William A. Bullock, Inventor
1813-1867

 

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Contributed by Juanita Bennard


1813  Born in Greenville, Greene Co., N.Y.

1821  Became an orphan when his father died and was raised by his brother.

1832 (Oct. 14) Married Angeline Kimball in Catskill, Greene Co., N.Y.

1834  Running his own machinery shop.

1835  Son William Woodbury Bullock was born in Greene Co., N.Y.

1836  Residing in Prattsville, Greene Co., N.Y.

1837  Son William Woodbury Bullock died, buried in Greene Co., N.Y.

1838  Son Hobart Bullock was born in Greene Co., N.Y.

1838-1839 Went to Savannah Georgia to try to market his invention a shingle-cutting machine.

1839  Went to N.Y.C.

1842  Daughter Mary Lavina Bullock was born in N.J.

1844  (in August) Son Charles B. Bullock was born in N.J.

1847  (in July) Daughter Caroline Bullock was born in N.J.

1849  Franklin Institute of Penn. Awarded him second prize for his invention: a Grain drill. He also was the editor of The Banner of the Union Newspaper in Penn.                                    

1850 (Sept. 15) Philadelphia census: Dock Ward, Philadelphia, Penn. William Bullock, 40, Agent, Angeline, 37, Hobart, 13, Mary, 10, Charles, 8, Caroline, 6, Emily Kimber, 22, (Angeline's sister: Emily Kimball), Sarah Differn, 21, Susan Haney, 19, Note: September 24th. Angeline Kimball died.

1850-1853 After Angeline's death, he moved back to Greene Co., N.Y. and also married her sister, Emily Kimball. In 1853 he was the editor of a Whig paper, The American Eagle.

1853  (June 5th.) His daughter Angeline Bullock was born in Red Falls, Greene Co., N.Y.                                                                                            

1854  (August 1st) Patent No. 11464: Improvement in Seed- Planters. Residence at time of application: Red Falls, Greene Co., N.Y.

1855 In census in Greene Co., N.Y., William Bullock, 40, Emily 26, Hobart, 17, Mary L., 15, Charles B., 12, Caroline, 10, Angeline, 1. The printer of his newspaper sold his business and the new owner would not print William's Whig newspaper. So, William built his first printing press: a wooden flatbed press, and he didn't miss a week of printing.

1856 Sold his newspaper.

1857 Moved to Brooklyn, New York.  (July 7) William Walter Bullock born in Williamsborough, Brooklyn, N.Y.

1858  (Sept 21st) Patent No. 21,591: Automatic Paper Feeder: Residence at time of application: Newark, Essex Co., New Jersey.

1860   (January 1st) Son Harry Smith Bullock born in Brooklyn, New York. (June 24th) in New York census: 13th Ward, Brooklyn City, New York. William Burlock, 45, Manufactor of Printer Press, Emily, 31, Herbert, 22, Mary, 20, Charles, 18, Caroline, 16, Angeline 6, William 3

1861  (September) Listed in 1861-1862directory as "patent right agent". Address: St. Nicholas Hotel, Fourth and Grant St. Built his first complete rotary press for the "Cincinnati Times".

1862  Went to England and applied April 4th for a British Patent for his press through his British agent, Frederick Collier Bakewell, Haverstock Terrace, Hampstead, London. British Patent No. GB955: Letter Printing Machines: Patent Granted: September 25th 

1862-1863 Pittsburgh Directory: Listed as "Manufacturer of printing presses": Address: 61 First Avenue.

1863 (February 18th) Buried son Hobart in Union Dale Cemetery, Pittsburg, Pa. Lot Location: 29-13-G-2 (April 14th) Patent No. 38,200: Printing Press: Printing Machine.

1863-1864 Pittsburgh Directory: Listed as "Inventor of Bullock's Press": Address: 172 Second Street.

1864-1865 Directory: Listed as "Printer".

1865-1867 Directory: Listed as "Proprietor of Bullock's Printing Press".

1867 (February12th)Patent No. 61996:Improvement in Printing Presses. Residence at time of Application: Philadelphia, Penn. (April 12th) Died from tragic accident with Printing Press. Buried in Union Dale cemetery: Lot Location: 29-13-G-2.     

1870 (March 1st and backdated to February 23rd) Patent No. 100367: Improvement in Rotary Paper-Cutting Machines. This patent was taken out by his nephew-in-law, Richard Vose of N.Y , appointed executor of his estate, but William Bullock was credited as the inventor.     

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VOLUME IV   PETERSBURG, VA.  TUESDAY, MARCH 5, 1867  NUMBER 55 

NEW PRINTING PRESS.-There has just been completed and put in running order at the Government Printing Office one of the most wonderful pieces of mechanism in the shape of a printing press that has ever been exhibited, The press is of the Bullock patent, and as an exhibition of some of its powers, we will mention: The press will print in one hour 20,000 sheets of 64 pages of document matter; while doing this it feeds itself, the paper being in rolls, wets the paper, cuts the sheets, folds them, and by a dial connected to the press keeps tally of the number of sheets printed. Only two men are required to have entire control of the press, thus doing away with the necessity of persons to supply it with sheets, (or, as they are called, feeders). The invention is certainly a wonderful one, and has been visited since Wednesday by a large number of persons, who could not realize the power and utility of the machine.

We understand that Mr. Parsons, pressman at the office, has been engaged to set up and bare charge of one of these presses at the Paris Exhibition.

 Mr. Cornelius Wendell is the agent for these presses in this part of the country.

National Intelligencer.

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Article Published  in Pittsburgh’s Family Magazine: Sunday July 12, 1964, by George Swetnam

William Bullock    

Pittsburgh has given the world some great inventions, especially in the mechanical field. But an unmarked grave in Union Dale Cemetery holds the body of a forgotten genius and an industry’s lost opportunity here.

The grave is that of William Bullock, whose great invention revolutionized an industry that has almost completely neglected its benefactor, while basing its growth on his work.

Who was William Bullock? He was the man who made modern newspapers possible when he devised a rotary press.

Until he built the first one in 1861 the size and circulation of any newspaper was limited by the speed with which a man could feed sheets of paper into a press by hand. But Bullock’s first press would print 8000 papers an hour from a paper roll, cutting them apart and even counting them.

Those 8000 four-page sheets seen very unimportant today beside the massive batteries of presses which can turn out up to 70,000 sixty four-page papers in the same time, not only printing and counting them, but folding them and automatically slipping the corner of every fiftieth paper a little to one side for convenience in counting out bundles. But without the principles invented by

William Bullock, the press might have been limited for years to hand-fed single sheet production.

Shingle Machine

William A. Bullock was born in Greenville, N.Y., in 1813. Left an orphan, he was apprenticed by his brother to a foundryman and machinist, when he was eight years old. Going on his own at 21, he was soon running a machine shop, where he made his first invention  - a shingle cutting machine.

It was so promising that he sank everything into starting a shingle factory at Savannah, Georgia, and went broke.

He switched to designing and building hay and cotton presses; returned to New York to start making artificial legs, and invented a grain drill, a seed planter, and a lath cutting machine.

While in Savannah, Mr. Bullock had met and married a Florida girl named Angeline Kimball, who bore him seven children. After her death he married her sister, Emily, and they had 6 more.

Perhaps his first big success came in 1849, when Franklin Institute in Philadelphia awarded him second prize for his grain drill.

Somewhere along the road he had apparently gained some experience in newspaper work, for in that same year he began editing a paper in Philadelphia named The Banner of the Union. It was about this time that his first wife died of tuberculosis, which may be the reason he returned to his home in Greene County, New York.

Apparently his first effort at the field, which won him brief but well-deserved fame was almost by accident.

In 1853 he began editing a Whig paper named The American Eagle, at Catskill. N.Y., which was printed on the press of a nearby publication. But in 1855 the press changed hands, according to early writers, and the new owner refused to have an opposition party paper printed in his shop.

John S. Ritenour, once an editor of the Pittsburgh Press, reported half a century ago in a trade paper that Mr. Bullock met the emergency by building himself a wooden flatbed press, and so quickly that he didn’t have to miss a weekly edition.

His fame must have been spreading, for when he sold his paper in 1856 he moved to New York City, where he worked as a mechanical engineer. His greatest achievement there appears to have been the construction of a new high-speed (for that day) press for the nationally-circulated Leslie’s Weekly, which went into operation at least as early as the spring of 1860.

No one seems to know why or just when Mr. Bullock came to Pittsburgh. Ritenour, who probably never met the inventor but knew many of his friends, says it was in 1860. But he first appears in the 1861-62 directory, published about September 1861.

He apparently didn’t come here as a press builder, or with any job as an engineer. His first listing is as “patent right agent.” That was much the equivalent of today’s patent attorney, with overtones of promotion. Men who gained experience in getting a number of patents often went into business in this way, to provide capital while working on the next idea.

His address, the St. Nicholas Hotel, at Fourth and Grant, wouldn’t indicate he had been in the city very long.

On First Avenue

He had become friendly with C.W. Ricketson, owner of a large grocery, who also had an interest in an iron forge and nail factory at Water and Short Streets and First Avenue, about where the Central Police Station is today. The next year’s directory shows Bullock as “Manufacturer of printing presses,” at 61 First Avenue, the nail mill’s back door.

Bullock secured his first patent on the rotary press in April 1863, a year and a half after he had built his first complete one for the Cincinnati Times. That summer he went to England to secure his British rights. A number of papers have vied for the honor of being the first to use such a press, but the best evidence seems to favor the Times. Certainly the date claimed for the New York Sun – 1865- is too late to be really first.

The original press fed the paper off a roll and onto the cylinders, where it was cut before being printed. But it was self-feeding, printed both sides, and could run off 8000 four-page sheets an hour, and count them. His later models cut the web after it had been printed, but automatic folding didn’t come into use until 1871, when it was introduced by Hoe, a rival firm.

In the 1863-64 directory Bullock is identified as “Inventor of Bullock’s Press,” which might indicate it was becoming well known. He had rented a house at 172 Second Street. The following years he was simply identified as “printer,” perhaps because wartime material shortages had put him temporarily out of business. His last listing here was just after the end of the war, as “Proprietor of Bullock’s Printing Press.”

Firm Organized

Except for the inventor, the company was strictly a Pittsburgh one, with a capital stock of $500,000 of which he held half and served as superintendent. President and moneyman was William H. Williams, a private banker, and the office was in his bank at Third and Wood, J.G. Coffin, an insurance man and associate of Williams, was secretary treasurer, and directors included Charles Knap, an iron founder; Ricketson; and Z.A. Hitchcock, a merchant and later a partner of Knap, who lived in the Monongahela House.

According to Ritenour, the first three presses were built here, and sold at from $15,000 to $25,000, which would be the equivalent of a lot more money today. The original press had too weak a frame to stand the strain, but worked well after being rebuilt.

One of these may have been the first rotary press installed by the New York Sun in 1865. Indeed, there is reason to believe that Ritenour is wrong in saying that the company moved east with Mr. Bullock in 1864, since it was here still (or again) in 1875.

