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Taken from History of Herkimer County by George A. Hardin and Frank H. Willard, published in 1893.

CALDWELL, J. Minott, Schuyler, is a native of Schuyler, and was born November 20, 1852. His father was James Mead Caldwell, and his mother was Louisa Minott. In 1880 Mr. Caldwell married Harried Cramer, and they have one son, Adair Caldwell. James Minott, maternal grandfather of Mr. Caldwell, was one of the first settlers in this section of the county. Mr. Caldwell owns a fine farm at Minott's Corners in Schuyler, but he resides in Herkimer.

CARDEN, Frank E., Little Falls, was born in Little Falls, December 5, 1866. He received a good education, after which he clerked for several years and railroaded. On March 15, 1889, he and his brother, Harry Carden, bought out the bottling establishment of Smith and Collins, since which time they have most successfully conducted the business under the firm name of Carden Brothers. They are equal owners in the establishment and are both energetic and enterprising young business men. They employ men and run teams and deliver the bottled goods all over Herkimer county.

CARNWRIGHT, J. L., Dolgeville, was born in Ulster county, N. Y., October 14, 1843. He was reared on a farm, and in 1861 enlisted in the Sixty-fifth N. Y. Infantry, serving throughout the war. He participated in the following battles: Yorktown, Fair Oaks, Turkey Bend, Malvern Hill, Antietam, Fredericksburg, Marye's Heights, Gettysburg, Rappahannock, Mine River, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Po River, Cold Harbor, Fort Stevens, Cedar Creek, Fort Fisher, Sailor's Creek, besides fourteen other engagements. He was severely wounded at Cedar Creek. At the close of the war he engaged in the millwright's business, since which time he has spent ten years in the service of Alfred Dolge. In February 1892, he established his present drug and grocery business, in which he has a fine trade. Mr. Carnwright married Eliza Hodge, and they have one son. Mr. Carnwright has been a member of the board of education, which position he resigned.

CARPENTER, James O., Russia, was born in Copenhagen, Lewis county, June 24, 1836. His father was John, a son of John, who was a native of Massachusetts, born May 9, 1773, and who married Thankful Fish, a native of Massachusetts, born in 1772. They had five children. Mr. Carpenter came to Russia, where he died, in 1809, and his wife in 1845. John Carpenter, jr., was born June 17, 1804. During the last twenty-one years of his life he was a Baptist minister, and with the exception of one year, preached in Russia. December 31, 1829, he married Helen H. Overton, a native of Long Island, born in 1808, and a daughter of Joel and Navina (Wells) Overton. Mr. Carpenter and wife had three sons and four daughters. He died April 16, 1847, and Mrs. Carpenter for the last twenty years has resided with her son, James O. The latter was educated in the common schools and in the select schools under Prof. Smart of Russia Corners. At the age of fifteen he began as a drover for Frank and Henry Stanton, and clerked for them, was with them sixteen years; he then conducted a meat market at Holland Patent for four years; then he took charge of the Union store at Russia for four years. One summer was spent at Cold Brook closing out stock of goods and the following winter he was in Carthage. In 1883 Mr. Carpenter went to Grant, N.Y., and engaged in the general mercantile business, in which he has been successful. February 17, 1892, he married Margaret B., daughter of Peter Smith, of Russia. Mr. Carpenter is a Democrat and was supervisor in 1884-87-91. He was postmaster of Grant during Cleveland's administration and is now notary public. He is one of the oldest Masons in Russia, is a member of Remsen lodge No. 677, F. and A.M., also a member of the Equitable Aid Union of Grant.

CARRAN, Thomas G. Litchfield, was born in this town and owns a dairy farm of 160 acres. He was collector of the town in 1874. He is a son of Henry and Philenda Carren, who had four children. of whom two are living; Thomas G. and Mary E.. Two died, Francis M.. who enlisted in company B , 121st New York Volunteers. He was first corporal of his company, he was wounded in the battle at Chancellorsville May 3, 1963, and died in the hospital June 5, 1863. The other son was William H., who died September 16, 1874 , in his twenty-eighth year. He was educated at the Winfield Academy and read law with R.O. Jones, of Utica, and was admitted to the bar. After that he taught the Boonville Union school nearly three years, and then went to New York city , in practice first with the Gazzan Collection Company , after which he formed a co-partnership with Mallory & Ritter, which firm exhisted until his death. The father, Henry Curran, was a native of the Isle of Man , and came to this town and settled near Cedar Lake, about 1830. He died December 1, 1852 , in California after being there only ten days. The mother, Philender Carren was a native of this town, having been bornon the same farm where the son and daughter now live. She was a daughter of Thomas Goodier, a son of Rev. Aaron Goodier.

CARRIER, Colonel David R., Winfield, was the first president of the First National Bank of West Winfield, and held that position until his death, He was the first postmaster of West Winfield, and also a merchant there. He married first Betsey Tompkins, who died May 5, 1860. His second wife is Hannah, daughter of Simeon Bucklen, one of the first settlers of this town. Mr. and Mrs. Carrier had two children, the eldest, Bessie A., who married H.T. Anthony, of Leonardsville, Madison county, and they have one son, Rae C.; the son, David R. Carrier, is in business in Chicago, Ill. Colonel David R. Carrier was born December 27, 1795, and died April 7, 1880.

CARY, John L., German Flats was born in 1830 and has lived in Mohawk forty years. He was for many years a heavy shipper of grain from Buffalo to New York. When thirty-eight years of age he married Miss Mary Kirkland, and they have three sons, Samuel, assistant superintendent of the Erie canal for Herkimer county; Charles Floyd, mail clerk on the New York Central; and George B., who lives in Chicago. Mr. Cary's father, Samuel, was a native of Oneida county and his grandfather also Samuel, came from New Hampshire.

