CHAPTER IV.

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CAZENOVIA.

Formation of the town. --- Boundaries. --- Geographical features. --- Treaties of 1788. --- The Road Township purchased of the Indians. --- Indian occupation of this land. --- The Holland Company. --- John Lincklaen's Explorations. --- Discovery of Lake Owahgena. --- The Holland Purchase. --- The Pioneer's Journey. --- Names of Pioneers. --- Rapids settlement. --- Division of Road Township into four towns. --- Laying out and naming of the village of Cazenovia. --- Adventures with bears. --- Early settlers. --- First Town officers. --- Division of the town in 1798 --- Cazenovia village in 1803. --- Incorporation of Cazenovia village. --- Enterprise and progress. --- Manufactures and Business firms. --- -C. N. Y. C. Seminary. --- Biographical Sketches and Notices of Prominent Men. --- New Woodstock. --- Churches. --- Newspapers.

    Cazenovia was formed from Paris and Whitestown, Herkimer County, March 5th, 1795. DeRuyter was taken off in 1798, Sullivan in 1803, Smithfield and Nelson in 1807, and a part of Fenner in 1823. It is the center town on the western border of the county, and is bounded on the north by Sullivan, east by Fenner and Nelson, south by DeRuyter, and west by Onondaga County. The surface of this town is a rolling upland, broken by the deep valleys of the Chittenango and Limestone Creeks. The summits of the hills are 200 to 500 feet above the valleys. Cazenovia Lake (called Owahgena, meaning "the lake where the yellow fish swim" or "yellow perch lake,") a beautiful sheet of water about four miles long, lies in the northern part. Its shores slope gently back from the water's edge, where handsome farms, unrivalled for richness by any in the county, are now spread out to view.

    The lake lies at a great elevation above tide water, and Chittenango Creek which bears away its waters is a feeder of the Erie Canal. This stream has in its course a fall of several hundred feet, affording a great number of mill sites.

    At Chittenango Fall, about three miles from Cazenovia village, the water plunges in a beautiful cascade, perpendicularly, over a ledge of limestone rock, 136 feet in height. There is no scenery in this part of the State more charming than along the course of this creek from the village to the Falls. The road is excellently graded and macadamized, and winds with the stream between the mountainous heights, which, a part of the distance, rise on either side, while the river flows swiftly down the descent, rushing over rocks, eddying around huge boulders, which everywhere lie in the stream --- seeming to be detached fragments from distant mountains, sent hither by some powerful effort of nature, and hurled with terrible impetus into the waters. It is a singularly romantic, wild and awe inspiring spot, at the foot of the fall, as one stands in the deep shadows of overhanging rocks, perpendicular hills and thick forest, the gloom increased by rising spray, the changing and uncertain lights and shades glancing on the falling, foaming torrent, the rush, the roar, the boiling, trembling basin, the quivering earth with its apparently unstable footing.1

    The DeRuyter and Oneida Plank Road, which was built in 1848, in passing this route, found its most difficult obstacles in the gorge near the falls, where an elevation of 800 feet was overcome by a gradual ascent, which in no place exceeds six feet in one hundred. The old road required an aggregate ascent of 1,600 feet. The plank road rendered available a water-power hitherto useless; its entire fall is 750 feet. From Cazenovia to Chittenango this road has been recently macadamized.

    Limestone Creek flows across the south part of the town. On this stream, near the southwest border of the town, are two beautiful cascades, called Delphi Falls, one of which is ninety feet in height, the other between sixty and seventy. Hydraulic and common limestone are quarried near Chittenango Falls, in the northern and central parts; the soil is a gravelly loam. In the southern part of the town a clayey loam soil prevails, underlaid with hard pan.

    As we turn our attention to the history of this region, we are enabled to go beyond the day when it was called Cazenovia, into the ancient time when it was a part of the broad territory of Whitestown. The far-reaching trails of the Iroquois had pointed the way of emigration into northern Madison County. A sort of semi-civilization was accomplished through the intercourse of the Indians and whites, in their days of war and of peace, as far back as the sixteenth century, so that the savage had learned many of the useful arts, with, probably, some additional viciousness; and the Englishman and Frenchman, more often the latter, had mingled his blood with the race of the red man; for the white man desired this beautiful country, and rather than not dwell in it, he willingly took up his abode with the aboriginal possessors. When peace succeeded the troublous times of the Revolution, the controllers of the public welfare, knowing well the value of these lands, and knowing, also, that the time had come when peaceable arrangements could be made with the Indians, effected amicable treaties with them, by which large tracts were obtained for settlement. In 1788, treaties were made, through which the "Military Tract" of Onondaga, the Chenango "Twenty Towns," and the "Gore," lying between them, were obtained. The Military Tract was appropriated to "Soldiers' Rights;" and while the Twenty Towns were sold to different purchasers, the Gore, or its proceeds were to be appropriated to the laying out of new roads. Therefore it was named "Road Township." It was a tract about thirty-five miles long, from north to south, four and a half miles wide at the northern extremity, and about four miles at the southern containing about 100,000 acres of land. The project of opening the great Genesee, as well as a road from the salt springs in Onondaga County, which should traverse Road Township to Chenango, in the Twenty Towns, was in contemplation, but nothing was done until after the sale of this tract to the Holland Land Company.

    Previous to the treaties of 1788, this town was in the domain of the Oneidas, and was considered as their reserve hunting ground; and the lake, so well stored with fish, was their especial property. Though their village lay at the northward (at Canaseraga), yet they kept a well-defined path to and up the Chittenango Creek to the lake, where they built their temporary cabins, reduced the timber, constructed apparatus for fishing, and otherwise betook themselves to the pursuits of their race. At the head of the lake they evidently, at some time, established themselves with some degree of permanency, and cultivated small fields of corn. There some of their number have been buried. In 1861, when the citizens of this School District (No. 5) were sinking a hole to set their liberty pole, near the school house, a large skeleton of an Indian was found buried in a sitting posture, with hatchets, pipes, beads and other articles which the Indian was supposed to need on his journey to the Spirit land. The circumstance of the remains of a breast-work-like fortification, which could be seen for many years after the settlement by white people, just east of this school house, and the frequent bringing to light as the soil was cultivated, of various implements of domestic use, such as heavy stone mallets or pestles, worn smooth by friction, --apparently of the kind used in pounding corn, --of stone hatchets, (sometimes broken,) of rather ingenious make and other peculiarly-formed implements --- the use of which is unknown at the present day --- curious beads, etc.,2 all would indicate something like a permanent residence, where their Indian arts flourished for a season, where they found abundant sport as well as sustenance in fishing, and also in hunting, --- for bears and deer were plenty, and otter and beaver were not scarce, --- and where their little fields of corn grew thriftily. They were undoubtedly one of the families of the great Confederacy, established here for a season; not at all isolated, as evidences of about equal antiquity of the proximity of neighbors are found on what was called the "Fort Lot," two miles to the westward, near Oran, Onondaga County. This family may have been driven from here at last by some invading foe,3 or perhaps they abandoned their fortifications (which the Indians invariably erected around their villages,) for some more congenial spot.

