of paper into a press by hand. But
Bullock’s first press would print 8000 papers an hour from a paper roll,
cutting them apart and even counting them.
Those 8000 four-page
sheets seen very unimportant today beside the massive batteries of presses which
can turn out up to 70,000 sixty four-page papers in the same time, not only
printing and counting them, but folding them and automatically slipping the
corner of every fiftieth paper a little to one side for convenience in counting
out bundles. But without the principles invented by
William Bullock, the
press might have been limited for years to hand-fed single sheet production.
William A. Bullock was born in Greenville, N.Y., in 1813. Left an orphan, he was apprenticed by his brother to a foundryman and machinist, when he was eight years old. Going on his own at 21, he was soon running a machine shop, where he made his first invention - a shingle cutting machine.
It was so promising
that he sank everything into starting a shingle factory at Savannah, Georgia,
and went broke.
He switched to
designing and building hay and cotton presses; returned to New York to start
making artificial legs, and invented a grain drill, a seed planter, and a lath
While in Savannah,
Mr. Bullock had met and married a Florida girl named Angeline Kimball, who bore
him seven children. After her death he married her sister, Emily, and they had 6
Perhaps his first big
success came in 1849, when Franklin Institute in Philadelphia awarded him second
prize for his grain drill.
Somewhere along the
road he had apparently gained some experience in newspaper work, for in that
same year he began editing a paper in Philadelphia named The Banner of the
Union. It was about this time that his first wife died of tuberculosis, which
may be the reason he returned to his home in Greene County, New York.
Apparently his first
effort at the field, which won him brief but well-deserved fame was almost by
In 1853 he began
editing a Whig paper named The American Eagle, at Catskill. N.Y., which was
printed on the press of a nearby publication. But in 1855 the press changed
hands, according to early writers, and the new owner refused to have an
opposition party paper printed in his shop.
John S. Ritenour,
once an editor of the Pittsburgh Press, reported half a century ago in a trade
paper that Mr. Bullock met the emergency by building himself a wooden flatbed
press, and so quickly that he didn’t have to miss a weekly edition.
His fame must have
been spreading, for when he sold his paper in 1856 he moved to New York City,
where he worked as a mechanical engineer. His greatest achievement there appears
to have been the construction of a new high-speed (for that day) press for the
nationally-circulated Leslie’s Weekly, which went into operation at least as
early as the spring of 1860.
No one seems to know
why or just when Mr. Bullock came to Pittsburgh. Ritenour, who probably never
met the inventor but knew many of his friends, says it was in 1860. But he first
appears in the 1861-62 directory, published about September 1861.
didn’t come here as a press builder, or with any job as an engineer. His first
listing is as “patent right agent.” That was much the equivalent of
today’s patent attorney, with overtones of promotion. Men who gained
experience in getting a number of patents often went into business in this way,
to provide capital while working on the next idea.
His address, the St.
Nicholas Hotel, at Fourth and Grant, wouldn’t indicate he had been in the city
On First Avenue
He had become friendly with C.W. Ricketson, owner of a large grocery, who also had an interest in an iron forge and nail factory at Water and Short Streets and First Avenue, about where the Central Police Station is today. The next year’s directory shows Bullock as “Manufacturer of printing presses,” at 61 First Avenue, the nail mill’s back door.
Bullock secured his first patent on the rotary press in April 1863, a year and a half after he had built his first complete one for the Cincinnati Times. That summer he went to England to secure his British rights. A number of papers have vied for the honor of being the first to use such a press, but the best evidence seems to favor the Times. Certainly the date claimed for the New York Sun – 1865- is too late to be really first.
The original press fed the paper off a roll and onto the cylinders, where it was cut before being printed. But it was self-feeding, printed both sides, and could run off 8000 four-page sheets an hour, and count them. His later models cut the web after it had been printed, but automatic folding didn’t come into use until 1871, when it was introduced by Hoe, a rival firm.
In the 1863-64 directory Bullock is identified as “Inventor of Bullock’s Press,” which might indicate it was becoming well known. He had rented a house at 172 Second Street. The following years he was simply identified as “printer,” perhaps because wartime material shortages had put him temporarily out of business. His last listing here was just after the end of the war, as “Proprietor of Bullock’s Printing Press.”
Except for the inventor, the company was strictly a Pittsburgh one, with a capital stock of $500,000 of which he held half and served as superintendent. President and moneyman was William H. Williams, a private banker, and the office was in his bank at Third and Wood, J.G. Coffin, an insurance man and associate of Williams, was secretary treasurer, and directors included Charles Knap, an iron founder; Ricketson; and Z.A. Hitchcock, a merchant and later a partner of Knap, who lived in the Monongahela House.
According to Ritenour, the first three presses were built here, and sold at from $15,000 to $25,000, which would be the equivalent of a lot more money today. The original press had too weak a frame to stand the strain, but worked well after being rebuilt.
One of these may have been the first rotary press installed by the New York Sun in 1865. Indeed, there is reason to believe that Ritenour is wrong in saying that the company moved east with Mr. Bullock in 1864, since it was here still (or again) in 1875.
He personally spent little time here in his last three years, however. He was busy installing the Sun’s first Bullock press in 1865, and perhaps more, for by 1870 it had seven units, and the Herald eight. He also installed three for the Philadelphia Inquirer, and was putting in one for the Philadelphia Press at the time of his death.
On April 2, 1867 Mr. Bullock was severely injured when his right leg was caught in a belt he was trying to kick onto a pulley for a test of the press. Gangrene developed in the leg, which was crushed and broken, and he died April 12 during an operation to amputate the limb.
The body was brought here for burial in Union Dale Cemetery, where his son Clarence, two daughters and a son-in-law also lie.
Obituary notices lamented him as a great mechanic and inventor, pointing out that he had died just as his press was coming into general acceptance.
Indeed, his death could not have come at a more unhappy time. He had been getting a bare living out of his company, and was just at the point where it was ready to pay big returns. His oldest son, Clarence, had been a war casualty in 1863, and Charles, who had lived through the war, was only 25 and unable to manage the firm.
“Mr. Williams will see it through,” the father said with his dying breath. And apparently, Mr. Williams did. But not for the widow and children.
The private bank went under just about that time. Perhaps the deal was a phony one to outlaw claims. Or maybe it was an honest one, which left the owners struggling to stay alive. Somehow, when the press manufacturing firm came out of the wringer, Mr. Williams and his son Frank seemed to be the only ones in it. And although it made and sold some 50 presses by 1871, no member of Bullock’s family ever got a cent.
Luck seemed always against William Bullock. A silver medal award by Franklin Institute for his press came just after he died. And in 1874 when his work was recommended for a gold medal for unusual value to mankind, it missed only on the technicality that a gold medal must not be awarded to a dead man.
The Bullock presses were so good that one over 40 years old was advertised in 1912 as in operating condition. But the only one ever used here was installed at the old Leader, in 1870. Pittsburgh missed this chance for an important first.
Just as it was 97 years ago, the one for gotten man today is the man who made it all possible.
The body of William A. Bullock lies in an unmarked grave in
Lot 29, Range 13, Section G of Division 2 of Union Dale cemetery. The only one
who seems to remember is a great –grandson, C.H. Charles, retired plumber of
Clinton, who puts flowers there each Memorial day.
Some day, perhaps, the conscience of the Pennsylvania Newspaper Publishers Association, may be aroused to the point that it will put a marker on the grave. Of all men in the industry few if any have deserved it more, or suffered such complete neglect.
A simple ceremony tomorrow at Union Dale Cemetery, North Side, will give belated recognition to one of Pittsburgh's unhonored geniuses.
Thanks to a story by a Pittsburgh Press writer and the efforts of several City firms, the grave of William Bullock - the man who devised the rotary web press, revolutionizing the newspaper industry - will receive a memorial marker.
The ceremony also will kick off Pennsylvania's part in National Newspaper Week.
On Sunday, July 12, Staff Writer, George Swetnam wrote in the Family Magazine of how the body of Mr. Bullock lies here in anonymity since he died April 12, 1867.
Mr Swetnam called for consciences to be aroused so the grave could be marked - even though it is 97 years late.
"Of all men in the industry (newspaper), few, if any, deserved it more, or suffered such complete neglect," Mr. Swetnam wrote.
James C. Bovill, Union Dale superintendent complied.
Donatella Granite Co. offered to mount the bronze marker on a headstone and Mr. Swetnam wrote the inscription:
"William A. Bullock - 1813-1867…His invention of the rotary web press (1863) made the modern newspaper possible."
James B. Stevenson, publisher of the Titusville Herald and chairman of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, will make the brief remarks at the 9 a.m. ceremony tomorrow. He will also represent the Pennsylvania Newspaper Publishers Assn.
C.H. Charles, of Clinton, Pa., a great-grandson of Mr. Bullock, will attend, as will Mr. Swetnam.
The invention of the press actually led to Mr. Bullock's death. The inventor's right leg became caught in one of the later model presses he was testing. Gangrene developed and Mr. Bullock died 10 days later.
NOTE: This article was printed in The Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, Oct. 11, 1964
Page 4 Section 3
United States Patent Office
OF RED FALLS, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO BURTON G. MORSS.
Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 11,464. Dated August 1, 1854
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, Wm. BULLOCK of red Falls, in the county of Greene and State of New York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Grain-Drills; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof.
To enable others skilled in the act to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe the construction and operation of the same.
In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this
speculation, Figure 1 is a perspective view ; Fig. 2, a transverse sectional
view, representing the arrangement of the hoppers in combination with the
wheels, etc.; Fig. 3, an interior view of one wheel, representing the
arrangement of the tubes for planting in hills; Fig. 4, an outside view of a
wheel, representing the recesses for the reception and To all whom it may
Be it known that I, Wm. BULLOCK, of Red Falls, in the county of Greene and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Grain-Drills; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof. distribution of the seeds.
Like letters represent like parts in each figure.
A represents the cross-bars of frame; B, side rails, to each of which one seeding-wheel is attached; C, bars attached to the forward bar A by jaws and bolts to admit of vibration; D, guides fastened in the back end of C and fitted into slots to rear of A. These guides are for the purpose of steadying the bars C, and have hooks at each end to prevent them from being thrown out of their places. They are of sufficient length to allow the seeding-wheels to rise and fall with the surface of the ground.
