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Taken from History of Herkimer County by George A. Hardin and Frank H. Willard, published in 1893.

RANKINS, J. M., is a native of Little Falls. He was educated in the Utica Commercial College, from which he graduated in 1885. Five years ago he entered the M'Kinnon Mills as bookkeeper, and recently changed to the Saxony Mills, filling a similar position. He comes of an old and honorable family, his ancestors having lived in this State for many generations. His great-grandfather participated in the Revolutionary war. In politics he is a Republican, and is a member of the Royal Arcanum.

RANKINS, Richard M., Little Falls, is one of the most substantial farmers in Little Falls, and was born on one of the farms he now owns. He is a son of the late Josiah Rankins, and has always followed agriculture, owning 205 acres of land and fifty cows. His ancestors were here long before the Revolution, in which war his great-great-grandfather, Hugh, a native of Scotland, was a soldier. His great-grandfather, a son of Hugh, was a fifer in the Revolution, and both were in the battle of Lake Champlain. His grandfather, Melchert Rankins, son of Thomas Rankins, was a soldier in the war of 1812, and was stationed at Ogdensburgh and Sackett's Harbor. Mr. Rankins is a Republican, and a leading man in town affairs, is present master of the Grange at Little Falls, and is a Knight Templar in the Masonic fraternity. In 1861 he married Elizabeth Lotridge, daughter of George H. Lotridge, and they have two sons, George H., a fireman on the N.Y.C.R.R., and Josiah, a book-keeper in the Saxony Mills.

RANSOM, N.E., Little Falls, was born at Inghams, Herkimer county, and educated in the Little Falls Academy, and commenced January 21, 1873, to brake on a passenger train on the N.Y.C. & H.R.R.R. After two years and eight months service he was promoted to the baggage car. In two years and eight months more exactly he was promoted to the position of freight conductor. After serving three years and eight months in this capacity he was appointed passenger conductor, which position he acceptably filled for seven years. He then resigned and entered into business at Little Falls. In 1891 (November 1) he was elected county clerk, which position he still holds. Mr. Ransom is commander of the Little Falls Commandery of Knights Templer and also an exempt fireman. He married Miss Carrie I. Wilcox of Little Falls, in 1876, and has no children. Mr. Ransom's descent is Mohawk Dutch on the mother's side and English on the father's. His great-grandfather removed from Massachusetts into New York State in 1793, and settled near Little Falls.

RASBACH, G.O., German Flats, was born December 23, 1846, and studied law with Thomas Richardson after a preliminary education at Cazenovia Seminary. He was admitted to the bar in 1876 and is one of the leading lawyers of this part of the county. He was president of Ilion in 1890 and 1891 and is a prominent Democrat. He is also a member of the Masonic fraternity and other local organizations. In 1870 he married Caroline M. Roney, by whom he has had three sons, Charles I., George O., jr., and Earle J.

RASBACH, James Irving, M.D., son of John Rasbach, was born in Ilion, October 20, 1852. He was educated in Ilion Academy, Hungerford Collegiate Institute, and Bellevue Hospital Medical College, graduating from the latter institution in March, 1876. He immediately commenced the practice of medicine in his native village where he has since continued. He is an enthusiastic member of various medical societies and secret fraternal organizations. In 1879 he married Miss Margaret E. Bellinger, daughter of James H. Bellinger of Herkimer. He has one child, James B. Rasbach. The Rasbach family came from Schwarzwald, Germany, with the early Palatines, locating in what is now Herkimer. It actively participated in all valley warfare for liberty. Marz Rasbach, grandfather of John A. Rasbach, father of Dr. Rasbach, was born in Herkimer, May 9, 1805, and died in Ilion, January 21, 1892.

RASBACH, John A., German Flats, was born in Herkimer October 3, 1839, and was engaged in the flour amd feed business for many years and also in speculating. About a year ago he opened a first-class laundry in Ilion. He is well and favorably known in Ilion, and is treasurer of the Water Commission and an active Democrat. He is a Mason and a member of the Little Falls Commandery, also of the Royal Arcanum. In 1862 he married Miss Sarah E. Owen, and they have two sons, Frank B. amd Sanford A.