    The antiquities of Fort Lot are graphically described in a letter written in 1845, by J. H. V. Clark of Manlius, N.Y., to Mr. Schoolcraft, and published in "Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois," from which the following extract is made:

    "A locality in the town of Cazenovia, Madison Co., N.Y., near the county line, and on Lot33, township of Pompey, Onondaga Co., is called the "Indian Fort." * * * * It is about four miles southeasterly from Manlius village, situated on a slight eminence, which is nearly surrounded by a deep ravine, the banks of which are quite steep and somewhat rocky. The ravine is in shape like an ox bow, made by two streams which pass nearly around it and unite. Across this bow at the opening was an earthen wall running southeast and northwest, and when first noticed by the early settlers was four or five feet high, straight, with something of a ditch in front, from two to three feet deep. Within this enclosure may be about ten or twelve acres of land. A part of this land when first occup9ied in these latter times was called 'the Prairie,' and is noted now among the old men as the place where the first battalion training was held in the County of Onondaga. But that portion near the wall and in front of it, has recently, say five years ago (1840), been cleared of a heavy growth of black oak timber. Many of the trees were large, and were probably 150 or 200 years old. Some were standing in the ditch and others on the top of the embankment. There is a considerable burying place within the enclosure. The plow has already done much toward leveling the wall and ditch, still they can easily be traced the whole extent. A few more plowings and harrowings and no vestige of them will remain."

    Mr. Clark picked up specimens of dark brown pottery. He adds that "every variety of Indian relic has been found there." One fact which has come to the knowledge of the author may be mentioned. Two cannon balls, of about three pounds each, were found in this vicinity, apparently long imbedded in the earth, indicating that light cannon may have been used, either for defense or in the reduction of this fortification, or both. Mr. Clark says further:

    "There is a large rock in the ravine on the south, on which are inscribed the following characters-thus: IIIIIX, cut three-fourths of an inch broad, nine inches long, three-fourths of an inch deep, perfectly regular, lines straight. Whether this is a work of fancy, or of significance, is not known. * * * * There is a singular coincidence in the location of these fortifications. * * * * They are nearly if not quite all situated on land rather elevated above that which is immediately contiguous, and surrounded, or partly so, by deep ravines, so that these form a part of the fortifications themselves. At one of these, on the farm of David Williams, in Pompey, the banks on either side are found to contain bullets of lead, as if shot across at opposing forces. The space between them may be three or four rods, and the natural cutting twenty or twenty-five feet deep."

    However the facts may be, concerning these Indian settlements, the last of the race who were dwellers of these localities had disappeared before the advent of the white settlers in 1792, and all outward marks of their presence have since gradually faded; and did not the earth, as it is occasionally turned to the light by the furrow of the husbandman, yield a memento, oblivion would utterly cover every vestige of their past history.

    By the time the Government of New York State had become possessed of the lands of the Iroquois, the fame of their wonderful excellencies had winged its way to the crowded cities of Europe, and men of wealth and high standing caught the spirit of emigration. As soon as they were offered for sale, companies were formed to invest in these lands. In Amsterdam, Holland, one was formed called the "Holland Land Company," its object being to make establishments in the wilds of America. The names of the individuals forming this company were: Peter Stadnitski, Nicholas Van Staphorst, Peter Van Eeghen, Hendrick Vallenhoven, Aernout Van Beeftingh, Wolrave Van Heukelom, and who afterwards, with Jacob Van Staphorst, Christian Van Eeghen, Isaac Ten Cate, Christiana Coster, widow of Peter Stadnitski, and Jan Stadnitski, citizens of Netherlands, were the original Holland land owners. Theophilus Cazenove was their first general agent to America. He took up his residence in Philadelphia, and through him the celebrated "Holland Purchase" of the Genesee country was obtained.

    Under the patronage of Peter Stadnitski, who while living was the President of the Holland Company, John Lincklaen of Amsterdam, was sent into the United States to explore the new countries, and to make a purchase of a tract of land if he should find an advantageous situation. Accordingly he arrived in Philadelphia in the year 1790, bearing letters of instruction to Theophilus Cazenove. Inspired with zeal for his mission, Mr. Lincklaen, in the month of September, 1792, having completed his preparations for a tour in the wilderness, employed two hardy woodsmen to accompany him, and immediately set out, directing his course by the southern route through Scoharie to the Chenango Twenty Towns; his object being to explore them and the Gore, --- contemplating the purchase of the latter and some one of the Twenty Towns.

    During his journey, Mr. Lincklaen kept a journal, which has been preserved by his family (having been translated from the French in which it was originally written), in which we trace his journeyings through the pathless forest, and note in his progress his stopping at Hovey's,4 at Oxford, from whence the road was being opened to Cayuga Lake. He states that the "surveyors employed by Hovey are Nathaniel Locke, of Westchester County, and Walter Sabin, who lives on the Susquehanna, near Mercereau's. Each surveyor has with him five men, viz: two chainmen, two markmen, and one to carry provisions. The surveyor, when running the outlines, has $2 per day, and when telling out, $1.50. Each man that goes in the woods, carries provisions for a fortnight or twenty days. Sabin runs commonly five or six miles a day, Locke eight or ten miles a day. Locke's hands have $10 a month, Sabin's only $8." Here Mr. Lincklaen employed one of Hovey's men, when the party of four started on their westerly route. During the few subsequent days, the party, by zigzag marches, traversed several of the southern-most of the Twenty Townships, Mr. Lincklaen making his observations of the soil, its productions, and the climate as far as indications could aid him, with discrimination, noting particular locations with accuracy, entering in his journal the names of the original purchasers of tracts in the sections he passed through which were already sold, and adding thereto many statements which to the seeker after historical facts are regarded as especially interesting. On Monday, the 8th of October, the east line of the Gore was reached, from whence Mr. Lincklaen's course was mainly directed to the northward, exploring thoroughly this, and the townships bordering on the east. With Road Township (the Gore), its handsome valleys and streams, its land of excellent quality, its noble timber, he pronounced himself well pleased.

    Mr. Lincklaen's journal tells us that on the afternoon of Thursday, October 11, 1792, he arrived at the foot of the beautiful lake in Cazenovia, where the party encamped for the night. As the result of a reconnoitre he wrote: "The situation is superb, and the lands are beautiful." The record continues: "Friday the 12th --- We journeyed from the lake north and east to the Genesee road, through lands both good and bad, the timber chiefly oak and poplar. We came to Canaseraga Creek, where five German families are settled; they are poor. On the other side of the creek is the Indian settlement. We went to the house of John Denny; there was no bread, no meat."5 John Denny was a tavern keeper among the Oneidas.