E represents the seeding-wheels, formed of conical plates. Near the center of these wheels, on one side, are cavities entirely around the distribution of the same in drills, Those wheels intended for planting in hills and drills have cavities in both their sides. In the side for drilling they pass entirely round the center while on the opposite side of the same wheel for hilling the cavities are placed close together in one or more places, according to diameter of wheel. At the outer end of these cavities are holes passing entirely through the plates E, as represented in Figs. 2 and 4. The seeds are received in the cavities a, above the centers if the wheels, and as the wheels revolve the seeds pass in between the plates E and out at the lower edge of the wheels, back of the guards I. When planting in hills the seeds pass through the tubes J, as represented in Fig. 3. The plates forming the wheels B are farther apart than those on C, so as to form a broader surface and prevent them from sinking deeper in the ground in consequences of sustaining the weight of the frame.
Farehoppers into which the seeds are placed. At the bottom of these hoppers, at the sides nearest to the wheels, there is a slot through which the seeds pass into the wheels. In this slot there is a slide, K, for the purpose of regulating the feed. By raising the slide the feed is increased and by lowering it is diminished, and may be entirely shut off.
G are studs, upon which the wheels revolve; H, plates serving as rests for the studs and also covering the holes through the plates E, thereby preventing the seeds from falling outside of the wheels; I, guards fastened to B and C, and fitted sufficiently close to the wheels to prevent the seeds from, passing out forward and the earth from passing in between Plates E. In adhesive soils the guards I should pass in between the plates E, as represented by that part of I, Fig. 3, inside of line b, to clear they from any dirt that may get between them. The forward edge of these guards are sharp, serving as cutters, and they make furrows for the seeding-wheels.
Having thus fully described the construction and operation of my grain-drill, what I claim therein as new and of my invention, and desire to secure Letter Patent , is__
1. The seeding-wheels formed substantially as described, so that the seeds pass in at or near the center of the wheels and out at the periphery.
falling outside of the wheels; I, guards fastened to B and C, and fitted sufficiently close to the wheels to prevent the seeds from passing out forward and the earth from passing in between the Plates E. In adhesive soils the guards I should pas in between the plates E, as represented by that part of I, Fig. 3, inside of line b, to clear they from any dirt that may get between them. The forward edge of these guards are sharp, serving as cutters, and they make furrows for the seeding-wheels.
J are tubes for conducting the seeds to be planted in hills from the centers of the wheels to the peripheries of the same, depositing the seeds in hills; I, marker opposite the tubes J on the side of the wheels, used for planting in hills. These markers leave an impression in the ground, thereby designating the position of the hills.
When it is desirable to plant in hills so as to form rows at right anglesall the wheels except those to be used should be removed from the frame. For corn and beans the wheels left in the frame should be coupled together by any of the ordinary modes, and the operator should take care to have the tubes J in line so that the seeds would drop simultaneously in both wheels. The operator should be careful and start the rows even at the commencement, having a line drawn across the edge of the field for that purpose, and start with the markers down upon the line, and,
2. The arrangement of one and the same wheel for sowing in drills and planting hills.
3. The arrangements of the tubes J, substantially as herein described and for the purpose set forth.
4. The guards I, in combination with the seeding-wheels.
5. The marker L for the purpose of indicating the position of each hill, thereby enabling the operator to plant in hills forming rows both ways across the field.
J. E. BASSETT
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
BULLOCK, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GEO. W. TAYLOR, OF SAME PLACE
AUTOMATIC PAPER-FEEDER FOR PRINTING-PRESSES
Specification of Letters Patent No. 21,591, dated September 21, 1858
To all whom it
Be it known that
I, WILLIAM BULLOCK, of Newark, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey,
have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Feeding Paper
to Printing-Presses; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full,
clear, and exact description of my said invention, reference being had to the
accompanying drawings, in which---
represents a view in perspective of my automatic feeder connected with the
cylinder of a printing press; Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same, and Fig. 3
is a vertical longitudinal section of the machine through the central vacuum
have heretofore been devised for the purpose of feeding sheets of paper
to printing presses, but in these machines so far as my knowledge extends, the
sheets have been operated upon by mechanism whose movement when in operation
bears a definite relation to the movements of the press to which the apparatus
has been applied. These machines have thus far proved defective in practice for
the reason in my opinion that it has been necessary to lay the pile of paper
upon them with very great accuracy to obtain a practically good register, and
that sheets of paper of different qualities or dampened to a greater or less
extent adhere to each other with greater or less force, and therefore require
different amounts of movement or force in the feeding apparatus to feed them to
My invention is
designed to obviate the defects of preceding machines in these respects and it
consists first, in operating the members of the machine which effect the feeding
of the sheet of paper in such manner that the amount of movement developed by
them in the feeding successive sheets bears no fixed relation to that of the
parts of the printing press proper, and that they have a sufficient capacity to
feed a sheet of paper in less time than is allowed for that purpose
by the movement of the press.
The second part of
my invention consists in constructing and operating the feed mechanism in such
manner that the amount of motion of the members which effect the movement of the
sheet is regulated and controlled by the position of the sheet; so that when the
sheet has been moved to its proper position the members aforesaid are no longer
permitted to act upon it.
The third part of
my invention consists in intermitting the operation of the feeding apparatus
upon the paper while the sheet is being drawn into the press, although the
members of the feeding apparatus still continue to move at a regular speed.
The fourth part of my invention consists in moving the pile of paper, so
as to present the top sheet to the members which effect the feeding, by a
mechanism whose operation upon the pile is controlled by the position of the
pile so that when the pile occupies its proper position the mechanism is not
permitted to act upon it. There are also various novel combinations of
mechanical elements in my machine whose nature and operation will more fully
accompanying drawings the paper feeding apparatus is shown as used in connection
with the cylinder, A, of a printing press; the other portions of the press being
omitted to avoid unnecessary complexity in the drawings.
The feeding apparatus is supported by a frame which extends above the
upper surface of the cylinder A, and is suitably supported upon the frame of the
press. The press cylinder is constructed in the usual manner, and is fitted
with the usual finger shaft z,
and fingers y, by which the edge of the paper presented to it is seized.
And by the rotation of the cylinder drawn thereupon. The feed table C, upon
which the pile of paper B is laid, is inclined; it is connected with an endless
apron D that runs upon rollers a, a’, and is otherwise suitably
supported to sustain the weight of the paper. The shaft of one of the rollers a’,
has a ratchet wheel and the roller, and thus propel the feed table C with the
paper lying thereon toward cylinder A. The feed table is to press lightly upon
the sheets and thus keep them in their proper position.
finger b, which operates the ratchet wheel. Depends from an arm f that
is secured to the extremity of a rock shaft c. This finger rock shaft
crosses the frame of the feed apparatus, and is fitted at about its middle with
a second arm f’, by which the finger rock shaft can be rocked to cause
the finger to move the ratchet wheel. The extremity of the finger rock shaft f’,
bears upon a toe d, which is secured to a second rock shaft e. This
latter rock shaft also extends across the frame of the apparatus and is fitted
at its extremity with an arm g, which is connected by a link h, with
the upper extremity of a lever G. The lever G is pivoted to the frame and its
lower extremity is furnished with a friction wheel j, that bears against
the periphery of a cam H secured to
the cylinder A; so that as the latter revolves, the lever G is caused to
oscillate, and rock the rock shaft e, whose toe d acting upon the
arm f’’, alternately raises and lowers the latter, and effects the
rocking of the rock shaft c, by which the finger b, is caused to
actuate the ratchet wheel E. Under the operation of the mechanism thus described
alone, the finger would partially turn the ratchet wheel and its roller at each
revolution of the press cylinder A, and would thus propel the feed table and the
paper thereon forward faster than is necessary or desirable. In order therefore
to control and regulate this action of the finger on its ratchet wheel the arm f’’
of the finger rock shaft c is connected with the piston, I, of a
single acting air cylinder, J, that is mounted in an inverted position upon the
upper part of the frame of the apparatus. This piston is packed so as to move
airtight in the barrel of the air cylinder, and as the link that connects the
piston with the arm f’ is inflexible, the piston is raised whenever
this arm is raised by the toe d. The piston is surmounted by a coiled
spring T which tends to depress it as often as the rocking toe, d, permits
the arm f’ to descend. By this movement of the piston air is
alternately drawn into and expelled from the air cylinder J, and so long as the
free passage of the air to and from the air cylinder is not prevented, the
reciprocating movements or strokes of the piston will correspond in number with
the oscillations of the rock shaft e, and the finger b will be
moved in a corresponding degree, If however the admission of the air to the
upper part of the air cylinder be shut off the piston can not redescend, because
the pressure of the atmosphere upon its lower side holds it up against the force
of the spring. Hence, under such a circumstance, the arm f’ will no
longer descend with the toe d, and the movement of the finger b, will
be intermitted, although the toe d continues to vibrate, until the air is
again permitted to enter above the piston. The exclusion of air from the air
cylinder thus stops the movement of the feed table, and its free admission
permits the feed table to be moved forward; hence by controlling admission of
air to the cylinder the movement of the feed table is controlled in a
my apparatus the paper itself is made to control this admission of air to the
air cylinder by the following arrangement. The head of the air cylinder J is
closed, and is connected by a pipe k with a nozzle L, which extends over
the inclined pile of paper B on the feed table, and is in such a position with
respect to the other parts of the machine that when the pile of paper is in its
proper position for being fed its upper sheet bears against the end of the
nozzle, and, by preventing the free entrance of air through it to the air
cylinder, stops the descent of the piston and the movement of the finger b and
ratchet wheel E. When the nozzle is thus closed the feed table with the pile of
paper thereon remains stationary until a sufficient number of sheets have been
fed to the press to permit air to enter freely into the nozzle and thence into
the cylinder; then the piston descends sufficiently to enable the finger b to
move back the space of a ratchet tooth, and on moving forward to turn the
ratchet wheel and propel the surface of the power again toward the nozzle. When
the paper is contact with the nozzle the free exit of air from the air cylinder
is prevented by the presence of paper beneath the nozzle, hence it is necessary
to provide a means for this air to escape while the piston is moved upward; this
is effected by forming an orifice in the upper part of the air cylinder and
closing it by the spring valve I which permits the imprisoned air to
escape and prevents its reentrance.
feeding of the paper, sheet by sheet, from the pile to the position where the
fingers of the cylinder grip its forward edge, is effected by automatic hands,
K,K, which are moved alternately in the direction in which the sheet is to be
moved and alternately in the opposite direction thereto. These hands are pivoted
to the lower extremities of arms M, M, which depend from a pair of pistons
similar to that of the air cylinder J and working in a pair of air cylinders, N,
N, situated on either side of the air cylinder J. The arms are slotted to admit
the cranks o of a crankshaft t, by whose revolution these arms are
caused to vibrate to and fro in the direction in which the paper is to be fed.