CASE, Herman, Fairfield, is a native of Little Falls. He was born August 16, 1834. He came to Fairfield many years ago and bought his farm, consisting of ninety-six acres. His father was Morgan E. Case and his grandfather Case was a soldier in the Revolutionary war. Mr. case owns the old Houghton farm. He is a Mason and has been a master of the Grange, of which his is a charter member. He has never married.

CASEY, Dr. I. E., Mohawk, is a native of Schoharie county, N. Y., and was born on November 23, 1837. After receiving an excellent education he commenced the study of medicine with Dr. J. G. Snell and eventually graduated from the Albany Medical college in 1852 after which he commenced the practice of his profession in Mohawk, where he still continues in active practice, having been here over forty years. Dr. Casey has served as supervisor, etc. He married Miss Mary Bellinger, a daughter of Fred Bellinger, and has two sons, Fred B. Casey and J. Irving Casey, who are studying law and medicine, respectively. Dr. Casey has been a member of the Albany Medical society for over fifty-three years and of the State Medical society since 1864. He was identified with the late war.

CASLER, B. P., Little Falls, although a young man, is one of the leading merchants of Little Falls. He is a native of this town, and ever since the age of thirteen has been connected with the dry goods business. He was with Burch & Co. for eight years, and then formed a partnership with J. H. Casler six years ago. Their business is one of the largest and best in the place. Mr. Casler is a member of the Royal Arcanum, the Red Men and Odd Fellows, and is a member of the Presbyterian church. In politics he is a Democrat. The Casler family is one of the oldest and best known in Herkimer county, several of the Caslers of a century ago having taken a prominent part in the Revolution. Mr. Casler married Anna L. Chester of this town.

CASLER, Geo. H., Warren, was born June 5, 1835, in the town of Warren, and is a son of Adam Casler, whose father was also Adam, a pioneer of Minden, Montgomery county. Adam, jr., was born October 30, 1802, and after his marriage came to Warren, where he lived until a few years before his death. Then he went to Columbia, where he died October 24, 1863. His wife was Barbara Snyder, who was born October 26, 1803, and died April 22, 1872, at the home of her son, George H. She bore him ten children: Lucinda, born August 26, 1824; Catherine, born June 12, 1826; Almira, born June 30, 1828; Charity, born August 9, 1830; Betey M., born June 21, 1833 (died at the age of two years); George H., born June 5, 1835; Diana, born March 25, 1836; James M., born March 26, 1838; Julia, born February 16, 1840 (died in childhood); Mary J., born December 4, 1842 (died at the age of eight years). Geo. H. Casler at the age of nine, was bound out to Geo. M. Cleeland, until twenty-one, for $150 and schooling. He worked out by the month until married and then rented farms on shares until 1867, when he bought one hundred acres where he now lives. He now owns three hundred acres He is a Republican and has held the office of collector for one year and poormaster for thirteen years, of which he is now serving. He married, November 2, 1856, Betsey, daughter of Isaac and Leah (Bronner) Maxfield, and has had three children: Myron J., born November 8, 1858, and married, first, Libbie Shaver, who bore him two children, Willie and Georgie, and second married Alice Guyer, who bore him one child, Edna Blanche. Charles E. was born December 31, 1860. He married Estella Ecker, who bore him two children, Ray and Lee, and Libbie Leah, born May 15, 1869.

CASLER, George, Little Falls, was born in the town of Little Falls, June 19, 1828, and has resided here all his life. In 1859 he married Julia Campbell, and they have one daughter, who married Harvey Rankin in 1886. Mr. Casler is one of the prominent farmers of Little Falls. He owns 230 acres of land used for dairy purposes and hay. He has been eight times elected assessor of the town, and so will have held the office continually for twenty-four years when he completes his present term. He is an out-and-out Democrat and belongs to the Masonic order, in which he is a Knight Templar.\par \par }

CASLER, Philo W., Little Falls, was born in Brooklyn, N. Y. He received his education in the Polytechnic Institution there, and in 1873 started a produce business in New York city. After five years successful operations in this line he came to Little Falls and inaugurated his extensive brickyards and lumber business, in which he furnished constant employment to about twenty-five hands and five teams. Mr. Casler was elected master of the County Grange in January of this present year. He lives on a valuable farm one and a half miles south of the village. Mr. Casler's wife was Miss Martha Hopson, of Salisbury Center, by whom he has had two children.

CASWELL, George, German Flatts, was born at Schuyler Lake, Otsego county, and lived at Cedarville thirty-three years ago.  He was first engaged in the hotel business there.  He came to Ilion three years ago and lately opened the Caswell House.  Mr. Caswell is a Mason and has been for twenty-seven years.  His father was Levi N. Caswell and his Grandfather Levi Caswell, who came to Otsego county from Connecticut.  In 1864, Mr. Caswell married Cora A. Williams and they had two children, Grace L., and Lee N.

CAVANAUGH, Frank, Little Falls, was born in Little Falls, June 17, 1866. He received a good education in the Little Falls school and academy, and eventually succeeded his father in the hotel, which had been conducted at the corner of Ward and Loomis streets by the elder Cavanaugh for many years. Frank Cavanaugh is a staunch Democrat in politics and identified with the local social and benevolent institutions of the town, such as the Elks, Red Men, Erina Chemical Engine Co. No. 5, etc. He is a progressive and much esteemed citizen.

CHAMPION, Delano A., Little Falls, attorney at law, is a native of Herkimer County. He was educated in the Little Falls Academy, Whitestown Academy, and Cazenovia Seminary, and studied law with Judge Hardin, justice of the supreme court. He was admitted to the bar in 1878, and has since been engaged in the practice of his profession at Little Falls. Mr. Champion is of New England ancestry, and of revolutionary antecedents. He married Clara C. Witter, of Brooklyn, N. Y.