RASBACK, William C. Herkimer, was born in Herkimer, September 27, 1822. He has been a farmer all of his life. His father lived here and his grandfather took part in the Revolutionary War as a boy, while his great-grandfather took a soldier's part. Mr. Rasback owns ninety-four acres of land and keeps twenty head of cattle. He has been twice married, first when twenty-two years of age and again at forty-five. His present wife is Mary, daughter of Sanford Eysaman. In politics Mr. Rasback is a liberal Democrat. He has no children. His first wife was M.E. Harter, all of which family are now dead.

READ, E. Robins, Russia, was born in Russia, April 2, 1846, son of Erastus and Caroline (Russel) Read. Erastus settled in Russia in 1845. His wife was a daughter of Jonathan Russel and they had four children: E. Robins, Gile D., George C., and John B. They are natives and residents of the town of Russia. E. Robins married, August, 1867, Hattie E., daughter of Erastus and Phoebe Judson Terry. She died May 26, 1886. His second wife was Ella, daughter of Delos Judson, and has one child, Erastus Earl. Mr. Read is a Republican and has been clerk three years, justice of the peace four years, deputy sheriff under J.H. Ives three years, and was supervisor in 1885-86-88-89, and was chairman of the board in 1889. He is an active worker in the A.O.U.W., and charter member in Poland Lodge, of which he has also been master. His early education was in the district school. At thirteen years he entered the Utica Free School, which he attended winters until he was eighteen years of age, when he entered Poland Union Store as a clerk for three years. He was also agent for Russia Union Store for three years. In 1872 he started a general merchandise store at Poland. In 1875 he took his brother, George C., in as a partner. They are also interested in Holstein cattle and farming.

READ, G.D., Russia, was born in Russia, on the old Read Homestead, March 19, 1850. He is a son of Erastus and Caroline Read, mentioned elsewhere in this work. He was reared on a farm and received a common school education. December 13, 1887, he married Carrie A. Barker, a native of Russia, born in 1865. Her father, Gorham Barker, was a native of Russia, and her grandfather, James Barker, was a native of Massachusetts, who came to Russia when a young man. He married Belinda Hubbart by whom he had eleven children. He died in Russia at the age of ninety-two years and his wife died at the age of eighty-six. Gorhan Barker was born in 1817. September 28, 1852, he married Achsah Walker, daughter of Ebenezer Walker, of Russia, who was a son of Truman Walker of Massachusetts, and one of the early settlers of Russia. He was in the war of 1812. Ebenezer Walker and wife had five children. Mr. Walker died aged seventy-six, and his wife died in 1836. Mr. Barker and wife have had two sons and a daughter. He died October 28, 1877, his wife being still living. Mr. Read owns one of the finest farms in Russia, on which he keeps a large dairy. He is a Republican in politics, and a member of Poland Grange, No. 607. His wife is a member of the Baptist church of Russia.

READ, George C., Russia, was born in Russia, June 18, 1852, a son of Erastus and Caroline (Russel) Read, elsewhere mentioned. Mr. Read was reared on a farm and educated in the Tenbroeck and Lowville Academies. In 1874 he married Estella, daughter of Frederick and Maria Carpenter, of Russia. To Mr. Read and wife one child, Fred, was born February 14, 1875. In 1876 Mrs. Read died, and April 18, 1883, Luanna, daughter of William Henry, of Ohio township, became the wife of Mr. Read. In 1874 Mr. Read, with his brother, E. Robbins Read, engaged in the mercantile business in Poland, and they have since carried on a very successful trade. From 1878 to 1889 they also conducted mercantile business in Gray, during which time Mr. Read resided there. Since 1889 he has resided in Poland. He is a Republican.