The crank shaft in its revolution permits the hands K, K, to bear upon the sheet
when they are moved toward the cylinder A; as they approach the end of their
stroke in this direction the cranks in their revolution bear against the upper
ends of the slots in the arms, and, raising them, list the hands from the sheet
upon which they have been pressing. As the cranks then pass through the upper
half of their revolution they carry the arms and their hands backward over the
sheets, and drop them again, to permit the hands to press upon the paper while
the cranks are traversing the lower half to their revolution, and are moving the
hands toward the press cylinder A. As before stated each hand is pivoted to its
corresponding arm; that extremity of each hand which is nearest the cylinder is
also connected with its respective arm by a spring l which causes the
opposite, or what may be termed the finger end of the hand, to bear upon the
sheet with a yielding pressure. The crankshaft r, which passes
transversely across the frame of the apparatus, is fitted with a pulley to which
in this instance motion is imparted from a counter shaft P by means of a cord,
and the countershaft is driven in a corresponding manner from the cylinder A.
The several pulleys upon the shafts are of such relative diameters that the
crank shaft revolves many times faster than the cylinder, the capacity of the
hands for feeding the paper is very much greater than is actually required for
the purpose; and if the hands were permitted to act upon the paper the whole
time allowed by the revolution of the press cylinder, the paper would be pushed
over the cylinder and out of the machine.
order to control and regulate the action of the hands upon the paper a pair of
nozzles R, R, are projected over the cylinder, their extremities being situated
at the line to which the paper is to be fed. These nozzles are connected with
the upper parts of the air cylinders N N by pipes m so that when the
pistons descend under the actions of their respective springs the air enters
through the nozzles R, R; when these nozzles are closed, air can not enter the
upper ends of the cylinders; in the latter case the pistons will be prevented
from descending by the pressure of the atmosphere beneath them and will hold the
arms and hands in the raised positions to which they have been lifted by the
action of the cranks o. In order to guide the paper from the table to the
nozzles a pair of flap guides t, are secured to a shaft, s, in
such positions as to project immediately beneath the nozzles R, so as to direct
the edge of the paper moved by the hands against the orifice of the nozzles. The
guide shaft s is fitted with an arm by which it can be rocked so as to
raise the extremities of the guides into close contact with the orifices of the
nozzles, and thus limit the movement of the paper, or to permit them to fall by
their weight and thus free the forward edge of the paper when the fingers of the
press cylinder grip it. A slight recess is also cut in the end of each guide
immediately beneath the orifice of its appropriate nozzle so as to permit the
air to pass freely thereto. The operation of the controlling apparatus thus
described is such that when the front edge of the paper arrives beneath the
orifice of either nozzle it closes that orifice, prevents the admission of air
to the air cylinder above, and thus stops the descent of the hand upon the
paper, which is then permitted to remain stationary until the fingers of the
cylinder seize it although the hand still continues to vibrate. If the front
edge of the paper moves forward equally from end to end, both nozzles will be
closed simultaneously, and both hands will cease to act upon the paper at the
same time. If however the uniform movement of the sheets be prevented by any
accidental cause of if the paper be unevenly piled upon the table so that its
front edge moved diagonally forward, the hand appropriate to the nozzle at which
the sheet arrives first will be first prevented from dropping, while the other
hand still continues to act upon the paper. The sheet will then be turned upon
the orifice of the nozzle as the center by the action of the hand still
operating, until this hand is prevented from dropping by the arrival of the edge
of the sheet at its appropriate nozzle.
the operation of the machine it is necessary that the sheet should not be sucked
into the orifice of the nozzles and should not be touched by the hands while it
is being drawn upon the cylinder by the fingers. Both of these objects are
obtained by fitting stop cocks u into the pipes leading to the air
cylinders N N. These stop cocks are operated by arms v v which are
connected by rods n with a pair of arms p projecting from the rock
shaft e previously mentioned. This shaft is caused to rock in one
direction spring S, which is connected with one of the arms p, and the
shaft is rocked in the opposite direction to open the cocks by means of the cam
H. The cam H is set in such a position with respect to the finger shaft, z,
spring S to close the stop cocks, thus preventing the entrance of air into the
cylinders N N, as soon as the fingers y are in the position to grip the
forward edge of the sheet; and it permits the stock cocks to be kept closed
until the sheet has been entirely drawn upon the cylinder, thus preventing the
hands from dropping. When however the hinder edge of the sheet has passed the
nozzles R, the cam acting upon the lever G, opens the stop cocks and permits the
hands to act freely upon the next sheet. As the rock shaft e, which
operates the cocks, moves just when the front edge of the paper should be
released by the guides t, its motion is made use of to effect the
dropping of the guides by securing an arm w to it, and connecting this
arm by a rod w, with an arm secured to the guide shaft s. The air
cylinders N, N, are fitted with orifices and spring valves to permit the air
imprisoned in the cylinders to escape, in the same manner as described in
reference to the central air cylinder J.
the printing press to which this feeding apparatus is attached is to be put in
operation, the paper, previously dampened in the usual manner, is laid upon the
feed table B, and the latter is moved forward by turning the ratchet wheel E by
hand until the uppermost sheet closes the orifice of the nozzle L. The press is
then put to work and several parts of the feeding apparatus operate as
hereinbefore described. The hands operating upon the pile of paper propel the
sheets forward toward the press cylinder, the uppermost sheet being moved
directly by the action of the hands upon it, while the sheets beneath are moved
in a less degree by the contact with those above them, so that when the
uppermost sheet arrives at the proper position to be gripped by the fingers of
the press the next sheet is a short distance behind it, the third is a less
distance behind the second, and so on progressively to the pile. As the press
cylinder revolves its fingers seize the uppermost sheet, and as fast as one
sheet is drawn into the press the next one is moved by the hands to be drawn
upon the press cylinder at the succeeding revolution thereof.
various parts of the feeding apparatus thus described may be modified in various
ways without affecting my invention, so long as its distinctive peculiarities
are retained; my invention may also be applied to platen printing presses, to
ruling and calender machines, and to other purposes; and in such cases may
require modification to adapt it to the work to be performed, a greater number
of fingers may be employed if found advisable. Fingers may also be added to
operate at right angles to those hereinbefore mentioned, for the purpose of
giving a side register to the sheets.
thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters
Operating the hands or their equivalents which effect the feeding of the
sheet of paper in manner substantially as herein set forth so that they have a
greater capacity for moving the sheet than is necessary for the purpose.
2. I also claim controlling the operation of the hands or their equivalents upon the sheets of paper by mechanism whose operation is dependent upon the position of the sheet being fed, so that the length of time during which the hands or their equivalents are permitted to act upon each sheet of paper does not bear any fixed relation to the movements of the other parts of the printing press.
3. I also claim intermitting the operation of the hands or their equivalents upon the paper while the latter is being drawn into the press by mechanism acting substantially as herein set forth.
4. I also claim effecting the progressive movement of the pile of paper by mechanism whose operation is dependent upon the position of the pile substantially as herein set forth.
5. I also claim the combination of the flap guides and nozzles or their equivalents for stopping the movement of the forward edge of the sheet and for releasing the same in the manner hereinbefore described.
6. I also claim moving sheets of paper by automatic rubbing hands or their equivalents constructed substantially as herein set forth.
7. I also claim operating the stop cocks of the air cylinder and the flap guides by a cam or its equivalent whose movement is coincident with or bears a fixed relation to the movement of the fingers which drawn the paper into the press.
In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name.
William L. Bennem
WILLIAM BULLOCK, OF PITTSBURG PENNSYLVANIA,
ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF, CALVIN ADAMS, AND GEO. S. SELDEN OF SAME PLACE
forming part of Letters Patent No. 38,200, dated April 14, 1863
To all whom it may
Be it known that I,
WILLIAM BULLOCK, of Pittsburg, in the county of Allegheny, and State of
Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Printing
Machines; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact
My improved machine
for printing from movable type or stereotype-plates belongs to that class of
power printing-presses in which the paper is furnished to the machine in a
continuous web or roll, and by which the sheets are severed from the web,
printed on both
sides, and delivered from the machine thus “perfected.” In power
printing-machines the chief objects to be attained, besides simplicity of
construction and neatness and regularity of execution, are the perfecting of the
sheets, or printing them on both sides, without the aid of two machines, and
this by passing them once only through the press, and the attainment of the
highest degree of speed in the operation. The former result—that is, the
“reiteration” of the sheet on the same machine at one operation and without
any intermediate manipulation—has been accomplished by the use of two or more
type-cylinders and of complicated machinery for inking the forms and turning the
sheet; but the rapidity of the execution is necessarily limited by the speed
with which the blank paper can be fed in and the printed sheets delivered from
the machine, so that for want of an apparatus capable of delivering the sheets
as fast as they can be printed in the most approved machines now in use where a
high speed is attained the delivery is accomplished by the use of several
distinct delivery apparatuses involving the employment of a number of hands. In
my machine, however, there is but one delivery apparatus, which is simple in
construction and works as rapidly as the machine can be driven and the sheets
printed, so that by my invention the great obstacle to the rapid operation pf
the printing-press is successfully overcome.
In more particularly
describing my invention so as to enable those skilled in the art to makeand use
my improved machine, I desire to refer to the drawings
which accompany and form part of this specification, and which comprise fourteen
figures, marked Nos. 1 to 14, consecutively, in each of which like letters of
reference are employed to designate the same parts of the machine; but in
Figures 1 to 4, in order to avoid confusion, several of the minor parts of the
machinery are not lettered, although shown in the drawings.