He personally spent little time here in his last three years, however. He was busy installing the Sun’s first Bullock press in 1865, and perhaps more, for by 1870 it had seven units, and the Herald eight. He also installed three for the Philadelphia Inquirer, and was putting in one for the Philadelphia Press at the time of his death.

On April 2, 1867 Mr. Bullock was severely injured when his right leg was caught in a belt he was trying to kick onto a pulley for a test of the press. Gangrene developed in the leg, which was crushed and broken, and he died April 12 during an operation to amputate the limb.

The body was brought here for burial in Union Dale Cemetery, where his son Clarence, two daughters and a son-in-law also lie.

Obituary notices lamented him as a great mechanic and inventor, pointing out that he had died just as his press was coming into general acceptance.

Indeed, his death could not have come at a more unhappy time. He had been getting a bare living out of his company, and was just at the point where it was ready to pay big returns. His oldest son, Clarence, had been a war casualty in 1863, and Charles, who had lived through the war, was only 25 and unable to manage the firm.

“Mr. Williams will see it through,” the father said with his dying breath. And apparently, Mr. Williams did. But not for the widow and children.

Family Loses Out

The private bank went under just about that time. Perhaps the deal was a phony one to outlaw claims. Or maybe it was an honest one, which left the owners struggling to stay alive. Somehow, when the press manufacturing firm came out of the wringer, Mr. Williams and his son Frank seemed to be the only ones in it. And although it made and sold some 50 presses by 1871, no member of Bullock’s family ever got a cent.

Luck seemed always against William Bullock. A silver medal award by Franklin Institute for his press came just after he died. And in 1874 when his work was recommended for a gold medal for unusual value to mankind, it missed only on the technicality that a gold medal must not be awarded to a dead man.

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The Bullock presses were so good that one over 40 years old was advertised in 1912 as in operating condition. But the only one ever used here was installed at the old Leader, in 1870. Pittsburgh missed this chance for an important first.

Just as it was 97 years ago, the one for gotten man today is the man who made it all possible.

The body of William A. Bullock lies in an unmarked grave in Lot 29, Range 13, Section G of Division 2 of Union Dale cemetery. The only one who seems to remember is a great –grandson, C.H. Charles, retired plumber of Clinton, who puts flowers there each Memorial day.

Some day, perhaps, the conscience of the Pennsylvania Newspaper Publishers Association, may be aroused to the point that it will put a marker on the grave. Of all men in the industry few if any have deserved it more, or suffered such complete neglect.

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AT UNION DALE CEMETERY TOMORROW
 Recognition 97 Years Late For Rotary Web Press Inventorwpe1C.jpg (135625 bytes)

A simple ceremony tomorrow at Union Dale Cemetery, North Side, will give belated recognition to one of Pittsburgh's unhonored geniuses.

Thanks to a story by a Pittsburgh Press writer and the efforts of several City firms, the grave of William Bullock - the man who devised the rotary web press, revolutionizing the newspaper industry - will receive a memorial marker.

The ceremony also will kick off Pennsylvania's part in National Newspaper Week.

On Sunday, July 12, Staff Writer, George Swetnam wrote in the Family Magazine of how the body of Mr. Bullock lies here in anonymity since he died April 12, 1867.

Mr Swetnam called for consciences to be aroused so the grave could be marked - even though it is 97 years late.

"Of all men in the industry (newspaper), few, if any, deserved it more, or suffered such complete neglect," Mr. Swetnam wrote.

wpe20.jpg (17394 bytes)The result was that Thomas J. O'Dowd, president of Art Bronze Co. offered to donate a bronze marker if Union Dale Cemetery would place it.

James C. Bovill, Union Dale superintendent complied.

Donatella Granite Co. offered to mount the bronze marker on a headstone and Mr. Swetnam wrote the inscription:

"William A. Bullock - 1813-1867…His invention of the rotary web press (1863) made the modern newspaper possible."

James B. Stevenson, publisher of the Titusville Herald and chairman of the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, will make the brief remarks at the 9 a.m. ceremony tomorrow. He will also represent the Pennsylvania Newspaper Publishers Assn.

C.H. Charles, of Clinton, Pa., a great-grandson of Mr. Bullock, will attend, as will Mr. Swetnam.

The invention of the press actually led to Mr. Bullock's death. The inventor's right leg became caught in one of the later model presses he was testing. Gangrene developed and Mr. Bullock died 10 days later.

NOTE: This article was printed in The Pittsburgh Press, Sunday, Oct. 11, 1964

Page 4 Section 3

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United States Patent Office

WILLIAM BULLOCK. OF RED FALLS, NEW YORK, ASSIGNOR TO BURTON G. MORSS. 

IMPROVEMENT IN SEED-PLANTERS. 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 11,464. Dated August 1, 1854

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, Wm. BULLOCK of red Falls, in the county of Greene and State of Newwpe1E.gif (145708 bytes) York, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Grain-Drills; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof.

To enable others skilled in the act to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe the construction and operation of the same.

In the accompanying drawings, which form a part of this speculation, Figure 1 is a perspective view ; Fig. 2, a transverse sectional view, representing the arrangement of the hoppers in combination with the wheels, etc.; Fig. 3, an interior view of one wheel, representing the arrangement of the tubes for planting in hills; Fig. 4, an outside view of a wheel, representing the recesses for the reception and To all whom it may concern;

Be it known that I, Wm. BULLOCK, of Red Falls, in the county of Greene and State of New York, have invented new and useful Improvements in Grain-Drills; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof. distribution of the seeds.

Like letters represent like parts in each figure.

A represents the cross-bars of frame; B, side rails, to each of which one seeding-wheel is attached; C, bars attached to the forward bar A by jaws and bolts to admit of vibration; D, guides fastened in the back end of C and fitted into slots to rear of A. These guides are for the purpose of steadying the bars C, and have hooks at each end to prevent them from being thrown out of their places. They are of sufficient length to allow the seeding-wheels to rise and fall with the surface of the ground.

E represents the seeding-wheels, formed of conical plates. Near the center of these wheels, on one side, are cavities entirely around the distribution of the same in drills, Those wheels intended for planting in hills and drills have cavities in both their sides. In the side for drilling they pass entirely round the center while on the opposite side of the same wheel for hilling the cavities are placed close together in one or more places, according to diameter of wheel. At the outer end of these cavities are holes passing entirely through the plates E, as represented in Figs. 2 and 4. The seeds are received in the cavities a, above the centers if the wheels, and as the wheels revolve the seeds pass in between the plates E and out at the lower edge of the wheels, back of the guards I. When planting in hills the seeds pass through the tubes J, as represented in Fig. 3. The plates forming the wheels B are farther apart than those on C, so as to form a broader surface and prevent them from sinking deeper in the ground in consequences of sustaining the weight of the frame.

Farehoppers into which the seeds are placed. At the bottom of these hoppers, at the sides nearest to the wheels, there is a slot through which the seeds pass into the wheels. In this slot there is a slide, K, for the purpose of regulating the feed. By raising the slide the feed is increased and by lowering it is diminished, and may be entirely shut off.

G are studs, upon which the wheels revolve; H, plates serving as rests for the studs and also covering the holes through the plates E, thereby preventing the seeds from falling outside of the wheels; I, guards fastened to B and C, and fitted sufficiently close to the  wheels to prevent the seeds from, passing out forward and the earth from passing in between Plates E. In adhesive soils the guards I should pass in between the plates E, as represented by that part of I, Fig. 3, inside of line b, to clear they from any dirt that may get between them. The forward edge of these guards are sharp, serving as cutters, and they make furrows for the seeding-wheels.

Having thus fully described the construction and operation of my grain-drill, what I claim therein as new and of my invention, and desire to secure Letter Patent , is__

1. The seeding-wheels formed substantially as described, so that the seeds pass in at or near the center of the wheels and out at the periphery.

           falling outside of the wheels; I, guards fastened to B and C, and fitted sufficiently close to the wheels to prevent the seeds from passing out forward and the earth from passing in between the Plates E. In adhesive soils the guards I should pas in between the plates E, as represented by that part of I, Fig. 3, inside of line b, to clear they from any dirt that may get between them. The forward edge of these guards are sharp, serving as cutters, and they make furrows for the seeding-wheels.

J are tubes for conducting the seeds to be planted in hills from the centers of the wheels to the peripheries of the same, depositing the seeds in hills; I, marker opposite the tubes J on the side of the wheels, used for planting in hills. These markers leave an impression in the ground, thereby designating the position of the hills.

When it is desirable to plant in hills so as to form rows at right anglesall the wheels except those to be used should be removed from the frame. For corn and beans the wheels left in the frame should be coupled together by any of the ordinary modes, and the operator should take care to have the tubes J in line so that the seeds would drop simultaneously in both wheels. The operator should be careful and start the rows even at the commencement, having a line drawn across the edge of the field for that purpose, and start with the markers down upon the line, and,

2. The arrangement of one and the same wheel for sowing in drills and planting hills.

3. The arrangements of the tubes J, substantially as herein described and for the purpose set forth.

4. The guards I, in combination with the seeding-wheels.

5. The marker L for the purpose of indicating the position of each hill, thereby enabling the operator to plant in hills forming rows both ways across the field.

                           WM. BULLOCK
    
Witnesses:
    
E.E. MILLEGAN
    
J. E. BASSETT


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UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 

WILLIAM BULLOCK, OF NEWARK, NEW JERSEY, ASSIGNOR TO GEO. W. TAYLOR, OF SAME PLACE

 AUTOMATIC PAPER-FEEDER FOR PRINTING-PRESSES

Specification of Letters Patent No. 21,591, dated September 21, 1858

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, WILLIAM BULLOCK, of Newark, in the county of Essex and State of New Jersey, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Apparatus for Feeding Paper to Printing-Presses; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of my said invention, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which---

Figure 1 represents a view in perspective of my automatic feeder connected with the cylinder of a printing press; Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the same, and Fig. 3 is a vertical longitudinal section of the machine through the central vacuum cylinder.

Various machines have heretofore been devised for the purpose of feeding sheets of paperwpe22.gif (50318 bytes) to printing presses, but in these machines so far as my knowledge extends, the sheets have been operated upon by mechanism whose movement when in operation bears a definite relation to the movements of the press to which the apparatus has been applied. These machines have thus far proved defective in practice for the reason in my opinion that it has been necessary to lay the pile of paper upon them with very great accuracy to obtain a practically good register, and that sheets of paper of different qualities or dampened to a greater or less extent adhere to each other with greater or less force, and therefore require different amounts of movement or force in the feeding apparatus to feed them to the press.

My invention is designed to obviate the defects of preceding machines in these respects and it consists first, in operating the members of the machine which effect the feeding of the sheet of paper in such manner that the amount of movement developed by them in the feeding successive sheets bears no fixed relation to that of the parts of the printing press proper, and that they have a sufficient capacity to feed a sheet of paper in less time than is allowed for that purpose by the movement of the press.

The second part of my invention consists in constructing and operating the feed mechanism in such manner that the amount of motion of the members which effect the movement of the sheet is regulated and controlled by the position of the sheet; so that when the sheet has been moved to its proper position the members aforesaid are no longer permitted to act upon it.                                                         

The third part of my invention consists in intermitting the operation of the feeding apparatus upon the paper while the sheet is being drawn into the press, although the members of the feeding apparatus still continue to move at a regular speed.

The fourth  part of my invention consists in moving the pile of paper, so as to present the top sheet to the members which effect the feeding, by a mechanism whose operation upon the pile is controlled by the position of the pile so that when the pile occupies its proper position the mechanism is not permitted to act upon it. There are also various novel combinations of mechanical elements in my machine whose nature and operation will more fully hereinafter appear.

In the accompanying drawings the paper feeding apparatus is shown as used in connection with the cylinder, A, of a printing press; the other portions of the press being omitted to avoid unnecessary complexity in the drawings.  The feeding apparatus is supported by a frame which extends above the upper surface of the cylinder A, and is suitably supported upon the frame of the press. The press cylinder is constructed in the usual manner, and is fitted with the usual finger shaft z, and fingers y, by which the edge of the paper presented to it is seized. And by the rotation of the cylinder drawn thereupon. The feed table C, upon which the pile of paper B is laid, is inclined; it is connected with an endless apron D that runs upon rollers a, a’, and is otherwise suitably supported to sustain the weight of the paper. The shaft of one of the rollers a’, has a ratchet wheel and the roller, and thus propel the feed table C with the paper lying thereon toward cylinder A. The feed table is to press lightly upon the sheets and thus keep them in their proper position.

The finger b, which operates the ratchet wheel. Depends from an arm f that is secured to the extremity of a rock shaft c. This finger rock shaft crosses the frame of the feed apparatus, and is fitted at about its middle with a second arm f’, by which the finger rock shaft can be rocked to cause the finger to move the ratchet wheel. The extremity of the finger rock shaft f’, bears upon a toe d, which is secured to a second rock shaft e. This latter rock shaft also extends across the frame of the apparatus and is fitted at its extremity with an arm g, which is connected by a link h, with the upper extremity of a lever G. The lever G is pivoted to the frame and its lower extremity is furnished with a friction wheel j, that bears against the periphery  of a cam H secured to the cylinder A; so that as the latter revolves, the lever G is caused to oscillate, and rock the rock shaft e, whose toe d acting upon the arm f’’, alternately raises and lowers the latter, and effects the rocking of the rock shaft c, by which the finger b, is caused to actuate the ratchet wheel E. Under the operation of the mechanism thus described alone, the finger would partially turn the ratchet wheel and its roller at each revolution of the press cylinder A, and would thus propel the feed table and the paper thereon forward faster than is necessary or desirable. In order therefore to control and regulate this action of the finger on its ratchet wheel the arm f’’ of the finger rock shaft c is connected with the piston, I, of a single acting air cylinder, J, that is mounted in an inverted position upon the upper part of the frame of the apparatus. This piston is packed so as to move airtight in the barrel of the air cylinder, and as the link that connects the piston with the arm f’ is inflexible, the piston is raised whenever this arm is raised by the toe d. The piston is surmounted by a coiled spring T which tends to depress it as often as the rocking toe, d, permits the arm f’ to descend. By this movement of the piston air is alternately drawn into and expelled from the air cylinder J, and so long as the free passage of the air to and from the air cylinder is not prevented, the reciprocating movements or strokes of the piston will correspond in number with the oscillations of the rock shaft e, and the finger b will be moved in a corresponding degree, If however the admission of the air to the upper part of the air cylinder be shut off the piston can not redescend, because the pressure of the atmosphere upon its lower side holds it up against the force of the spring. Hence, under such a circumstance, the arm f’ will no longer descend with the toe d, and the movement of the finger b, will be intermitted, although the toe d continues to vibrate, until the air is again permitted to enter above the piston. The exclusion of air from the air cylinder thus stops the movement of the feed table, and its free admission permits the feed table to be moved forward; hence by controlling admission of air to the cylinder the movement of the feed table is controlled in a corresponding manner.

In my apparatus the paper itself is made to control this admission of air to the air cylinder by the following arrangement. The head of the air cylinder J is closed, and is connected by a pipe k with a nozzle L, which extends over the inclined pile of paper B on the feed table, and is in such a position with respect to the other parts of the machine that when the pile of paper is in its proper position for being fed its upper sheet bears against the end of the nozzle, and, by preventing the free entrance of air through it to the air cylinder, stops the descent of the piston and the movement of the finger b and ratchet wheel E. When the nozzle is thus closed the feed table with the pile of paper thereon remains stationary until a sufficient number of sheets have been fed to the press to permit air to enter freely into the nozzle and thence into the cylinder; then the piston descends sufficiently to enable the finger b to move back the space of a ratchet tooth, and on moving forward to turn the ratchet wheel and propel the surface of the power again toward the nozzle. When the paper is contact with the nozzle the free exit of air from the air cylinder is prevented by the presence of paper beneath the nozzle, hence it is necessary to provide a means for this air to escape while the piston is moved upward; this is effected by forming an orifice in the upper part of the air cylinder and closing it by the spring valve I which permits the imprisoned air to escape and prevents its reentrance.

The feeding of the paper, sheet by sheet, from the pile to the position where the fingers of the cylinder grip its forward edge, is effected by automatic hands, K,K, which are moved alternately in the direction in which the sheet is to be moved and alternately in the opposite direction thereto. These hands are pivoted to the lower extremities of arms M, M, which depend from a pair of pistons similar to that of the air cylinder J and working in a pair of air cylinders, N, N, situated on either side of the air cylinder J. The arms are slotted to admit the cranks o of a crankshaft t, by whose revolution these arms are caused to vibrate to and fro in the direction in which the paper is to be fed. The crank shaft in its revolution permits the hands K, K, to bear upon the sheet when they are moved toward the cylinder A; as they approach the end of their stroke in this direction the cranks in their revolution bear against the upper ends of the slots in the arms, and, raising them, list the hands from the sheet upon which they have been pressing. As the cranks then pass through the upper half of their revolution they carry the arms and their hands backward over the sheets, and drop them again, to permit the hands to press upon the paper while the cranks are traversing the lower half to their revolution, and are moving the hands toward the press cylinder A. As before stated each hand is pivoted to its corresponding arm; that extremity of each hand which is nearest the cylinder is also connected with its respective arm by a spring l which causes the opposite, or what may be termed the finger end of the hand, to bear upon the sheet with a yielding pressure. The crankshaft r, which passes transversely across the frame of the apparatus, is fitted with a pulley to which in this instance motion is imparted from a counter shaft P by means of a cord, and the countershaft is driven in a corresponding manner from the cylinder A. The several pulleys upon the shafts are of such relative diameters that the crank shaft revolves many times faster than the cylinder, the capacity of the hands for feeding the paper is very much greater than is actually required for the purpose; and if the hands were permitted to act upon the paper the whole time allowed by the revolution of the press cylinder, the paper would be pushed over the cylinder and out of the machine.

In order to control and regulate the action of the hands upon the paper a pair of nozzles R, R, are projected over the cylinder, their extremities being situated at the line to which the paper is to be fed. These nozzles are connected with the upper parts of the air cylinders N N by pipes m so that when the pistons descend under the actions of their respective springs the air enters through the nozzles R, R; when these nozzles are closed, air can not enter the upper ends of the cylinders; in the latter case the pistons will be prevented from descending by the pressure of the atmosphere beneath them and will hold the arms and hands in the raised positions to which they have been lifted by the action of the cranks o. In order to guide the paper from the table to the nozzles a pair of flap guides t, are secured to a shaft, s, in such positions as to project immediately beneath the nozzles R, so as to direct the edge of the paper moved by the hands against the orifice of the nozzles. The guide shaft s is fitted with an arm by which it can be rocked so as to raise the extremities of the guides into close contact with the orifices of the nozzles, and thus limit the movement of the paper, or to permit them to fall by their weight and thus free the forward edge of the paper when the fingers of the press cylinder grip it. A slight recess is also cut in the end of each guide immediately beneath the orifice of its appropriate nozzle so as to permit the air to pass freely thereto. The operation of the controlling apparatus thus described is such that when the front edge of the paper arrives beneath the orifice of either nozzle it closes that orifice, prevents the admission of air to the air cylinder above, and thus stops the descent of the hand upon the paper, which is then permitted to remain stationary until the fingers of the cylinder seize it although the hand still continues to vibrate. If the front edge of the paper moves forward equally from end to end, both nozzles will be closed simultaneously, and both hands will cease to act upon the paper at the same time. If however the uniform movement of the sheets be prevented by any accidental cause of if the paper be unevenly piled upon the table so that its front edge moved diagonally forward, the hand appropriate to the nozzle at which the sheet arrives first will be first prevented from dropping, while the other hand still continues to act upon the paper. The sheet will then be turned upon the orifice of the nozzle as the center by the action of the hand still operating, until this hand is prevented from dropping by the arrival of the edge of the sheet at its appropriate nozzle.

In the operation of the machine it is necessary that the sheet should not be sucked into the orifice of the nozzles and should not be touched by the hands while it is being drawn upon the cylinder by the fingers. Both of these objects are obtained by fitting stop cocks u into the pipes leading to the air cylinders N N. These stop cocks are operated by arms v v which are connected by rods n with a pair of arms p projecting from the rock shaft e previously mentioned. This shaft is caused to rock in one direction spring S, which is connected with one of the arms p, and the shaft is rocked in the opposite direction to open the cocks by means of the cam H. The cam H is set in such a position with respect to the finger shaft, z, spring S to close the stop cocks, thus preventing the entrance of air into the cylinders N N, as soon as the fingers y are in the position to grip the forward edge of the sheet; and it permits the stock cocks to be kept closed until the sheet has been entirely drawn upon the cylinder, thus preventing the hands from dropping. When however the hinder edge of the sheet has passed the nozzles R, the cam acting upon the lever G, opens the stop cocks and permits the hands to act freely upon the next sheet. As the rock shaft e, which operates the cocks, moves just when the front edge of the paper should be released by the guides t, its motion is made use of to effect the dropping of the guides by securing an arm w to it, and connecting this arm by a rod w, with an arm secured to the guide shaft s. The air cylinders N, N, are fitted with orifices and spring valves to permit the air imprisoned in the cylinders to escape, in the same manner as described in reference to the central air cylinder J.

When the printing press to which this feeding apparatus is attached is to be put in operation, the paper, previously dampened in the usual manner, is laid upon the feed table B, and the latter is moved forward by turning the ratchet wheel E by hand until the uppermost sheet closes the orifice of the nozzle L. The press is then put to work and several parts of the feeding apparatus operate as hereinbefore described. The hands operating upon the pile of paper propel the sheets forward toward the press cylinder, the uppermost sheet being moved directly by the action of the hands upon it, while the sheets beneath are moved in a less degree by the contact with those above them, so that when the uppermost sheet arrives at the proper position to be gripped by the fingers of the press the next sheet is a short distance behind it, the third is a less distance behind the second, and so on progressively to the pile. As the press cylinder revolves its fingers seize the uppermost sheet, and as fast as one sheet is drawn into the press the next one is moved by the hands to be drawn upon the press cylinder at the succeeding revolution thereof.

The various parts of the feeding apparatus thus described may be modified in various ways without affecting my invention, so long as its distinctive peculiarities are retained; my invention may also be applied to platen printing presses, to ruling and calender machines, and to other purposes; and in such cases may require modification to adapt it to the work to be performed, a greater number of fingers may be employed if found advisable. Fingers may also be added to operate at right angles to those hereinbefore mentioned, for the purpose of giving a side register to the sheets.

Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is---

1.   Operating the hands or their equivalents which effect the feeding of the sheet of paper in manner substantially as herein set forth so that they have a greater capacity for moving the sheet than is necessary for the purpose.

2.   I also claim controlling the operation of the hands or their equivalents upon the sheets of paper by mechanism whose operation is dependent upon the position of the sheet being fed, so that the length of time during which the hands or their equivalents are permitted to act upon each sheet of paper does not bear any fixed relation to the movements of the other parts of the printing press.

3.   I also claim intermitting the operation of the hands or their equivalents upon the paper while the latter is being drawn into the press by mechanism acting substantially as herein set forth.

4.   I also claim effecting the progressive movement of the pile of paper by mechanism whose operation is dependent upon the position of the pile substantially as herein set forth.

5.   I also claim the combination of the flap guides and nozzles or their equivalents for stopping the movement of the forward edge of the sheet and for releasing the same in the manner hereinbefore described.

6.   I also claim moving sheets of paper by automatic rubbing hands or their equivalents constructed substantially as herein set forth.

7.   I also claim operating the stop cocks of the air cylinder and the flap guides by a cam or its equivalent whose movement is coincident with or bears a fixed relation to the movement of the fingers which drawn the paper into the press.

     In testimony whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name.

                        WM. Bullock

Witnesses:
           
Michael Hardy,
           
William L. Bennem

*********************************

  UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 

WILLIAM BULLOCK, OF PITTSBURG PENNSYLVANIA, ASSIGNOR TO HIMSELF, CALVIN ADAMS, AND GEO. S. SELDEN OF SAME PLACE

 PRINTING MACHINE 

Specification forming part of Letters Patent No. 38,200, dated April 14, 1863

     

To all whom it may concern;

Be it known that I, WILLIAM BULLOCK, of Pittsburg, in the county of Allegheny, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Printing Machines; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof.

My improved machine for printing from movable type or stereotype-plates belongs to that class of power printing-presses in which the paper is furnished to the machine in a continuous web or roll, and by which the sheets are severed from the web, printed on bothwpe24.gif (110572 bytes) sides, and delivered from the machine thus “perfected.” In power printing-machines the chief objects to be attained, besides simplicity of construction and neatness and regularity of execution, are the perfecting of the sheets, or printing them on both sides, without the aid of two machines, and this by passing them once only through the press, and the attainment of the highest degree of speed in the operation. The former result—that is, the “reiteration” of the sheet on the same machine at one operation and without any intermediate manipulation—has been accomplished by the use of two or more type-cylinders and of complicated machinery for inking the forms and turning the sheet; but the rapidity of the execution is necessarily limited by the speed with which the blank paper can be fed in and the printed sheets delivered from the machine, so that for want of an apparatus capable of delivering the sheets as fast as they can be printed in the most approved machines now in use where a high speed is attained the delivery is accomplished by the use of several distinct delivery apparatuses involving the employment of a number of hands. In my machine, however, there is but one delivery apparatus, which is simple in construction and works as rapidly as the machine can be driven and the sheets printed, so that by my invention the great obstacle to the rapid operation pf the printing-press is successfully overcome.

In more particularly describing my invention so as to enable those skilled in the art to wpe26.gif (126509 bytes) makeand use my improved machine, I desire to refer to the drawings which accompany and form part of this specification, and which comprise fourteen figures, marked Nos. 1 to 14, consecutively, in each of which like letters of reference are employed to designate the same parts of the machine; but in Figures 1 to 4, in order to avoid confusion, several of the minor parts of the machinery are not lettered, although shown in the drawings.

     Fig. 1 is a perspective representation of my improved printing machine, viewed from the front end and left-hand side thereof. Fig. 2 is a side elevation of my printing-machine from the left-hand side. Fig. 3 is a side elevation of my printing-machine from the right-hand side thereof. Fig. 4 is a longitudinal sectional elevation of my machine viewed from the right-hand side, the frame-work being left out so as to exhibit more clearly the relative position and operation of the parts. Fig. 5 is an enlarged sectional representation of the type-cylinders, showing, also, the arrangement and relative position and operation of the grippers on the cutting and impression cylinders, and in the cams by which they are worked, and the relative position and operation of the delivering apparatus. Fig. 6 is a sectional representation of the cutting- cylinders in the relative position which they occupy when severing a sheet of paper from the roll. Fig. 7 is a sectional view of the small cutting-cylinder and the large cutting-cylinder, exhibiting the position of the parts immediately after a sheet of paper has been cut from the roll, and showing the manner in which the sheath of the cutter presses the loose end of the paper against the large cutting-cylinder so as to insure its being caught by the grippers as they close. Fig. 8 is a perspective representation of the upper and lower cutters detached from the cutting-cylinders. Fig. 9 is a side view of one of the type-cylinders, and Fig. 10 is a longitudinal section of Fig. 9. Fig. 11 is a perspective representation of the fly apparatus for delivering the printed sheets, with the fly-rods raised and the curved fingers for holding the sheets lowered. Fig. 12 is a similar view to Fig. 11, showing the position of the parts when the fly-rods are down and the curved fingers raised. Fig. 13 is an enlarged representation of the mechanism for shifting the delivering-table so as to separate the sheets into piles of equal number. Fig. 14 shows the mode of communicating the intermitting vibratory motion to the transferring ink-roller and small distributing ink-rollers. Figs. 1 to 4, inclusive, are drawn to the same scale. The other figures are on a larger scale, so as to exhibit the details more clearly.

In the drawings, Figs. 1 and 2 exhibit one side of the machine, which for the sake of distinction, I call the “left-hand” side, while Figs, 3 and 4 show the opposite or right-hand side. The end of the machine, which is nearest to the eye in Fig. 1 I call the “front” or “discharging” end, being that at which the printed sheets are delivered from the press. The other end I call the “rear” or “receiving” end, being that at which is situate the paper-feeding apparatus.

In the drawing, A is the frame of the machine, which is made of iron, and has parallel sideswpe28.gif (101248 bytes) supporting the various shafts and cylinders of the press, which are placed horizontally between them. The upper part of the frame, at the front end, is horizontal, and is raised a little above the rear end. Near to the center of the machine is situate the large impression-cylinder C, which is two or more times the diameter of the type-cylinders D D’, to which are attached the stereotype –plates or forms of type, as the case may be.

In the drawings the large or second impression-cyilnder, C, is three times the diameter of the type-cylinders D D’, and the machine therefore prints three sheets of paper at each revolution.

 B is the first impression-cylinder, the diameter of which is equal to that of the first type-cylinder, D, with which it revolves in rolling contact to the face of the type or stereotype-plates fixed thereon.

G is the ink-distributing cylinder, which supplies ink to the form rollers J J, placed between it and the first type-cylinder, D. The second impression-cylinder, C. revolves in rolling contact with the face of the type or stereotype-plates on the second type cylinder D’.

G is the ink-distributing roller, which links the form-rollers J J of the second type-cylinder, D’. Beneath each ink-distributing roller G and G’ is an inking apparatus, consisting of an ink-fountain, K, a fountain-roller, L, and doctor-roller N.

The paper is supplied to the machine from a continuous roll, b’, which rests against and is unwound by a feed-roller, E. The feed-roller /e is also one of the cutting-cylinders, which, with the other cutting-cylinder, F, by means of a serrated cutter, cuts odd from the web sheets of paper of the required uniform size. In front of the second or large impression-cylinder are the delivering and counting apparatuses, by which the sheets are automatically delivered from the machine as fast as printed, laid in piles, and counted. The cylinders B,C,D,D’,G.G’, and E are hollow and their lengths and diameters vary in different machines, according to the required capacity of the press, their length determining the width of the machine. On the shaft of the second impression-cylinder, C. but outside of the frame A, is fixed a pulley, a,(see Fig.3,) which serves as the master-wheel, to which power is communicated from the steam-engine or other prime motor, and from which all the other parts of the machine having positive motion receive their movements--some by means of a train of gearing-wheels (shown on the left-hand side of the machine in Figs. 1 and 2) and others by belts and pulleys, as seen in Fig. 3. The gearing and pulleys to communicate motion to the parts are attached to the shafts which they drive, and are placed outside of the frame.

wpe2A.gif (93662 bytes)Before explaining more minutely the construction and operation of the principal parts of the press I will describe their relative motion, and how it is derived. On the shaft of the large impression-cylinder C (at the opposite extremity from that on which is placed the pulley a) is a large cog-wheel, W, (see Figs. 1 and 2,) which gears into a small cog-wheel, w, which is fixed on the end of the first impression-cylinder, B, placed vertically over the second or large impression-cylinder, C. The cog-wheel w gears into a cog-wheel, w’, at the extremity of the shaft of the first type-cylinder, D, placed in front of it. The axis of the two cylinders D and E may be in the same horizontal plane. In the rear of the large impression-cylinder C, and below the cutting-cylinders, is the second type cylinder. D’, which carries on its shaft a cog-wheel, w4, gearing into the cog-wheel W, on the large impression-cylinder C. The small cog-wheels w, w’, and w4 are all of the same diameter, being 0n-third of that of the large cog-wheel W, and consequently all revolve at the same speed. Or thrice as fast as the large cog-wheel W. The ink-distributing cylinders G and G’ have each a cog-wheel, w5, which gears into an idler, x, interposed between it and cog-wheels w’ and w4, on the shaft of the type-cylinders D and D’, respectively. All the cog-wheels already described are situate in the same vertical plane. On the shaft of  the first-impression cylinder, B, on the right-hand side of the machine, is a cog-wheel, y, (which takes into a large toothed wheel, y’, of twice the diameter of the cog-wheel y,) fixed to the end of the shaft of the large cutting-cylinder E, which causes the cutting-cylinder E to revolve once for two revolutions of the first impression-cylinder, B.  This gearing is placed on the right-hand side of the machine, while the rest of the gearing is o the other side, because the large cutting-cylinder E is not quite twice the diameter of the first impression-cylinder, for the reason hereinafter explained, and the small cutting-cylinder F is one-half the diameter of the large cutting-cylinder E. At the other end of the shaft of the large cutting-cylinder E, on the left-hand side of the machine, is a large toothed wheel, w2, which gears into a small cog-wheel, w3, (of half the diameter of the wheel w2,) at the end of the shaft of the small cutting-cylinder F, so as to cause it to revolve twice for each revolution of the large cutting-cylinder E. The cog-wheel w2, on the large cutting-cylinder E, does not take into the cog-wheel w on the first impression-cylinder, B. Immediately beneath the small cutting-cylinder F, at the base of the standards c c, which support it in the frame A, is a shaft, d, placed horizontally across the machine, and turning freely in bearings in the standards c c. Near to each end of the shaft d, and rigidly attached to it, are two arms, e e, which are curved upward and forward over the small cutting-cylinder F, as seen in Fig. 3. In a slot in an extremity of each of the arms e e is placed the axis of the wooden spool  b, around which is wound the roll of printing-paper b’ which is to be fed into the machine. The spool b turns freely on the rod which forms its shaft or axis, the ends of which also turn in slotted bearings at the extremity of the arms e e , so that there shall be no obstruction to the free unwinding of the paper. As the extremity of the arms e e, carrying the spool of paper b’, when in the position shown in Fig, 3, extend considerably forward of the shaft d, to which they are attached, the spool of paper will rest against the surface of the large cutting-cylinder E, which serves as a feed-roller, and thus prevents the spool unwinding more rapidly than it is caused to do by the rotation of the cylinder E, over which it passes the paper being wound on its spool in one continuous web or sheet. If the roll of paper is large and heavy, its weight pressing against the large cutting-cylinder E, which operates as a feed-roller, would be greater than necessary to secure the requisite degree of pressure to keep the paper tight as it is unwound from the spool, and the consequence will be that the paper will unwind on as well as off the spool, and thus become loose around it. The arrangement hereinbefore described of attaching the arms e e, which carry the spool of paper b’, to the shaft d, below and only a little in the rear of the cylinder E, on which the spool rests, not only relieves the cylinder E, of much of the weight of the roll of paper, but also performs the very important purpose of preserving a uniform degree of pressure ass the roll of paper diminished in size and weight. It is obvious that the more the axis of the spool of paper is inclined from a vertical position to the shaft d the greater will be the proportion of its weight borne by the cutting-cylinder E and the less by the shaft d. As the paper is unwound from the roll its diameter is gradually diminished and its weight is proportionally reduced, and, as it is leaning against the cutting-cylinder E, the angle of inclination from a vertical position is increased as the axis of the spool approaches nearer to the periphery of the cutting-cylinder. Thus, although the actual weight of the roll of paper is gradually diminished, the proportionate amount of the weight borne by the cylinder is gradually increased, so that the actual pressure on the cylinder remains very nearly if not quite the same when the spool is full as when it is nearly empty. If, therefore, such a degree of pressure of the spool of paper against the large cutting-cylinder or feed-roller E as will cause it to feed regularly, without loosening the paper on the spool, is secured when the spool is placed on the machine, it will thereafter require no further adjustment. To effect this adjustment I extend from the shaft d a lever, f, which is rigidly attached thereto. On this lever or arm  f  is a weight, g, which may be slid backward and forward and fastened at any desired point on the lever  f. The weight g thus serves as a counter-balance to the roll of paper, and by it the pressure of the roll of paper on the feed-roller or cylinder E may be so adjusted as that it will unwind from the spool by the motion of its feed-roller at each revolution there-of a length of paper exactly equal to the periphery of the feed-roller or large cutting-cylinder E, without loosening the paper remaining on the spool.

The size of the separate sheets of paper printed on the machine is regulated by thewpe2C.gif (70903 bytes) periphery of the large cutting-cylinder E, which serves as a  feed-roller, as just stated, and which, in the machine shown in the drawings, severs from the web two sheets of equal size at each revolution. As the periphery of the first impression-cylinder, B, is more than half that of the large cutting-cylinder E, each sheet does not entirely surround the first impression-cylinder, B, the difference being equal to the space desired to the left between the edge of the several sheets in their passage through the machine. The paper, being thus fed in the positive motion of the large cutting-cylinder E, passes downwards in the direction of the arrow in Fig. 5, lying close to the surface of the cylinder E until it is severed by the blade of the cutter in the small cutting-cylinder f, as hereinafter described, when the loose end of the web from which a sheet has been cut is immediately seized by the grippers or curved finders h h in the large cutting-cylinder E, by which it is held until it is severed from the web, when it reaches the first  impression-cylinder, B, the grippers on which seize it and carry it forward. On the large cutting-cylinder E, whose diameter is twice that of the small cutting-cylinder F, and the periphery of which is equal in length to two sheets of paper to be printed on the machine, there are two sets of grippers, h, which are placed diametrically opposite to each other, and the construction and operation of which will be presently described. The large cutting-cylinder E has also two sets of female cutters, also placed diametrically opposite to each other, and in such relative position to the grippers h that when the grippers are closed they pass over the female cutter, holding fast the forward end of the paper which is being fed into the machine, and from which a sheet has been severed. The female cutters are set in such position that in the revolution of the machine each will in turn coincide with the male cutter on the small cutting-cylinder F, to sever a sheet; and the two sets of grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B, that they will each in turn coincide with the single set of grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B. As the large cutting-cylinder E revolves with the roll of paper resting against it. it unwinds the paper onto itself, which, passing down between  the two cutting-cylinders E and F, is cut off when the length of a single sheet has passed between them; the immediately the grippers in front of the female cutter seize the forward end of the paper, carrying it round until they reach the grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B, which seize the sheet just as the grippers on the cutting-cylinder E release it, and carry the sheet away to be printed by the first type-cylinder, D. As the paper is seized by the grippers on the first impression-cylinder, B., it is severed from the web between the cutters, as before described. Grippers, similar to those in the upper cutting-cylinder, E, are used also in the two impression-cylinders B and C for the purpose of seizing the paper at the right time and carrying it forward through the machine, and in each case are similarly constructed. They are rigidly attached at intervals to rods k, which are placed horizontally below the surface of the hollow cylinders B,C, and E. their construction and arrangement is shown is Fig, 6. the surface of the cylinders is intermitted where they occur, to allow them to retire inside the cylinder. The extremity of each of the grippers rests on a pad, i, (see Fig. 4,) so as to hold the paper firmly.  The gripper-rod has a crank at one end, projecting from the end of the cylinder, on which crank is a small roller, j, (see Fig.5,) which, as the cylinder revolves, works between cam-guides l, attached to the frame of the machine, this opening or closing the grippers at the right point of time. A spring, s, has on its free end a small roller, which enters a groove in a shoulder or projection on the gripper-shaft in each set, and serves to retain the grippers open or closed until moved by the cam and crank.

Fig. 5 serves to illustrate the operation of the grippers on the cylinders B, C, and E, as effected by the cam-guides, the arrows indicating the direction in which these cylinders revolve, the dotted lines the path of the roller at the end of the crank of each of the gripper-rods, and the blue lines the sheets of paper as they are seized, held, and carried round by the grippers.

In Fig. 5 each of the grippers marked h, h2, is closed, and has hold of a sheet of paper, and the grippers h’ are open, having released the paper. The grippers h’ on the large cutting-cylinder E (see Fig.5) close, and seize the loose-end of the paper at the moment when the cam-roller j has passed between the cam-guides l l , and hold it, carrying it round until the edge of the paper held by the grippers h’ comes within reach of the grippers h2 on the first impression-cylinder, b, which takes place when the cam-roller j on the gripper h2 passes through the cam-guides l2, at which moment the grippers on the upper cutting-cylinder release the paper, and those on the first impression-cylinder seize it, carrying it round, as shown in Fig, 5, in front of, and in rolling contact with , the first type-cylinder, D, by which the sheet is printed in white, or on one side only. So soon as the length of paper drawn forward by the cylinders E and B is equal to the required length of sheet, it is severed  from the roll by the cutters in the cutting-cylinders E and F. One of the cutting-cylinders, it matters not which, carries a steel blade, m, (see Figs. 7 and 8,) which has serrated edges, and which is fastened to a back plate, n. Parallel to the back plate, and attached thereto by pins  p and springs q, is a face-plate, r, composes of two strips, which slide up and down on the pins p p on either side of the serrated cutter, and which, when raised by the springs q q, inclose the edge of the cutter between them. The steel blade, with its shield or face-p[late, is set in either of the cutting-cylinders, (in the drawings it is placed in the small cylinder F,) so that the edge of the cutter shall project beyond the periphery of the cutting-cylinder and enter a grooved plate, t, set in the other cutting-cylinder in a roper relative position to the blade of the cutter. On either side of the groove in the plate t is a strip of India-rubber cloth, u, or other similar substance, between which and the face-plate, on either side of the cutter, m, the paper may be held while the cutter enters it to sever the sheet. When, in the revolution of the cutting-cylinders, the sheath or face-plate of the cutter m comes in contact with the projecting India-rubber strips on the opposite cylinder, the sheath or face-plate r is depressed into the groove of the cutting-cylinder, and the teeth of the cutter enter the paper far enough to sever so much of the piece of paper as has passed between the cutting-cylinders from the web behind it, the paper being held so firmly by the India-rubber strips u u as to prevent its being forced up into the slot, instead of being cut. As might otherwise be the case. Another and very important function of the sheath or face-plate r in the cylinder carrying the male cutter, when, as in my machine, one if the cutting-cylinders performs the work of a “layer-on”—that is, carries the sheet of paper forward and delivers it to the impression cylinder to be printed—is that of pressing the loose end of the paper against the large cutting-cylinder or feed-roller E, so as to insure its being caught by the grippers as they close. This operation is exhibited in Fig. 7. As the piece of paper which is being unwound from  the web or spool b’ passes down in contact with the face of the large cutting-cylinder E, by its revolution it passes between the cutting-cylinders E and F an unbroken sheet, until the male cutter comes in contact with the female cutter as in Fig. 6. The paper is then cut, and the end of the paper from which the sheet has been severed would hang down perpendicularly, away from the face of the cylinder E, so that as the grippers h close immediately after the sheet is severed they would strike under and not over the edge of the paper, and thus fail to seize it, were it nor pressed toward the large cutting-cylinder E. as the male cutting apparatus passes round after severing the sheet, the sheath-pieces r are pressed outward by the springs q q, as before described, and in so doing the upper one of the presses the loose end of the sheet from the small cutting-cylinder F toward the face of the large cutting-cylinder /e just as the grippers h are closing, and thus they effectually prevent the sheet escaping the grippers, ass it otherwise would do. The grippers or curved fingers h in the impression-cylinders C and B, and in the large cutting-cylinder E, although they are set on rods placed within the periphery of the perspective cylinders, yet in opening and closing their points describe an arc of a circle outside of the circumference of the cylinders; and as these grippers h in the impression-cylinders B and C operate at the point where the peripheries of those cylinders almost touch each other, they are not placed exactly in juxtaposition, but each gripper a little to one side of the corresponding gripper in the other cylinder, and openings are left in each of the cylinders C and B to allow the grippers to pass. In the case of the large cutting-cylinder E, however, the grippers h, in the first impression-cylinder, B, operate when exactly opposite to the female cutting apparatus or grooved plate t, and as it is necessary that this grooved plate t  should extend uninterruptedly across the face of the large cutting-cylinder E, parallel to its axis, so that the paper may be cut entirely across, it is necessary to make special provision for the passage outward of the grippers h in the first impression-cylinder, B, when seizing the sheet from the large cutting-cylinder E. This I accomplish by making the grooved plate t in sections, as seen in Fig. 8, and inserting two small sections, o’ o’, opposite to the point where the grippers h in the first impression-cylinder are situate. These small sections o’ o’ of the grooved plate t are attached to a rod or shaft, z, extending across and inside of the large cutting-cylinder E, parallel to its axis, by means of the short arms j’ j’.  These small sections o’ o; are a little wider than the fingers h in the first impression-cylinder, b, so that when the rod z is turned they recede and leave an opening in the face of the cylinder E and through the grooved plate t, to allow of the opening and closing of the grippers h in the first impression-cylinder B. The sections o’ o’ have India-rubber pads on either side of the groove or slot, into which the cutter-blade m enters , and, when in place, form, with the pieces t t, a continuous strip, groove, and pad, The rod z, which causes the sections o’ o’ to recede and rise again, is operated simultaneously with the grippers h in the large cutting-cylinder E by motion communicated from the gripper-rod k, which is worked, as before stated, by a crank passing between cam-guides l. This simultaneous motion is effected by a cam, v, which, when the grippers in the large cutting-cylinder e are thrown open, (as they always are when the paper is being severed by the cutters, see Fig. 6), presses up against a short lever, a’, at the end of the rod z, and turn it so as to force the sections o’ up into place between the strips t t, but when the grippers h close the cam v  drops down, releases the short lever a’, to turn the rod z so as to cause the sections o’ o’ to recede into the cylinder E, as before stated. The points of the grippers h in the large impression-cylinder rest, when closed, on the face of the India-rubber strips u on the face of the grooved plate t, which performs the same office of giving the grippers a good hold on the paper as does the pad I in the impression-cylinder. In case the grippers on the cutting-cylinder E should fail to seize hold of the paper by any accident, the paper instead of being carried to the first impression-cylinder, B, will pass between the cutting-cylinders downward and fall on the apron or blanket I, placed under the cutting cylinders e and F, and above the second type-cylinder. D’, and its inking apparatus, and when severed by the cutters will drop down and be out of the way. The same thing will occur in case of any break in the paper—the scrap will thus pass off, instead of going through and perhaps clogging up the machine. The type-cylinders D and D’, which are of equal diameter and similar construction, are adapted either for movable type or stereo-type plates, or for a combination of both, as shown in the drawings. (See Figs. 9 and 10.) The space or depression S in the circumference of the type-cylinders occurs at the point which will come opposite to the grippers in the impression-cylinders B and C, with which they revolve in rolling contact, which gives free space for the grippers to pass, as they always project slightly from the face of the cylinder. When the sheet of paper thus severed from the roll has been carried by the first impression-cylinder, B, in front of the first type-cylinder, D, and been printed in white, it is carried round, in the direction indicated by the arrow on the cylinder B in Fig. 5 until it reaches the second impression-cylinder, C, which is placed immediately below the first impression-cylinder, B, and very nearly touches it. This second impression-cylinder is similar in construction to the first, except that it is larger, being two, three, or more times the diameter of the other, as may be desired. The size of this second impression-cylinder determines the capacity of the machine, which will print on both sides, at each revolution of this cylinder, as many sheets as the second contains diameters of the first impression-cylinder. In the drawings of the second impression-cylinder is three times the size of the first, and is calculated to receive and print at one revolution three sheets of paper. The principal object of this increased size of the second impression-cylinder is to reduce the liability to set off of the ink from the printed sheet to the impression-surface of the cylinder, and from the cylinder back to the printed sheet. The impression-cylinders B and C are hollow, and their surface is covered with felt or other blankets in the usual way, the first impression-cylinder, B, having only one blanket, and the second impression-cylinder, C, having three--that is, one for each impression surface. The sheet of paper, having been printed in white on  the first impression-cylinder, B, by the type or stereo-type plates of the first type-cylinder, D, as before described, is carried round to the second impression-type cylinder to receive reiteration. There are three sets of grippers, h, h2, h’, on the second impression-cylinder, C, placed at equal distances apart, and in such relative situation to the grippers h2 on the first impression-cylinder, B, that on each revolution of the first cylinder, B, its grippers come exactly opposite to one set of grippers in the second cylinder, C, so that, as the cylinders B and C run in the direction indicated by the arrow in Fig. 5, the gripper h2 on the cylinder B will release the sheet of paper just as the grippers h2 on the cylinder C seize hold of it. The sheet, thus held, is carried forward by the second impression-cylinder, C, as shown in Fig. 5, so as to pass in contact with the second revolving type-cylinder, D’, which prints it on the other side. As the circumference of the first impression-cylinder, B, is exactly contained a certain number of times in the large impression-cylinder C, it is obvious that each sheet of paper delivered to the large cylinder C is received by a different set of grippers and lies on a different portion of the surface of that cylinder to its predecessor, and therefore the blankets on the large cylinder are less frequently used, and are less exposed to set-off than they would be if the two impression-cylinders were of equal size. The sheets thus printed on both sides pass round under the large impression-cylinder, as seen in Fig. 5, to the delivering apparatus at the front end of the machine. As the sheets are held in front by the grippers and are pressed close to the second impression-cylinder by the type-cylinder, and the motion of the impression-cylinder C is very rapid, there is probability of the rear of loose end of the sheet falling down; but, to prevent this, an apron composed of a number of curved strips of iron, e’, (see Fig. 4,) is placed near to and parallel with the under side of the large impression-cylinder C, which serves to guard the sheet and prevent its wrinkling as it passes underneath the second impression-cylinder, C.

Before describing the apparatus used for delivering and counting the printed sheets, I will explain the construction and operation of the inking apparatus. Connected with each of the type-cylinders D and D’ is a separate inking apparatus placed in front of the first type-cylinder, D, and in the rear of the second type-cylinder, D’. As these inking apparatuses are alike in construction and similarly connected with their respective type cylinders, a description of one set will suffice, the other set being marked with the same letters in the drawings. At the distance of few inches from the type cylinder D or D’, and diametrically opposite to its impression-cylinder B or C, is the ink-distributing cylinder G, which may be of the same diameter as the type-cylinder, and moves in the same direction and with the velocity, having a toothed wheel, w5, on its shaft, of similar size and number of cogs as the cog-wheel w4 on the type-cylinder, an idler, x, being placed between them to communicate motion from one to the other.  Between the type-cylinder D and the ink-distributing-cylinder G are two form rollers, J J, which have no positive motion of their own, but revolve on their axels by rolling contact with the type-cylinder D and ink-distributor G.  These form-rollers ink the type as the type-cylinder revolves in contact with them. The degree of pressure of these rollers against the face of the type is regulated by bringing their bearings nearer together on the standards f’ by screws or otherwise, and thus pressing them more closely against the cylinders D and G. Beneath the ink-distributor is the ink fountain K, containing the printing-ink, and partially immersed therein is a cylindrical fountain roller or ductor, L, of the same length as the ink distributor G. A scraper, g’, (see Figs. W and 4.) attached to the sides of the ink-fountain K, extends parallel to the ductor, in contact with it throughout its entire length, so as to scrape off the superfluous ink which attaches to the ductor as it revolves in the ink-fountain. The ductor is revolved by means of a cord passed around a pulley, k’, (see Fig. 1,) placed at the end of the shaft of the ink-distributing cylinder G, on the right-hand side of the machine so as not to interfere with the gearing on the other side, and thence around a pulley, n’, on a short shaft, p’, which carries a small pinion, i’, (see Fig. 3,) gearing into a cog-wheel, m’, at one end of the ductor-roller L. Thus the motion of the ink-distributing cylinder G gives a much slower motion to the ductor-roller, the relative degree of which may be changed by altering the position of the cord on the cone-pulleys n’ and k’, which have two or more grooves of different diameters. Between the ink-distributing cylinder G and ductor L is interposed a transferring ink-roller, N, which is a cylinder of small diameter and the same length as the ductor L and distributing cylinder G, and which has its bearings at the extremity of the short arms r’ r’, one on each side of the machine.  On the right hand of the machine the arm r’ is bent at right angles, the center of motion being in the angle, the long arm projecting upward against the face of the disk M’ and pivoted to it, as seen in Fig. 14. so as to be vibrated by the motion of the disk M’, as hereinafter explained. This transferring-roller N vibrates between the ink-distributing cylinder and ductor at each revolution of the large impression-cylinder, being in contact with the ductor L during about one-half of the revolution, and with the ink-distributing cylinder G during the other half-revolution, as seen in Fig. 4, where the transferring–roller N is in one position in the inking apparatus at one end of the machine and in the other position at the other end. In order to spread the ink more finely and evenly over the surface of the ink-distributing cylinder G, a number of small distributing –rollers, t’ t’, are arranged longitudinally over the upper part of the distributing cylinder, parallel to, but not touching, each other. These small distributing-rollers have a lateral play of an inch or two, as well as a revolving motion on their axes, and are therefore not quite so long as the ink- distributing cylinder., so that the may move to and fro in the direction of their axes. The shafts of these small rollers have their journals in standards s’ s’, &c., forming the bearings for the journals of these small distributing-rollers, are attached to theses disks M and M’, by screws, so that they can be raised or lowered to regulate the pressure of the rollers t’ t’ on the distributing –cylinder G. The purpose of giving one of the disks, M on each ink-distributing cylinder a slight motion on its axis is to shift the shafts of the rollers t’ out of parallelism to the axis of the cylinder, so as to give them an inclination first in one direction and then in the other, but all the time keeping the surface of the rollers t’ t’, &c., in contact with that of the distributing –cylinder G, which produces the effect of causing them to move sidewise to and fro along the ink-distributing cylinder, while they are revolving on their axes. This motion of the two disks M’, in the right-hand side of the machine, which produces the longitudinal vibration of the small distributing-rollers t’ and transferring-roller N, is effected by means of the rods q’ and q2, the former of which, q’, is pivoted to the moving disk M’ at the front end of the machine, and the latter, q2, is pivoted to the moving disk M’. at the rear end of the machine, the rod q2 being curved so as to avoid the second type cylinder D’. These rods q’ q2 are connected at z’ to the freed end of the lever-arm T, which is pivoted at z2 to the frame of the machine. On the lever-arm T is a projecting pin or roller, which enters an eccentric slotted cam, V’, on the axis of the pulley a on the second impression-cylinder, C, so that on every revolution of the cylinder C the lever-arm T and the rods q’ q2 are moved backward and forward, and communicate their motion to the disks M’ M’. Around the second impression-cylinder, C, there are placed several endless tapes, u’ u’, which pass over (but not around) a series of disks, P, on a horizontal shaft, v’, placed in front of the second impression-cylinder, C, and a little above its lowest point, and thence pass around a series of pulleys, Q, by which they are kept tightly stretched, so as to press upon the periphery of the disks P. As the printed sheets of paper on the second impression-cylinder, C, are outside of the tapes, and are brought round under the cylinder C to the point where the tapes  leave the cylinder C and pass over the disks P, they are carried by tapes away from the impression-cylinder C, over the disks P and under the tapes as seen in Fig. 5, the cam-guide l3 being so situate and adjusted as to open the grippers and release the forward end of the sheet of paper just as to the point where the tapes u’ u’  leave the circumference of the cylinder C.  Immediately in front of the tape-disks P us a horizontally delivering-roller, R, which has an intermitting rotary motion communicated to it by the mechanism for separating the sheets into piles, as hereinafter described. The grippers having released the paper, and the forward edge of it having passed on to the disks P, it is carried forward between the tapes u’ and disks P until the rear end drops onto the surface of the delivering-roller R, being struck down by the points of the fly-rods X, as in Fig 12. Just as the fly-rods X strike down the rear end of the sheet , the curved fingers a2 rise up over the edge of the sheet held down by the fly-rods, and, as the fly-rods rise immediately, the curved fingers fall on the sheet, holding it down to the surface of the delivering-roller. This operation is repeated every time the rear edge of a sheet of paper comes within reach of the ends of the fly-rods. The intermitting rotation of the delivering-roller R prevents the accumulation of sheets of paper thereon, and drops them down on the delivering-table Z at the front end of the machine, the tapes u’, which are extended over this table, keeping the sheets smooth and even. The fly-rods X are much shorter than those ordinarily used in printing-machines, and as they are only required to strike down the sheets as they pass under their points, and hold them down while the curved fingers rise and fall again over the edge of the sheets, the stroke of the fly may be very short and rapid. The fly-rods are rigidly attached to the horizontal fly-shaft, d2, (see Figs. 11 and 12,) and are so situate that the tips of the rods can strike the periphery of the delivering-roller R, as in Fig, 12. One end of the fly-rod shaft b2 has a short crank pivoted to a connecting-rod, c2, the upper extremity of which is pivoted to an arm, d2, (see Fig. 3,) from which projects a pin into a slotted eccentric cam, e2, attached to the extremity of the shaft of the ink-distributing cylinder G, the slotted cam e2 being so shaped as to leave the fly-rods raised up from the delivering-roller, ass seen in Fig. 11., during the entire revolution of the ink-distributing cylinder, excepting for a moment, when they are suddenly struck down to the position shown in Fig. 12, and then as suddenly raised again. The curved fingers a2are made of steel, their points being elastic and turning up slightly, so as to press on the paper and hold it firmly without tearing it. They are rigidly attached to the finger-shaft  f2, placed horizontally across the machine under the disk-shaft v’, which carries the tape-disks P, but so that the curved fingers pass from the rear of the shaft of the tape-disks over it, and press on the delivering-roller R right in front of it, as seen in Fig. 5. The curved fingers are connected with and attached to the slotted eccentric-cam e2 by a connecting-rod, g2, and arm h2, in like manner as the fly-rods are, but the pins on arms d2 and h2, which united in the slotted cam e2, are so relatively situate that the fly-rods strike down just as the curved fingers rise, and rise just as the curved fingers fall, so that during the remainder of the revolution of the slotted cam e2 the curved fingers are pressed down and the fly-rods are elevated, as in Fig. 11. Fig. 12 shows the position of these parts just as the rear end of a sheet of paper has left the tape-disks. It is only the rear end of the sheet of paper that is acted upon by the fly-rods and curved fingers, and that just as it is about to leave the machine, which is one reason why, by this apparatus, they can be delivered so rapidly. As the fly-rods and fingers are operated once on every revolution of the in-distributing cylinder, which revolves exactly three times as fast as the large impression-cylinder C, the three sheets printed on every revolution of the cylinder C are thereby passed out of the machine and piled rapidly on the table Z. The delivering-table Z is placed at the front end of the machine, near the ground and under the tapes u’.  it is supported at the four corners on spiral springs i2, resting on a base board k2. (See Figs. 2 and 3.) It is connected with a mechanism by which the table is shifted first to one side and then to the other, at regular intervals, remaining at rest between each shift, so that the printed sheets are laid in piles of any required number, each alternate pile overlapping the edge of the other an inch or two, as seen in Fig. 1, thus counting and separating the sheets mechanically. The base-board k2 of the delivering-table is supported by two transverse rods, j2 j2, (see Fig. 4,) on which it slides sidewise.  Attached to the frame, on a level with the base-board, is a bent lever, m2, having its turning-point at n2. (See Fig. 1.) To one arm of this lever m2 the base-board of the table Z is connected by a rod, p2, and the other arm of the lever m2 is connected by a rod, q2, with the lower extremity of a cam-yoke, r2. This cam-yoke is pivoted to the frame at s2. Inside of the cam-yoke r2, and attached to the projecting extremity of the shaft or axis V of the delivering-roller R, revolves a cam, t2, with one projection or operating-point, which, when the cam completes each half-revolution, pushes the cam-yoke, acting through the lever m2, slides the base board k2 and table Z sidewise suddenly to and fro, with a period of rest between each sidewise motion, the length of this period of rest determining the number of sheets which will be delivered on each separate file before the table is shifted and a new pile commenced. On the left side of the machine the shaft of the delivering-roller R projects beyond the frame A. and on it, alongside of the cam t2, are placed two ratchet-wheels, u2 and v2, the former of which, u2, is loose on its axis and turns without revolving the shaft, while the latter, v2, is rigidly attached to its shaft and causes it to revolve when it is turned.  Each ratchet-wheel has ten teeth. The diameter of the loose ratchet-wheel u2 id greater than that of the tight ratchet-wheel v2, while the depth of the teeth in each is the same, excepting that one only of the ratchet-teeth in the loose wheel u2 is cut so deep as to cause the pawl x2, working in the teeth in the loose wheel, u2, and extending over the right ratchet-wheel v2, to sink deep enough to take into whichever of the teeth of the tight ratchet-wheel v2 may be in the range therewith. Thus, when the pawl x2 has turned the loose ratchet-wheel u2 one complete revolution, it will have turned the tight ratchet-wheel v2 one tooth, and with it the shaft of the delivering-roller R one-tenth of a revolution. This contrivance is shown in Fig. 13, where it will be seen that the pawl x2 enters the teeth in the ratchet-wheel u2, but does not reach the teeth in the ratchet-wheel v2, but that at one point on the wheel u2 there is a tooth cut deeper than the rest, which allows the pawl x2 to reach them. The arm y2 carries the pawl x3, and is pivoted to the connecting-rod a3,the other extremity of which is attached to a pin on the cog-wheel w5 on the first ink-distributing cylinder, G, so that on each revolution of the ink-distributing cylinder the connecting rod a3 and arm  y2 rise and fall, causing the pawl x2 to turn the loose ratchet-wheel u2 one tooth  and as the ink-distributing cylinder revolves once for each sheet printed on the machine, the ratchet-wheel u2 will revolve once, and the ratchet-wheel v2 will advance one tooth, when ten papers are printed and delivered, and the ratchet-wheel v2 and cam t2 will complete a revolution when one hundred papers are printed and delivered; but, as the cam t2 moves the delivering-table Z to one side on each half-revolution which it makes, it will do so every time that fifty sheets are printed and delivered.  As all the main cylinders in the machine, excepting the second impression-cylinder, C, and the feed-roller E and delivering-roller R, make one complete revolution for every sheet printed and delivered, it is obvious that a counting apparatus may be easily attached to any of these wheels.

My printing-machine, constructed as described, may be safely run at a speed of six thousand revolutions per hour, and where the second impression-cylinder is three times the diameter of the type cylinders (as in the drawings) will print on both sides, deliver, and count eighteen thousand sheets of newspapers or other printed matter in an hour, and this without other attention than is necessary to supply a fresh roll when the paper is expended, and to remove the piles of printed paper from the delivering-table, which is an amount of work with only one feeding and delivering apparatus for exceeding anything which has hitherto been accomplished in the history of printing machines.

Having thus described my improvements in letter-printing machines and the mode of carrying the same into effect, what I consider to be new therein, and claim as my invention, and desire to secure Letters Patent, is—

1.   The feeding of the paper into the printing-machine from a continuous roll or web by means of a feed-roller revolving in contact with the paper-roll, which rests against it.

2.   Hanging the shaft of the spool or axis of the roll of paper in bearings at one extremity of two arms, which are rigidly attached at their other extremity to a shaft, which is left free to turn on its axis in a fixed bearing, whereby the roll of paper is kept in an accurately horizontal position at right angles to the path of the paper through the machine.

3.   Placing the bearings of the arms which carry the spool of paper below, but not directly under. The feed-roller, so that, being slightly inclined toward the feed-roller, the roll of paper will press with a portion only of its weight thereon, in order that the angle of inclination may be gradually increased by the diminution in size of the roll of paper as it is unwound from the spool, and thus, although its weight is continually decreasing, the relative degree of pressure on the feed-roller may be correspondingly increased, and thereby a uniform actual pressure be maintained.

4.   The use of a counterpoise so connected with the shaft and arms which carry the spool of paper as that, by adjusting the counter-poise, the degree of pressure on the feed-roller of the roll of paper can be so regulated as to cause the paper to unwind onto the feed-roller without the roll of paper on the spool becoming loosened, as it would do were the whole or too great a proportion of the weight of a large roll of paper allowed to press upon the feed-roller.

5.   Combining in one the feed-roller and one of the cutting-cylinders, substantially as hereinbefore described.

6.   The use of the grippers or other equivalent device for seizing the sheets of paper on the feed-roller, and thereby causing it to carry the sheets of paper directly to the first impression-cylinder, substantially as described.

7.   Transferring the sheets of paper from a feed-roller, moving at a slower speed, to the impression-cylinder, or that device which carries the sheets forward from the cutters to the type-cylinder, moving at a higher speed, by means of a pair of grippers on the feed-roller and on the impression-cylinder, without the use of tapes or other similar device for that purpose, and thus leaving a space between the sheets of paper as they pass through the machine, without checking of intermitting the feed.

8.   The use of a set of grippers on one of the cutting-cylinders, which are opened and closed by a stationary cam, or other equivalent device, by means of which such cutting –cylinder also performs the work of a “layer on,” seizing the end of the paper before it is severed from the web, and carrying it round to the point of contact of such cutting-cylinder with the first impression-cylinder, which latter takes the sheet as the cutting-cylinder yields it up, the cutter on the male cutting-cylinder severing the paper when a sheet of sufficient length has passed between the cutting-cylinders.

9.   The employment of a yielding sheath, consisting of two strips, placed one o  each side of a serrated cutter, for the purpose of holding the paper firmly against the edges of the slot in the female cutting-cylinder while the cutter is severing a sheet of paper from the web, and also for the purpose of pressing the loose end of the web or uncut sheet, as it passes between the cutting-cylinders immediately after the sheet which has just been severed there from, toward the opposite cutting-cylinder until the grippers on the cutting-cylinder seize hold of it, and thus preventing the paper from passing down out of the reach of the grippers.

10. Permitting the escape from the machine of any pieces of paper which the grippers on the large cutting-cylinder fail to take hold of, or of any part of a sheet which may be torn from the web, by leaving a free passage between the large cutting-cylinder and the first impression-cylinder, so that such scrap will fall away when severed from the web by the cutter without being seized by the grippers on the first impression-cylinder, or being carried any further through the machine, thus preventing the clogging of the machine and removing a fruitful source of annoyance and delay in the operation and damage to the machine.

11. Transferring the sheet of paper after it is printed in white immediately from the first to the second impression-cylinder by means of the grippers placed on the second impression-cylinder, which seize the sheet of paper just as the grippers on the first impression-cylinder release it, without the use of tapes, cylinders, or other mechanical device not contained in the impression-cylinders for that purpose, substantially as described.

12. The use of a scrap-blanket or apron interposed between the cutting apparatus and the type-cylinder and inking apparatus, to prevent any dust or scraps of paper from falling on the type or inking cylinders.

13. The delivering apparatus, consisting of short fly-rods, having a rapid stroke in a small arc up and down, so as to strike the rear end of the printed sheets as they pass from the machine, in combination with the curved fingers for holding the rear end of the sheets during the upstroke of the fly-rods and until their downstroke, and of a roller to receive the stroke of the fly-rods and the pressure of the curved fingers and by an intermitting rotation to pass the sheets forward when released by both fly-rods and curves fingers, or other equivalent device, by which the paper is arrested at its rear end on its passage from the machine, whereby a very rapid delivery of the sheers is effected.

14. The use of a delivering-table for the reception of the printed sheets beneath and in the rear of the delivering apparatus, which table remains stationary during the delivery pf the printed sheets, until a certain number—say, fifty or one hundred—have been deposited upon it, when it suddenly moves an inch or two to one side, and is again stationary until it moves back again, and so on, alternating from side to side for the purpose of counting and separating the sheets into piles of any required number, substantially in the manner hereinbefore described.

15. Communicating an alternating lateral movement to the small ink-distributing rollers on the face of the large ink-distributing cylinder by giving a simultaneous reciprocating motion to one end of their bearings, for the purpose of securing a more perfect and uniform distribution of the ink.

 

WM. BULLOCK 

Witnesses:
    
W. BAKEWELL
      J.D. HANCOCK

*************************** 

  United States Patent Office 

WILLIAM BULLOCK, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA

Letters Patent No. 61,996, dated February 12, 1867

IMPROVEMENTS IN PRINTING PRESSES

The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same

 

TO ALL WHOM IT MAY CONCERN:

     Be it known that I, William Bullock , of the city of Philadelphia, and State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful improvement in Printing Presses, for discharging sheets.

     Figure 1 represents a top view of my improvement,

     Figure 2 is a side view.

     Figure 3, a detached view of the cam.

     To enable others skilled in the art to make and use my improvements, I will proceed to describe the construction and operation.

     The object of my improvement is the removing of sheets of printed paper from rotary presses and piling them rapidly.

 wpe2E.gif (118022 bytes)    It consists of a roller or cylinder, A, which may be the printing cylinder or additional cylinder having a set of vibrating nippers, B B, which nippers close upon the sheet either before or after it has been printed, and carry it forward in the direction of the arrow until the sheet reaches the two endless leather of India-rubber belts or bands, C and D, which have a series of teeth or ribs, e e’ e’’ e’’’, &c., on their inner surface, which fit into indentations or slots, f f’ f’’’ f’’’, on the pulleys F and G. On the outer surface are two or more nippers, h h, working on small spindles, which spindles pass through the teeth on the under side of the belts. The belts are cut away to allow the nippers to work through them. The nippers h h are kept always closed, except at the moment of receiving and releasing the sheet, by means of small spiral springs, one end of the spring going into a collar on the spindle, and the other end into the tooth of the belt. The effect of this spring is to keep the nippers closed, except when the small cranks K, on the nipper spindle, are passing the cam L and the cam M. At the former moment the nippers are forced open to receive the sheet, and at the latter moment to release it. Immediately after the nippers pass these cams they are closed by the action of the spiral springs on the nipper shaft. N N’ N’’, represent a vibrating fly, which vibrates up and down. It is made of three or more wooden slats hung upon a shaft, O O’, on which it is vibrated up and down by the crank p, (fig. 2) the connecting-rod q, of which is attached to a lever, r, (fig. 2) which works in a revolving cam, S. This revolving cam S causes the fly to vibrate up and down once for every sheet of paper which is delivered. The slats of this fly straddle the lower part of the belt in moving down and rise above the lower parts of the belts to allow the sheet to pass under it. The fly drops at the moment the nippers release the sheet, and they hold it a moment in position and then rise. U is the fly-board or table on which the sheets are received and piled.

     The operation is as follows: The sheet, as before stated, is held by the nippers B B , and revolved by the cylinder A, in the direction of the arrow, until it reaches the nippers h h in the belts C and D, when the nippers B B open and release the sheet, while the nippers h h  simultaneously close and grasp the sheet and carry it down under the fly N N’ N’’ and over the fly-board. When the nippers h h have reached the point K the cam M opens the nippers and releases the sheet, and at the same moment the fly N N’ N’’, by the action of cam S, lever r, and connecting-rod q, pressing the opposite extremity of the sheet to the fly-board for a moment. In this way the sheets are successively carried to their proper places and deposited there in regular piles with great rapidity and regularity.

     Having this described my improvement, what I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—

     The endless belts carrying the nippers in combination with the vibrating fly-frame for throwing down the sheet and arresting its motion, substantially as described.  

                                                                                                           WM. BULLOCK
    Witnesses:  
     J.H. Shaw
     Geo. Buckley

******************************

  UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

  RICHARD VOSE, OF PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA, ADMINISTRATOR

OF WILLIAM BULLOCK, DECEASED

Letters Patent No. 100,367, dated March 1, 18780; antedated February 23, 1870

 IMPROVEMENT IN ROTARY PAPER-CUTTING MACHINES

The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of  the same.

To all whom it may concern;

Be it known that WILLIAM BULLOCK, late of Philadelphia, in the county of Philadelphia, in the State of Pennsylvania, did invent a new and useful Improvement in Rotary Paper-Cutting Machines for cutting paper from a continuous roll into sheets; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description of the construction and operation of the same, reference being had to the annexed drawings making a part of this specification in which –

Figure 1 is a longitudinal sectional elevation through the red line a b in fig.2, showing its position at the instant the sheet is severed from the roll.

Figure 2 is a transverse section, showing the position of the gripers and fingers or pushers at the instant the sheet of paper is severed from the roll and before the gripers have moved, as hereinafter described.

This machine and improvement was especially designed to be used in connection with thewpe30.gif (109644 bytes) Bullock printing-press, but may be used with advantage in cutting paper for any other purpose. A difficulty has however, heretofore existed in machines of this description, from the forward end of the paper, immediately after being cut, dropping down perpendicularly out of the reach of the gripers, notwithstanding the devices heretofore used to prevent such a result.

The nature of the invention has claimed consists in providing a means whereby the forward end of the sheet, immediately upon its being severed by the cutter from the read end of the preceding sheet, is forced or pressed into close contact with the face of the female cutter-cylinder, just at and on both sides of the place where the gripers on the female cutting-cylinder strike the sheet, and then hold it to that point until the gripers have accuracy and firmly got hold of it, so that the sheet can be carried on and the operation continued.

In the drawings hereto annexed—

A is the frame of the machine, and has parallel sides supporting the boxes, shafts, cutting-cylinders, cams, cog-wheels, &c., the cutting-cylinders being placed horizontally between and resting on boxes attached to the sides.

E and F are the female and male cutting-cylinders, made hollow to allow a place for the griper and finger-rods, with their connections.

K is the griper-rod shaft, running horizontally through the female cutting-cylinder E, having a short crank, with a small roller on the outer projecting end of the shaft, which roller works over the cam-guide P attached to the frame A, closing the gripers at the proper time.

F is the finger or pressure-shaft, running horizontally through the male cutting-cylinder F, having one or more arms, (as many as there are gripers in the female cylinder,) firmly secured to it, on the end of each of which arms there is hinged a finger or presser, N, so made as not to perforate the paper, the plan represented in the drawings being preferred, that is, so constructed as to run through guides and press the paper against the opposite cylinder, and close to and on both sides of the gripers.

On the projecting end of this finger-rod or shaft is a short crank with a small roller, which works between the cam-guides L L attached to the frame A, thereby projecting the fingers or pressers against the sheet of paper, and holding it on both sides of the place where the gripers strike the paper, close to the opposite cylinder, until the gripers have seized firmly upon the sheet, the same cam-guides then withdrawing the fingers for the next sheet, and so on.

G is a horizontal view of the stationary cam for operating the fingers or pressers, and is attached to the frame A.

Q is a cam attached to the frame a, and operates the griper-rod crank, opening the gripers to release the sheet of paper to the next set of gripers or other suitable device for receiving the sheets therefrom, after they are cut.

R is a yielding spring-bar, reaching horizontally clear across the cylinder, and when coming in rolling contact with the opposite cylinder, yields and holds the paper tightly while it is being cut, by the knife right along side of it projecting beyond the periphery of the cylinder, and entering the slot in the opposite cylinder at each revolution, and also severing a sheet of paper from the roll.

S is a strip of India rubber, tacked to the cylinder on the opposite side of the slot, and project slightly beyond the periphery of the cylinder, for the purpose of holding the paper on both sides of the slot while the knife is passing through the paper.

The paper is supplied to the machine from a continuous roll, which may rest on or against, and be unwound by its contact with the cutting-cylinder.

The cylinders being connected by cog-gearing and revolving toward each other, the paper is fed down between the cutting-cylinders and severed by the blade of the cutter in cylinder F entering the slot in the cylinder E, the paper being held firmly for that purpose by the yielding spring R, after which the loose end of the web from which a sheet has been cut is immediately forced or pressed against the face of the cylinder E by the fingers or pressers N N, which are forced out of the cylinder F as soon as the sheet is severed by the cam-roller passing between the cam-guides L L, and held up to the opposite cylinder until the gripers have seized hold of the paper, when the cam-guides L L withdraw the fingers ready for the next sheet, and so on.

What I claim as the invention of the said, WILLIAM BULLOCK, and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is—

The finger or presser N herein described, in combination with revolving paper-cutting machine, constructed and operating substantially as herein set forth. 

RICHD. VOSE, Administrator

Witnesses:
A.  L.  BUTLER,
Jas. GILLET.


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