READ, John B., Russia, was born October 10, 1856. He is a son of Erastus and Caroline Read, whom we have mentioned elsewhere in this work. He was reared on a farm and received a common school education, supplemented by several terms in the Rural High School at Clinton. In 1880 he married Francis Willoughby, a native of Russia and a daughter of Vincent Willoughby, by whom he had three children: Herbert, Ralph and Verna, all of whom are living. Mrs. Read died May 17, 1887. Mr. Read married Emma Wheeler of Ohio township, Herkimer county. She was formerly Miss Lawton. She has one daughter, Hattie A. Wheeler. Mr. Read is a manufacturer of cheese, which business he has followed for twenty years. In 1889 he purchased the cheese factory of Poland, and has since had a very successful business. He also has a printing office, the only one in Russia township. He is a member of the I.O.U.W. of Poland, No. 183.

REDWAY, Charles B., German Flats, was born in Jefferson county July 21, 1865, but has resided in Ilion about all his life. His father established a dry goods business in Ilion thirty-one years ago, and in 1882 the business went into the hands of Charles B., who has conducted it ever since. His father was Albert P. Redway, and his grandfather was Albert G., a native of Vermont. In 1869 Mr. Redway married Miss Lucy Hakes, and they have one child, a daughter. Mr. Redway is an Odd Fellow and a Mason.

REED, Elijah, Little Falls, is a native of Herkimer county, and was born in 1822. He lived on his father's farm until 1846, when he came to Little Falls and entered the mercantile business. In 1861 he embarked in the cheese business, and in 1868 retired from this to go into the starch manufacturing business with J.J. Gilbert. He continued in this industry for eighteen years. In 1882 he became connected with the Little Falls Knitting Company by purchasing stock, and in 1886 he took the position of secretary and treasuer, which he has since held. The company is very prosperous, and employs 260 hands in the manufacture of underwear. Mr. Reed takes a deep interest in the prosperity of the town. He possess fine business abilities, and his life has been successful.

REYNOLDS, Gideon, Newport, and his wife, Annie Crandall, settled in the township of Norway, coming from Rhode Island, and had two children, William and Robert. He died September 9, 1868. William commenced life as a clerk at ten years of age, and at the age of twelve taught school, which he followed for several years, then purchased a farm, where he lived until his death. He was also a produce dealer. William Reynolds, jr., was born May 25, 1830. When seventeen years old he took charge of his father's farm, and at the age of thirty he purchased his father's interest in the farm which he followed for two years. He then sold the farm, moved to Newport and followed the produce business seven years. In 1870 he purchased a farm near Newport, which he sold, then purchased the farm of eighty acres where he now resides. He also owns two hundred acres of land in the town of Schuyler. He is a member of the Newport Improvement Society, and is president of the canning factory, which employs fifty hands and has a capacity of 20,000 cases of corn. He was justice of the peace of Norway and Newport and was a Republican until 1872, when he became a Prohibitionist. He was trustee and treasurer of the Newport Union Free School eleven years, secretary amd treasurer of Newport Union Store, and secretary of the Agricultural Society three years. He has also been secretary, treasurer amd trustee of the Universalist church. His mother, Betsey (Giles) Reynolds, was a daughter of James Giles who was a soldier in the Revolutionary war.