    Directing his next course through the northern tier of the Twenty Towns, he passed through Sherburne, Chenango County, where he found on Mr. Guthrie, who had been there three or four months; thence passed through a corner of Otsego County, and there tarried a second month Louis DeVilliers,6 on Aldrich Creek, town of Morris. From this place he set out upon his return journey to Philadelphia via New York, where he arrived after a month's absence, the object of his tour satisfactorily accomplished. Mr. Cazenove was well pleased with his report, and greatly admired the spirit of his enterprising young friend, and the perseverance which enabled one accustomed to the elegancies and luxuries of life to endure a protracted tour in the wilderness, with the tent for his lodging place, and bread and pork for his fare. As a result of Mr. Lincklaen's explorations, the Holland Company purchased Road Township and No. I of the Twenty towns, (Nelson) the latter containing 20,000 acres of land, which, added to the former, comprised a territory of 120,000 acres, and extended over the present towns of German, Pitcher and Lincklaen, in Chenango County, and DeRuyter, Nelson, and the southern part of Cazenovia in Madison County. Mr. Lincklaen was appointed agent, with an interest in the purchase, to settle these lands. The northern part of Cazenovia was then a part of the Oneida Reservations, and subsequently a portion of Peter Smith's tract.7

    During the winter of 1793, Mr. Samuel S. Foreman, to whose narrative we are indebted for much of the material for this portion of Cazenovia's history, became acquainted with Mr. Cazenove and Mr. Lincklaen in Philadelphia, and by them was appointed clerk to accompany the latter into the backwoods, to commence the new settlement. By appointment, Mr. Foreman met Mr. Lincklaen in New York, in April, 1793, where a large assortment of goods, comprising all articles necessary for a settlement, were purchased. From here the merchandize was taken up the North River and the Mohawk to Old Fort Schuyler (Utica), and left in the care of John Post, the only merchant then in that place; Mr. Foreman forwarding only one load to Cazenovia on the first journey out. From here, with the three Jerseymen, --- John Wilson, carpenter, Michael Day, mason, James Smith, teamster, --- whom Mr. Lincklaen brought with him, having engaged their services for a year, and two waiters, Philip Jacob Swartz, and a large German whose name is forgotten, together with seven more employed for the expedition, whose names were: James Green, David Fay, Stephen F. Blackstone, Philemon Tuttle, David Freeborn, Gideon Freeborn and Asa C. Towns, all started to the westward on the newly opened Genesee Road. A few days' provisions were in each knapsack, each axman with his ax on his shoulder, and a yoke of oxen and a cart loaded with provisions for both man and beast, together with all implements of husbandry and for domestic use which their primitive beginning would require, made up the cavalcade.

    The first day they proceeded as far as Wemple's tavern, Oneida Castle; the next day reached Canaseraga and put up at the tavern of John Denny, a half-breed Indian, who had been a Captain in the Revolution, and spoke good English. The third day the company continued on the Genesee Road as far as Chittenango, where they left it, turning to the south and following the Indian path up the crooked course of the creek, the axmen being obliged to widen the way for the passage of the cart. It was ascertained, through the difficulty of ascending the hills, that another yoke of oxen was needed, and forthwith a man was dispatched to Utica to obtain them. With perseverance, however, the next hilltop was gained with the one pair by the time night set in, and preparations were speedily entered upon for an encampment. A huge fire was soon kindled, and the group of stalwart men, cheerful and respectful in the presence of their leader, though sadly wearied, presented what would now seem in that place an unique spectacle, as they moved about in the wavering glow of the camp fire. Forth from the knapsacks now came the pork and beans; and slicing away with their jack knives, a majority of the men proceeded to make a meal. A few, appreciating the Indian mode of cooking meat for the more delicate appetite, placed their pork upon the nicely-sharpened end of a long stick, and stood patiently roasting it in the fire, while others ate heartily of raw pork and bread sandwiched; all enjoyed their repast with zest. Tired and sleepy, at last the men arranged their blanket couch upon the earth, the fire at their feet, the trunk of a fallen tree at their head, and, it may be inferred, soon sank into profound sleep --- dreamless, possibly, unless the bright eyes and rosy lips of some buxom German lass, seen during the journey, may have haunted the slumbers of some one of them; or, quite as likely, the faint outlines of an unrolled panorama of the land they were just now entering to take possession, exhibiting the wondrous destiny of its future, to be consummated through the instrumentality of those unconscious sleepers, may have lingered in the oblivious moments of that portion of them whose aspiring natures, when in full consciousness, were prone to part asunder the mists, and behold the possibilities of the far future. However, with the night, fled dreams, if they had them, and all were soon wide awake for the yet-to-be-surmounted obstacles of the present. After a breakfast of bread and pork, Mr. Lincklaen and Mr. Foreman, anxious to complete the journey, started on ahead, leaving the men to follow as soon as they were ready. They kept the Indian path with their one horse (the other being taken by the man who went for the extra pair of oxen), following the custom of "ride and tie," --- that is, one rides a distance, and when considerable in advance of his comrade, dismounts and fastens the horse to a sapling, leaving it for the other to mount when he reaches it, while the former walks on and is overtaken and passed by the latter, who in turn dismounts and walks on; thus alternating to the end of a journey.

    On arriving at the outlet of the lake, they discovered a bark cabin, and some signs of the proximity of white men. There was here a little prairie, called in those days an "Indian opening," upon which Mr. Lincklaen turned loose his faithful horse, "Captain," placed his saddle, bridle, and portmanteau in the hut, and then with his companion strolled about to view the location. He was delighted with the prospect; waking visions of a brilliant future he surely beheld now. "Here," he says, "I pitch my tent; here I build my village." As night drew nigh, three strangers approached the cabin, who, after the usual salutations were passed, were found to be Joseph Atwell, Charles Roe and --- Bartholomew, from Pompey Hollow. They were here improving the advantages of a fishing weir, which the Indians had constructed at the outlet of the lake. When these new comers displayed their supper, discovering that our pioneers could not follow suit, they kindly invited them to join in the repast, which consisted of the inevitable bread and pork, and most cordially was the offer accepted.