CHESTER, John, Little Falls, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland. Early in life he was a flour miller, serving as a foreman in the Buxburn Flouring Mills of Aberdeen. He came to this country when twenty-three years of age and engaged in paper-making in Little Falls. After seven years he left this business to engage with the Saxony Knitting Company, with whom he remained twenty-one years, holding the position of overseer of spinning. On June 23, 1892, he left the mill and bought his present meat and provision business. Mr. Chester is a Mason, Knight of Honor, etc. He is now member of the board of education for some time, and has served the village as trustee. He is also a stockholder and member of the Little Falls Co-operative Association. His wife was Margaret Byron of Little Falls, by whom he has had twelve children, eight of whom are living.

CHISMORE, Edward, German Flats, was born December 28, 1849. His father, Jacob Chismore, was a gunsmith, and he learned the same trade, and has passed all his business life here in the Armory. He is an Odd Fellow and a Red Man. In 1874 he married Miss Mary Sullivan, of Mohawk, a daughter of Matthew Sullivan. Mr. Chismore is a manager of the Ilion Driving Park, and one of the finest horsemen in the State.

CHRISTMAN, Nicholas, Herkimer, is probably the oldest resident of Herkimer county He was born September 1, 1803. He was a carpenter and joiner and afterwards a farmer, which he has been for fifty-six years. He owns sixty acres of land and thirteen milch cows, and does dairy farming. He has been commissioner of highways. In 1829 he married Hannah Woliver, and they have eight children living, five of whom are married and three are yet home. Mr. Christman\rquote s greatest pride is that his family has always been most agreeable and congenial. His grandfather, John Christman, took an active part in the Revoluntionary War, and was in the burning of the old mill in Little Falls, by the Indians and Tories.\par }

CHRISTMAN, W., Herkimer, is a native of this country and was engaged in farming for many years. Then he followed the trade of carpenter and mason for some time, and then took up shoemaking which he still follows. In 1858 he married Miss Helen E. Petrie, and they have seven children living, three sons and four daughters. Two of the daughters are married, one being the wife of Victor Barnes and the other H. L. McKeever. There have now been six generations of this family in this county and the name is a well-known one in this part of the State.

CHURCHILL, Henry, Herkimer, is a native of New York, and took a university course at Yale College, graduating with honors. In 1866 he came to Herkimer from Gloversville and entered into the manufacture of paper with his brother-in-law, the Hon. Warner Miller. He has since that date given the greater part of his time to the prosecution of his manufacturing enterprise, but is also president of the First National Bank of Herkimer, in which, he takes a great interest and just pride.

CLAPSADDLE, Frank,  German Flats, was born in Columbia January17, 1858, and ran a carriage business for some years.  He came to Mohawk in 1885 and purchased the horses needed for running the various lines of street railways there.  In 1888, he married Miss Maude Brown and they had one infant son.   His grandfather was one of the early settlers in Columbia.

CLAYTON, Samuel, Frankfort, was born in Lancashire, England, June 22, 1848.   He was one of eight children of John A., and Betty (Gee) Clayton.  The family first located in Ilion, and Mr. Clayton lived in Herkimer county about twenty-seven years.  He came to Frankfort in 1884 and built the large and commodious building which he used as a hardware and agriculture implement store, dealing also in stoves, ect.  He was first married to Susie M. Sutliff, who died in 1877  having one son Alfred Samuel Clayton, October 5, 1881, he married Georgiene M. Warner, a daughter of Captain F.C. and Hannah H. (Bruce) Warner, of Baltimore, Md.  They had one son, Franklin Robert Clayton.  Captain F.C. Warner was an officer in the navy and captain of the ship Osceola.   

CLEMENS, Michael, Schuyler, is one of the old and honored residents of Schuyler. He was born February 14, 1815, and has been a farmer all his life. His father was Michael Clemens, and his grandfather Jacob Clemens. The latter participated in the Revolutionary war and came from Germany over a century ago. Mr. Clemens married Rachael Oyer, a most estimable lady, who died July 18, 1889. They had one daughter, now the wife of George Storms.

CLIVE, Henry, German Flats, is a native of England, and traces his ancestry to the celebrated Lord Clive. He was born February 11, 1844, and came to America in 1864. He has been in the Armory for many years and is a Mason, and a member of the United Friends. In 1861 Mr. Clive married Emma Wall and they have ten children. The Clives were among the first gunmakers of England.

CLIVE, Stephen, German Flats, was born in Birmingham, Eng., June 20,1840. He came to America in 1863. In 1852 he began to learn barrel making and was a master mechanic in this line when he came to this country. He started to work in this country in Trenton, but went to Yonkers in 1864 to make carbines for the government. He next went to work in New York in sporting goods; then to the Winchester Arms Company, and finally came to the Remington Armory in June, 1867. He contracts for boring and straightening the gun barrels. Mr. Clive is a prominent Mason. In 1858 he married Catharine Jones and they have three children. Mrs. C. A. Hollenbeck, Albert A., and Alice M. Clive, having lost two grown up sons, Gilbert E. in 1890 and Stephen A. in 1891. Mr. Clive's father was Stephen Clive and his grandfather was Benjamin Clive, one of four brothers, leading gun makers of Birmingham, Eng. Mr. Clive was the first person of his name to settle in America.