RHODES, Thomas T., Russia, was born in Chesterfield, Mass., March 14, 1833, a son of Jacob, who was a son of Joseph, who was a native of Marblehead, Mass. Joseph Rhodes in an early day came to Chesterfield, Mass., where he lived and died. He had nine sons and three daughters. He was a mason by trade and also followed farming. He died in Chesterfield, Mass. Jacob Rhodes was born in Marblehead, Mass., March 8, 1783. In early life he taught school and afterwards learned the shoemaker's trade which he followed until his death. He married Sally Wood, a native of New Bedford, Mass., by whom he had four sons and one daughter. About 1857 he went to Williamsburg, Mass., where he died. Thomas T. Rhodes was educated in the common schools of Chesterfield, Mass., and at the age of seventeen worked for his brother, who was engaged in the manufacture of saw handles. He bought out the business and followed it until 1865, and after spending one year in Connecticut he came to Cold Brook and here engaged in the manufacture of saw handles, which business he has since followed. On November 27, 1857, he married Elvisa, a daughter of Levi and Emily Olds, of Middlefield, Mass. Mrs. Rhodes died in December, 1863, and in 1864 he married second Ella A., a daughter of Sylvester and Belinda French, he a native of Sutton, N.H., and his wife of Ashfield, Mass. Mr. French and wife ahd one son and two daughters: Edward N., who was a corporal in the Forty-ninth Massachusetts Infantry; Georgiana, wife of J.M. Allen, of Cold Brook, and Mrs. Rhodes. Mr. French is a Whig and a Republican, and he and wife were members of the Congregational church. He died in 1883 and his wife now resides at Cold Brook. The children of Mr. Rhodes and wife are: Arthur E., born July 31, 1866, who was educated in the common schools and at Clinton, where he graduated in 1883. He was bookkeeper in the Poland bank for three years and has since assisted his father at Cold Brook. In 1887 he married Belle, daughter of Jefferson Moon, of Cold Brook. He is a member of Newport Lodge, No. 455, F. and A.M.; also Iroquois chapter, No. 236, R.A.M., Ilion, N.Y. Nellie E., wife of James W. Moon, of Cold Brook, and two who live at home, Mabel A. and Maud B. Thomas T. Rhodes is a Republican and has been assessor in Russia for two terms.

RICH, Charles M., Frankfort, was born in the town of Marion, Wayne county, April 20, 1858, he being one of four children of John S. and Amanda (Caldwell) Rich. John S., the father, who has been influential in the politics in Wayne county, was born in Connecticut. Charles M., after graduating from the Rochester Business University in 1878, learned the watchmaking and jeweler trade at South Manchester, Conn. He was for about two years located with a jeweler at Fort Plain, coming to Frankfort and establishing himself in business about ten years ago, being one of the first merchants to locate here after the West Shore railroad shops were established. He was married January 22, 1885, to Blanche J. Webster, one of five children of Charles W. and Julia P. Webster of Fort Plain.

RICHARDS, Seymour S., M.D., Frankfort, was born in Newport, Herkimer county, December 23, 1860; he being one of two children of L.F. and Sarah (Haskell) Richards, the other being Frank J. Richards. John Richards, the grandfather, was born in Wales. He emigrated to New England in early life and later located in Herkimer county. Seymour S. was married April 25, 1883, to Marianetta Skiff, daughter of Dr. Perrin A. and Marianetta (Valentine) Skiff of Frankfort, they both being natives of Schuyler. Dr. Richards was educated at Richfield Springs and Fort Edward, at University of Michigan at Ann Arbor one year and graduated at University Medical College at New York in March, 1883, and began the practice of his profession in Frankfort where he has since remained.

RICHARDSON, Rev. Charles S., Little Falls, pastor of the Little Falls Presbyterian church, was born in Pitsford, N.Y., February 7, 1845, and after a preliminary education graduated at Hobart College in the class of '65. He then taught school three years, and entered upon a course at Auburn, N.Y., Theological Seminary, graduating in 1871. He then went abroad for foreign travel, and for three years taught in the American College on the Bosphorus, near Constantinople. In the winter of 1874 he journeyed through the Holy Land and Egypt. On his return from the East he was called to the pastorate of the Malone (N.Y.) Presbyterian church, where he remained thirteen years. He was called to Little Falls, N.Y., as pastor of the First Presbyterian church in 1888. In his college course Mr. Richardson was a high honor man, and his career since has been very successful.

RICHARDSON, D.M., Herkimer was born in Schuyler, N.Y. He recieved his education in the schools of Utica and Fairfield Seminary, and immediately thereafter learned the business of cheese-making, in which he has since that time, a period of twenty years, been engaged. His family originally came to New York from Massachusetts, but has lived in the old homestead at Schuyler for over one hundred years, and his father still lives there. Mr. Richardson served as supervisor for over six years, from 1886 to 1891, and was appointed deputy county clerk January 1, 1892. He is a Royal Arch Mason, a member of Oriental Lodge, No. 224, Oneida Chapter 57, Utica Commandery, No. 3, and Ziyara Temple Mystic Shrine. His wife was Miss Jane Ladd, of Schuyler. They have no children.