    There were many misgivings as to the delay of the men with the supply car, for whom they had been anxiously looking some hours; but not arriving, the two prepared for a less auspicious repose than even that of the preceding night. In the weather-beaten hut, with one saddle between them for a pillow, and guarded by their watchful mastiff "Lion," --"Captain" still feeding on the prairie near by, --- John Lincklaen and Samuel S. Foreman slept that night in the future village of Cazenovia. When morning came, no tidings of the men had reached them, and Mr. Lincklaen started back early in quest of the party. About ten o'clock Mr. Foreman concluded to follow, and accordingly saddled the horse and placed the portmanteau thereon, which, though it contained $500 in silver, could not procure him the wherewith to satisfy his hunger. On his way he met Jedediah Jackson and Joseph Yaw, two commissioners sent by a Company in Vermont, to "spy out the land" in Township No. I. They had met Mr. Lincklaen, who referred them to Mr. Foreman to direct them to Nelson. This service rendered, he passed on, and at two o'clock he met Swartz with a budget of food, which greatly rejoiced his physical man. From Swartz he learned that the cart had broken down not far from where they had been left the morning before. Repairs had been made, and with slow progress the party were on their way. With care and painstaking they moved down the uneven slope to the lake; and on the afternoon of the 8th day of May, 1793, this little company stopped and pitched their tents a little west of a small ravine, nearly opposite the residence of the late Ledyard Lincklaen, at the south end of the lake.

    One of the two tents was fitted up for the convenience of Messrs. Lincklaen and Foreman, the other appropriated to the use of the hired men; and then plans were laid for the construction of houses. Two log structures were soon built; one for a dwelling house and store, the other for the hired people. They stood on the south shore of the lake, in what was then the white oak grove, but now one no longer. The aged trees have fallen one by one, till only a single tree is standing, and that bears the marks of decay, sadly reminding us of the grandeur of its fellows. For their noble beauty and lofty bearing; for their grateful shade in summer heat; for the many memories clustering about them, these oaks were held in sacred reverence by the members of Mr. Lincklaen's household, and by them have their broken limbs and shattered trunks been fashioned into various artistically finished articles for use and adornment, which grace their long cherished home.

    "During the two or three weeks subsequent to their arrival, the company managed admirable in household matters without feminine assistance, by having their washing and baking done at Jacob Schuyler's, a German living at Chittenango; nevertheless, one evening about sunset, on being told that a woman on horseback was approaching the settlement, all ran out with haste to witness the strange sight; and pleasanter indeed the rough cabins looked when afterwards graced by the presence of woman. This lady was a Mrs. Dumont, who with her husband came to view the place, and then passed on to Cayuga Lake.

    Mr. Lincklaen had advertised extensively by hand-bills, that he opened these lands for sale on a credit of ten years, with only $10 down on each lot, and interest on the balance to be paid annually, with a further condition of clearing ten acres and building a log dwelling on each lot. Nathaniel Locke was employed to survey these lands, which were to be laid out in lots of one hundred acres each. Mr. Lincklaen also advertised that the first ten families should have one hundred acres at $1 per acre. This proposal brought on that number quite unexpectedly, from between Utica and Cazenovia. Some enterprising young people it was said, abbreviated their courtship in order to avail themselves of this offer. The first families came without having first viewed the land or prepared a residence, and the workmen who occupied the large tent generously vacated it for their use in common, and went themselves to live in a log house partly finished. The names of the heads of some of these families were: Archibald Bates, Noah Taylor, Benjamin Pierson, Anson Deane, William Gillett and Isaac Nichols. Mrs. Noah Taylor was the first white woman who came to live in Cazenovia. The first birth was a child of Isaac Nichols, --- his eldest daughter, Milison, --- born at his house on the east bank of Cazenovia Lake, August 8th, 1793. The second child (born in 1794,) was a child of Noah Taylor.

    As the settlers increased, many desiring large farms, represented to Mr. Lincklaen that a hundred acres was not enough for a farm, and wished he would run out the land into one hundred and fifty acre lots. This was complied with after reserving two miles across the north end of Road Township. This reservations was afterwards run out into smaller lots of from ten to fifty or sixty acres, for the benefit of the future village."

    Road Township was now divided, forming four towns, which Mr. Lincklaen named as follows: First, Road Township, to perpetuate the original name. This town extended from the north line of the reservation (center of Seminary street), southward a distance, to include four tiers of lots in the present town of DeRuyter; Second, Tromp Township; after Admiral Von Tromp, renowned in the history of the Dutch Navy, for whom this loyal lover of noble men entertained a profound veneration. This Township embraced the remainder of the present town of DeRuyter and six and a half tiers of lots in Lincklaen; Third, DeRuyter, named in honor of another famous Dutch Naval officer, Admiral DeRuyter.8 This township embraced the south six tiers of lots in Lincklaen, and the town of Pitcher minus the south three tiers of lots. Fourth, Brackel Township, named from Admiral Brackel, --- also of the Dutch Navy, --- which embraced the southern three tiers of lots in Pitcher and all of the present town of German. As an Act of the Legislature required a certain amount of population to organize a new town, Cazenovia required a wide territory, to embrace a sufficient number, when it was formed in 1795; consequently these first names, given by the proprietor, were dropped after a time, for the first town of Cazenovia included all their territory. In the subsequent division of towns, Cazenovia embraced Road Township; the name of DeRuyter was transferred to Tromp Township; Lincklaen to the original DeRuyter, and German was substituted for Brackel.

    "After the first ten families had received their lands, the price was established at $1.50 per acre. So rapid were the sales, settlers even followed the surveyors. As soon as two sides of a lot were ascertained, they would take down the number and hasten to the office to have it booked; and often a person had to name several lots before he could get one that had not been engaged a few moments before him. At last the press became so great, that it became necessary to suspend the sales for a few days, for fear of mistakes.

    A road was opened the whole extent of the purchase, which passed through New Woodstock, Sheds Corners, DeRuyter and the southern towns, to facilitate the opening of the whole for settlement. A branch office was opened in connection with a store, twenty-six miles south of Cazenovia, under the care of Adonijah Schuyler, one of the Cazenovia clerks, and Mr. Lincklaen caused the first mills in that section to be built on the Otselic Creek.

    A portion of the location for the future village lay, as we have seen, in the New Petersburgh tract. In negotiations with Peter Smith, the desired amount of land to complete the village site was obtained; and at the north end of Road Township on the east side of the lake, on a point of land bounded on three sides by the lake and its outlet (which soon after its disemboguement takes a northerly direction and runs parallel with the east shore of the lake), the village of Cazenovia was laid out. This was in the summer of 1794. Calvin Guitteau was the person employed to make the survey.

    The first sales of village lots were at $5 per acre, with certain conditions to improve by building. The Company built a large, elegant frame house, about fifty feet square and two stories high, and covered the roof with sheet lead; but after a few years this was taken off, probably because it could not be made tight. This house took fire twice. The second time it was destroyed, with a large quantity of elegant furniture. The site was afterwards purchased by Perry G. Childs, Esq., who built upon it. It is now the location of the residence of Sidney T. Fairchild.