CLOYES, Anson G., Frankfort, was born in Frankfort August 3, 1844, he being one of eight children of Silas and Abigail W. (Brown) Cloyes. His grandfather was Luther Cloyes, who was born in Framingham, Mass., and settled here in early life. Anson G., the youngest son, married in 1869, Adelia N. Harvey, by whom he had five children: Jessie E. (deceased), Gilbert S., Ada L., Homer E. and Bessie M. (deceased); the mother died when they were young. He later married Mary E. Fish of Utica, by whom he has one son. Mr. Cloyes is an enterprising farmer, his farm buildings being notable for their size, number and convenience, one barn being 119 x 45 feet. He has recently built a horse barn 60 x 40 feet with all the modern conveniences, an ice house with a capacity of 200 tons, a tool house 36 x 22 feet, a piggery 25 x 20 feet, a poultry house, etc. He has a dairy of fifty cows, producing on the average 300 lbs. of butter per week. A fine creamery is soon to be built. His farm consists of 275 acres, which is beautifully situated, overlooking the city of Utica and commanding an extended view of the Mohawk and Sauquoit valleys.

COAKLEY, John, jr., Warren, was born in County Cork, Ireland, December 5, 1834, a son of John and Jane (McCarthy) Coakley. The grandparents died in Ireland, and raised seven children: John, Jeremiah, Dennis, Daniel, Mary, Joanna and Harry, all of whom came to the United States and settled in New York except Dennis. John, father was born in Ireland, whence he came to the United States and settled three miles west of Little Falls. He died in German Flats, aged ninety years. His wife died about four months later. They had nine children, all died childless except John and David. Our subject received a common school education, and at twelve began to earn his own living. About 1867 he bought 130 acres in German flats. In 1873 he sold and located on 144 acres, where he resides. In the fall of 1864 he enlisted in Company B. Tenth New York Heavy Artillery, and was honorably discharged in June 1865, returning to Herkimer county where he resumed farming. Has always lived in the county except two years in Vermont. He has been a Republican all his life. He married December 4, 1861, Hannah A., daughter of Alanson and Mary A. (Thomas) Mason. They have two children: Florence M., wife of Chauncy Brown and Jennie.

COE, Henry R., Middleville, came from Connecticut with his wife, Lydia, a daughter of Thomas J. Sturgis, about the year 1837. Their children were as follows: Helen Alexander, wife of Herman Alexander; Louise, wife of James Morris; and Albert S., all residents of Middleville. He worked for Smith & Stow as foreman in their chair factory for a number of years, when he purchased an interest in same, which he continued until his death, May 2, 1875. He was an active Democrat, and held the office of justice of the peace. His wife is still living at the age of seventy-five years. His son, Albert S., was educated in the school at Middleville, and at the age of fifteen entered the employ of V. S. Kenyon as clerk, continuing for two years. He then bought a half interest in the chair manufactory of his father, which he continued until the latter's death. In 1887 he commenced the retail furniture business, also undertaking, which he has since followed. He married, February 25, 1875, Ida L., daughter of Anson and Laura Morey. She died in May, 1882, and he married second, Hattie Crossett, by whom he had five children: Lena L., May E., Bessie, Charlie, who died December 19, 1891, aged two years and four months; and Hazel. Mr. Coe is a Democrat, having been justice of the peace and justice of sessions, which latter position he now holds. He was charter member of the Royal Arcanum Council 1335, of which he has been treasurer since its organization.

COE, S. E., German Flats, was born in Granville, Mass., July 9, 1827. He taught school eight years and then went into the jewelry business. He has been twenty-one years in the brick and insurance in Mohawk. He is a Mason and a Strong Democrat. In 1858 Mr. Coe married Miss Catherine Myers and they have a son Frederick and a daughter Clara, who is a teacher. Mr. Coe manufactures about 2,000,000 bricks annually in his yards at Ilion, N. Y.

COFFIN, E. J., Little Falls, attorney at law, was born in Herkimer, of English and Irish parentage, in 1847. He received his education at Whitestown Academy. After graduation he took a short course in engineering, and in this capacity assisted in the Morristown extension of the Utica and Black River Railroad. After the completion of this road he entered the law office of Hon. A. M. Mills of Herkimer. He was admitted to the bar June 13, 1879. He then entered the office of Judge Hardin, justice of the Supreme Court, with whom he remained three years, since which time he has been actively engaged in the practice of his profession. He has served one term as corporation attorney of the village of Little Falls.

COLCORD, J. T., Herkimer, is a native of South Berwick, Maine. He began his business career as a clerk, and after spending some time in the west, came to Herkimer in 1887, and opened his present business of dry goods, fancy goods, etc. His ancestors resided in Maine for several generations. Mr. Colcord married a daughter of Louis Webster, but she died in 1889. He has one daughter. He is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and is an independent in politics.

COLE, Gilbert, farmer of Fairfield, is a native of this town and has lived here all his life. He owns a farm of eighty-eight acres. He married Miss Mary E. Huyck of Fairfield, at the age of nineteen, and has one son, Mr. Duane Cole, who is also married and has one child. His wife was Miss Mary Irving, of Toronto, Ont. Mr. Cole is sixty-seven years of age, but is still an active man, both mentally and physically. He has been postmaster for many years and is a prominent Democrat.

COLE, Truman, Fairfield, one of the enterprising young men of Herkimer county, is a native of Fairfield, and a son of Justice A. Cole. He manages 213 acres of dairy farm, and a herd of forty-five cows. He was educated at Fairfield and Fort Plain, and then spent two years in the study of law in the office of Mills & Palmer, Little Falls. He then took up farming, which he has successfully followed. Mr. Cole is a broad-minded man, and is held in much esteem. He is at present one of the assessors of Fairfield, and is a member of the Grange and of the Grange Mercantile Association of Little Falls.

COLEMAN, F. W.,  German Flats, was born in London, March 7, 1850, and came to America in 1869.  He had always been in the carriage trade in this country.  The firm of Garlick & Coleman was found in 1873, and in 1877 succeeded by F. Coleman & Company.  In 1889 the Coleman Carriage Company was formed with Mr. Coleman as manager. He is an active business man and a member of the Masonic order, and the A.O.U.W.  in 1881 he married Miss Susan Oram and they had a family of eight children.