Fig. 1 is a perspective representation of my improved printing machine,
viewed from the front end and left-hand side thereof. Fig. 2 is a side elevation
of my printing-machine from the left-hand side. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of my
printing-machine from the right-hand side thereof. Fig. 4 is a longitudinal
sectional elevation of my machine viewed from the right-hand side, the
frame-work being left out so as to exhibit more clearly the relative position
and operation of the parts. Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional representation of
the type-cylinders, showing, also, the arrangement and relative position and
operation of the grippers on the cutting and impression cylinders, and in the
cams by which they are worked, and the relative position and operation of the
delivering apparatus. Fig. 6 is a sectional representation of the cutting-
cylinders in the relative position which they occupy when severing a sheet of
paper from the roll. Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the small cutting-cylinder
and the large cutting-cylinder, exhibiting the position of the parts immediately
after a sheet of paper has been cut from the roll, and showing the manner in
which the sheath of the cutter presses the loose end of the paper against the
large cutting-cylinder so as to insure its being caught by the grippers as they
close. Fig. 8 is a perspective representation of the upper and lower cutters
detached from the cutting-cylinders. Fig. 9 is a side view of one of the
type-cylinders, and Fig. 10 is a longitudinal section of Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is a
perspective representation of the fly apparatus for delivering the printed
sheets, with the fly-rods raised and the curved fingers for holding the sheets
lowered. Fig. 12 is a similar view to Fig. 11, showing the position of the parts
when the fly-rods are down and the curved fingers raised. Fig. 13 is an enlarged
representation of the mechanism for shifting the delivering-table so as to
separate the sheets into piles of equal number. Fig. 14 shows the mode of
communicating the intermitting vibratory motion to the transferring ink-roller
and small distributing ink-rollers. Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, are drawn to the
same scale. The other figures are on a larger scale, so as to exhibit the
details more clearly.
In the drawings,
Figs. 1 and 2 exhibit one side of the machine, which for the sake of
distinction, I call the “left-hand” side, while Figs, 3 and 4 show the
opposite or right-hand side. The end of the machine, which is nearest to the eye
in Fig. 1 I call the “front” or “discharging” end, being that at which
the printed sheets are delivered from the press. The other end I call the
“rear” or “receiving” end, being that at which is situate the
In the drawing, A is
the frame of the machine, which is made of iron, and has parallel sides
supporting the various shafts and cylinders of the press, which are placed
horizontally between them. The upper part of the frame, at the front end, is
horizontal, and is raised a little above the rear end. Near to the center of the
machine is situate the large impression-cylinder C, which is two or more times
the diameter of the type-cylinders D D’, to which are attached the stereotype
–plates or forms of type, as the case may be.
In the drawings the
large or second impression-cyilnder, C, is three times the diameter of the
type-cylinders D D’, and the machine therefore prints three sheets of paper at
is the first impression-cylinder, the diameter of which is equal to that of the
first type-cylinder, D, with which it revolves in rolling contact to the face of
the type or stereotype-plates fixed thereon.
G is the
ink-distributing cylinder, which supplies ink to the form rollers J J, placed
between it and the first type-cylinder, D. The second impression-cylinder, C.
revolves in rolling contact with the face of the type or stereotype-plates on
the second type cylinder D’.
G is the
ink-distributing roller, which links the form-rollers J J of the second
type-cylinder, D’. Beneath each ink-distributing roller G and G’ is an
inking apparatus, consisting of an ink-fountain, K, a fountain-roller, L, and
The paper is supplied
to the machine from a continuous roll, b’, which rests against and is
unwound by a feed-roller, E. The feed-roller /e is also one of the
cutting-cylinders, which, with the other cutting-cylinder, F, by means of a
serrated cutter, cuts odd from the web sheets of paper of the required uniform
size. In front of the second or large impression-cylinder are the delivering and
counting apparatuses, by which the sheets are automatically delivered from the
machine as fast as printed, laid in piles, and counted. The cylinders
B,C,D,D’,G.G’, and E are hollow and their lengths and diameters vary in
different machines, according to the required capacity of the press, their
length determining the width of the machine. On the shaft of the second
impression-cylinder, C. but outside of the frame A, is fixed a pulley, a,(see
Fig.3,) which serves as the master-wheel, to which power is communicated from
the steam-engine or other prime motor, and from which all the other parts of the
machine having positive motion receive their movements--some by means of a train
of gearing-wheels (shown on the left-hand side of the machine in Figs. 1 and 2)
and others by belts and pulleys, as seen in Fig. 3. The gearing and pulleys to
communicate motion to the parts are attached to the shafts which they drive, and
are placed outside of the frame.
more minutely the construction and operation of the principal parts of the press
I will describe their relative motion, and how it is derived. On the shaft of
the large impression-cylinder C (at the opposite extremity from that on which is
placed the pulley a) is a large cog-wheel, W, (see Figs. 1 and 2,) which
gears into a small cog-wheel, w, which is fixed on the end of the first
impression-cylinder, B, placed vertically over the second or large
impression-cylinder, C. The cog-wheel w gears into a cog-wheel, w’,
at the extremity of the shaft of the first type-cylinder, D, placed in front of
it. The axis of the two cylinders D and E may be in the same horizontal plane.
In the rear of the large impression-cylinder C, and below the cutting-cylinders,
is the second type cylinder. D’, which carries on its shaft a cog-wheel, w4,
gearing into the cog-wheel
W, on the large impression-cylinder C. The small cog-wheels w, w’, and w4
are all of the same
diameter, being 0n-third of that of the large cog-wheel W, and consequently all
revolve at the same speed. Or thrice as fast as the large cog-wheel W. The
ink-distributing cylinders G and G’ have each a cog-wheel, w5,
which gears into an idler, x,
interposed between it and cog-wheels w’ and w4,
on the shaft of the
type-cylinders D and D’, respectively. All the cog-wheels already described
are situate in the same vertical plane. On the shaft of the first-impression cylinder, B, on the right-hand side of
the machine, is a cog-wheel, y, (which takes into a large toothed wheel, y’,
of twice the diameter of the cog-wheel y,) fixed to the end of the
shaft of the large cutting-cylinder E, which causes the cutting-cylinder E to
revolve once for two revolutions of the first impression-cylinder, B.
This gearing is placed on the right-hand side of the machine, while the
rest of the gearing is o the other side, because the large cutting-cylinder E is
not quite twice the diameter of the first impression-cylinder, for the reason
hereinafter explained, and the small cutting-cylinder F is one-half the diameter
of the large cutting-cylinder E. At the other end of the shaft of the large
cutting-cylinder E, on the left-hand side of the machine, is a large toothed
wheel, w2, which
gears into a small cog-wheel, w3,
(of half the diameter of the
at the end of the shaft of the small cutting-cylinder F, so as to cause it to
revolve twice for each revolution of the large cutting-cylinder E. The cog-wheel
the large cutting-cylinder E, does not take into the cog-wheel w on the
first impression-cylinder, B. Immediately beneath the small cutting-cylinder F,
at the base of the standards c c, which support it in the frame A, is a
shaft, d, placed horizontally across the machine, and turning freely in
bearings in the standards c c. Near to each end of the shaft d, and
rigidly attached to it, are two arms, e e, which are curved upward and
forward over the small cutting-cylinder F, as seen in Fig. 3. In a slot in an
extremity of each of the arms e e is placed the axis of the wooden spool
b, around which is wound the roll of printing-paper b’ which
is to be fed into the machine. The spool b turns freely on the rod which
forms its shaft or axis, the ends of which also turn in slotted bearings at the
extremity of the arms e e , so that there shall be no obstruction to the
free unwinding of the paper. As the extremity of the arms e e, carrying
the spool of paper b’, when in the position shown in Fig, 3,
extend considerably forward of the shaft d, to which they are attached,
the spool of paper will rest against the surface of the large cutting-cylinder
E, which serves as a feed-roller, and thus prevents the spool unwinding more
rapidly than it is caused to do by the rotation of the cylinder E, over which it
passes the paper being wound on its spool in one continuous web or sheet. If the
roll of paper is large and heavy, its weight pressing against the large
cutting-cylinder E, which operates as a feed-roller, would be greater than
necessary to secure the requisite degree of pressure to keep the paper tight as
it is unwound from the spool, and the consequence will be that the paper will
unwind on as well as off the spool, and thus become loose around it. The
arrangement hereinbefore described of attaching the arms e e, which carry
the spool of paper b’, to the shaft d, below and only a little
in the rear of the cylinder E, on which the spool rests, not only relieves the
cylinder E, of much of the weight of the roll of paper, but also performs the
very important purpose of preserving a uniform degree of pressure ass the roll
of paper diminished in size and weight. It is obvious that the more the axis of
the spool of paper is inclined from a vertical position to the shaft d the
greater will be the proportion of its weight borne by the cutting-cylinder E and
the less by the shaft d. As the paper is unwound from the roll its
diameter is gradually diminished and its weight is proportionally reduced, and,
as it is leaning against the cutting-cylinder E, the angle of inclination from a
vertical position is increased as the axis of the spool approaches nearer to the
periphery of the cutting-cylinder. Thus, although the actual weight of the roll
of paper is gradually diminished, the proportionate amount of the weight borne
by the cylinder is gradually increased, so that the actual pressure on the
cylinder remains very nearly if not quite the same when the spool is full as
when it is nearly empty. If, therefore, such a degree of pressure of the spool
of paper against the large cutting-cylinder or feed-roller E as will cause it to
feed regularly, without loosening the paper on the spool, is secured when the
spool is placed on the machine, it will thereafter require no further
adjustment. To effect this adjustment I extend from the shaft d a lever, f,
which is rigidly attached thereto. On this lever or arm f is a
weight, g, which may be slid backward and forward and fastened at any
desired point on the lever f. The
weight g thus serves as a counter-balance to the roll of paper, and by it
the pressure of the roll of paper on the feed-roller or cylinder E may be so
adjusted as that it will unwind from the spool by the motion of its feed-roller
at each revolution there-of a length of paper exactly equal to the periphery of
the feed-roller or large cutting-cylinder E, without loosening the paper
remaining on the spool.