    The latter part of this summer, 1794, a number of Hollanders came to the settlement on their way to the Holland Purchase. They were Mr. Rossetta (a brother-in-law of Mr. Cazenove), Col. Mappa, Mr. Boon, Mr. Heudekooper, and perhaps some others. Mr. Lincklaen accompanied them on their journey. While they were absent Mr. William Morris came, on his return from the Holland Company's purchase in the western part of the State. While he was staying to rest himself at the Road Township, he was taken sick with what was termed the 'lake fever,' and was for a few days very ill. The country did not afford very skillful physicians at that time, but by the aid of 'Buchan's Family Physician' and good nursing, he recovered. While in a state of convalescence the subject of the name of the contemplated village was canvassed; Mr. Lincklaen had wished to call it Hamilton, as he was a great admirer of Gen. Alexander Hamilton's character; but the settlers in one of the adjoining townships adopted that name for their settlement before a decision was arrived at, so it was dropped. On Mr. Lincklaen's return, Mr. Morris told him they had found a good name for the village; that they called it Cazenovia, in honor of their respected mutual friend, Theophilus Cazenove. This was cordially approved, and so it was established."

    The lake also was named, and in honor of John Lincklaen. On all the early maps the lake bore no other name than "Lincklaen's Lake." In later years, when the village had grown into some importance, it gradually came to be known as "Cazenovia Lake," and more recently the aboriginal name, "Owahgena," has become quite generally adopted by use.

    The first ten acre job, of clearing the heavy timbered land, was taken by James Green and David Fay, next to the Cazenove lot on the west side of the lake, on the original Tillotson farm, now owned by Mr. A. Blodgett. The price was $10 per acre with board, and six cents per bushel for ashes cribbed on the job. Wages were then $8 per month and board.

    In speaking of the settlers of this purchase, Maj. Forman says: "be it said to their credit, I believe there was but one person who took up a lot of land during the first four years, while I continued in office, who could not write his name."

    The Vermonters had made arrangements to take up their farms in township No. I, (Nelson) before that town should be offered for sale, as their company was large and they wished to settle near each other. By the time the Vermont Company had arrived, however, the whole township was surveyed into lots of one hundred and fifty acres each, Mr. Lincklaen having pushed forward the work. Jackson and Yaw, the committee sent out to explore, and some of the hired men of Mr. Lincklaen's company, were a part of the settlers of this township.

    At this period game was plenty; small droves of deer were frequently seen; there were a few otters and an occasional beaver, and bears were often met with. To these pioneers from long established and cultivated homes in town and city, the sports of the chase were exciting; but an encounter with a veritable black bear was an adventure to move one deeper. The following is related in Foreman's narrative:

    "One winter a Mr. Walthers (a respectable European German in the Company's service, ) and myself were viewing a lot of land which we had bought on the west side of the lake, afterwards called Cazenove lot. As we walked along, our dogs gave alarm of game. We hurried to the spot, and coming up to a very large hollow tree, we encouraged the dogs to attack whatsoever was concealed within it. Presently a little terrier dog was drawn almost within the body of the tree, in a small hole near the ground. In order to rescue him we thrust a stick in through another hole, which the animal seized and held fast till we pulled his nose out of the tree; but what creature it was we knew not. The dog ran home bleeding. We got a large pole and run the butt end into the hole, and Walthers held fast the other end as a lever, while I ran to the farm house to get a gun and some hands with axes to engage in the combat. When I returned with the reinforcements, I found Mr. Walthers as I had left him, grasping the lever, and anxious to be relieved from his state of incertitude. Our first business was to secure the hole by driving down large stakes interlocked with logs; then cut three windows in the body of the tree about four feet high and seven or eight inches in diameter, so that we could have a fair view of the animal; and we now discovered it to be what we had expected, a large bear. A discharge from the gun wounded it, when it became raving mad. It raised its huge paws upon its prison wall, put its nose out, gnashed its teeth and frothed at the mouth, and its eyes bespoke retaliation if it was set at liberty. The gun was loaded and fired a second time, producing only a wound. As we were perfectly safe we paused awhile to view how awful its angry looks and actions were. A third discharge from the gun proved fatal and poor Bruin fell lifeless. Our next business was to cut one of those windows large enough to get it out of the tree. We had three or four men from the farm, and after being satisfied that life was extinct, some of them entered the winter quarters of the animal, and after some heavy lifting, our game was landed out of its stronghold. It was conveyed to the village on a hand sled, across the lake, and when dressed, the four quarters were found to weigh (if I recollect right) four hundred pounds. It was a female with young of two cubs. The skin was very black and finely covered. The meat I gave to the men, and four dollars for the skin. This afforded them fine feasting and pleasure.

    "Another time, when the jobbers set fire to their cleaning by the swamp, near where Mr. Lincklaen built his last house, the fire drove a large bear out, which passed through the village and cleared himself, as no one was prepared to follow. At another time a man passed a large bear and her cub, about half a mile up the lake road. He came to the store and gave information, and we mustered a dozen men and went in pursuit. They had ascended a large leaning oak. We had but one gun and no balls, nothing but slug and shot; but such as we had we gave several charges, she all at once descended to a crotch in the tree, about twelve or fifteen feet from the ground, and putting her head between her fore legs, threw herself off. As soon as she touched the ground, as many as could stand around fell upon her with clubs and other weapons, so that she never rose to her feet. Having disposed of the dam, our next move was to get little Bruin, who by this time had ascended as high as he could get, where the limbs would bear him. We commenced firing shot at the little creature; every time it was fired at, it would wipe its face with its paws; at last one shot proved fatal, and brought it to the ground. It was about half as large as a midling-sized dog.

    "At another time, on Togwattle Hill, (Tog Hill) as it was called, in Nelson, about five miles from Cazenovia, east, a woman was washing out of doors by her house, her husband being off at work, and her child sitting near by her, a bear came close up to her and reared upon his hinder feet. She, as may well be conjectured, not liking his appearance, caught up her child, ran into the house, and instead of inviting her guest in, fastened the door against him. These brutes are so bold, that they have been known to come in the night and try to get into the hog pens, built near the log dwellings, the inmates of which, having been alarmed by the noise, have got up and made war upon them. These little incidents seem small to an indifferent person; but they created great interest at the time, and relieved the monotony of backwoods life. The recital of them serves to show that the settlement of a wilderness is attended with difficulties and dangers in various ways."

    Wolves were more prevalent than bears, and to rid the country of these enemies of the flocks, the town in 1804, voted to give a bounty of twenty dollars for each wolf killed the ensuing year by any inhabitant of the town.

    Among the earliest settlers of the town in 1793, besides those already named, were Archibald Bates, William Mills, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubal Brooks, and others named -----Tyler and ----- Augur. David and Jonathan Smith and Charleville Webber, came about the same time and were the first settlers of New Woodstock. William Sims and Isaac Moss came soon after.

    The first saw mill and grist mill were built by John Lincklaen in 1794. The grist mill was located on the Chittenango Creek, perhaps a quarter of a mile above where it unites with the outlet of the lake, --just below the steep bank at the corner of the garden, contiguous to the residence of General J. D. Ledyard; the mill pond overflowed all that low meadow south of his house. This mill the company sold to Dr. Jonas Fay, and it was, not long after, burned down, together with a distillery and brewery. Afterwards a better site was discovered below the junction just named, where the present mills (in 1870,) owned by Parson & Chaphe now stand.