COLLINS, Dennis, grocer, of Little Falls, is a native of Ireland, but came to America in 1848 when quite young, and his life affords a fine example of the success that inevitably results from the union of ability and honorable methods. He began life as a clerk, and now owns the fine Collins block opposite the Metropolitan Hotel, and the block in which Pepper's and Williams' stores are located, besides bank stock and stock in the Superior Furnace Company. He began his present business in 1867. In 1865 he was town collector. In 1868 he married Margaret Hearn, and they have six children. Mr. Collins is treasurer of the Little Falls branch of the Irish National League and is a Republican in politics.

COLLINS, Rev. Dennis B., Winfield, was born in Ireland, November 7, 1861. A part of his education was received at the Jesuit school in Limerick. He worked in a newspaper office in Cork, and while yet in his boyhood he came to America, where ambition has a greater field and labor a greater reward. He came to Boston, where he worked and studied until 1882, when he took a year's rest in St. Laurence College, Montreal. In 1883 he entered St. Charles College, Baltimore, Md. to complete his knowledge of Latin, and in 1884 was admitted to the Theological Seminary at Troy, where he was ordained priest in December, 1888. He was assistant priest at St. Patrick's Church, West Troy, until January 1, 1892, since which time he has been priest of the St. Joseph's Church at West Winfield.

COLLINS, William H., Winfield, proprietor of the Cottage Hotel, was born in Brookfield, Madison county, July 15, 1860. He married Minnie E., daughter of Byron Fisk, of Syracuse, December 5, 1880, and they have one son, Lewis W. William H. is a son of Stephen H. Collins, of Brookfield, who was a son of Hoxie Collins.

COMES, Addison C., Litchfield, is a farmer, and has been assessor of this town. He sent a substitute to the war of the Rebellion. He was born in this town January 17, 1827, and settled on the farm where he now lives in March 1876. He married Miranda Joslyn, and they have two children: Ruth who married James Donahue, and Irving, who married Julia F. Loomis, and has two children: Cecil May and Ruth B. Addison C. is a son of Ebenezer, a native of Connecticut, who early settled here. Martha Comes was a daughter of Nathaniel Ball, a native of New Hampshire, who settled in this town in 1788.

COMSTOCK, Byron, Norway, was born in Ohio, Dec. 24, 1848. His father was Samuel Comstock, a son of Stephen, a native of Mass., and an early settler of Norway. Samuel Comstock was born in Norway in 1799. He married Sybil Cummings, by whom he had nine sons and three daughters, all of whom are living except the youngest. Mr. Comstock was a Democrat and held minor offices in Ohio, where he resided most of his life and where he died in 1891. Byron Comstock was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools. He married Helen M. Nichols, of Fairfield, a daughter of Caleb and Abigail (Harris) Nichols. Mr. Nichols survives his wife, and at present resides in Troy. The subject has one child, Mary F. He is a farmer. His early life was spent in Ohio, but for the last eighteen years he has resided in Norway. He has been assessor eight years and commissioner of highways one year. He is a Democrat.

COMSTOCK, F. F. M. D., German Flats, is a native of Oneida county and was born May, 14, 1849. He studied medicine in the Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York city, and graduated in 1873. In 1876 he opened his office in Ilion. He is a member of the Herkimer County Medical Society and a Mason. He has been health officer of Ilion and is a strong Democrat. In 1874 Doctor Comstock married Miss Alice J. Brand and they have a family of three sons.

CONGDON, William E., Litchfield, was born in this town October 8, 1838. He has been assessor and inspector of elections, and is a farmer, owning a dairy, grain, and fruit farm, and makes both butter and cheese. He married Sarah, daughter of Isaac Stedman, and they have two children: Merritt J., of Utica, and Jessie M. Rider, of Michigan. William E. Congdon is a son of Thomas J. Congdon, who was born in this town, and he was a son of James Congdon, who came from Rhode Island, and was one of the first settlers of the town.

CONKLIN, Silas H., Warren, was born near Little Lakes, March 10, 1863, a son of Hicks and Hanna (Weeks) Conklin. The grandfather Harry W., was a son of Silas, who was a son of Jacob, who came from Wales, and settled at East Hampton, L. I. After the Revolution he came to Stark, Herkimer county. His wife was a Miss Skelinger. He died in Monroe county. Silas was born on Long Island, September 15, 1772. After the war he came to Springfield, Otsego county where he died. His wife was Emmiliza Hicks, born in 1776, by whom he had four sons and four daughters. He died aged eighty-three, and his wife died in 1857, aged eighty-two. Henry Conklin married Phoebe Cook, and their four children were: Richard, Silas, Hicks, Catharine and Elija. Hicks Conklin was born in Warren. He began life as a farmer. Later he kept a meat market at Little Lakes. He was two years in a hotel at Springfield Center, and died in 1882, his widow survives him and was born in Warren, a daughter of James and Martha (McChesney) Weeks. Our subject was the only child. He received a district school education, also attended a seminary. At nineteen he began life as a clerk at Springfield Center. February 15, 1885, he opened a general store at Little Lakes, which he has operated successfully since. Has been twice elected clerk of Warren as a Democrat. He has been deputy postmaster since 1885. October, 1882, he married Edith, daughter of David and Anna (Dunn) Baird, and they have two children: Anna E. and Silas H.

CONKLING, James,  German Flatts, born in Troy, New York, May 22, 1854. When three years of age his parents moved to Litchfield, Herkimer county, graduated from Whitestown Seminary in 1875, studied law with Francis Kernan from 1877 to 1880, when he was admitted to the bar.  After his admission, he moved to Ilion.  He has taken an active part in the affairs of his town and village for some years and is one of the leading Democrats of the county.   February 11, 1885, he married Miss Eva J. Beckwith, daughter of Hon. E.D. Beckwith, now of Little Falls.  President of the village of Ilion in 1889, also elected supervisor in 1890, 1891, and reelected in 1892 by the largest majority ever given to a supervisor in the town of German Flatts.  He was the candidate for his party for member of Assembly in 1891, but was defeated.   Has a lucrative law practice and is attorney for the Ilion Building and Loan Association.

CONWAY, John, Little Falls, was born in Syracuse, June 24, 1864. He received a good education in the schools of that city, after which he learned the trade of carriage trimmer. He came to this village, and engaged with Mr. Burdick, carriage-maker, with whom he remained four years. He then accepted a position as bar-tender at the Beattie House, which he filled until he resigned to establish his elegant saloon on Mail Street, Little Falls, in August, 1892. Mr. Conway is very popular in this town, being a fine ball player, and is identified with the Red Men, Erina Chemical Engine Co., Celtic Lyceum, etc. He married Miss Kate McGurty.

COOK, Chauncey, Manheim, was born in Salisbury august 16, 122. He received his schooling in the town of Manheim, into which township his father moved in the spring of 1832. Chauncey Cook's grandfather and father came into this State from Connecticut about 1800 and settled in Salisbury. Mr. Cook own 173 acres of dairy land and the Salisbury Road, upon which he keeps a tenant. He has about forty head of milch cows, besides other stock. He married Miss Jane Getman, of Fulton county, and has a family of two sons. One son, Charles Cook, is engaged in farming, and the other son, Malvin B., is in business in Little Falls.

COOK, D. L., Herkimer, is a native of Winfield, and was on the farm the first twenty years of his life. He then spent three years with the United States Express Co. on the railroad, then returned to farming, in which he has retained an interest up to the present time. In Oct., 1891, Mr. Cook opened a meat business in Herkimer, which now occupies his attention mainly. In Nov., 1886, Mr. Cook was elected sheriff for a term of three years, and he had previously been supervisor of Winfield for two years, and postmaster for three years. He is a Republican in politics and of English descent. Nov. 1, 1878, Mr. Cook married Miss Martha Morgan, and they have one son living.

COONRADT, A. B., Russia, was born in Brunswick, Rensselaer county, N. Y., a son of P. A. Coonradt, a son of George, a son of Jeremiah, who was a native of Brunswick. His father with two brothers came from Germany during the Revolutionary War. They paid their passage by serving in the war. Jeremiah settled in Troy and married Miss Smith, and had twelve children. Mr. Coonradt was born in Brunswick in 1800. His wife was a Miss Coonradt and they had five sons and four daughters. Mr. Coonradt died in Brunswick in 1867, and his wife in 1847. P. A. Coonradt was born in Brunswick February 29, 1822. He followed teaching many years and then engaged in the mercantile business until 1865, when he came to Cold Brook and was agent for the Union store one year. He then moved to Prospect and resided there until 1870, when he went to Rockford, Ill., where he is at present engaged in the manufacture of shoes. Mr. Coonradt married Sarah, daughter of John Coonradt, who was in the War of 1812. To P. A. Coonradt and wife were born three sons and one daughter. Mr Coonradt was supervisor and also town clerk. Subject assisted his father in the mercantile business when young and at the age of ten came with his parents to Russia. In 1886 he married Hattie E. Moon, a native of Russia, and a daughter of Harriet and Cameron Moon of Rensselaer and Herkimer counties, respectively. Mr. Moon died January 25, 1891, and his wife still resides in Cold Brook. To subject and wife have been born two sons; Frank and Leon, both residing at home. In 1870 Mr. Coonradt entered the mercantile business with his son Frank and his father-in-law, Mr. Moon. In 1874 Mr. Moon retired and Mr. Coonradt and son continued until 1883, since which time subject has been sole proprietor. He is a Republican and has been town clerk, and is a member of the Newport Lodge 455 F. & A. M.

COOPER, Charles F., is one of the prominent farmers of Litchfield, owning a dairy and grain farm of 100 acres of land. He was born at Norwich Corners, January 20, 1834, a son of William Cooper, who was constable and collector of the town of Litchfield for many years, who was a son of James Cooper. Charles F. Cooper married Mary A. Smithson, a daughter of Milton Smithson, of Sauquoit, Oneida county. They have three children, Charles Henry, Clarence Edmond and Earl.

COOPER, Henry C., Norway, was born in Cold Brook February 6, 1828. His father was Charles Cooper, a son of Solomon Cooper, a native of Connecticut. The wife of Solomon Cooper was Mary Meacham, by whom he had three sons and two daughters. Mr. Cooper died in Russia in 1861, at the age of eighty-four. In 1810 he came with his parents to Russia, where he lived and died. In 1826 he married Margaret Thompson of Johnstown, born June 17, 1805, who bore him one son and four daughters. Mr. Cooper was a Mason, and a farmer by occupation. He died July 5, 1889. His wife now resides in Cold Brook and is eighty-eight years old. The subject of this sketch was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools and in Fairfield Academy. At the age of seventeen he began teaching school and followed that three years. May 4, 1854, he married Jane M. Pritchard, who bore him five children: Wendle P., Adelbert R., who died at the age of fourteen years, Lizzie, who died in infancy, Ella M., and Charles W. Mr. Cooper is a farmer by occupation. Early in life he was a Garrisonian Abolitionist, and when the Republican party was organized united with that party and remained with them until 1868. In 1872 he voted for Horace Greeley, and in 1867 for Peter Cooper. In 1880 he was presidential elector for Weaver. In 1884 and 1888 he voted with the Democratic party. Mr. Cooper has been justice of peace, highway commissioner and assessor. He resided in Russia until 1859 when he went to Norway, where he has since lived.

COX, William S., German Flats, was born in New Jersey, May 15, 1843, and studied law for some time, but subsequently went into the armory in Newark. He came to Ilion in 1862 and enlisted in the Third New York Light Artillery in 1863. In 1865 he returned here, and after spending eighteen months with the Winchester Arms company and thirteen years with the Remingtons he went to the typewriter, when that company started. Mr. Cox is an active Democrat, and has been chairmen of the election board. He is a charter member of G. A. R. Post, and has been a delegate to congressional conventions. In 1868 he married Mary Clapsaddle and they have three children, Ada, a teacher, Anna, a music teacher, and Marietta, a singer.

The CRAMER family settled in Danube early in the seventeenth century, and the land has descended from father to son for four generations. John Cramer was the original settler in this neighborhood, and was the great-grandfather of Zenas. He was succeeded by his son, Abraham A., who in turn was succeeded by his son Abraham, father of the subject of our sketch, who, together with his brother, owns two farms, one containing 201 acres, called the Homestead farm and the other containing 147 acres. They keep about sixty head of stock and do a thriving business, employing a tenant on the smaller farm. Zenas has served as inspector of elections, etc., and is a through and practical farmer.

CRAMER, Addison, Dolgeville, was born in Fulton county, N. Y., July 23, 1855. His early years were spent on a farm. When eighteen years of age he commenced to drive the stage between Darew and Little Falls, which business he continued in for nine years. Then he took the hotel at Salisbury Corners for two years, then the Loomer house at Dolgeville for four years, and in the spring of 1892 assumed charge of the Cottage hotel, Dolgeville. Mr. Cramer, when in Salisbury, filled the position of collector for three years. He married Miss Maggie Kelly. They have no children.\par \par }

CRIM, Adam J., Warren, was born where he now lives, March 5, 1821, and is a son of Jacob and Eve (Staring) Crim. His grandfather was Jacob, also, who married Elizabeth Frank. Jacob, Jr., was born where Adam now lives Oct. 14, 1787, and died June 14, 1874. He was a leading and influential man in his day. His wife died December 16, 1878, leaving eight out of her nine children. Adam J. has always lived on the farm where he was born. With three others he started a cheese factory in 1871. He is a Republican, and has served as justice of the peace, and one term as associate justice. He is a Mason. He married May 5, 1874, Martha, daughter of Abram and Lana (Thumb) Veeder, and they have two children: Alma F., and Ora B. F. His wife and daughters are members of the Reformed Church.

CRIST, D. B., Fairfield, was born in Fairfield, and his father removed to Middleville when D. B. was quite young. He was in the mercantile business for five years and in the flour and feed business for three years before he took up farming. He occupies one of his father's dairy farms of 180 acres. His father still lives in Middleville. In 1883 Mr. Crist married Miss Nettie Jackson, and they have a family of two sons. He is a Republican and a member of the Masonic fraternity. His father's name is Morgan C. Crist.

CRIST, Hezekiah H., Winfield, was born in Fairfield, June 15, 1817. Came to Winfield in 1850, and settled on the farm where he now lives, in 1852. He was assessor of this town three years. He was a son of Stephen Crist, who was born in 1777, and came from Orange county to Fairfield at the age of eighteen with his father, Abraham Crist, among the first settlers. He hired on hundred acres, which he cleared the first year, and erected the first farm house and barn built in Fairfield, and a portion of that barn is still standing in good repair. Hezekiah H. Crist married Elisabeth Ellison, January 1, 1846, and they have five children: Martha M., Alice E., Mary E., George B., and Arthur H. Hezekiah Crist has lived forty years on his present farm. Elisabeth C. Christ was born in Essex, Mass., July 8, 1824, a daughter of Stephen Ellison.

CRONKHITE, Cornelius, grandfather of the subject of this sketch, came from Dutchess county, N. Y., in 1786, and purchased for one hundred pounds a tract of land from the Abraham Lansing patent. He lived here improving his land and following agricultural pursuits until his death. He was the father of six children, three sons and three daughters. He was succeeded by his two sons, Henry C. Cronkhite and John C. Cronkhite, Henry C. Cronkhite, the father of James H. Cronkhite, receiving for his share 109 acres, to which he added 18 acres. Henry C. was drafted in the war of 1812 and served by sending a substitute in Sackett's Harbor. James H. Cronkhite was born February 11, 1823, and succeeded to 127 acres of land, to which he has added 75 acres of beautiful dairy land adjacent to the village of Minden. He married Miss Margaret Moyer of this town and they have had three children, two of whom survive, one son and one daughter. Mr. Cronkhite has served twenty-one years successively as justice of the peace. At the present writing he has retired from active agricultural pursuits.

CROSSETT, James, proprietor of the Nelson house, Herkimer, is a native of Herkimer, a farmer's son, and lived on a farm until twenty-two years old. He then embarked in the meat business for five years, since which time he has been in the hotel business. He conducted the Waverly house, Herkimer a leading hotel in Middleville, and the Nelson house has now been owned by him for eight years. He is a Mason and a strong Republican. His people have lived in this State for generations, and his father, still living, is a leading farmer of the town. Mr. James Crossett married Helen Hawkins, and has three daughters, the oldest of whom is the wife of Mr. B. Waters of Little Falls.

COOK, M.B.   Little Falls, dealer in agricultural inplements, ect., Mary Street, Little Falls, a native of Manheim.  His father is a farmer and he spent his early years on farm, just outside the corporate limits of Little Falls, having been all his life interested in farming.  He first branched out into the merchantile field as a dealer in hay carrier business.  From this he evolved into a full agricultural business in 1881. He began in a moderate way and has met with great success and does a large trade.  He carries a very full and complete line of all kinds of farm implements.  In politics he is a Democrat and is a member of the Royal Arsanum and the Home Circle.  Mr. Cooks' great-grandfather came from Wallington, Conn. and the family have resided in this county ever since.  M. B. Cook also owns a creamery and a farm in Madison count, and operates one farm in the town of Manheim.  His wife was Kate Waters, daughter of S.J. Waters and they have one daughter three years of age.

COOPER, B.I., Little Falls, is a native of this place, and has followed farming principally all his life. He owns two fine farms and a herd of eighty cows. In 1891 he came to this village, and February 2, 1892, began the manufacture of cheese-boxes, selling to the factories in this vicinity. In 1868 he married Josephine Alexander, and they have five children, four daughters and a son. Mr. Cooper is also interested in the Eatonville cheese factory. He is a Democrat in politics.

CRISTMAN, James  A.,  Ohio, was born in the town of Ohio, November 8, 1863. He is a farmer, carpenter and builder, and received his education in the district schools.  January 1, 1891, he married Annie Bickford, daughter of Stephen and Elizabeh Bickford of Russia.  Mr. Christman is a Democrat, and has been highway commissioner.  He is a member of the North Star Grange Number 686 of Ohio.  James A., is a son of Augustus Cristman, a son of John Cristman.  The latter was a native of Paines Hollow, born in 1800, died in 1868.  His wife was Catherine Crouse of Paines Hollow, by which he had thirteen children, two of whom died in youth.  His wife died in 1848, and he married Lavine (Lampher) Bennett.  Augustus Cristman was a farmer and lumberman.  In 1854, he married Malissa Henry, daughter of Thomas Henry. They had four children: Sarah L., Alexander, James A., and Marshell H.  His wife died March 22, 1890

CRUMBY, George Fenner, Newport, was born in Newport, September 14, 18--, a son of David and Julia E. Fenner. David D. was born at Troy, N. Y., March 13, 1816, and settled in the town of Norway when two years of age, with his parents. Here he lived until the age of thirty. He was a merchant at Norway and Newport until 1859, when he moved to St. Paul, Minn., and was engaged in the livery business for eight years. He then returned to Newport and followed farming and milling until his death, March 31, 1889. His marriage occurred May 17, 1852. His two sons were George F., born September 14, 1855, and Charles B., who was born September 17, 1866, a graduate of the Eastman Business College, and one of the promising young men of the day. George F. attended the public schools at Newport until sixteen years of age, when he entered Fairfield Seminary, from which he graduated in 1874. He was valedictorian of his class. He then taught school at Dansville, N. Y., for one year, when he entered Hamilton College and graduated in 1879 as valedictorian of his class. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practicing in New York city. After several months he returned to Little Falls and formed a co-partnership with R. H. Smith. In 1882 he entered into partnership with Hadley W. Jones, which lasted until his death, July 27, 1887, aged thirty-one years. He was school commissioner in 1881, and that same year received the nomination for assembly on the Democratic ticket. He was president of the village of Little Falls at his death. October 4, 1882, he married Lillian Gardner, and they had two children, Bessie and Mabel.

CRUMBY, John A., Fairfield, is a native of Newport, and was born June 6, 1827. He was a carpenter by trade and followed it up twenty-five years ago, when he took up farm gardening, which he has since followed very successfully. His father was Minor Crumby. He served in the army in 1812 at Sackett's Harbor. In 1851 John A. Crumby married Mary Benckley and they have two children. a daughter and a son, Elizabeth and Frederick. Mr. Crumby is a Democrat and has belonged to several societies. He is one of the old residents of this part and one of the best known men in the locality.

CUNNINGHAM, Daniel F., Little Falls, one of the youngest but most enterprising business men of Little Falls, is a native of Ireland, but has been in America since 1881, and during these eleven years he has been wonderfully prosperous, the result of enterprise, industry and superior abilities. His business in groceries, shoes and meats occupies three stores on Ann street, and is fully stocked. Mr. Cunningham is a member of the Hibernian Society, and is a prominent Democrat, having been secretary of the local organization here. In October, 1887, he married Jennie McGurt, of Little Falls. He is highly regarded in the social and commercial circles of Little Falls.

CUNNINGHAM, Thomas, Mohawk, was born in New York city June 7, 1829, and has been a resident of Mohawk since 1834, then called Bennett's Corners. He has been engaged in the mercantile business all his life up to 1889, when he was appointed postmaster of Mohawk by President Harrison. He is a Mason, a member of Utica Commandery, and an elder in the Reformed church. He is also a member of the Oneida Historical Society and the American Numismatic and Archaeological Society of New York. He was married in 1856 to Miss Celestia E. Chase, of Mohawk. They have had five children; four are living, three daughters and one son: Mrs. M. J. Wightman, Margaret A., Katharine C., and Andrew D., the latter of whom is a civil engineer. He is a graduate from the United States Naval School at Annapolis, Md., and the Troy Polytechnic. Mr. Cunningham is quite an antiquarian and has a valuable collection.

CURRY, Thomas H.,  Little Falls, senior member of the firm of Curry & Conboy, was born in Oneida county but his parents moved to Manheim when he was but five months old.  After receiving a through education he taught school for some time and then entered business.  The present partnership was formed September 8,1888, and the business has been large and prosperous, owing to the honorable methods and personal popularity of the partners.  Mr. Curry has always taken an active part in politics and has been supervisor of the town of Mainheim for four consecutive terms.  He was first elected in the Spring of 1888.  His ancestors on his mothers side were amoung the original Mohawk Dutch, and his fathers parents came from Ireland in 1836.  Mr. Curry is a Republican in politics; a member of Engine Company Number Five, of the Elks, the Iron Hall, ect.