The size of the
separate sheets of paper printed on the machine is regulated by the periphery of
the large cutting-cylinder E, which serves as a
feed-roller, as just stated, and which, in the machine shown in the
drawings, severs from the web two sheets of equal size at each revolution. As
the periphery of the first impression-cylinder, B, is more than half that of the
large cutting-cylinder E, each sheet does not entirely surround the first
impression-cylinder, B, the difference being equal to the space desired to the
left between the edge of the several sheets in their passage through the
machine. The paper, being thus fed in the positive motion of the large
cutting-cylinder E, passes downwards in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 5,
lying close to the surface of the cylinder E until it is severed by the blade of
the cutter in the small cutting-cylinder f, as hereinafter described, when the
loose end of the web from which a sheet has been cut is immediately seized by
the grippers or curved finders h h in the large cutting-cylinder E, by
which it is held until it is severed from the web, when it reaches the first
impression-cylinder, B, the grippers on which seize it and carry it
forward. On the large cutting-cylinder E, whose diameter is twice that of the
small cutting-cylinder F, and the periphery of which is equal in length to two
sheets of paper to be printed on the machine, there are two sets of grippers, h,
which are placed diametrically opposite to each other, and the construction
and operation of which will be presently described. The large cutting-cylinder E
has also two sets of female cutters, also placed diametrically opposite to each
other, and in such relative position to the grippers h that when the
grippers are closed they pass over the female cutter, holding fast the forward
end of the paper which is being fed into the machine, and from which a sheet has
been severed. The female cutters are set in such position that in the revolution
of the machine each will in turn coincide with the male cutter on the small
cutting-cylinder F, to sever a sheet; and the two sets of grippers on the first
impression-cylinder, B, that they will each in turn coincide with the single set
of grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B. As the large cutting-cylinder E
revolves with the roll of paper resting against it. it unwinds the paper onto
itself, which, passing down between the
two cutting-cylinders E and F, is cut off when the length of a single sheet has
passed between them; the immediately the grippers in front of the female cutter
seize the forward end of the paper, carrying it round until they reach the
grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B, which seize the sheet just as the
grippers on the cutting-cylinder E release it, and carry the sheet away to be
printed by the first type-cylinder, D. As the paper is seized by the grippers on
the first impression-cylinder, B., it is severed from the web between the
cutters, as before described. Grippers, similar to those in the upper
cutting-cylinder, E, are used also in the two impression-cylinders B and C for
the purpose of seizing the paper at the right time and carrying it forward
through the machine, and in each case are similarly constructed. They are
rigidly attached at intervals to rods k, which are placed horizontally
below the surface of the hollow cylinders B,C, and E. their construction and
arrangement is shown is Fig, 6. the surface of the cylinders is intermitted
where they occur, to allow them to retire inside the cylinder. The extremity of
each of the grippers rests on a pad, i, (see Fig. 4,) so as to hold the
paper firmly. The gripper-rod has a
crank at one end, projecting from the end of the cylinder, on which crank is a
small roller, j, (see Fig.5,) which, as the cylinder revolves, works
between cam-guides l, attached to the frame of the machine, this opening
or closing the grippers at the right point of time. A spring, s, has on
its free end a small roller, which enters a groove in a shoulder or projection
on the gripper-shaft in each set, and serves to retain the grippers open or
closed until moved by the cam and crank.
Fig. 5 serves to
illustrate the operation of the grippers on the cylinders B, C, and E, as
effected by the cam-guides, the arrows indicating the direction in which these
cylinders revolve, the dotted lines the path of the roller at the end of the
crank of each of the gripper-rods, and the blue lines the sheets of paper as
they are seized, held, and carried round by the grippers.
In Fig. 5 each of the
grippers marked h, h2,
is closed, and has hold of a
sheet of paper, and the grippers h’ are open, having released the
paper. The grippers h’ on the large cutting-cylinder E (see Fig.5)
close, and seize the loose-end of the paper at the moment when the cam-roller j
has passed between the cam-guides l l , and hold it, carrying it round
until the edge of the paper held by the grippers h’ comes within reach
of the grippers h2 on
the first impression-cylinder, b, which takes place when the cam-roller j on
the gripper h2 passes
through the cam-guides l2,
at which moment the grippers
on the upper cutting-cylinder release the paper, and those on the first
impression-cylinder seize it, carrying it round, as shown in Fig, 5, in front
of, and in rolling contact with , the first type-cylinder, D, by which the sheet
is printed in white, or on one side only. So soon as the length of paper drawn
forward by the cylinders E and B is equal to the required length of sheet, it is
severed from the roll by the
cutters in the cutting-cylinders E and F. One of the cutting-cylinders, it
matters not which, carries a steel blade, m, (see Figs. 7 and 8,) which
has serrated edges, and which is fastened to a back plate, n. Parallel to
the back plate, and attached thereto by pins
p and springs q, is a face-plate, r, composes of two
strips, which slide up and down on the pins p p on either side of the
serrated cutter, and which, when raised by the springs q q, inclose the
edge of the cutter between them. The steel blade, with its shield or face-p[late,
is set in either of the cutting-cylinders, (in the drawings it is placed in the
small cylinder F,) so that the edge of the cutter shall project beyond the
periphery of the cutting-cylinder and enter a grooved plate, t, set in
the other cutting-cylinder in a roper relative position to the blade of the
cutter. On either side of the groove in the plate t is a strip of
India-rubber cloth, u, or other similar substance, between which and the
face-plate, on either side of the cutter, m, the paper may be held while
the cutter enters it to sever the sheet. When, in the revolution of the
cutting-cylinders, the sheath or face-plate of the cutter m comes in
contact with the projecting India-rubber strips on the opposite cylinder, the
sheath or face-plate r is depressed into the groove of the
cutting-cylinder, and the teeth of the cutter enter the paper far enough to
sever so much of the piece of paper as has passed between the cutting-cylinders
from the web behind it, the paper being held so firmly by the India-rubber
strips u u as to prevent its being forced up into the slot, instead of
being cut. As might otherwise be the case. Another and very important function
of the sheath or face-plate r in the cylinder carrying the male cutter,
when, as in my machine, one if the cutting-cylinders performs the work of a
“layer-on”—that is, carries the sheet of paper forward and delivers it to
the impression cylinder to be printed—is that of pressing the loose end of the
paper against the large cutting-cylinder or feed-roller E, so as to insure its
being caught by the grippers as they close. This operation is exhibited in Fig.
7. As the piece of paper which is being unwound from
the web or spool b’ passes down in contact with the face of the
large cutting-cylinder E, by its revolution it passes between the
cutting-cylinders E and F an unbroken sheet, until the male cutter comes in
contact with the female cutter as in Fig. 6. The paper is then cut, and the end
of the paper from which the sheet has been severed would hang down
perpendicularly, away from the face of the cylinder E, so that as the grippers h
close immediately after the sheet is severed they would strike under and not
over the edge of the paper, and thus fail to seize it, were it nor pressed
toward the large cutting-cylinder E. as the male cutting apparatus passes round
after severing the sheet, the sheath-pieces r are pressed outward by the
springs q q, as before described, and in so doing the upper one of the
presses the loose end of the sheet from the small cutting-cylinder F toward the
face of the large cutting-cylinder /e just as the grippers h are closing,
and thus they effectually prevent the sheet escaping the grippers, ass it
otherwise would do. The grippers or curved fingers h in the
impression-cylinders C and B, and in the large cutting-cylinder E, although they
are set on rods placed within the periphery of the perspective cylinders, yet in
opening and closing their points describe an arc of a circle outside of the
circumference of the cylinders; and as these grippers h in the
impression-cylinders B and C operate at the point where the peripheries of those
cylinders almost touch each other, they are not placed exactly in juxtaposition,
but each gripper a little to one side of the corresponding gripper in the other
cylinder, and openings are left in each of the cylinders C and B to allow the
grippers to pass. In the case of the large cutting-cylinder E, however, the
grippers h, in the first impression-cylinder, B, operate when exactly
opposite to the female cutting apparatus or grooved plate t, and as it is
necessary that this grooved plate t
should extend uninterruptedly across the face of the large
cutting-cylinder E, parallel to its axis, so that the paper may be cut entirely
across, it is necessary to make special provision for the passage outward of the
grippers h in the first impression-cylinder, B, when seizing the sheet
from the large cutting-cylinder E. This I accomplish by making the grooved plate
t in sections, as seen in Fig. 8, and inserting two small sections, o’
o’, opposite to the point where the grippers h in the first
impression-cylinder are situate. These small sections o’ o’ of the
grooved plate t are attached to a rod or shaft, z, extending
across and inside of the large cutting-cylinder E, parallel to its axis, by
means of the short arms j’ j’. These small sections o’ o; are a little wider than
the fingers h in the first impression-cylinder, b, so that when the rod z
is turned they recede and leave an opening in the face of the cylinder E and
through the grooved plate t, to allow of the opening and closing of the
grippers h in the first impression-cylinder B. The sections o’ o’ have
India-rubber pads on either side of the groove or slot, into which the
cutter-blade m enters , and, when in place, form, with the pieces t t,
a continuous strip, groove, and pad, The rod z, which causes the
sections o’ o’ to recede and rise again, is operated simultaneously
with the grippers h in the large cutting-cylinder E by motion
communicated from the gripper-rod k, which is worked, as before stated,
by a crank passing between cam-guides l. This simultaneous motion is
effected by a cam, v, which, when the grippers in the large
cutting-cylinder e are thrown open, (as they always are when the paper is being
severed by the cutters, see Fig. 6), presses up against a short lever, a’,
at the end of the rod z, and turn it so as to force the sections o’
up into place between the strips t t, but when the grippers h
close the cam v drops down,
releases the short lever a’, to turn the rod z so as to cause
the sections o’ o’ to recede into the cylinder E, as before stated.