RICHARDSON, Thomas, German Flats, was born in England October 19, 1830, and came to America in 1854. He began life as a teacher in Montgomery county and taught in different places from 1855 to 1861. He studied law while teaching and was admitted to the bar in 1861. He began practice in Frankfort but moved to Ilion in 1864 and has been very successful here, having both a large clientage and being attorney for E. Remington & Sons from 1867 to 1886. He is also counsel for the Ilion National Bank, was also counsel for the Driven Wells Company. In 1859 he married a daughter of Hon. John B. Dygert and has one son and three daughters, A.D., Caroline L., Jennie M. and Lillian L.

RIDER, Brainard M., Litchfield, was born on the farm of 100 acres, where he now lives, January 7, 1848. He married in 1874 Jennie L. Ball, and they have five children: Ruth, Martha, Wakeman, Arthur and H. Daisy. Brainard M. is a son of Wakeman Rider, who was born in this town, and owned a tract of 470 acres. He sent three substitutes to the army in the place of three of his sons. Wakeman Rider was born October 2, 1810, and died March 15, 1891. His wife, Hannah E., was born December 21, 1811, and died August 4, 1890. He was a son of Samuel Rider, who was born in Dutchess county in 1777. In 1795 he came to Litchfield, where but few persons had preceded him. By patient industry he secured a good home and died April 8, 1864, aged eighty-six years. His wife, Lucinda (Crosby) Rider, has since died.

RIDER, Byron Adelbert, Litchfield, was born March 8, 1849, on his present grain and dairy farm of 153 acres. He married S. Frances Smith, and they have two children: Olive J. and Lester A. Byron A. Rider is a son of Anson, whose father was Lewis B., son of Christopher Rider, who, in 1787, came from Connecticut. Mrs. Rider was a daughter of Roderick H. and Mary L. (Paddock) Smith. The mother of Byron Adelbert Rider was Eliza Holmes, and there are now living of the children: Boughton L., Holmes, Ruth Hooker, Mary J., Anson, jr., Alvah I., Orange C. and Byron A. Rider. Those deceased are: Elam, Romelia, Byron, Roswell, Rosa Curtis, Eveline Tanner and John B. Rider. Anson Rider died April 15, 1886, aged eighty years.

RIDER, Holmes, Frankfort, was born in Litchfield, October 7, 1830. He was one of twelve children of Anson and Eliza (Holmes) Rider; Anson, the father, being a native of Litchfield, his wife having been born in Winfield. Lewis Rider, the grandfather, was born in Connecticut and came to Litchfield, where he settled when a young man. Holmes Rider married first in 1852, Octavia Hungerford, daughter of Diodate Hungerford, who came from Connecticut and was one of the first settlers in that vicinity. She died in 1875, leaving one son, Martin H. Rider. Mr. Rider subsequently married Giffie H., daughter of J. Hartley Ball, of North Litchfield. Mr. Rider lives upon his farm in Frankfort making a specialty of raising horses, hay and sheep. Martin H., the son, is a merchant, doing business at Albion, N.Y. He married Nellie Willis of Waterville. They have one son, Kenneth Rider.

RILEY, James H., Little Falls, was born in Syracuse, N.Y., April 10, 1844. He received a good common school education and when eighteen years of age became identified with the carrying trade on the Erie canal, and after working for some years became the owner of boats, continuing in this business for twenty-eight years. In 1861 he enlisted in the 11th New York Cavalry, which was General Scott's body-guard, and afterwards President Abraham Lincoln's. After the war Riley returned and engaged in the rolling-mill business. About seven years ago he assumed control of the Mohawk Valley Hotel, which he has conducted successfully ever since. He is a member of Galpin Post No. 19, G.A.R. He married Nancy M. France, and they have two children.

RISING, James G., Litchfield, a farmer, was born in this town, and maried Emma Gallup. they have one daughter, Julia, who married Frank Woodbury, and has a daughter, Nina. James G. is a son of Moses and Polly Hewett Rising. There are five of the children now living, all farmers: Lovina, Mary, William, James G. and Milo M. Moses was a son of Abner Rising, a native of Massachusetts, one of the first settlers of Litchfield. He married Abigail Devotion; they had seven children: Abner, Jr., Oliver, Moses, Harry, Desire, Rowena, and Abigail. Mrs. Emma Rising is a daughter of Daniel and Ama Gallup.

ROBBINS, Sanford, Schuyler, is a native of Schuyler, born December 23, 1832. His father was Giles Robbins, and his grandfather was Reuben Robbins, one of the early settlers of the town. In 1856 Mr. Robbins married Elizabeth Finster, who died October 3, 1889. They had three sons and five daughters, two of the latter being married.

ROBINSON, Douglas, Warren, was born in Lancashire, Scotland, March 24, 1824, a son of William Rose and Mary (Douglas) Robinson. The subject of our sketch was educated in Edinboro University, and in 1841 he came to this country and engaged in business in New York City. He married on November 14, 1850, Fanny Monroe, who was born in New York City, a daughter of James and Elizabeth Mary (Douglas) Monroe. Her grandfather, Andrew Monroe, was a brother of President Monroe, and served in the Revolutionary war. He was captured by the enemy, but managed to escape, and finally died on his estate in Westmoreland, Va. His ancestor was Andrew Monroe, a cavalier, who came from Scotmand in 1642 and settled on a grant of land from Charles II. Andrew Monroe married Fanny Garnett, and they had two children, James and Augustin. James Monroe was born in Virginia, September 7, 1779, and graduated from West Point in 1816. He served in various wars, and was a member of Congress two terms and of the New York Assembly. He married in 1822 a daughter of George and Margaret Douglas, born in New York City in 1779, and settled in New York City. Of his six children three survived, William, Elizabeth M. and Fanny. The Henderson House.-- The patentee was James Henderson of Scotland, who married Letitia Benson, and had six daughters, one of whom, Letitia, married Captain Corne, and her daughter, Margaret married George Douglas of Scotland, and had six children: Elizabeth, Margaret, Harriet, George, William and MAry. Harriet inherited from her mother the Henderson property, and married Henry Cruger, a lawyer, and died childless, and her niece, Mrs. Douglas Robinson, inherited the property. She was a daughter of James Monroe, of Virginia, who was a nephew of President Monroe.

ROBINSON, T.F., Little Falls, manufacturer of brush blocks, inner soles, heel stock, etc., at Little Falls, is a native of England, who came to America twenty years ago. He is an experienced worker in various novelties in leather. He is enterprising, industrious and intelligent, and notwithstanding that he was once burned out without any insurance, is picking up again in a quiet unassuming way, and has in contemplation the enlargement of his concern. He is both a Mason and an Odd Fellow, and is past district grand master in the latter order. Mr. Robinson married June 28, 1885, and has four children.

ROOT, A.P, Norway, was born in Russia, November 5, 1839. His father was Palmer Root, born 1802 in Russia. His mother was Sallie Truman, born October 26, 1826. Mr. Root was a colonel in the State militia, and was a Whig and afterwards a Republican. He held the offices of supervisor and assessor. His life was spent in Russia, except the last year, when he resided in Norway, where he died in 1863, and his wife in 1885. The subject was reared on a farm and educated in the common schools and in Fairfield Seminary. In 1862 he married Mary Walrath, of Fort Plain, and their childeen are Nellie E., Minnie, Charles M. and Edith. In 1885 Mrs. Root died, and in 1888 Mr. Root married Mrs. Sarah Hall Slocum. Mr. Root was a resident of Russia until 1863, when he went to Norway and purcahsed the farm on which he now resides. He is a Prohibitionist and he and his wife are Baptist. Mr. Root is a member of Norway Grange, No. 586, and is at present its secretary.

ROOT, H.G., German Flats, was born February 8, 1809, and is the oldest man in Mohawk and the one who gave the village its name. His father, John Root, was an edge tool maker. In 1831 he came to Mohawk and went into the forwarding business which he followed for many years. In 1839 he married Miss Olive B. Mix who died in May, 1892. Mr. Root has been justice of the peace twelve years, superintendent of the canal two years, clerk at Washington for fifteen years, and was a member of the Assembly in the year 1850. He now lives retired.

ROSS, A.M., German Flats, is a native of Norway, Herkimer county, and was born January 23, 1835. He was first a carpenter and pattern-maker, and entered the Remington works in 1862 and remained there until 1886. He then purchased the tools, etc., and continued the branch of business he conducted there. In 1888 he organized the present company for the manufacure of agricultural implements. Mr. Ross was supervisor of German Flats for seven years and trustee fo the village five years. He was also in the Assembly one year. In 1862 he married Miss Mary A. Buell, and they have two children, Bert B. and Imogene.

ROSS, D.G., German Flats, was born in Littlefield January 28, 1847, and remained on his father's farm until he was twenty years of age. He then clerked for some time, and afterwards went into partnership with J.A. Chappell, the firm being known as Chappell & Ross, but at the end of seven years the partnership was dissolved, Mr. Ross starting for himself, which he still continues. He is a member of the A.O.U.W. He ran for supervisor of the town in 1888, but was defeated. In 1870 D.G. Ross married Miss Susan J. Paddock.

RUDD, O.B., German Flats, jeweler, is a native of Wyoming county, N.Y.; was born September 3, 1840. He came to Ilion in December, 1862, and was for some time in partnership, but has been sole proprietor of the leading jeweler store of Ilion since 1870. He is a member of the Methodist church, is a Mason and a member of the Little Falls Commandary, also of the A.O.U.W. In 1867 he married Miss Clara Baker, who died two years after. They had one son, J. Holland, who is in business with his father. In 1872 Mr. Rudd was married to Amanda E. Reynolds. Their only son, C. Reynolds Rudd, died when he was seventeen years of age. Mr. J. Holland Rudd is actively associated with the Ilion Library, now in course of erection, and was one of its promoters. Mr. O.B. Rudd has been a member of the School Board, treasurer of the Herkimer County Bible Society for many years, and was superintendent of the Methodist Sunday-school for a long period.

RUDDY, Henry, German Flats, was born in Ireland, and came to America in 1868. He worked in the armory for over twenty years, but is now proprietor of a grocery and confectionery store. He takes an active interest in politics, and was chief of police for four years; was also on the force in Utica. He is a Republican in politics, and an Odd Fellow. Mr. Ruddy has several times held positions on the town committee.

RUSSELL, George R., Frankfort, was born in Virginia January 25, 1861. He was one of four children of A.N. and Mary (Hatch) Russell, the others being S.T., Hattie E. and Ella M. Russell. A.N., the father, was a native of Oneida county and a son of Samuel Russell. George R. was married June 12, 1889, to Clara M. Angell, of Ilion, one of two children of I.A. and Susan (Mott) Angell, the other being Helen E.Angell. They have one son, Harold R. Russell. Mr. Russell has always lived in Ilion and Frankfort, he having been engaged in business in Frankfort the past nine years, and is one of the trustees of the village. The firm of A.N. Russell & Sons, of which he is a member, are located at Ilion and Frankfort, their manufactory being at Ilion, where they manufacture sash, doors and blinds and all styles of finishing lumber, employing fifty men, George R. being manager of the Frankfort branch.

RUSSELL, Pardon S., Frankfort, one of eight children of Jonathan and Mary (Stewart) Russell, was born in Frankfort February 13, 1830. His grandfather, Jonathan Russell, was a native of New England, who emigrated to New York State in early life. His father was born in Scotland and was kidnapped when young and brought to this country. Pardon S. Russell was married November 29, 1854, to Cythera Inman of Frankfort, one of eight children of Asel and Cyntha (Baldwin) Inman. They have six daughters: Emma (Mrs. W.D.Lewis), Nellie (Mrs. Jas. McGuckin), Jennie (Mrs. Jas. Hagnes), Minnie, Flora and Ethel. Mr. Russell worked the homestead farm during the lifetime of his father, who died in his ninetieth year, since that time working his own farm. He was appointed road commissioner in 1892.