    Judutha Perkins came to Cazenovia before 1800, and settled south of the village in what was called, from him, the "Perkins District." Near him the well-remembered Perkins schoolhouse was built, in which the early religious meetings of the Baptist Church of Cazenovia village were held. Mr. Perkins and his family were prominent and influential people, and did much towards building up good society.

    A Mr. Stanley was one of the pioneers of 1794; he came in with his family from Hartford, Conn. His son Lewis Stanley, who came with him, was a farmer, and located near the village, where he lived till his death in 1857, aged 76 years. The latter was prominent in the M. E. Church; he did much towards founding it and promoting its growth and prosperity. He was also deeply interested in the success of the Seminary.

    Walter Childs, from Woodstock, Conn., came in 1798; he was one of the substantial farmers of this locality, and reared a family, members of which still reside in town.

    Among the first inhabitants of the town after 1800, was Caleb Van Riper, who arrived in 1801, and settled at the head of the lake. He built perhaps the second tannery in town, on the stream that crosses lot No. 34, now owned by William B. Downer; it stood about forty rods from the lake. A sawmill was also built here at a later date, but both tannery and mill have disappeared, except perhaps some ruins of the foundation and dyke of the saw mill.

    Phineas Southwell came, in 1802, from Boonville, Oneida County, but formerly from Massachusetts. Edward Parker came the same year; both settled at the head of the lake, and bought large farms. The land purchased by Southwell was, apparently, that which had been tilled by the Indians, as some fifteen acres of it bore evidences of having been cultivated but a few years previous. The large timber had been removed, and a low undergrowth encumbered the ground; the soil was black, quite likely from annual burnings. Upon this farm --- Lot No.32, School District No. 5 --- were found many relics referred to in preceding pages; and G. R. Southwell, son of Phineas, who now owns the farm, has many of these curiosities in his possession. During the elder Southwell's first years of residence here, the Indians frequently came over the lake in their birch-bark canoes to fish, and perhaps hunt deer, which, as has been seen, were plenty.

    Christopher Webb moved from Canterbury, Windham County, Conn., in 1805, and settled on Lot No. 29. Martin L. Webb, son of Christopher, came at the same time, and settled here also, and for many years was a teacher in Cazenovia.

    Edward Parker built the first frame house in this vicinity (head of the lake,) about 1802. It was with difficulty that he could obtain sawed lumber, but so great was his repugnance to living in a log house, he mastered all difficulties, so that when he commenced housekeeping, it was as he desired, in a framed and boarded house, instead of a log one.

    The first town meeting in Cazenovia was held in April, 1795, at John Lincklaen's house. At this meeting John Lincklaen was chosen supervisor, and Elijah Risley9 town clerk.

    In 1798, when Chenango County was formed, the town of DeRuyter, which embraced all the southern part of the original Road Township, was taken off. In 1800 the town, still embracing Sullivan, Lenox, Smithfield, Nelson and Fenner, had a population of 1,973.

    In 1803, the census of Cazenovia village was taken, with the names of the heads of families, their occupations, and number of persons in each household, as follows: ---


	John Lincklaen					  6
	J. N. M. Hurd, store keeper and postmaster	  7
	S. S. Breese, lawyer				  4
	Hiram Roberts, blacksmith and tavern keeper	 17
	Isaac Lyman, doctor				  4
	Wm. Whipple, carpenter and constable		  4
	Moses Phillips, brickmaker			  4
	Roberts & Hill, carpenters			  6
	Elisha Farnham, tanner and shoemaker		  7
	Eliakim Roberts, store keeper			  9
	Horace Paddock, blacksmith			  3
	Ebenezer Johnson, tavern keeper			 10
	William Kyle, clerk				  4	
	Jonathan Foreman, storekeeper			  9
	Samuel Ashard, miller				  6
						        ---
			Total inhabitants		100

    The population of the whole of the original Road Township at the same date, including the village, was 1,164.

    Several of the heads of families just named, as well as some of those mentioned as the pioneers of '93, were men of ability and influence in the councils, and at other important posts in the new country.

    Samuel Sidney Breese was the first clerk of Chenango County, 1798, and was a member of the Convention of 1821. Jonathan Foreman was elected Member of Assembly from Chenango County, in 1800 and 1801. J. N. M. Hurd was county clerk in 1815, and served till 1821. James Green, one of the pioneers of '93, was at one time a member of the Legislature. Stephen F. Blackstone, another of that company, was a member of the Legislature in 1814.

    Jeremiah Whipple, also an early settler, and for many years a first-class hotel keeper in the village, was the first sheriff of Madison County, appointed in 1806, continuing in office till 1810, and was called to act again in the same capacity in 1811, serving till 1814.

    William Sims was a pioneer of 1793; he took up a farm south of Cazenovia village, where he spent three score and ten years of his life. He possessed wealth, was a man of influence, and contributed largely to the enterprises of his adopted town.

    Henrick DeClercq, a native of Amsterdam, Holland, came to Cazenovia in 1800. His wife, Mary, whose maiden family name was Ledyard, came to this town on horseback, from Connecticut, in the year 1798. Her father, G. S. Ledyard, with his relative and namesake, Col. Ledyard, was killed at Groton, in the massacre of Fort Griswold, in the Revolution. The DeClercqs became an established and permanent family of Cazenovia.

    Capt. E. S. Jackson was an early settler and wealthy. In all that pertained to the interests and welfare of the new country, Capt. Jackson's good judgment was solicited, and his ever ready generosity assisted.

    Perry G. Childs located in Cazenovia before 1806. His name is closely identified with the several interests of the town, as will be seen in the current history of her earlier enterprises. His wealth was generously used for the public good. He was repeatedly honored with official positions in town, County and State.

    Charles Stebbins settled here before 1810. He and his family after him have worthily held a commanding influence through all the changes from the early days to the present time. Town, County and State official honors have descended from father to sons; their names are often and honorably recorded.

    Elihu Severance also came to this town previous to 1810. Members of his family still reside here.

    Jacob Ten Eyck came about 1800. He acquired wealth and used it generously to forward the enterprises of Cazenovia, not a little of it being devoted to perfecting the beauty of the village environs. The same spirit of generosity, in the aid of progress generally, animates the different members of his family.

    B. T. Clarke came to Cazenovia in 1812, being a soldier in the war at that time. Mr. Clarke has been and still is one of the active men of the village in improvements and enterprises. He has retired from the mercantile business, which he pursued for many years at the corner of Albany and Mill streets.

    William M. Burr came prior to 1810. His, became another of the prominent and substantial families of the village. At an early day Cazenovia gained a high reputation as a mercantile center, and to such men as the Burrs, Ten Eycks, Clarkes and others, this reputations is due.

    J. D. Ledyard, youngest brother of Mrs. John Lincklaen and adopted son of Mr. Lincklaen, was reared in Cazenovia and has spent the most of the years of his long life, (aged seventy-eight in 1871,) in this town. Mr. Ledyard has been identified with nearly all the progressive changes of this town. As will be seen, his name and the names of his sons are not to be separated from Cazenovia's history. Having charge of the Holland Land Company's office, as successor of Mr. Lincklaen, since 1820, his business was large and his influence extensive. He still resides near the foot of the Lake in a dwelling built by himself in 1825, which, with the homes of his sons, all commanding fine views of fair Owahgena, render attractive that part of the village which was first occupied by civilization.

    The wealth of Cazenovia, generously yet judiciously invested, has brought its legitimate and ample returns; it has been and still is used, not for selfish ends, but to beautify and adorn, to elevate and purify country life.

---------

    In the year 1803, February 22d, a Legislative act was passed, in which the broad territory of Cazenovia was again made less by the organization of the town of Sullivan, a most expansive township, including the present towns of Sullivan, Lenox, and a part of Stockbridge.

    After this last change in the town limits, the next town meeting in Cazenovia of which a record has been kept, was held at the house of Capt. Ebenezer Johnson, in the village, in the year 1804. Luther Waterman was Moderator. James Green was elected Supervisor; Eliphalet Jackson, Town Clerk and Elisha Williams, Collector. Among other enactments, the meeting voted to refund to Lemuel Kingsbury the sum of $6.18 for "bad taxes." The following was also voted: "That members of this meeting may wear their hats while attending said meeting;" --- and to give value to this permission, and for the accommodation of the people, the meeting then adjourned to the Common. The constables were directed to procure sufficient bail, and seven pound masters were elected to enforce the following resolution, viz: "That hogs shall be shut up." Twenty dollars of town fund was delivered to the town clerk to procure books for the use of the town, and he was instructed to "draft off such of the old books as he shall think necessary." It does not appear that this officer deemed it "necessary" to copy any part, as it was not done, and the loss of the first book is irreparable. The town was divided into sixty-eight road districts.

    To unite the inhabitants of the more northern portions of the county, which were earliest settled, to make easy their communication with eastern friends, and to facilitate their market journeyings, the "Cazenovia and Oneida Turnpike" was laid out at an early day; it extended from Cazenovia through Peterboro to Vernon. The necessities of the other towns, however, required for them a more direct communication with the outer world; and the "Third Great Western Turnpike," or the more familiar name of "Cherry Valley Turnpike," was the result of these needs. The enterprising prime movers in this grand scheme of constructing a good wagon road from Cherry Valley to Manlius, Onondaga county, through towns and counties of dense forests, over the most hilly country known outside of veritable mountainous districts, with no rich towns along the route to bond, or even to aid them by subscription, formed a company, went courageously into the work, obtained a charter and completed the grand enterprise by 1806. Cazenovia men were foremost in the great work, devoting their time and investing their capital without prospect of full compensations.

CAZENOVIA VILLAGE.

    This village was laid out in a regular, methodical manner. The public square was handsomely located in full view of the lake, and through it passed Albany street, laid broad and with mathematical regularity, with a view tot he future needs of a large village. In the vicinity of the square were erected some of the earliest and most prominent buildings, and upon its four corners were located the four stores of the early days, viz: the Roberts store, the Foreman store, that of J. N. M. Hurd, and the store of Jackson & Lyman, the latter on the northeast corner. The Robert's store on the southeast corner, now the "Lake House," was originally built of wood, but at a later date Mr. Roberts removed that, and rebuild of brick, where for a time he transacted mercantile business. In 1810, it was purchased by Jos. & Wm. M. Burr, who, like Jacob Ten Eyck, their neighbor and relative, established a large business. A few years since this building was converted into a hotel. The Foreman store, located on the southwest corner, was stocked by the Holland Company, and the first post office was kept there, at the private expense of Mr. Lincklaen, till its own revenue was sufficient to sustain it as a government office, when S. S. Breese was appointed postmaster by the P. O. Department. At the northwest corner was the well known store of J. N. M. Hurd, where in 1803, the post office was kept by him, and who held the commission for many years after.

    The first tavern of the village was situated on the location of Mrs. Roberts' present residence, and was kept by Ebenezer Johnson.

    Some really fine residences, and also the Presbyterian meeting house, were built previous to 1810, at which date the census gave Cazenovia village a population of 500 inhabitants, sixty-nine houses, five stores, one grain mill, one saw mill, two cloth-dressing establishments, two carding machines, two trip hammeries, two potasheries, two tanneries, one brewery and distillery, and a post-office.10 To this statement may be added one printing office. "The Pilot," established in 1808, by Oran E. Baker, was one of the popular and successful institutions of the village. From its time-honored pages may be learned, not so much by its local items, but in a great degree from its ancient advertisements, that manufacturers, mechanics and artizans were successfully pursuing their several trades. A woolen factory, where custom work of wool-carding and cloth-dressing was done, became the property of Matthew Chandler, having been purchased by him of its original proprietors, Elisha Starr & Co. The new tannery of Thomas Williams & Son, promises much prosperity to the importers of hemlock bark from the farming districts. There is a hat factory belonging to John Brevoort & Jere Allis; A. Hitchcock adds to his newly-opened store a stock of drugs and medicines; S. Foreman opens a book store; J. Gillett advertises as clock and watch maker; J. Kilbourn as tailor; W. Brown as painter and glazier; Mr. White's chair factory receives some notice, while Luther Bunnell's trip hammeries are known to be conducted with superior skill and enterprise. Thus is given in this old-time journal a glimpse of the industries of the village at and about 1810.

    One of the great institutions of this period was the military brigade, which had been formed in Madison County under the command of Gen. Jonathan Foreman, a former Colonel in the War of the Revolution; and for the use of the militia when their headquarters were made in Cazenovia, a fine parade ground was laid out about 1810, in the northern part of the village.

    The Cherry Valley Turnpike brought Cazenovia into special notice, and placed it on an equal footing with towns of established reputation further east; and no village in the county had greater consequence and influence than this. From the time of the formation of the county to this date, (1810) it had been looked upon as a suitable location for the county seat of the Courts of Justice, and had become so temporarily; consequently, the first criminal punished for murder in Madison County, was executed here. This one was Hitchcock, the wife poisoner, who had been confined in Whitestown jail, and was tried (in 1807) at a court held in Judge Smalley's barn, in the town of Sullivan, whence he was taken to Cazenovia and hung. The gallows was erected about a half mile east of the village, on the farm now owned by Cyrus Parsons, near where his dwelling now stands. Jeremiah Whipple was sheriff.

    The county seat proper, was located here in 1810, --- not, however, without some opposition from rival towns. Col. John Lincklaen and Capt. Eliphalet Jackson were appointed to superintend the building of the courthouse. A fine brick building was erected at a cost of upwards of $4,000, on the site where the seminary is located, and is now a part of the latter edifice, having been, on the removal of the county seat to Morrisville, purchased by the Methodist Society for a church, and finally used by the Oneida Conference as their seminary. The characteristic style of architecture belonging to the old courthouse, readily distinguishes that part of the structure as it now stands, but it is in no wise inferior in appearance to that which has been added to it. The first courts were held here in 1812.

    Cazenovia was the first village incorporated in Madison County, the date of the act, giving it a corporate identity, being February 7th, 1810. The first village officers, elected the May following, were: --- Jonas Fay, President; Perry G. Childs, Elisha Farnham, Eliphalet S. Jackson and Samuel Thomas, Trustees. With her industries all flourishing and her prosperity promoted in every direction, Cazenovia village gradually increased. The Baptist and Methodist Churches were soon established; and although the county seat was removed in 1817 to Morrisville, an institution of learning grew up in its place, which exerted a beneficent influence upon the interests of community.

    From 1830 to '35, here, as in all sections of Central New York, there seemed to have been given a new impetus to all departments of business; the manufacturers and merchants invested heavier and expanded their trade; many farmers, having relieved themselves from debt and accumulated snug competencies for declining years, yielding to the impulse for improvement, now came forward and invested in village homes. During this period, several of the old and substantial blocks, now to be seen on Albany street, were built. All those handsome cut stone buildings, then the style in the eastern cities, were erected at this period, which gave Cazenovia an enviable reputation for its beauty.

   I n 1840, the census states that this village contained 1,600 inhabitants, 250 dwelling houses, one Presbyterian, one Baptist, one congregational and one Methodist Church, three taverns, ten stores, two printing offices, one bank, the Oneida Conference Seminary, one woolen factory, one grist mill, one saw mill, one machine shop and iron foundry, one distillery, and one paper mill.

    The manufacturing facilities of the Chittenango, developed a new growth to the village along the course of the stream, where new streets were laid out and were rapidly built up. At all periods the village seems to have been making progress in some direction. Since 1850, large blocks have risen, and some of the most beautiful residences have been built. Within a few years marked progress has been made in building. Among the many changes, we designate the fair proportions of the Ten Eyck Block, built in 1871. An "item" clipped from the "Oneida Dispatch," of Aug. 16, 1872, tells us that "the Reymon store is almost complete. It will be an ornament to the place. The Burr block is approaching completion;" it is a building "that will not only be useful, but ornamental and beautifying to the locality." It also adds that a small steamboat named "Lottie," which is about thirty feet long, and will carry thirty or forty passengers, built by Mr. Charles Parmalee, has been launched upon the lake.

    The enterprise of Cazenovia in perfecting the beauty of her natural scenery, in developing the agricultural resources of the town, and in facilitating the means of commerce, is characteristic of its leading men. Its fair, sunny lake, with convenient boats for pleasure and for the sport of angling, --- for Owahgena is yet stored with her native yellow perch, and other families of the finny tribe, perhaps beyond what it was in the pristine days of the Iroquois,11 --- the delightful drives and beautiful walks among groves around the lake; the romantic road where the Chittenango rushes and splashes around great fragments of rock, and wild looking precipitous ledges overhang the swift flowing stream; where the atmosphere is aromatic with the breath of cedars, and where an adamantine road bed leads to the wild gorge of the Chittenango Falls; --- these attractions, and many others, have made this village a delightful summer resort for the nature-loving, pavement-weary dwellers of large cities, who, coming here, find the luxury of refined homes and cultivated society superadded to the attractions of nature.

    Agriculture has been encouraged and developed to a high degree; a tour through the town will corroborate this statement. Smooth meadows, well cultivated fields, cleanly kept woodlands, first-class farm buildings, and the evidences of wealth everywhere, on the hills as well as in the valleys, proclaim skilled training in agriculture. Machinery has superseded hand labor almost invariably. Now, the farmer's refined daughter, pining for an out-door frolic, or what is more in her praise, ready and willing to assist in a pressure of farm work, may don her sun hat and gloves, take her seat upon the "mower," and in a few hours perform the same work, which in the days "lang syne," required half a dozen strong men to do in the same time, bowed to the tedious labor of the scythe, with garments saturated with sweat, and backs blistering under the July sun. A comparison between ancient and modern farming, is frequently indulged in by those who can remember when the first furrow was turned in town with a Mohawk wheel-plow, on the lot belonging to David Schuyler, near the outlet of the lake.

    In reviewing works of enterprise for the public welfare, we find there are many instances of individual munificence which, we much regret, we are compelled to pass over. One instance, however, we record: --- Those stone fountains by the road side, --- one in Dist. No. 9, on the road to New Woodstock, one in Nelson, and one at the foot of the lake, --bearing the simple inscription "L. L."12 carved on each, will perpetuate the memory of one who, having wealth, expended it in this and many another noble benefaction. (Note c.)

MANUFACTURES.

    ICazenovia was noted for manufactures at a day when other towns were only making slow progress in agriculture.

    About 1810, Luther Bunnell's trip-hammeries did an extensive business, employing a number of workmen. Nehemiah White built a chair shop at a very early day, which was bought out by Ebenezer Knowlton, who also built an oil mill about 1815. Both of these were operated by Mr. Knowlton many years, had a good reputation, and drew trade from a wide circuit round about. Mr. Lincklaen and Mr. Starr built the first woolen mill in 1813. Starr was unsuccessful, owing to changes brought about by peace between the United States and Great Britain, and sold to Matthew Chandler & Son.13 This was the first woolen factory in Madison County. John Williams & Son purchased of Chandler in 1828, and manufactured woolen goods on a large scale for that day. This firm continued to increase and improve till about 1834, when the mill was burned. Mr. Williams was regarded as a model manufacturer. As a business man his character was above reproach. He subsequently, with others, built the Shelter Valley Mills.

    The Cazenovia Paper Mill was built by Zadoc Sweetland about 1810, on the Chittenango, within the limits of the corporation. For forty years Mr. Sweetland was gradually increasing his capital and enlarging his business. It eventually passed into the hands of his sons, under the firm name of "Sweetland Bros.," who at one period manufactured a ton per day of all kinds of paper. It was burned in 1859 or '60, and was rebuilt by them. The dam, furnishing the power, was carried away in the great spring flood of 1865, which also swept off almost every bridge and dam between Erieville and Oneida Lake. The property was then purchased by Henry Munroe, who rebuilt the dam and put all in good order. It was afterwards partially destroyed by fire, then rebuilt; then again overwhelmed by a conflagration which left little. It remains now (1871,) a ruin, but will probably ere long be again restored.

    The tannery of Dardis & Flanagan was built before 1830, by Rufus & R. G. