The State of New York was called by the Dutch, New Netherlands, and as late as 1638, that portion of it lying west of Fort Orange (Albany); was termed "Terra Incognita," or Unknown Land.
For many years the territory of New Netherlands had been a source of contention between the English and Dutch, and in the year 1664, Charles II, King of England, regardless of the rights of Holland, granted to his brother James, Duke of Albany and York, the whole of New Netherlands, and then proceeded to conquer it by force of arms. This was easily accomplished, as the inhabitants had wearied of the stern military government of Peter Stuyvesant.
The name of the colony and city was then changed from New Netherlands to New York, and Fort Orange changed to Albany.
The Dutch again reclaimed the territory in 1673, and held it till the next year, when they finally surrendered it to the English.
There were some doubts as to the validity of the patent giving the Duke of York, and he accordingly obtained another from the King.
Peace being restored with the Dutch, a rapid internal growth soon commenced, and in the year 1683, the colony was divided into twelve counties, one of which was Albany, which embraced an indefinite portion of this "Terra Incognita." Nearly a century elapsed before this county was divided, though many changes had taken place in the more southeastern part of the state.
In the year 1772, from the territory of Albany County, Tryon was formed, which embraced all that part of the State, west of a line running nearly north and south through the present County of Scoharie, and was named from William Tryon, Colonial Governor. In the Revolutionary struggle, Tryon exhibited such unmistakable hostility to the Americans, that the inhabitants of this county were desirous of dispensing with a name thus rendered obnoxious. Accordingly on the 2d of April, 1784, Legislature changed the name of Tryon County to Montgomery, in honor of the American General, Richard Montgomery, who gallantly fell at Quebec.
By the same act, Montgomery County was divided into five districts, named Mohawk, Canajoharrie, Palatine, German Flats, and Kingsland.
By an act passed March 7, 1788, defining the boundaries of the several counties of the State, the County of Montgomery was declared to contain all that part of the State bounded easterly by the counties of Ulster, Albany, Washington and Clinton; southerly by the State of Pennsylvania; and westerly and northerly by the west and north bounds of the State. An act passed at the same date, the German Flats District was divided, and the town of Whites Town was formed from it. This town embraced all that part of the State of New York, lying west of a line drawn north and south across the State, crossing the Mohawk River at "Old Fort Schuyler," (Utica) and which line was the western boundary of the towns of Herkimer, German Flats and Otsego.
By an act passed March 22, 1788, the town of Chemung was formed in and from a part of Montgomery County, lying on the Owego and Tioga Rivers.
In 1789, the County of Montgomery was divided, and all that part west of a line drawn north and south across the State, through the Seneca Lake two miles east of Geneva, was called Ontario County, and was extensively known abroad as the "Genesee Country."
Feb. 16, 1791, Montgomery County was divided, and the Counties of Tioga, Otsego and Herkimer formed from its territory, and the bounds of the County of Ontario changed.
The County of Herkimer, was bounded as follows: All that tract of land bounded westerly by the County of Ontario, northerly by the north bounds of this State, easterly by the Counties of Clinton, Washington and Saratoga, and southerly by the Counties of Montgomery, Otsego and Tioga. Within its domain lay our own county of Madison.
By an act passed April 10, 1792, the towns of Westmoreland, Steuben, Paris, Mexico and Peru; were formed from Whitestown. The west line of this town extended to the west line of Madison County. The two towns, Paris and Whitestown, embraced within their borders all of the present County of Madison.
In the year 1795, Cazenovia was formed from Whitestown and Paris; it embraced the present towns of Lenox, Sullivan, a part of Stockbridge, Smithfield, Fenner, Cazenovia, Nelson, Georgetown and DeRuyter of this County, and Lincklaen, Pitcher, Otselic and German of Chenango County.
At the same time, Hamilton and Brookfield were formed from Paris. Hamilton then embraced the present towns of Hamilton, Lebanon, Eaton and Madison. Brookfield included the present towns of Brookfield and Columbus, (except a portion annexed to Columbus in 1807) Chenango County.1
In the year 1794, the County of Onondaga was formed from Herkimer, and in the year 1798, the County of Oneida was also formed from its territory. An act of the same date, March 15, 1798, the County of Chenango was set apart from the southern part of Herkimer and northern part of Tioga Counties. Chenango County then embraced all the territory now occupied by the town of Sangerfield, Oneida County, all of Madison County (except that part of Stockbridge east of Oneida Creek), beside the towns of its present territory. Sangerfield was annexed to Oneida in 1804.
By an act passed March 21, 1806, Madison County was formed from Chenango. It was named in honor of President Madison.
Madison County, situated in central New York, is bounded north by Oneida Lake and Oneida County; east by Oneida and Otsego Counties; south by Chenango County, and west by Cortland and Onondaga Counties. It contains an area of six hundred and seventy square miles.
The surface is diversified and generally hilly, except in the north part which is low, level and swampy. The high ridge which divides the waters which flow north and south, crosses this county. This water-shed gives a series of ridges and valleys; with a general course north and south. The hills generally have rounded outlines and steep declivities, their highest summits being five hundred to eight hundred feet above the valleys, and nine hundred to twelve hundred feet above tide. The principal streams upon the north slope are Chittenango Creek, forming a part of the west boundary of the county, Oneida Creek, forming a part of the east boundary, and the Canaseraga, Canastota and Cowaselon Creeks; and the principal ones flowing south, are the Unadilla River upon the east border, Beaver Creek, Chenango River and its branches, Otselic Creek and the Tioughneoga River. The principal bodies of water are Oneida Lake, forming the north boundary, and Owahgena, or Cazenovia Lake, near the center of the west border. The latter is four miles long and nine hundred feet above tide.
The opening of various thoroughfares have exerted a powerful influence upon the interests of this county. The pioneer followed Indian trails, and branched off from these into courses designated by marked trees. No path is better remembered than the Great Trail which entered Madison County at Oneida Castle, passed through Lenox by the way of Wampsville and Quality Hill, through Sullivan by Canaseraga and Chittenango, leaving the county at Deep Spring.
The first road of the county was opened on this trail by William and James Wadsworth, in the year 1790, on their way to the Genesee country, where they planted a colony. William Wadsworth, the leader of this company, left his home in June, 1790, with an ox team and cart, two or three hired men, and a favorite colored woman, Jenny, who was for a long time the only one of her race in that region. West of Whitesboro, Mr. Wadsworth was obliged to cut away logs, build causeways through the sloughs, ford streams, and when arriving at Cayuga Lake construct a pontoon of two Indian canoes, lashed together and covered with poles.
The State afterwards, in the years 1794 and 1795, made an appropriation for the improvement of the road opened by Mr. Wadsworth, and it was thereafter known as the Great South Genesee Road, or State Road. In 1797, the State passed a law authorizing the raising of forty-five thousand dollars by lotteries, to be expended in improving various roads in the State, thirteen thousand nine hundred dollars of which was appropriated for opening and improving the Great Genesee Road, in all its extent, from Fort Schuyler (Utica) to Geneva. In the Whitestown Gazette and Cato's Patrol, of August 27, 1798, published at Utica, appears the following advertisement:
"New York State Road Lottery, No. 1. Tickets sold by John Post."
There was yet great need of improvement in this road, and in the year 1800, the SENECA TURNPIKE COMPANY was chartered for the purpose of improving it. The capital stock was one hundred and ten thousand dollars; shares fifty dollars each. Jedediah Sanger, Benjamin Walker, Charles Williamson and Israel Chapin were appointed commissioners. The charter was amended in 1801, and the commissioners were privileged to deyiate from the old road. They had resolved to straighten it and avoid the monstrous Canaseraga Hill, as it was then called, which lay southwest from Chittenango, and also the Onondaga Hill. They found little opposition to the changes made from Westmoreland to Chittenango, as there were but few white inhabitants on the way, but t the latter place they were met by a large delegation fro Manlius and Onondaga, who feared the commissioners would select a more northern route. The settlers on the northern route had not sufficient interest in the road to send on their advocates, and consequently, by the aid of a pretty fair ruse, those in favor of the southern, had it all their own way. Being well acquainted with the country, they proposed to pilot the commissioners over the most suitable ground for the road. They first led them up the ravine northwest of Chittenango, a mile and a half, when they found themselves hemmed in on three sides by a perpendicular ledge of rocks more than a hundred feet high, with no way of getting out but by backing out. With well feigned sincerity, the guides explained this as a mistake, and the commissioners were led over the next best supposable route, across this ravine along the great hill toward Hartsville and into one of the most dismal of all places, then dignified by the very significant name of Gulf of Mexico, now called the Basin, a place where the mountainous heights permits the sun to make only short diurnal visits.
The forbidding aspect of the country all about them compelled them to return to Chittenango the way they had come. The weary commissioners resigned themselves to the sophistry of those interested advocates; the northern route was declared impracticable, and the Seneca Turnpike was laid out over the hill passing the county line a short distance above Deep Spring, where William Sayles kept tavern in 1793, on through Manlius Square, Jamesville and Onondaga Hollow. Not long afterwards the company learned they had not availed themselves of the most favorable route. They solicited an amendment to the charter which was granted in 1806. They were now enabled to build a new road from Chittenango, through the Onondaga Reservation near the Salt Springs, to Cayuga Bridge, and fifty thousand dollars was added to the capital stock.
This was now the "Great Genesee Turnpike," a name as familiar as household words to the dwellers of Madison County and the famous Holland Purchase, then the "Great West" of this State.
The first United States Mail through this county was carried by a Mr. Langdon, from Whitestown to Genesee, on horseback, in 1797 or '98, who distributed papers and unsealed letters by the way, before intermediate offices were established. Mr. Lucas succeeded Mr. Langdon in transporting the mail, which, in 1800, had become so heavy as to require a wagon to carry it. Mr. Lucas established a sort of two horse passenger hack, and did a brisk and profitable business. The first four horse mail coach was sent through once a week, by Jason Parker, in 1803, and in 1804 commenced running regularly, twice a week, from Utica to Canandaigua, carrying the United States mail and passengers. In 1804, an act was passed, granting to Jason Parker and Levi Stephens, the exclusive right for seven years, of running a line of stages for the conveyance of passengers at least twice a week, along the Genesee Road or Seneca Turnpike, between the villages of Utica and Canandaigua. They were bound to furnish four good and substantial covered wagons or sleighs, and sufficient horses to run the same; the fare not to exceed five cents per mile for each passenger, with fourteen pounds of baggage. They were, by law, bound to run through in forty-eight hours, accidents excepted, and not more than seven passengers were allowed in any one carriage, except by the unanimous consent of the said seven passengers; and, if four passengers above the seven, applied for passage, they were bound to immediately fit out and start an extra for their accommodation; or any number less than four should be accommodated by paying the fare of four.
In 1808, a daily line was established, and afterwards several others, which were continued until the completion of the Syracuse and Utica Railroad.
Before 1804, the PETERBORO TURNPIKE, which extended from Vernon through Peterboro to Cazenovia, was constructed. This opened facilities for travel and marketing for the second tier of towns. In 1803, the Cherry Valley Turnpike Company was chartered, and the "Third Great Western Turnpike" was constructed. It extended from Cherry Valley to Manlius, passing through the towns of Madison, Eaton, Nelson and Cazenovia It has been of incalculable value, in opening away whereby the exports of a wide and cultivated region of country have found transportation. The HAMILTON and SKANEATELES TURNPIKE, built a few years later, formed another in the series of roads, which have been sources of wealth to the towns through which they passed. This Turnpike was commenced in 1811, running from Plainfield, Otsego county, through Brookfield, Hamilton, Eaton, Erieville and New Woodstock to Skaneateles.
Joseph Morse, of Eaton, took more interest in this road than any other one man. He had at one time thirty thousand dollars of stock in the road, and but for him it would never have been built. His son, Ellis Morse, was also largely concerned in the enterprise. It was a source of benefit to the town but not to the stockholders.
The project of uniting the Western Lakes with the Hudson River, thus forming a chain of internal navigation, was a Subject of much agitation as early as 1812. Years before, the idea was cherished by individuals. Governeur Morris broached the subject as early as 1812, but it was considered a chimerical idea. In 1804, Simeon De Witt, in a conversation with Mr. Geddes, mentioned Mr. Morris' plan as one of the impracticable schemes. Mr. Geddes, who was a land surveyor in Onondaga county, viewed the matter in a different light, and counseled with Jesse Hawley upon the subject. The latter wrote a series of papers published in the Genesee Messenger, from October, 1807, to March, 1808. These essays were signed "Hercules," and were the first ever printed in favor of the Erie Canal.
In 1808, Joshua Foreman, an intimate associate of Mr. Geddes, then a Member of Assembly, introduced a resolution for the survey of the canal route, to the end that Congress might be led to grant moneys for the construction of a canal. The sum of six hundred dollars was granted for surveys, under the direction of the Surveyor General, James Geddes was intrusted with this service, which embraced the surveying of several routes. He performed his work, and made a report which excited general attention, and secured the influence of De Witt Clinton, then a member of the Senate, and many other prominent men.
In 1810, commissioners, at the head of whom was De Witt Clinton, were appointed to explore a canal route through the centre of the State.
The report of the commissioners induced the Government to authorize appropriations, when the war of 1812 suspended all active operations. The project, however, continued to be discussed, and an Act was passed the 17th of April, 1816, providing for a definite survey.
The canal was begun at Rome, July 4th, 1817, and in the autumn of 1825, was completed. Its completion was celebrated with great ceremony at New York City, and at many points throughout the State, on the 4th day of November, 1825. As he first boat, with Governor Clinton on board, entered the canal at Buffalo, October 26, at ten o'clock in the morning, a line of cannon, previously arranged a few miles apart, passed a signal along to Albany and down the Hudson to Sandy Hook, from whence it was returned in like manner. The signal was heard at New York at eleven o'clock twenty minutes. The flotilla, with the Goyernor, was everywhere greeted with enthusiasm. Upon reaching New York the boat passed down to Sandy Hook, and the waters of the lake were mingled with those of the ocean with imposing ceremonies.
The canal commissioners, under whom the Erie and also the Champlain canals were constructed, were Stephen Van Renssellaer, De Witt Clinton, Joseph Ellicott, Samuel Young, and Myron Holley. Henry Seymour was appointed in place of Ellicott in March, 1819, and William C. Bouck was added to the number in March, 1821. The chief engineers were James Geddes, of Onondaga County, and Benjamin Weight, of Rome. Among the, assistant engineers were David Thomas, Nathan S. Roberts, David S. Bates, Canvass White, Davis Hurd, Noah Dennis, Charles T. Whippo, William Jerome, Henry G. Sargent, Frederic C. Mills, Isaac J. Thomas, Henry Farnham, Alfred Barrett, John Bates, William H. Price, John Hopkins, and Seymour Skiff The original cost of the canal was $7,143,789.89.
The first packet on the canal was run when but the section from Utica to Montezuma was completed. It was the "Oneida Chief," George Perry, Captain. Perry was a Sullivan citizen. In 1820, a line of packets was established between Utica and Montezuma, and large amounts of merchandise found its way east by this line. A new era commenced for northern Madison County, for new resources were developed and new enterprises sprung into life with the opening of the canal. The old form of transportation with long lines of heavily loaded teams, to Albany, ceased to be. For years, a transportation line owned by H. H. Cobb of Chittenango, was plying between Albany and Fayetteville, Onondaga County. The boats on this line were the Andrew Jackson, George Washington, Victory, Yates, Cazenovia, Commerce and Chittenango. H. H. Cobb also dealt largely in forwarding, owned several warehouses, and employed a large number of workmen.
An enlargement of the Erie Canal was ordered in 1835, and for many years was under operation. In many places its route was changed; at one point in the town of Sullivan north of Chittenango, a considerable alteration is noticeable. These changes are calculated to shorten the route and reduce the number of locks. Its section gives a breadth of seventy feet at the surface of the water, and fifty-two and one-half feet at the bottom, and a depth of seven feet. The banks are protected from washing by slope walls, consisting of stone firmly packed upon the sloping sides. Boats of two hundred and two hundred and fifty tons burden can traverse this canal. It is fed from the south by the seven reservoirs of the Chenango canal, (that canal being the feeder,) by Cazenovia Lake, Erieville Reservoir and De Ruyter Reservoir, all in Madison County; and Skaneateles Lake of Onondaga County.
THE CHENANGO CANAL, connecting the Erie canal at Utica with the Susquehanna River at Binghamton, was chartered Feb. 3, 1833. The project of building this canal had been discussed since 1826. Governor Bouck was an uncompromising friend of the measure. Henry Seymour, Rufus Bacon, James B. Eldridge, John G. Stower, Sands Higinbothan, Moses Maynard, Lot Clark, Julius Pond and Thomas Wylie, men who were widely known and influential throughout Central New York, were advocates of the Chenango Canal. The work was begun in 1833 and finished in 1836, at an aggregate cost of $1,737,703. The canal is supplied by Chenango River, and seven Reservoirs which lie in the south and east part of Madison 'County, viz: --- Madison Brook Reservoir, Woodman's Lake, Leland's Pond, Bradley's Brook Reservoir, Hatch's Lake, Eaton Brook and Lebanon Reservoirs. It extends to, and up the valley of the Oriskany Creek to the summit level in the town of Madison, and down the valley of the Chenango River. From Utica to the summit, it rises seven hundred and six feet by seventy-six locks, and from thence it descends three hundred and three feet by thirty-eight locks to the Susquehanna. It is ninety-seven miles long. Of its one hundred and fourteen locks, two are stone and the remainder composite.2
THE SYRACUSE AND UTICA RAILROAD superseded the old Seneca Turnpike, and robbed it of its passenger travel, as the Erie Canal had of its freight, years before. Nevertheless, the improvement was ardently desired and advanced by men of influence in the northern part of the county. A company was formed May I1, 1836, with a capital of $ 100,000. Work commenced immediately, and the road was completed and opened in 1839; it then made connections with the Utica and Schenectady road on the east, and with the Syracuse and Auburn road on the west. This was an independent road till 1853, when the New York Central Rail Road Company was formed, by consolidating the several roads in operation along the line. The stations of the Central in this county, are Oneida, Wampsville, Canastota, Canaseraga, and Chittenango.
Facilities for the increase of travel were demanded as the county increased its exports, and consequently plank roads found great favor with the people. Between the years 1848 and '52, the enterprise had crossed and recrossed the county with a net work of plank highways. Around and over hills and rough places, transportation was made easy by leveling, and grading, and laying of plank. In 1848, a plank road was constructed from Hamilton to Utica; another connected Hamilton, Madison and Oriskany in 1850; in the same year Georgetown and Pecksport were united by a road passing through West Eaton and Eaton. During the year 1851, a plank road was laid from Morrisville to Canastota, and another from Peterboro to Clarksville was in progress. A very principal plank road extended from DeRuyter to Oneida Lake, through New Woodstock, Cazenovia, Chittenango and its depots, a distance of thirty-one miles. It was completed at great cost, as a portion of it passed the difficult descent at Chittenango Falls, which required expensive grading. The hill of eight hundred feet in height was made an easy grade of no more than six feet rise to the hundred.
Although plank roads seemed to be but temporary blessings, yet an unlooked for benefit has resulted therefrom. The people could not content themselves to travel on anything so bad as the old roads, and as fast as the planks disappeared, they continued to improve them in various ways, which results in fairer roads than even those of plank. The macadamized, or stone road from Morrisville through Peterboro to Canastota, is one of superior excellence. That which superseded the plank road from Cazenovia to Lakeport, is a grand improvement, having a better route, and a broad, handsome road bed of stone, extending to Lakeport through the marshy "Vly" where the plank so speedily rotted away.
THE MIDLAND. --- A grand Midland Railway to extend from Oswego to New York City, crossing the central counties of the State, was projected in 1867. Its line was laid through Madison County, crossing the towns of Lenox, Stockbridge, Eaton, Lebanon and Hamilton. These towns bonded heavily to help build the road. The road was carried through some of the most inaccessible portions of this county. The first Board of Directors were: Hon. D. C. Littlejohn of Oswego, President; Wm. Foster of Cleveland, Oswego county, De Witt C. Stephens of Oneida, J. W. Merchant of De Ruyter, John A. Rundell and Edward T. Hayes of Norwich, Dr. H. E. Bartlett of Walton, A. C. Edgarton of Delhi, Delaware county, Edward Palen of Fallsburgh, Hon. H. R. Low of Monticello, E. P. Wheeler of Middletown, Waldo Hutchins of New York City, Walter M. Conkey of Norwich, Treasurer; B. Gage Berry of Norwich, Secretary; Wm. B. Gilbert, Chief Engineer.
The first passenger train on the Midland was run on the 29th day of August, 1869. It was drawn by engine "4," the "Delaware," Edwin Williams, Engineer, and Jas. T. Purdy, Conductor. It was run from West Monroe to Oneida the 29th and 30th, for the purpose of bringing in hop-pickers.
The line was opened through Madison county during the year 1870. Notwithstanding the numerous railroads recently constructed through this county, transportation and travel continues to increase on the Midland.
THE CAZENOVIA AND CANASTOTA, passing from Cavenovia to Canastota, through the town of Fenner, was an undertaking projected and carried out, by a company composed of individuals residing in those towns. It was a stupendous project, the carrying of a railroad through an extremely rugged country, by the efforts of a few individuals, assisted by the bonding of the three towns. It was commenced in 1867, and completed in 1870. Its first directors were: Benj. F. Jarvis, Charles Brown, Lewison Fairchild, 0. W. Sage, Chas. Stebbins, jr., and George L. Rouse of Cazenovia; Dr. Theodore Mead and John Wilson of Fenner; Charles Stroud, John Montross, Thomas N. Jarvis, Perkins Clark and Ralph H. Avery of Canastota.
This year, 1872, the Cazenovia and Canastota Railroad is being extended to De Ruyter.
THE UTICA, CHENANGO AND SUSQUEHANNA VALLEY, which passes through the eastern part of this county, was built in 1868-9. It is a road of immense advantage to sections of Brookfield and eastern Hamilton.
THE UTICA, CLINTON AND CHENANGO VALLEY was completed to the Midland at Smith's Valley, in Lebanon, in 1870. It passes through the towns of Madison and Hamilton, in this county. The first travel on this road from this county, of any note, was in the autumn of 1870, when an immense concourse were conveyed to the State Fair then being held in Utica.
THE AUBURN BRANCH of the Midland, was completed to Norwich in 1871. This passes through De Ruyter and a part of Georgetown.
THE SYRACUSE AND CHENANGO VALLEY, passing through this county, is in the course of construction, and the close of 1872 will probably find it completed. It will be of vast importance to a large section of country hitherto inland. Its route is directed through Cazenovia, (where there is a tunnel of 1,600 feet in length,) Nelson, Georgetown and Lebanon, reaching the Midland at Earlville.
MADISON COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, was organized September 1, 1841. J. D. Ledyard of Cazenovia, was chosen first President; Elijah Morse of Eaton, H. G. Warner of Sullivan, J. H. Dunbar of East Hamilton, Vice Presidents; Alexander Krumbhaar of Cazenovia, Corresponding Secretary; A S. Sloan of Eaton, Recording Secretary; Uriah Leland of Eaton, Treasurer. For several years the society held fairs in various sections of the county, and the annual gatherings were places of interest to those concerned in the development of agriculture and the improvement of stock. Since the time of its formation, after its first officers, the following named gentlemen have presided, and zealously promoted the agricultural interests of the county: 1842 and '43, George B. Rowe, Lenox,; 1844 and '45, Seneca B. Burchard, Eaton; 1846 and '47; John Williams, Cazenovia; 1848 and '49, Benjamin Enos, DeRuyter; 185o, Lewis Raynor, Cazenovia; 1851, James H. Dunbar, Hamilton; 1852, Elijah Morse, Eaton. In 1853, the society leased grounds in Morrisville where the annual fairs were held during the rest of its existence. The annual reports of the society furnish the names of many who have in its early days been interested in the farmers' progress in this county. Among those are Curtis Hoppin, in bringing in the first flock of sheep. General Cleveland, Col. Lincklaen, Messrs. Whitman and Douglass of Sullivan, who improved the breed of cows, and John B. Yates, that of horses. Also the following in the various departments of stock raising have invited progress: Mr. Ward of Wampsville, Mr. Beaumont of Eaton, Mr. Burchard of Madison, Mr. David Osgood of Hamilton, Mr. Muir of Hamilton, Sanford P. Chapman of Clockville, Amos Scott of Brookfield, Judge Enos, Mr. Gage and Mr. Merchant of DeRuyter, Mr. George T. Taylor and Mr. Leonard Howes of Madison, Mr. Gilbert of Hamilton, Col. C. D. Miller of Peterboro, Mr. Ackley of Hamilton and Ellis Morse of Eaton.
So great was the interest in the different towns, that these were induced to organize town societies. The Brookfield Agricultural Society was organized in 1856; Canaseraga Agricultural and Mechanical Society was organized in 1858; Lebanon Agricultural Society, formed 1856; Hamilton Agricultural and Horticultural Association, formed 1857; Farmers' and Mechanics' Association of Fenner, formed 1857; Nelson Farmers' and Mechanics' Association, formed 1858; Farmers' and Mechanics' Association of Cazenovia, formed 1859; and the more recent Agricultural and Mechanical Association of Lenox.
MADISON COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY.-On the 29th day of July, 1806, the following eighteen persons met in Sullivan to organize the Madison County Medical Society, viz Israel Farrell, Jonas Fay, James Moore, James Pratt, John D. Henry, John Dorrance, Jonathan Pratt, Wm. P. Cleveland, Elijah Putnam, Elijah Pratt, Thomas Greenly, Amos S. Amsden, Constant Merrick, Stephen Percival, Zadoc Parker, Rufus Holton, Asa B. Sizer, Asahel Prior.
First President, Israel Farrell; Vice President, Jonas Fay; Secretary, Elijah Pratt.
This was an active, efficient body, striving to elevate the medical profession, working in harmony with the reforms of the day, and as early as 1830, so far gave its influence to the temperance cause, as to pass resolutions in one of their meetings, denouncing the use of intoxicating liquors as a beverage, discountenancing the traffic, and dispensing with its use in the medical practice, as far as was possible. This Society has continued its regular meetings up to this day.
Present officers are: President, A. L. Saunders; Vice President, Dr. H. W. Carpenter; Secretary, Dr. D. D. Chase; Treasurer, __________.
MADISON COUNTY AUXILIARY BIBLE SOCIETY, was formed October, 1816. From that date to the present it has continued its sittings, faithfully prosecuting its humanitarian labors and christianizing the people. It is to be regretted that we have not the names of those who originated a society which has so long benefited our county. Its donations have been up to 1858, $5,701.51. Remittances for Bibles, $6,814.87.
THE MADISON BAPTIST ASSOCIATION, was organized in the year 1808. There was then several Baptist Churches in Madison County, mostly belonging to the Otsego Association. The needs of the new country and the increasing number of churches, led to a Conference held in Cazenovia October 15, 1806, by delegates from sixteen churches, with reference to forming another Association. August 26, 1807, the 2d Brookfield; Cazenovia, De Ruyter, Eaton, Fabius, German, Hamilton, Homer, Lisle, Madison, Manlius, Nelson, 1st Pompey, 2d Pompey, Smithfield, Sherburne, Sangerfield and Truxton churches, met by delegates in Conference, in Pompey. The Revs. Vining, Robertson and Spencer, came as delegates from the Otsego Association. To the new body then formed they gave the name of "The Madison Baptist Association," which was duly recognized at its first anniversary held in German, now Pitcher, Chenango Co., August 31, and September 1, 1808. An unbroken series of minutes from that time to the present shows its changes, labors and success.
Much was done by supplying destitute churches within its bounds with preaching, and considerable missionary work was done in northern and western New York by John Peck, Elisha Ransom, Joel Butler, Alfred Bennett, Ashbel Hosmer, John Lawton, Nathan Baker and Hezekiah Eastman. In 1815, a Missionary Society was formed within the bounds of the Association, auxiliary to the Baptist Board of Foreign Missions. The Hamilton Literary and Theological Seminary, now more generally called Madison University, has also risen within the bounds of this Association, and through the influence of the beloved Hascall and Kendrick, it was wedded to the churches, and the churches to it. Within the last thirty-five years, fourteen Baptist brethren and sisters, belonging to this county, have become foreign missionaries. Through all the pioneer service, men and women have not been wanting, who were capable and willing to endure hardship as good soldiers of Jesus Christ - brave and decided servants of God, who were not afraid to do their duty. Proofs are on record that the evangelical efforts of those early days were efficiently aided by the sisters; "many a Deborah arose a mother in Israel; many a beloved Persis labored much in the Lord; many a Phebe served the church, and many a Mary bestowed much labor on Christ's weary ministers."
The Semi-Centennial Anniversary Meeting was held in Cazenovia Village, September 8 and 9, 1858.
This Association has of late years combined with its meetings, the Madison Baptist Sabbath School Association. The two, form a society whose annual and semi-annual meetings held at different points, are full of interest.
THE MADISON COLONIZATION SOCIETY, was organized June 8, 1830. Its first officers were Dr. Nathaniel Kendrick, President; C. S. Jackson and Gerritt Smith, Vice-Presidents; Rev. E. White, Secretary; Epenetes Holmes, Treasurer; Stephen F. Blackstone, Rev. Daniel Hascall, Edward Lewis, Rev. T. Mills and Prof. Barnas Sears, Managers. The society had for its object the gradual emancipation of slaves, (to the end that slavery might be extinguished,) and their return to Africa effected by the planting of colonies. The Liberia colony was the work of the Colonization Society of the United States. Madison County Colonization Society was merged into the Madison County Anti-Slavery Society in 1835.
A COUNTY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY was in existence between the years 1825 and '35. Andrew Yates, Nathaniel Kendrick, Samuel T. Mills and Gerrit Smith, were its leaders.
THE MADISON COUNTY HOMOPATHIC MEDICAL SOCIETY, was organized at Morrisville, July 4, 1865. President, Dr. D. D. Loomis, Morrisville; Vice-President, Dr. Ira C. Owen, Sherburne; Secretary and Treasurer, Dr Geo. B. Palmer, Hamilton; Censors, Drs. E. A. Wallace, G. L. Gifford, and Geo. B. Palmer.
MADISON COUNTY LODGE I. O. OF G. T., is a secret temperance organization, having for its object the promotion of total abstinence, the reformation of inebriates, the suppression of the sale of intoxicating drinks, and in all ways, promoting the interests of temperance.
The Association first met May 14th, 1868, at Oneida, where the Articles of the Association were drafted. Quarterly meetings were held with the subordinate lodges in different towns.
Madison County Lodge was formally organized May 13th, i869, (said meeting being held at Nelson Flats,) in accordance with the Constitution of the Grand Lodge of New York, and the Constitution and By-Laws drafted for the County Lodge were adopted.
Henry Brown of Brookfield, was its first C. C. T; L. E. Bonney of Georgetown, F. C. C. T.; C. W. Hatch of New Woodstock, C. S. William Girvin of Oneida, was elected C. C. T. for the year 1870, and has continued in that office since; Mrs. L. M. Hammond of Eaton, C. S., in 1871, was succeeded by J. H. Messenger of Madison, in 1872; Rev. B. W. Hamilton was appointed C. D. in 1870, and has continued in that office since. There are fourteen good, working subordinate Lodges in the County, over which this Lodge has supervision, namely: Oneida Chief, Oneida; Alert, Canastota; Owahgena, Cazenovia; Morning Light, New Woodstock; Clockville; Madison; South Brookfield; West Eaton; Chittenango; Nelson Flats; Perryville; Brookfield Central, Clarksville; Poolville; Dundee, Oneida Valley.
MADISON COUNTY MUSICAL SOCIETY, was organized about 1830, having for its object, improvement in sacred music. The public meetings of the Society, held at different points in the county, were addressed by eminent speakers, and the popularity of their concerts drew large and enthusiastic audiences. The name of S. Glidden was popular among them as a leader and teacher of vocal music. From among the officers who served in this society we give the following names: Dr. Onisimus Mead, Nelson; Roswell Thompson, Eaton; Eli Buell, Hamilton; Wm. L. Palmer, Lenox; Dr. John Putnam, Madison; Hiram C. Paddock, Fenner; Oren Stephens, Smithfield; Elijah Buell, Lebanon; Alfred Goodrich, Cazenovia; Gurdon Hall, Georgetown; Moses Parmlee, Sullivan; Hosea Clark, Brookfield; Thomas C. Nye, De Ruyter.
To the above names is added Alexander Simpson of Eaton.
The recent County Musical Associations are a revival of the same spirit in the sons and daughters of the old musicians of Madison County.
MADISON COUNTY UNION SABBATH SCHOOL ASSOCIATION SABBATH SCHOOL ASSOCIATION was organized September 26th, 1866. Years previous there had been a Sabbath School Union Society, which had an existence of several years' duration. This sowed the seed which blossomed in the present organization. First officers of the present Association, James Barnett, Peterboro, President; Frank Phelps, Cazenovia; James Walrath, Chittenango; Rev. D. McFarland, Oneida, and Rev. M. S. Hard, Morrisville, Vice Presidents; C. D. Rose, Hamilton, Recording Secretary; L. P: Clark, Morrisville, Corresponding Secretary; Jonathan Wells, Morrisville, Treasurer.
The present officers are: J. D. Avery, Hamilton, President; Rev. B. W. Hamilton, Canastota, Recording Secretary.
At the first general election held in and for the county of Madison, Erastus Cleaveland of Madison, and Sylvanus Smalley of Sullivan, were elected Members of Assembly over Jonathan Morgan of Brookfield, and John W. Bulkley of Hamilton.
The first county officers, including justices of the Peace, were appointed by the "Council of Appointments," and were as follows:
Common Pleas Judges. --- Sylvanus Smalley, Sullivan; Peter Smith of Peterboro; Edward Green of Brookfield; Elisha Payne of Hamilton; David Cook of Sullivan.
Sheriff --- Jeremiah Whipple, Cazenovia.
Under Sheriff --- Levi Love, Hamilton.
County Clerk --- Asa B. Sizer, Hamilton.
Deputy Clerk --- Samuel Sizer, jr., Hamilton.
Surrogate ---Thomas H. Hubbard, Hamilton.
Coroner --- Jabish N. M. Hurd, Cazenovia.
At this time there were only five towns in Madison county, viz: --- Brookfield, Cazenovia, De Ruyter, Hamilton and Sullivan. The justices appointed for these towns were :
Oliver Brown, Daniel Maine, Henry Clark, jr., Jonathan Morgan, Samuel Marsh and Edward Green, Brookfield; David Tuthill, Samuel S. Breese, Phineas Southwell, Perry G. Childs, Elisha Williams, Daniel Petrie, William Powers and Joshua Hamlin, Cazenovia; Eli Gage, Hubbard Smith and Eleazer Hunt, De Ruyter; Joseph Morse, Simeon Gillett, Benjamin Pierce, Erastus Cleaveland, Elisha Payne, Amos Maynard, Russell Barker, Geo. Crane, Winsor Coomar (now spelled Coman), Hamilton; Gilbert Caswell, Samuel Foster, Walter Beecher, Joseph Frost, Sylvanus Smalley, Peter Smith, David Cook, William Hallock, James Campbell and Joseph Yeaw, of Sullivan.
The first deed recorded in the Madison County Clerk's office, was from John Lincklaen of Cazenovia, and Gerrit Boon, "formerly of Oneida County," to Elisha Farnham of Cazenovia. The deed is dated April 5, 1806; acknowledged May 5, 1806, before Perry G. Childs, Esq., Master in Chancery, and was recorded on the 7th of May, 1806. The premises conveyed were about 54 acres of lot P. S. of the 4th Allotment of New Petersburg, lying in the very heart of the present village of Cazenovia, and yet the consideration was but $648.
The first supervisors were : Stephen Hoxie, Brookfield; Lemuel Kingsbury, Cazenovia; Jeremiah Gage, DeRuyter; Erastus Cleaveland, Hamilton, and Jacob Patrick, Sullivan.
A Brigade had been formed in the county, under the command of General Jonathan Foreman.
Among the Military officers in commission, in 1806, were Capt. Noyes Palmer, (afterwards Major-General); Capt. David Matthews of Sullivan; Lieut. Ethan Clark of Leonardsville; Ensign Oliver Clark of Lenox; Ensign Peter Chappell of Hamilton, who were living a few years since. There were also Lieut. Oliver Babcock, and Adj't Phineas Babcock of Clarksville, brothers, who died in 1854.
In 1807, several new towns were formed, and the list gives Brookfield, Cazenovia, DeRuyter, Eaton, Hamilton, Lebanon, Madison, Nelson, Smithfield and Sullivan,-ten instead of five towns.
The two political parties of 1807, were Federals and Republicans (Democrats), and between them there was a desperate struggle for victory, it being supposed that the result of the election would fix the future political complexion of the county. That year, Sylvanus Smalley, Democrat, and John W. Bulkley, Federalist, were elected to Assembly, making it a drawn battle. Peter Smith was appointed First judge of the Court of Common Pleas, and Oliver Brown appointed Common Pleas judge in the place of judge Cook.
Judges Smith and Brown were both decided Federalists, and warm supporters of Governor Lewis in opposition to Daniel D. Tompkins, and were doubtless appointed in consideration of their political services, yet at that period, the judiciary when once appointed, were comparatively free from political influences.
Henry Clark, jr., Brookfield; Elisha Williams, Cazenovia; Robert Avery, Eaton; John Hall, Hamilton; John W. Bulkley, Lebanon; Amos W. Fuller and Stephen F. Backstone, Madison; John Dorrance, Asa Dana and Sanford G. Calvin, Smithfield, and Jacob Patrick, Sullivan, were appointed Justices of the Peace for the year 1807.
The Military Commissions were as follows : Nathaniel King of Hamilton, Brigadier General; Zebulon Douglass of Sullivan and Nathaniel Collins, Lieutenant Colonels; Amos Maynard and Erastus Cleaveland of Madison, Majors; Daniel Petrie of Smithfield, William Hallock of Sullivan, Jacob Balcom, Nathan Crandall and Gaylord Stevens, Captains; Daniel Olin, Roswell Hutchins, Ambrose Andrews, Timothy Brown, Nicholas Woolaver, Benjamin Wilber, Seth Miner, Charles Huntington, William Bradley, Jabez Lyon, Daniel Jones, Stephen Lee, Samuel Rawson, Asa Randall, Oliver Clark and Sylvester Clark, Lieutenants; Pardon Barnard, Martin Lamb, William Abercrombie, Gilbert Reed, Albert Beecher, Jonathan Nye, John Chambers, Elihu Foote, Stephen Clark, jr., and Thomas Wylie, Ensigns Moses H. Cook, Adjutant; Asahel Prior, Surgeon.
The election of 1808, gave Sylvanus Smalley the place of State Senator, and Daniel Van Horne, John W. Bulkley and Oliver Brown a seat in the Assembly. The State "Council of Appointments," being Democratic at this period, placed in office the following for this County:
Judges of the Court of Common Pleas: --- Erastus Cleaveland of Madison, and Hubbard Smith of DeRuyter.
Justices of the Peace: --- David Waterman, Brookfield; Elisha Farnham, Samuel Ackley and William Card, Cazenovia; Daniel Alvord and Josiah Purdy, DeRuyter; John Pratt, Eaton; Daniel Smith and Eleazer Sweatland, Hamilton, Amos Maynard, Amos Burton and Gilbert Stebbins, Madison; Isaac Bumpus, Ebenezer Lyon and David Wellington, Nelson; Daniel M. Gillett, Wright Brigham, David Tuttle, Thomas Dibble and Joshua Hamlin, Smithfield; John Lee and John Knowles, Sullivan.
It is believed that the following persons were Supervisors for the year 1808: Jonathan Morgan, Brookfield; Eliphalet S. Jackson, Cazenovia; Eli Gage, DeRuyter; David Gaston, Eaton; Reuben Ransom, Hamilton;, John W. Bulkley, Lebanon; Erastus Cleaveland, Madison; Ebenezer Lyon, Nelson: Asa Dana, Smithfield; Jacob Patrick, Sullivan.
Congress had, in the year 1808, placed an embargo upon all American shipping. This bore hard upon the northern and middle States, particularly upon the State of New York, which, at that period, was the greatest grain producing State of the Union, by preventing the exportation of her surplus grain. The Federalists denounced the embargo, and in the State election of April, 1809, this party succeeded in both County and State. For this county, Daniel Van Horne, John W. Bulkley and Amos B. Fuller, Federalists, were elected to Assembly by a large majority. But the incumbent "Council of Appointments" was continued through the year, and which, being nearly all Democrats, only the following appointments were made for this year:
Samuel Marsh, Brookfield, Judge of Common Pleas; Dennison Palmer, Brookfield, Coroner.
Justices of the Peace: --- Samuel Livermore, Charles L. Usher and. Samuel Marsh, Brookfield; Philip Wager, Roswell Harrison and Chauncey Butler, Sullivan.
Sylvanus Beckwith of Hamilton, was appointed a Lieutenant, and Zenas Nash and Rufus Skeel of Hamilton, Ensigns.
In February, 1810, the Council of Appointments was again changed, and being composed of a majority of Federalists, the following appointments were made for this county:
Common Pleas Judges. --- Oliver Brown of Brookfield, Stephen F. Blackstone of Madison, Jeremiah Gage of DeRuyter, and James Green, in place of Judges Smalley, Cleaveland, Edward Green and Hubbard Smith, removed.
Sheriff. --- William Hatch, in place of Jeremiah Whipple.
Coroners. --- Samuel Woods jr., Madison; Myndert Wemple, Sullivan; John D.. Blish, Hamilton, and Daniel Russell, DeRuyter.
Justices of the Peace. --- Ezra Sexton, James McElwain, Daniel Watson and William Russell, DeRuyter; Robert Henry and James Pratt, Eaton; Ezra Fuller and Erastus Daniels, Hamilton; John Sheldon, Josiah Lasell and Elisha Wheeler, Labanon; Nathaniel Hall and Ichabod S. Spencer, Lenox; Levi Morton and Seth Blair, Madison; David Cook, Asa Dana and Nehemiah Huntington, Smithfield; David Beecher of Sullivan.
Thus the reader obtains a glimpse of the management of civil affairs unde r the first constitution, when the celebrated "Council of Appointments," controlled in so many departments.
The various changes made, and the selection of men by the people of our county, may be seen in the following civil list
Judges of Madison County Courts.
First, Judge Peter Smith, Peterboro, appointed June 10, 1807. Served till 1821.
Judge, Justin Dwinnell, Cazenovia, appointed Feb 1823.
Judge, James B. Eldridge, Hamilton, appointed Mar. 16, 1833.
Judge, John B. Yates, Chittenango, appointed Mar. 16, 1836.
Judge, Thomas Barlow, Canastota, appointed Jan. 24, 1843,
Judge, James W. Nye, Hamilton, appointed June. - 1847.
Judge, Sidney T. Holmes, Morrisville appointed Nov. - 1851.
Judge, Joseph Mason, Hamilton, appointed Nov. - 1863.
Sylvanus Smalley was judge when Madison County was formed in 1806.
Judge, T. H. Hubbard, Hamilton, appointed Mar. 26, 1806.
Judge, Asa B. Sizer, Madison, appointed Feb. 26, 1816.
Judge, John G. Stower, Hamilton, appointed Feb. 19, 1821.
Judge, Otis P. Granger, Morrisville, appointed Apr. 13, 1827.
Judge Jas. B. Eldridge, Hamilton, appointed Feb. 18, 1840.
Judge, James W. Nye, Hamilton, appointed Feb. 18, 1844.
Judge, Chas. L. Kennedy, Morrisville, elected Nov. - 1867.
Judge, Chas. L. Kennedy, Morrisville, re-elected Nov. 1871.
Judge of the Court of Appeals: Charles Mason of Hamilton, appointed Jan. 20, 1868; he still continues in the office.
Jeremiah Whipple, Cazenovia, appointed Mar. 26, 1806
William Hatch, Cazenovia, appointed Mar. 5, 1810
Jeremiah Whipple, Cazenovia, appointed Feb. 5, 1811
Elijah Pratt, Smithfield, appointed Mar. 25, 1814
John Matteson, Nelson, appointed Feb. 28, 1815
Moses Maynard, Madison, appointed Mar. 2, 1810
Ezra Cloyes, Morrisville, appointed Feb. 19, 1821
Ezra Cloyes, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1822
Ezekiel Carpenter, Cazenovia, elected Nov. 1825
Pardon Barnard, Lenox, elected Nov. 1828
Joseph S. Palmer, Lenox, elected Nov. 1831
Thomas Wylie, Lebanon, elected Nov. 1834
John M. Messenger, Smithfield, elected Nov. 1837
Isaac Brown, Brookfield, elected Nov. 1840
Samuel French, Sullivan, elected Nov. 1843
William B. Brand, Brookfield, elected Nov. 1846
Francis F. Stevens, Eaton, elected Nov. 1849
Stephen M. Potter, Cazenovia, elected Nov. 1852
Milton Barnett, Smithfield, elected Nov. 1855
Sanford P. Chapman, Lenox, elected Nov. 1858
William F. Bonney, Eaton, elected Nov. 1861
Asahel C. Stone, Smithfield, elected Nov. 1864
Andrew J. French, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1866
Edwin R. Barker, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1869
Asa B. Sizer, Madison, appointed March 26, 1806
Samuel S. Foreman, Cazenovia, appointed March 5, 1814
Josiah N. M. Hurd, Cazenovia, appointed Feb. 28, 1815
Bennett Bicknell, Morrisville, appointed Feb. 19, 1821
Bennett Bicknell, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1822
John G. Curtis, elected Nov. 1825
Andrew Scott Sloan, elected Nov. 1831
Alexander Donaldson, jr., elected Nov. 1837
Lewison Fairchild, Cazenovia, elected Nov. 1840
Zadoc T. Bentley, DeRuyter, elected Nov. 1843
Andrew S. Sloam, elected Nov. 1846
Lorenzo D. Dana, Fenner, elected Nov. 1849
Lucius P. Clark, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1852
William E. Lansing, Chittenango, elected Nov. 1855
Charles L. Kennedy, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1858
Loring Fowler, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1861
Calvin Whitford, Brookfield, elected Nov. 1864
Nathan Brownell, Hamilton, elected Nov. 1867
Alfred D. Kennedy, Lenox, elected Nov. 1870
Since 1848. [The author has been unable to get this further back.]
Clark Tillinghast, Morrisville, elected Nov 1848
Lyman M. Kingman, elected Nov. 1851
Henry F. Williams, elected Nov. 1854
Alexander M. Holmes, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1860
David F. Payson, Eaton, elected Nov. 1866
Charles T. Bicknell, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1869
Daniel Kellogg, Sullivan, appointed Feb. 30, 1809
Thomas H. Hubbard, Hamilton, appointed Feb. 26, 1816
Thomas H. Hubbard, Hamilton, appointed June 11, 1818
William K. Fuller, Chittenango, appointed March 26, 1821
Philo Gridley, Hamilton, appointed - 1829
Justin Dwinnell, Cazenovia, appointed - 1837
Charles Mason, Hamilton, appointed - 1845
Henry C. Goodwin, Hamilton, elected Nov. 1847
William E. Lansing, Chittenango, elected Nov. 1850
David J. Mitchell, Hamilton, elected Nov. 1853
Asahel C. Stone, Smithfield, elected Nov. 1856
Albert N. Sheldon, Hamilton, elected Nov. 1859
Delos W. Cameron, Cazenovia, elected Nov. 1862
Lambert B. Kern, DeRuyter, elected Nov. 1865
Alexander Cramphin, Morrisville, elected Nov. 1868
Sylvanus Smalley, Lenox, Western Dist., 1809-10-11-12
Bennett Bicknell, Morrisville, Western Dist., 1815-16-17-18
Thomas Greenly, Hamilton, 5th Dist. 1823-4-5
Charles Stebbins, Cazenovia, 5th Dist. 1826-7-8-9
John G. Stower, Hamilton, 5th Dist. 1833-4-5
Joseph Clark, Brookfield, 5th Dist. 1839-40-1-2
Thomas Barlow, Canastota, 5th Dist. 1844-5-6-7
Asahel C. Stone, Peterboro, 23d Dist. 1850
Simon C. Hitchcock , Cazenovia, 23d Dist. 1854-5
John J. Foote, Hamilton, 23d Dist. 1858-9
James Barnett, Smithfield, 23d Dist. 1866-7
William S. Smith, Lebanon, 17th Dist. 1813-15
William S. Smith, Lebanon, 17th Dist. 1815-17
Thomas H. Hubbard, Hamilton, 17th Dist. 1817-19
Thomas H. Hubbard, Hamilton, 17th Dist. 1821-23
Justin Dwinnell, Cazenovia, 22d Dist. 1823-25
John G. Stower, Hamilton, 22d Dist. 1827-29
Thomas Beekman, Peterboro, 22d Dist. 1829-31
William K. Fuller, Chittenango, 23d Dist. 1833-35
William K. Fuller, Chittenango, 23d Dist. 1835-37
Bennett Bicknell, Morrisville, 23d Dist. 1837-39
Edward Rogers, Madison, 23d Dist. 1839-41
Lawrence A. Foster, Morrisville, 23d Dist. 1841-43
William J. Hough, Cazenovia, 23d Dist. 1845-47
Gerrit Smith, Peterboro, 22d Dist. 1853-54 - Resigned.
Henry C. Goodwin, Hamilton, fill vacancy, 22d Dist. 1854-55
Henry C. Goodwin, Hamilton, 22d Dist. 1857-59
William E. Lansing, Chittenango, 22d Dist. 1861-63
Sidney T. Holmes, Morrisville, 22d Dist. 1865-67
TOWN of BROOKFIELD. --- Stephen Hoxie, [for Chenango County, 1803; Stephen Hoxie, 1804; Oliver Brown, 1808-9, and in 1816; Henry Clark, 1811 and 1822; Dennison Palmer, 1819; Joseph Clark, 1824 and in 1828; John Davis, 1833; Joseph Clark, again in 1835; Wait Clark, 1837; Thomas Keith, 1844; John T. G. Bailey, 1848; Dennis Hardin, 1853; William H. Brand, 1862 and 1863; David L. Fisk, 1870.
CAZENOVIA. --- Jonathan Foreman, [for Chenango Co.,] 1801; James Green, [for Chenango Co.,] 1803; Luther Waterman, [for Chenango Co.] 1804 and 1805; Justin Dwinnell, 1820-21, and in 1822; Jacob Ten Eyck, 1826; Lemuel White, 1827; John Williams, 1829; Jesse Kilbourn, 1833; William J. Hough 1835 and 1836; Simeon C. Hitchcock, 1842; Stephen M. Potter, 1846; Thomas O. Bishop, 1850; Thomas P. Bishop, 1857; Lester M. Case, 1858; George L. Rouse, 1863.
DERUYTER. --- James Nye, 1818; Elias P. Benjamin, 1825; James Nye, 1825 Benjamin Enos, 1834, also in 1839 and 1840; Stephen G. Sears, 1845; David Maine, 1849; Simeon Rider, 1859; Joseph W. Merchant, 1869,
EATON. --- Bennett Bicknell, 1812; John D. Henry, 1812 and 1813; Windsor Coman, 1814 and 1815; Robert Henry, 1831; Uriah Leland, 1839; Calvin Morse, 1842; Albert G. Purdy, 1857; Gardiner Morse, 1866.
FENNER. --- Daniel M. Gillett, 1823; Herman Van Vleck, 1820 and 21 [for Smithfield]; Daniel M. Gillett, 1832; Sardis Dana, 1834; Ralph I. Gates, 1844; Francis A. Hyatt. 1861.
GEORGETOWN. --- Stephen B. Hoffman, 1831; William F. Bostwick, 1838; Horace Hawks, 1846; John Clark, 1850;Alfred A. Brown, 1865.
HAMILTON. --- Samuel Payne, [for Chenango Co.,] 1804; Samuel Payne, 1806; Jonathan Olmstead, 1812 and 1813; James B. Eldridge, 1816, 1817; Jonathan Olmstead, 1816 and 1817; Thomas Greenly, 1818 and 1819; Amos Crocker, 1820; Thomas Dibble, 1826; James B. Eldredge, 1827 and in 1829; William Lord, 1838; Seneca B. Burchard, 1841; Lorenzo Sherwood, 1843; Henry L. Webb, 1852; Gilbert Tompkins, 1855; Orrin B. Lord, 1861; D. Gerry Wellington, 1867.
LENOX. --- Sylvanus Smalley, 1806 and 1807, also in 1808; Nathan Hall, jr., 1816; Pardon Barnard, 1822; Thomas Spencer, 1824; Sylvester Beecher, 1827; John Whitman, 1831; Nehemiah Batchelor, 1832; Jason W. Powers, 1835; Silas Sayles, 1837; Daniel Van Vleck, 1841; Venoni W. Mason, 1843; Thomas T. Loomis, 1846; George B. Rowe, 1852; Franklin M. Whitman, 1854; Aaron-Brush, 1855; John Snow, 1856; Albert G. Purdy, 1862; Benjamin F. Bruce, 1867; Leonard C. Kilham, 1868 and 1869, and 1870.
LEBANON. --- John W. Bulkley, 1808, 1809, 1810 and 1811; Curtis Hoppin, 1823; Ephriam. Gray, 1836; Henry Palmer, 1843; Franklin B. Hoppin, 1851; David Clark, 1860; Bushrod E. Hoppin, 1867.
MADISON. --- Erastus Cleaveland, 1807; Amos B. Fuller, 1810; Stephen F. Blackstone, 1814; Moses Maynard, 1816 and 1817; David Woods, 1818; Levi Morton, 1820; WM. Berry, jr., 1820 and 1821; Rutherford Barker, 1823; Wm. Manchester, 1830; John Head, 2d, 1832; Erastus Cleaveland, 1833; Isaac Coe, 1837; Daniel Barker, 1840; Geo. W. Taylor, 1847; Samuel White, 2d, 1854 and 1856; John W. Lippett, 1864.
NELSON. --- Eliphalet S. Jackson, 1816 and 1820; Eri Richardson, 1828; Onisemus Mead, 1838; Oliver Pool, 1841; Alfred Medbury, 1844; Wesley M. Carpenter, 1868.
SULLIVAN. --- Daniel VanHorn, 1808, 1809 and 1810; Zebulon Douglass, 1811; Walter Beecher, 1812 and 1813; David Beecher, 1814 and 1815; Solomon Beebe, 1819; John Knowles, 1828; William K. Fuller, 1829 and 1830; John B. Yates, 1836; Friend Barnard, 1839; Job Wells, 1842; John I. Walrath, 1845; Peter VanValkenburg, 1847; George Grant, 1848; Jerius French, 1851; Robert Stewart, 1858; Daniel F. Kellogg, 1864; Robert Stewart, 1867.
SMITHFIELD. --- Elisha Carrington, 1814; Nehemiah Huntington, 1825 and 1826; John M. Messenger, 1830; Daniel Dickey, 1840; Robert G. Stewart, 1849, James Barnett, 1860; Caleb Calkins, 1866.
STOCKBRIDGE. --- Henry T. Sumner, 1834; William Smith, 1845; Marsena Temple, 1853; Noah M. Coburn, 1859; Alvin Strong, 1865.
DELEGATES TO CONVENTION To REVISE CONSTITUTIONS: In 1822, Barak Beckwith, Cazenovia; John Knowles, Chittenango; Edward Rogers, Madison. In 1846, Benjamin F. Bruce, Lenox; Federal Dana, Fenner. In 1867, LesterM. Case, Cazenovia; Loring Fowler, Canastota.
PRESIDENTIAL ELECTORS FROM MADISON COUNTY: President, James Madison, 1808; William Hallock. President, James Madison, 1812; Thomas Hubbard, Hamilton. President, James Munroe, 1820; Elisha Farnham. President, Zachery Taylor, 1848; Oliver Pool, Nelson. President, Abraham Lincoln, 1860; John J. Foote, Hamilton. President, Abraham Lincoln, 1864 Robert Stewart, Chittenango.
The first Court of Record held in Madison County, was a Court of General Session, "holden at the School House near David Barnard's in Sullivan, on Tuesday the 3rd day of June, 1806. Present-The Honorable Sylvanus Smalley, Peter Smith, Edward Green, Elisha Payne and David Cook, Esquires and Judges.
Grand Jurors: --- Lemuel Kingsbury, gentleman, foreman; Samuel Thomas, Elisha Carey, Oreb Montague, Joshua Herrington, Rufus Pierson, John Needham, William Whitman, Joel Doolittle, George Ballou, Ebenezer Johnson, Abner Badger, Aaron Putney, Samuel Griggs, Phineas Dodge, David Barnard, Jacob Patrick, Elisha Starr,
"John Matteson and Daniel Barber, constables to wait on the Grand Jury."
"The Grand Jury, after retiring and finding no presentments, returned and were discharged by the Court.
The Court adjourned without day. A. B. Sizer, Clerk."
The October term of this court, the same year, was held at the School House near the house of Elisha Payne in Hamilton. Present-The Honorable Peter Smith, Elisha Payne, Edward Green and David Cook, "Esquires and Justices of the Peace." William Hatch was appointed crier of the Court." Ordered that this Court adjourn to the meeting house and convene forthwith."
Grand Jurors: --- Stephen F. Blackstone, foreman; John Hoxie, Stephen Crumb, Daniel H. Coon, Paul Palmer, Seth Holmes, Thomas Leach, David Walters, Edward Newton, Samuel McClure, Levi Mantor, David Peebles, Ezra Fuller, Richard Butler, Oliver S. Wilcoxon, John Shapley, William McClenathan, Archibald Bates, Isaac Warren, Caleb Allen, Joseph Cooley, Ebenezer Corbin, Samuel Howard and David Barber.
It was --- "Ordered, the seal procured by the Clerk, with the device of suspended scales, beneath which a sceptre lying horizontally, entwined by a serpent, a star in the center of the whole, and the whole encircled with 'Madison County, incorporated in 1806,' be, and it is hereby the seal of this Court." No further business of any note was transacted at this term.
Madison County Oyer and Terminer, July 3rd, 1807. This was the first session of this court held in this county, and was held in the school-house near David Barnard's, in Sullivan. Present, Hon. William W. Van Ness, Judge of the Supreme Court, Peter Smith, Judge of Madison County, Elisha Payne and David Cook, Assistant Justices.
Grand Jurors present, Jonathan Morgan, foreman; Timothy Gillett, jr., Isaac Ingersoll, Isaac Morse, Samuel Thomas, Jabez Abel, Elisha Starr, Timothy Brown, Elisha Farnham, Allen Dryer, jr., Elisha Severance, Dennison Palmer, Samuel Marsh, George Dalrymple, Erastus Cleveland, Wright Brigham, Daniel Petrie, Abraham Mattoon, Ephriam Bliss, Robert Avery, Barry Carter, James D. Cooledge, John Marble.
It was ordered that this court adjourn to the barn of Sylvanus Smalley, and convene forthwith. The celebrated Hitchcock case was to be tried, hence this order. Griffin Watkins and John Leet, constables, were each fined two dollars for non-attendance; Eli F. Hill, juror, was fined two dollars for non-attendance. The first indictment, the people against Daniel R. Baxter, for assault and battery, was speedily disposed of, but little action being taken in the case, and the prisoner discharged.
The following indictment was presented by the Grand Jury:
The People ) Indicted agt. > for Alpheus Hitchcock. ) Murder.
The prisoner plead not guilty. The court adjourned till six o'clock A.M., July 4th. The trial came on July the 4th. Thomas R. Gold was counsel for the prisoner. The petit jurors sworn this day, were:---Jeremiah Gage, Ebenezer Caulkins, John Anguish, Jabez Crocker, Thomas Marvin, David Barrett, James Tucker, James Gault, Caleb Allen, Amos Hill, John Barber, Joseph Smith.
The charge against Hitchcock was, that he had on the 6th day of April, 1807, procured poison and administered it to his wife, with intent to kill, and which had produced her death in a few hours.
The witnesses sworn for the people were:---Prudence Stacy, Elijah Putnam, Samuel Barber, Betsey Barber, Levi Love, Asa B. Sizer, Jonathan Pratt, Ezra Woodworth, Susannah Woodworth, Francis Guitteau, Moses Maynard, Wm. P. Simmons, Abraham W. Sedgewick and Lucy Bailey. Witnesses for the prisoner, Isaac Goodsell, Ephriam Clough, and Jacob Phelps.
The jury returned a verdict of "guilty," whereupon the court sentenced Alpheus Hitchcock to be hung on Friday the ensuing 11th of September, between the hours of one and three. This sentence was carried out, and he was hung in the village of Cazenovia, the gallows being erected at the east of the village, on the present farm of Mr. Parsons. This was the first execution in Madison County. It was made a public affair. Jeremiah Whipple was Sheriff.
[A few days previous to the murder, the great April snow storm of that year had prevailed. The 6th day of April (Sunday) the inhabitants turned out to clear the roads, the storm having ceased on Saturday. Hitchcock was one of the party, helping to clear the roads between where he lived (the Center) and the Corners (Madison Village). Having done their labor, the party dispersed to their several homes; Hitchcock, however, before going to his, called on the physician at the drug store at the "Corners," and purchased the arsenic with which he that evening poisoned his wife. At ten o'clock that night she lay a corpse in his house. Remembrance of the great storm, and this atrocious murder, was ever after associated, and the people called it the "Great Hitchcock Snow Storm." Hitchcock was a singing school teacher, and had fallen in love with one of his pupils, Lois Andrus, and took this diabolical course to rid himself of his wife. When Hitchcock stood upon the scaffold, awaiting the adjustment of the fatal noose, it is said he requested that the hymn, "Show pity, - Lord! O Lord forgive," be sung in his favorite tune, "Brookfield." His wish was granted, and he was launched into eternity.]
The records in the County Clerk's Office in reference to this criminal case are very meagre. The name of the murderess is given, Mary Anthony instead of Mary Antone. The name of the girl murdered by her is not given. However, Mary Antone was tried and hung for the murder of an Indian girl. The records are as follows:
"Madison Oyer and Terminer, convened at the Court House in Cazenovia, on the 27th day of June, 1814. Present, Hon. Jonas Platt, Justice of Supreme Court; Peter Smith, First Judge of Madison County Common Pleas.
Wm. Hopkins, } Assistant
Jonas Fay, } Judges.
Jurors Sworn: Reubin Bryan, Artemus Inman, Glover Short, Jesse Taylor, Samuel Chubbuck, Shaler Fyler, Isaac Morton, Eliab Perkins, Jason Leason, Nathan Smith, Ruggles Payne, Russell Barker, 2d.
Witnesses for the people: William Stone, John Myer; one -paper read in evidence [undoubtedly from John Jacobs,] John C. Payne, Joseph B. Peck, Samuel P. Pierce.
Witnesses for prisoner: Adam Jordon, interpreter, Peggy Abraham, Peter Smith.
June 29th, sentenced to be hung on the 30th of September, at 10 o'clock, A. M.
Mary Antone was accordingly hung at Peterboro, the 3oth day of September, 1814.
Madison County Oyer and Terminer, held at Morrisville, July 2nd, 1823, Judge Williams presiding.
The People } vs > Abram Antone. }
Judge Jonas Platt and General Joseph Kirkland were appointed by the court, counsel for the prisoner.
Antone was first indicted before the Court of Sessions in 1815; for the murder of John Jacobs.
The following persons composed the jury: Matthew B Brooks, Oliver Whipple, James Clarke, Stephen B. Hoffman, Lewis Stanley, Luther Smith, Eben Ayer, Joseph Tucker, jr., Isaac Bumpus, Shubal F. Bunker, Timothy B Chidsey, Daniel Warren.
Witnesses for the people: Mary Doxtater, Nicholas Jordon, Eunice Abrams, Jonathan Buna, Susannah Seth, Jno. Quincy. Witness sworn as interpreter, J. Dana.
Jno. Quincey and Allen Dryer were constables.
The prisoner plead "Not Guilty." The witnesses against him were principally uncultivated sons of the forest. But it was remarked that their testimony was given with a carefulness and precision scarcely to be expected. The testimony was clear and decisive. The counsel rested their defense altogether on this, "that the State of New York has no jurisdiction over the Indian tribes within her territory." The court, however, overruled the objection. The prisoner had always objected to a trial except by his own people. He said he had paid $270 to the different tribes as a ransom, and thought it hard that he should die when he had made his peace with the Indians. Two or three tribes sent in petitions praying for his release, but the Oneidas, of which tribe he was said by some to have been a Chief, neglected it. This was said by some to be owing to the head Chief who was Antone's enemy. Without doubt, the Indians generally would have been glad of his release, though it is certainly a very singular circumstance that the same ones who volunteered in pursuit of him after the murder of John Jacobs, and to whom he was always an object of dread and fear, should turn and petition for him. The nations, however, did not generally assent to our jurisdiction over them, and they undoubtedly petitioned on that principle. The murder and the circumstances connected with it, are given in a biographical sketch drawn from a pamphlet published after his execution, wherein is obtained a glimpse of the character of one who was once the terror of all Madison County. The intensity of feeling which this trial produced between the two races, white and red, showed that it involved principles reaching beyond the fact of his having indulged a barbarous nature in destroying a fellow ,creature. It was the culminating strife between the elements of barbarism and civilization, and became the death struggle of barbarism in this region. (Note a.)
Madison Oyer and Terminer, March 27th, 1839.
Present: Hon. Robert Monell, Circuit judge of the 6th Circuit; E. Rogers, B. Beckwith, E. Holmes and H. G. Warner, Esqrs., judges of the County Courts.
The People } Indicted for the murder of vs > Robert Barber on the 30th Lewis Wilber. } day of August, 1837.
Counsel for the Prosecution: J. Dwinnell (District Attorney), B. D. Noxon and T. Jenkins, Esqrs.
Counsel for the Prisoner: J. A. Spencer and A. L. Foster, Esqrs.
The following jury were empanneled for the trial of the cause: Conradt H. Cooper, Joseph C. Spencer, Ichabod S. Francis, Dyer Saxton, John R. Burdwin, Charles D. Cruttenden, Bradley Parlin, Thomas J. Whiting, Daison Haskell, Ethan Bosworth, Benjamin C. Barton, Nathaniel C. Gregg.
Lewis Wilbur was executed at Morrisville, October 3rd, 1839.
Madison Oyer and Terminer.
The People } vs > Duane Brown, Att'y for prisoner. John Hadcock. }For the murder of Mrs. Mary Gregg.
Wm. E. Lansing, District Attorney.
Jurors: Wm. R. Spencer, David Irish, John L. Walrath, Silas T. Filer, John Hovey, Lucius Spencer, Frederic H. Way, Adolphus Blair, Hiram H. Merchant, John W. Johnson, Jacob Foland, Lewis Hamblin.
Witnesses for the people: Susan S. Gregg, James Low, Ephriam K. Gregg, Julius. Treat, Cornelius Antone, Truman Benedict, Anson Crane, Jonathan M. Wilson, McKenzie Sumner, Easton J. Hostler, Frederic Hodges, Amideus Hinman, Samuel Barr, W. B. Parmelee, Frederic Snell, Henry Newkirk, Sarah Green, Wm. Page.
John Hadcock was sentenced to be hung December 21st, 1853, between the hours of ten and twelve o'clock, A. M.
There was an effort made through a petition of many persons, including the court which sentenced him, to effect a commutation of punishment to imprisonment for life in the State prison. The opinion being entertained by some that Hadcock was laboring under a species of insanity, and consequently not a fit subject for the gallows, the matter was laid before His Excellency, Governor Seymour, who granted a month's stay of proceedings, and advised the summoning of a jury, inquiring into the facts before the Sheriff, to test the question. An order to that effect having been issued by District Judge Mason and concurred in by the County Judge, S. T. Holmes, the following jury were summoned and sworn, viz: Francis Parsons, Israel Ward, John H. Fuller, Oliver W. Webster, Cazenovia; Levi P. Greenwood; Joseph G. Norton, Powers R. Mead, Nelson; Albert G. Purdy, Simeon Graham, David H. Phipps, Eaton; George Warren, Georgetown, and Henry G. Beardsley, Hamilton. The inquisition commenced its session on the 13th of February, 1854- S. M. Potter, Sheriff, Madison County, presiding. D. Brown, Esq., of Morrisville, and S. B. Garvin of Utica, were counsel for prisoner. D. J. Mitchell and H. C. Goodwin, Esqrs., for the people.
John Potter, Jeremiah Cooper, Jonathan M. Foreman, John Gregg, Daniel Gordon, Abraham Gregg, Jeduthan Green, John Green, John Hadcock, Francis F. Stevens, J. M. Wilson, Charles L. Thompson, Dr. James Moore and Dr. Franklin T. Maybury, were witnesses sworn.
After the examination of these witnesses the case was submitted to the jury, who, after deliberating on it two hours, returned saying they could not agree, and were discharged. The jury stood seven for, and five against the insanity of the prisoner. The Governor offered a further respite, if the District Judge should order another jury. As no such order was issued, the Sheriff was obliged to proceed in his duty, in carrying out the sentence which the court had passed upon the criminal. Accordingly the execution took place at a few moments before 11 o'clock, on Friday morning of the 24th day of February, 1854.
There has been other murders in Madison County, and some of them have greatly agitated the public mind, but in some cases the supposed murderer has not been convicted, the trial resulting in acquittal.. Such was the case in the murder of John Buck of Nelson, the accused bein William Zecker a German.
Other cases, among them the shocking murder of Moses Johnson of Brookfield, in which no reliable clue to the murderer or murderers have been found.
Still other cases have resulted in trial, the verdicts being, conviction for the different degrees of manslaughter, punishable by imprisonment in the State Prison, or confinement in the Asylum for insanity. The recent case of John Maxwell, who was sentenced to be hung, being of that class. Before the time set for his execution arrived, a petition from the Court which tried him, to the Governor, had the effect to obtain commutation of his sentence to imprisonment for life, in the Auburn State Prison.