The points of the grippers h in the large impression-cylinder rest, when
closed, on the face of the India-rubber strips u on the face of the
grooved plate t, which performs the same office of giving the grippers a
good hold on the paper as does the pad I in the impression-cylinder. In
case the grippers on the cutting-cylinder E should fail to seize hold of the
paper by any accident, the paper instead of being carried to the first
impression-cylinder, B, will pass between the cutting-cylinders downward and
fall on the apron or blanket I, placed under the cutting cylinders e and F, and
above the second type-cylinder. D’, and its inking apparatus, and when severed
by the cutters will drop down and be out of the way. The same thing will occur
in case of any break in the paper—the scrap will thus pass off, instead of
going through and perhaps clogging up the machine. The type-cylinders D and
D’, which are of equal diameter and similar construction, are adapted either
for movable type or stereo-type plates, or for a combination of both, as shown
in the drawings. (See Figs. 9 and 10.) The space or depression S in the
circumference of the type-cylinders occurs at the point which will come opposite
to the grippers in the impression-cylinders B and C, with which they revolve in
rolling contact, which gives free space for the grippers to pass, as they always
project slightly from the face of the cylinder. When the sheet of paper thus
severed from the roll has been carried by the first impression-cylinder, B, in
front of the first type-cylinder, D, and been printed in white, it is carried
round, in the direction indicated by the arrow on the cylinder B in Fig. 5 until
it reaches the second impression-cylinder, C, which is placed immediately below
the first impression-cylinder, B, and very nearly touches it. This second
impression-cylinder is similar in construction to the first, except that it is
larger, being two, three, or more times the diameter of the other, as may be
desired. The size of this second impression-cylinder determines the capacity of
the machine, which will print on both sides, at each revolution of this
cylinder, as many sheets as the second contains diameters of the first
impression-cylinder. In the drawings of the second impression-cylinder is three
times the size of the first, and is calculated to receive and print at one
revolution three sheets of paper. The principal object of this increased size of
the second impression-cylinder is to reduce the liability to set off of the ink
from the printed sheet to the impression-surface of the cylinder, and from the
cylinder back to the printed sheet. The impression-cylinders B and C are hollow,
and their surface is covered with felt or other blankets in the usual way, the
first impression-cylinder, B, having only one blanket, and the second
impression-cylinder, C, having three--that is, one for each impression surface.
The sheet of paper, having been printed in white on the first impression-cylinder, B, by the type or stereo-type
plates of the first type-cylinder, D, as before described, is carried round to
the second impression-type cylinder to receive reiteration. There are three sets
of grippers, h, h2,
h’, on the second
impression-cylinder, C, placed at equal distances apart, and in such relative
situation to the grippers h2
on the first impression-cylinder, B, that on each revolution of the first
cylinder, B, its grippers come exactly opposite to one set of grippers in the
second cylinder, C, so that, as the cylinders B and C run in the direction
indicated by the arrow in Fig. 5, the gripper h2
on the cylinder B will release the sheet of paper just as the grippers h2
on the cylinder C seize hold of it. The sheet, thus held, is carried forward by
the second impression-cylinder, C, as shown in Fig. 5, so as to pass in contact
with the second revolving type-cylinder, D’, which prints it on the other
side. As the circumference of the first impression-cylinder, B, is exactly
contained a certain number of times in the large impression-cylinder C, it is
obvious that each sheet of paper delivered to the large cylinder C is received
by a different set of grippers and lies on a different portion of the surface of
that cylinder to its predecessor, and therefore the blankets on the large
cylinder are less frequently used, and are less exposed to set-off than they
would be if the two impression-cylinders were of equal size. The sheets thus
printed on both sides pass round under the large impression-cylinder, as seen in
Fig. 5, to the delivering apparatus at the front end of the machine. As the
sheets are held in front by the grippers and are pressed close to the second
impression-cylinder by the type-cylinder, and the motion of the
impression-cylinder C is very rapid, there is probability of the rear of loose
end of the sheet falling down; but, to prevent this, an apron composed of a
number of curved strips of iron, e’, (see Fig. 4,) is placed near to
and parallel with the under side of the large impression-cylinder C, which
serves to guard the sheet and prevent its wrinkling as it passes underneath the
second impression-cylinder, C.
Before describing the
apparatus used for delivering and counting the printed sheets, I will explain
the construction and operation of the inking apparatus. Connected with each of
the type-cylinders D and D’ is a separate inking apparatus placed in front of
the first type-cylinder, D, and in the rear of the second type-cylinder, D’.
As these inking apparatuses are alike in construction and similarly connected
with their respective type cylinders, a description of one set will suffice, the
other set being marked with the same letters in the drawings. At the distance of
few inches from the type cylinder D or D’, and diametrically opposite to its
impression-cylinder B or C, is the ink-distributing cylinder G, which may be of
the same diameter as the type-cylinder, and moves in the same direction and with
the velocity, having a toothed wheel, w5,
on its shaft, of similar size and number of cogs as the cog-wheel w4
on the type-cylinder, an idler, x, being placed between them to
communicate motion from one to the other. Between
the type-cylinder D and the ink-distributing-cylinder G are two form rollers, J
J, which have no positive motion of their own, but revolve on their axels by
rolling contact with the type-cylinder D and ink-distributor G. These form-rollers ink the type as the type-cylinder revolves
in contact with them. The degree of pressure of these rollers against the face
of the type is regulated by bringing their bearings nearer together on the
standards f’ by screws or otherwise, and thus pressing them more
closely against the cylinders D and G. Beneath the ink-distributor is the ink
fountain K, containing the printing-ink, and partially immersed therein is a
cylindrical fountain roller or ductor, L, of the same length as the ink
distributor G. A scraper, g’, (see Figs. W and 4.) attached to the
sides of the ink-fountain K, extends parallel to the ductor, in contact with it
throughout its entire length, so as to scrape off the superfluous ink which
attaches to the ductor as it revolves in the ink-fountain. The ductor is
revolved by means of a cord passed around a pulley, k’, (see Fig. 1,)
placed at the end of the shaft of the ink-distributing cylinder G, on the
right-hand side of the machine so as not to interfere with the gearing on the
other side, and thence around a pulley, n’, on a short shaft, p’,
which carries a small pinion, i’, (see Fig. 3,) gearing into a
cog-wheel, m’, at one end of the ductor-roller L. Thus the motion of
the ink-distributing cylinder G gives a much slower motion to the ductor-roller,
the relative degree of which may be changed by altering the position of the cord
on the cone-pulleys n’ and k’, which have two or more grooves
of different diameters. Between the ink-distributing cylinder G and ductor L is
interposed a transferring ink-roller, N, which is a cylinder of small diameter
and the same length as the ductor L and distributing cylinder G, and which has
its bearings at the extremity of the short arms r’ r’, one on each
side of the machine. On the right
hand of the machine the arm r’ is bent at right angles, the center of motion
being in the angle, the long arm projecting upward against the face of the disk
M’ and pivoted to it, as seen in Fig. 14. so as to be vibrated by the motion
of the disk M’, as hereinafter explained. This transferring-roller N vibrates
between the ink-distributing cylinder and ductor at each revolution of the large
impression-cylinder, being in contact with the ductor L during about one-half of
the revolution, and with the ink-distributing cylinder G during the other
half-revolution, as seen in Fig. 4, where the transferring–roller N is in one
position in the inking apparatus at one end of the machine and in the other
position at the other end. In order to spread the ink more finely and evenly
over the surface of the ink-distributing cylinder G, a number of small
distributing –rollers, t’ t’, are arranged longitudinally over the
upper part of the distributing cylinder, parallel to, but not touching, each
other. These small distributing-rollers have a lateral play of an inch or two,
as well as a revolving motion on their axes, and are therefore not quite so long
as the ink- distributing cylinder., so that the may move to and fro in the
direction of their axes. The shafts of these small rollers have their journals
in standards s’ s’, &c., forming the bearings for the journals of
these small distributing-rollers, are attached to theses disks M and M’, by
screws, so that they can be raised or lowered to regulate the pressure of the
rollers t’ t’ on the distributing –cylinder G. The purpose of
giving one of the disks, M on each ink-distributing cylinder a slight motion on
its axis is to shift the shafts of the rollers t’ out of parallelism to
the axis of the cylinder, so as to give them an inclination first in one
direction and then in the other, but all the time keeping the surface of the
rollers t’ t’, &c., in contact with that of the distributing
–cylinder G, which produces the effect of causing them to move sidewise to and
fro along the ink-distributing cylinder, while they are revolving on their axes.
This motion of the two disks M’, in the right-hand side of the machine, which
produces the longitudinal vibration of the small distributing-rollers t’
and transferring-roller N, is effected by means of the rods q’ and q2,
the former of which, q’, is pivoted to the moving disk M’ at the
front end of the machine, and the latter, q2,
is pivoted to the moving disk M’. at the rear end of the machine, the rod q2
being curved so as to avoid the second type cylinder D’. These rods q’ q2
are connected at z’ to the freed end of the lever-arm T, which is
pivoted at z2 to
the frame of the machine. On the lever-arm T is a projecting pin or roller,
which enters an eccentric slotted cam, V’, on the axis of the pulley a
on the second impression-cylinder, C, so that on every revolution of the
cylinder C the lever-arm T and the rods q’ q2
are moved backward and
forward, and communicate their motion to the disks M’ M’. Around the second
impression-cylinder, C, there are placed several endless tapes, u’ u’, which
pass over (but not around) a series of disks, P, on a horizontal shaft, v’,
placed in front of the second impression-cylinder, C, and a little above its
lowest point, and thence pass around a series of pulleys, Q, by which they are
kept tightly stretched, so as to press upon the periphery of the disks P. As the
printed sheets of paper on the second impression-cylinder, C, are outside of the
tapes, and are brought round under the cylinder C to the point where the tapes
leave the cylinder C and pass over the disks P, they are carried by tapes
away from the impression-cylinder C, over the disks P and under the tapes as
seen in Fig. 5, the cam-guide l3
being so situate and adjusted as to open the grippers and release the forward
end of the sheet of paper just as to the point where the tapes u’ u’ leave
the circumference of the cylinder C. Immediately
in front of the tape-disks P us a horizontally delivering-roller, R, which has
an intermitting rotary motion communicated to it by the mechanism for separating
the sheets into piles, as hereinafter described. The grippers having released
the paper, and the forward edge of it having passed on to the disks P, it is
carried forward between the tapes u’ and disks P until the rear end
drops onto the surface of the delivering-roller R, being struck down by the
points of the fly-rods X, as in Fig 12. Just as the fly-rods X strike down the
rear end of the sheet , the curved fingers a2
rise up over the edge of the sheet held down by the fly-rods, and, as the
fly-rods rise immediately, the curved fingers fall on the sheet, holding it down
to the surface of the delivering-roller. This operation is repeated every time
the rear edge of a sheet of paper comes within reach of the ends of the
fly-rods. The intermitting rotation of the delivering-roller R prevents the
accumulation of sheets of paper thereon, and drops them down on the
delivering-table Z at the front end of the machine, the tapes u’, which
are extended over this table, keeping the sheets smooth and even. The fly-rods X
are much shorter than those ordinarily used in printing-machines, and as they
are only required to strike down the sheets as they pass under their points, and
hold them down while the curved fingers rise and fall again over the edge of the
sheets, the stroke of the fly may be very short and rapid. The fly-rods are
rigidly attached to the horizontal fly-shaft, d2,
(see Figs. 11 and 12,) and are so situate that the tips of the rods can strike
the periphery of the delivering-roller R, as in Fig, 12. One end of the fly-rod
has a short crank pivoted to a connecting-rod, c2,
the upper extremity of which is pivoted to an arm, d2,
(see Fig. 3,) from which projects a pin into a slotted eccentric cam, e2,
attached to the extremity of the shaft of the ink-distributing cylinder G, the
slotted cam e2
being so shaped as to leave the fly-rods raised up from the delivering-roller,
ass seen in Fig. 11., during the entire revolution of the ink-distributing
cylinder, excepting for a moment, when they are suddenly struck down to the
position shown in Fig. 12, and then as suddenly raised again. The curved fingers
made of steel, their points being elastic and turning up slightly, so as to
press on the paper and hold it firmly without tearing it. They are rigidly
attached to the finger-shaft f2,
placed horizontally across the machine under the disk-shaft v’, which
carries the tape-disks P, but so that the curved fingers pass from the rear of
the shaft of the tape-disks over it, and press on the delivering-roller R right
in front of it, as seen in Fig. 5. The curved fingers are connected with and
attached to the slotted eccentric-cam e2
by a connecting-rod, g2,
and arm h2,
in like manner as the fly-rods are, but the pins on arms d2
which united in the slotted cam e2,
are so relatively situate that the fly-rods strike down just as the curved
fingers rise, and rise just as the curved fingers fall, so that during the
remainder of the revolution of the slotted cam e2
the curved fingers are pressed down and the fly-rods are elevated, as in Fig.
11. Fig. 12 shows the position of these parts just as the rear end of a sheet of
paper has left the tape-disks. It is only the rear end of the sheet of paper
that is acted upon by the fly-rods and curved fingers, and that just as it is
about to leave the machine, which is one reason why, by this apparatus, they can
be delivered so rapidly. As the fly-rods and fingers are operated once on every
revolution of the in-distributing cylinder, which revolves exactly three times
as fast as the large impression-cylinder C, the three sheets printed on every
revolution of the cylinder C are thereby passed out of the machine and piled
rapidly on the table Z. The delivering-table Z is placed at the front end of the
machine, near the ground and under the tapes u’.
it is supported at the four corners on spiral springs i2,
resting on a base board k2.
(See Figs. 2 and 3.) It is connected with a mechanism by which the table is
shifted first to one side and then to the other, at regular intervals, remaining
at rest between each shift, so that the printed sheets are laid in piles of any
required number, each alternate pile overlapping the edge of the other an inch
or two, as seen in Fig. 1, thus counting and separating the sheets mechanically.
The base-board k2
of the delivering-table is supported by two transverse rods, j2
j2, (see Fig. 4,) on which
it slides sidewise. Attached to the
frame, on a level with the base-board, is a bent lever, m2,
having its turning-point at n2.
(See Fig. 1.) To one arm of this lever m2
the base-board of the table Z is connected by a rod, p2,
and the other arm of the lever m2
is connected by a rod, q2,
with the lower extremity of a cam-yoke, r2.
This cam-yoke is pivoted to the frame at s2.
Inside of the cam-yoke r2,
and attached to the projecting extremity of the shaft or axis V of the
delivering-roller R, revolves a cam, t2,
with one projection or operating-point, which, when the cam completes each
half-revolution, pushes the cam-yoke, acting through the lever m2,
slides the base board k2
and table Z sidewise suddenly to and fro, with a period of rest between each
sidewise motion, the length of this period of rest determining the number of
sheets which will be delivered on each separate file before the table is shifted
and a new pile commenced. On the left side of the machine the shaft of the
delivering-roller R projects beyond the frame A. and on it, alongside of the cam
are placed two ratchet-wheels, u2
the former of which, u2,
is loose on its axis and turns without revolving the shaft, while the latter, v2,
is rigidly attached to its shaft and causes it to revolve when it is turned. Each ratchet-wheel has ten teeth. The diameter of the loose
id greater than that of the tight ratchet-wheel v2,
while the depth of the teeth in each is the same, excepting that one only of the
ratchet-teeth in the loose wheel u2
is cut so deep as to cause the pawl x2,
working in the teeth in the loose wheel, u2,
and extending over the right ratchet-wheel v2,
to sink deep enough to take into whichever of the teeth of the tight
may be in the range therewith. Thus, when the pawl x2
has turned the loose ratchet-wheel u2
one complete revolution, it will have turned the tight ratchet-wheel v2
one tooth, and with it the shaft of the delivering-roller R one-tenth of a
revolution. This contrivance is shown in Fig. 13, where it will be seen that the
enters the teeth in the ratchet-wheel u2,
but does not reach the teeth in the ratchet-wheel v2,
but that at one point on the wheel u2
there is a tooth cut deeper than the rest, which allows the pawl x2
to reach them. The arm y2
carries the pawl x3,
and is pivoted to the connecting-rod a3,the
other extremity of which is attached to a pin on the cog-wheel w5
on the first ink-distributing cylinder, G, so that on each revolution of the
ink-distributing cylinder the connecting rod a3
and arm y2
rise and fall, causing the pawl x2
to turn the loose ratchet-wheel u2
one tooth and as the
ink-distributing cylinder revolves once for each sheet printed on the machine,
the ratchet-wheel u2
will revolve once, and the ratchet-wheel v2
will advance one tooth, when ten papers are printed and delivered, and the
and cam t2
will complete a revolution when one hundred papers are printed and delivered;
but, as the cam t2
moves the delivering-table Z to one side on each half-revolution which it makes,
it will do so every time that fifty sheets are printed and delivered.
As all the main cylinders in the machine, excepting the second
impression-cylinder, C, and the feed-roller E and delivering-roller R, make one
complete revolution for every sheet printed and delivered, it is obvious that a
counting apparatus may be easily attached to any of these wheels.
constructed as described, may be safely run at a speed of six thousand
revolutions per hour, and where the second impression-cylinder is three times
the diameter of the type cylinders (as in the drawings) will print on both
sides, deliver, and count eighteen thousand sheets of newspapers or other
printed matter in an hour, and this without other attention than is necessary to
supply a fresh roll when the paper is expended, and to remove the piles of
printed paper from the delivering-table, which is an amount of work with only
one feeding and delivering apparatus for exceeding anything which has hitherto
been accomplished in the history of printing machines.
Having thus described
my improvements in letter-printing machines and the mode of carrying the same
into effect, what I consider to be new therein, and claim as my invention, and
desire to secure Letters Patent, is—
The feeding of the paper into the printing-machine from a continuous roll
or web by means of a feed-roller revolving in contact with the paper-roll, which
rests against it.
Hanging the shaft of the spool or axis of the roll of paper in bearings
at one extremity of two arms, which are rigidly attached at their other
extremity to a shaft, which is left free to turn on its axis in a fixed bearing,
whereby the roll of paper is kept in an accurately horizontal position at right
angles to the path of the paper through the machine.
Placing the bearings of the arms which carry the spool of paper below,
but not directly under. The feed-roller, so that, being slightly inclined toward
the feed-roller, the roll of paper will press with a portion only of its weight
thereon, in order that the angle of inclination may be gradually increased by
the diminution in size of the roll of paper as it is unwound from the spool, and
thus, although its weight is continually decreasing, the relative degree of
pressure on the feed-roller may be correspondingly increased, and thereby a
uniform actual pressure be maintained.
The use of a counterpoise so connected with the shaft and arms which
carry the spool of paper as that, by adjusting the counter-poise, the degree of
pressure on the feed-roller of the roll of paper can be so regulated as to cause
the paper to unwind onto the feed-roller without the roll of paper on the spool
becoming loosened, as it would do were the whole or too great a proportion of
the weight of a large roll of paper allowed to press upon the feed-roller.
Combining in one the feed-roller and one of the cutting-cylinders,
substantially as hereinbefore described.
The use of the grippers or other equivalent device for seizing the sheets
of paper on the feed-roller, and thereby causing it to carry the sheets of paper
directly to the first impression-cylinder, substantially as described.
Transferring the sheets of paper from a feed-roller, moving at a slower
speed, to the impression-cylinder, or that device which carries the sheets
forward from the cutters to the type-cylinder, moving at a higher speed, by
means of a pair of grippers on the feed-roller and on the impression-cylinder,
without the use of tapes or other similar device for that purpose, and thus
leaving a space between the sheets of paper as they pass through the machine,
without checking of intermitting the feed.
The use of a set of grippers on one of the cutting-cylinders, which are
opened and closed by a stationary cam, or other equivalent device, by means of
which such cutting –cylinder also performs the work of a “layer on,”
seizing the end of the paper before it is severed from the web, and carrying it
round to the point of contact of such cutting-cylinder with the first
impression-cylinder, which latter takes the sheet as the cutting-cylinder yields
it up, the cutter on the male cutting-cylinder severing the paper when a sheet
of sufficient length has passed between the cutting-cylinders.
The employment of a yielding sheath, consisting of two strips, placed one
o each side of a serrated cutter,
for the purpose of holding the paper firmly against the edges of the slot in the
female cutting-cylinder while the cutter is severing a sheet of paper from the
web, and also for the purpose of pressing the loose end of the web or uncut
sheet, as it passes between the cutting-cylinders immediately after the sheet
which has just been severed there from, toward the opposite cutting-cylinder
until the grippers on the cutting-cylinder seize hold of it, and thus preventing
the paper from passing down out of the reach of the grippers.
Permitting the escape from the machine of any pieces of paper which the
grippers on the large cutting-cylinder fail to take hold of, or of any part of a
sheet which may be torn from the web, by leaving a free passage between the
large cutting-cylinder and the first impression-cylinder, so that such scrap
will fall away when severed from the web by the cutter without being seized by
the grippers on the first impression-cylinder, or being carried any further
through the machine, thus preventing the clogging of the machine and removing a
fruitful source of annoyance and delay in the operation and damage to the
Transferring the sheet of paper after it is printed in white immediately
from the first to the second impression-cylinder by means of the grippers placed
on the second impression-cylinder, which seize the sheet of paper just as the
grippers on the first impression-cylinder release it, without the use of tapes,
cylinders, or other mechanical device not contained in the impression-cylinders
for that purpose, substantially as described.
The use of a scrap-blanket or apron interposed between the cutting
apparatus and the type-cylinder and inking apparatus, to prevent any dust or
scraps of paper from falling on the type or inking cylinders.
The delivering apparatus, consisting of short fly-rods, having a rapid
stroke in a small arc up and down, so as to strike the rear end of the printed
sheets as they pass from the machine, in combination with the curved fingers for
holding the rear end of the sheets during the upstroke of the fly-rods and until
their downstroke, and of a roller to receive the stroke of the fly-rods and the
pressure of the curved fingers and by an intermitting rotation to pass the
sheets forward when released by both fly-rods and curves fingers, or other
equivalent device, by which the paper is arrested at its rear end on its passage
from the machine, whereby a very rapid delivery of the sheers is effected.
The use of a
delivering-table for the reception of the printed sheets beneath and in the rear
of the delivering apparatus, which table remains stationary during the delivery
pf the printed sheets, until a certain number—say, fifty or one hundred—have
been deposited upon it, when it suddenly moves an inch or two to one side, and
is again stationary until it moves back again, and so on, alternating from side
to side for the purpose of counting and separating the sheets into piles of any
required number, substantially in the manner hereinbefore described.
alternating lateral movement to the small ink-distributing rollers on the face
of the large ink-distributing cylinder by giving a simultaneous reciprocating
motion to one end of their bearings, for the purpose of securing a more perfect
and uniform distribution of the ink.
BULLOCK, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA
Patent No. 61,996, dated February 12, 1867
IMPROVEMENTS IN PRINTING PRESSES
Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same
ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:
Be it known that I, William Bullock , of the city of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful improvement in Printing Presses, for discharging sheets.
Figure 1 represents a top view of my improvement,
Figure 2 is a side view.
Figure 3, a detached view of the cam.
To enable others skilled in the art to make and use my improvements, I
will proceed to describe the construction and operation.
The object of my improvement is the removing of sheets of printed paper
from rotary presses and piling them rapidly.
It consists of a roller or cylinder, A, which may be the printing
cylinder or additional cylinder having a set of vibrating nippers, B B, which
nippers close upon the sheet either before or after it has been printed, and
carry it forward in the direction of the arrow until the sheet reaches the two
endless leather of India-rubber belts or bands, C and D, which have a series of
teeth or ribs, e e’ e’’ e’’’, &c., on their inner
surface, which fit into indentations or slots, f f’ f’’’ f’’’, on
the pulleys F and G. On the outer surface are two or more nippers, h h,
working on small spindles, which spindles pass through the teeth on the under
side of the belts. The belts are cut away to allow the nippers to work through
them. The nippers h h are kept always closed, except at the moment of
receiving and releasing the sheet, by means of small spiral springs, one end of
the spring going into a collar on the spindle, and the other end into the tooth
of the belt. The effect of this spring is to keep the nippers closed, except
when the small cranks K, on the nipper spindle, are passing the cam L and the
cam M. At the former moment the nippers are forced open to receive the sheet,
and at the latter moment to release it. Immediately after the nippers pass these
cams they are closed by the action of the spiral springs on the nipper shaft. N
N’ N’’, represent a vibrating fly, which vibrates up and down. It is made
of three or more wooden slats hung upon a shaft, O O’, on which it is vibrated
up and down by the crank p, (fig. 2) the connecting-rod q, of
which is attached to a lever, r, (fig. 2) which works in a revolving cam,
S. This revolving cam S causes the fly to vibrate up and down once for every
sheet of paper which is delivered. The slats of this fly straddle the lower part
of the belt in moving down and rise above the lower parts of the belts to allow
the sheet to pass under it. The fly drops at the moment the nippers release the
sheet, and they hold it a moment in position and then rise. U is the fly-board
or table on which the sheets are received and piled.
The operation is as follows: The sheet, as before stated, is held by the
nippers B B , and revolved by the cylinder A, in the direction of the arrow,
until it reaches the nippers h h in the belts C and D, when the nippers B
B open and release the sheet, while the nippers h h simultaneously
close and grasp the sheet and carry it down under the fly N N’ N’’ and
over the fly-board. When the nippers h h have reached the point K the cam
M opens the nippers and releases the sheet, and at the same moment the fly N
N’ N’’, by the action of cam S, lever r, and connecting-rod q,
pressing the opposite extremity of the sheet to the fly-board for a moment. In
this way the sheets are successively carried to their proper places and
deposited there in regular piles with great rapidity and regularity.
Having this described my improvement, what I claim as my invention, and
desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—
The endless belts carrying the nippers in combination with the vibrating
fly-frame for throwing down the sheet and arresting its motion, substantially as
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE
RICHARD VOSE, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ADMINISTRATOR
RICHARD VOSE, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ADMINISTRATOR
WILLIAM BULLOCK, DECEASED
Letters Patent No. 100,367, dated March 1, 18780; antedated February 23, 1870
IMPROVEMENT IN ROTARY PAPER-CUTTING MACHINES
The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same.
To all whom it may
Be it known that
WILLIAM BULLOCK, late of Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia, in the
State of Pennsylvania, did invent a new and useful Improvement in Rotary
Paper-Cutting Machines for cutting paper from a continuous roll into sheets; and
I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description
of the construction and operation of the same, reference being had to the
annexed drawings making a part of this specification in which –
Figure 1 is a
longitudinal sectional elevation through the red line a b in fig.2,
showing its position at the instant the sheet is severed from the roll.
Figure 2 is a
transverse section, showing the position of the gripers and fingers or pushers
at the instant the sheet of paper is severed from the roll and before the
gripers have moved, as hereinafter described.
This machine and
improvement was especially designed to be used in connection with the
Bullock printing-press, but may be used with advantage in cutting paper for any
other purpose. A difficulty has however, heretofore existed in machines of this
description, from the forward end of the paper, immediately after being cut,
dropping down perpendicularly out of the reach of the gripers, notwithstanding
the devices heretofore used to prevent such a result.
The nature of the
invention has claimed consists in providing a means whereby the forward end of
the sheet, immediately upon its being severed by the cutter from the read end of
the preceding sheet, is forced or pressed into close contact with the face of
the female cutter-cylinder, just at and on both sides of the place where the
gripers on the female cutting-cylinder strike the sheet, and then hold it to
that point until the gripers have accuracy and firmly got hold of it, so that
the sheet can be carried on and the operation continued.
In the drawings
A is the frame of the
machine, and has parallel sides supporting the boxes, shafts, cutting-cylinders,
cams, cog-wheels, &c., the cutting-cylinders being placed horizontally
between and resting on boxes attached to the sides.
E and F are the
female and male cutting-cylinders, made hollow to allow a place for the griper
and finger-rods, with their connections.
K is the griper-rod
shaft, running horizontally through the female cutting-cylinder E, having a
short crank, with a small roller on the outer projecting end of the shaft, which
roller works over the cam-guide P attached to the frame A, closing the gripers
at the proper time.
F is the
finger or pressure-shaft, running horizontally through the male cutting-cylinder
F, having one or more arms, (as many as there are gripers in the female
cylinder,) firmly secured to it, on the end of each of which arms there is
hinged a finger or presser, N, so made as not to perforate the paper, the plan
represented in the drawings being preferred, that is, so constructed as to run
through guides and press the paper against the opposite cylinder, and close to
and on both sides of the gripers.
On the projecting end
of this finger-rod or shaft is a short crank with a small roller, which works
between the cam-guides L L attached to the frame A, thereby projecting the
fingers or pressers against the sheet of paper, and holding it on both sides of
the place where the gripers strike the paper, close to the opposite cylinder,
until the gripers have seized firmly upon the sheet, the same cam-guides then
withdrawing the fingers for the next sheet, and so on.
G is a horizontal
view of the stationary cam for operating the fingers or pressers, and is
attached to the frame A.
Q is a cam attached
to the frame a, and operates the griper-rod crank, opening the gripers to
release the sheet of paper to the next set of gripers or other suitable device
for receiving the sheets therefrom, after they are cut.
R is a yielding
spring-bar, reaching horizontally clear across the cylinder, and when coming in
rolling contact with the opposite cylinder, yields and holds the paper tightly
while it is being cut, by the knife right along side of it projecting beyond the
periphery of the cylinder, and entering the slot in the opposite cylinder at
each revolution, and also severing a sheet of paper from the roll.
S is a strip of India
rubber, tacked to the cylinder on the opposite side of the slot, and project
slightly beyond the periphery of the cylinder, for the purpose of holding the
paper on both sides of the slot while the knife is passing through the paper.
The paper is supplied
to the machine from a continuous roll, which may rest on or against, and be
unwound by its contact with the cutting-cylinder.
The cylinders being
connected by cog-gearing and revolving toward each other, the paper is fed down
between the cutting-cylinders and severed by the blade of the cutter in cylinder
F entering the slot in the cylinder E, the paper being held firmly for that
purpose by the yielding spring R, after which the loose end of the web from
which a sheet has been cut is immediately forced or pressed against the face of
the cylinder E by the fingers or pressers N N, which are forced out of the
cylinder F as soon as the sheet is severed by the cam-roller passing between the
cam-guides L L, and held up to the opposite cylinder until the gripers have
seized hold of the paper, when the cam-guides L L withdraw the fingers ready for
the next sheet, and so on.
What I claim as the
invention of the said, WILLIAM BULLOCK, and desire to secure by Letters Patent,
The finger or presser
N herein described, in combination with revolving paper-cutting machine,
constructed and operating substantially as herein set forth.
A. L. BUTLER,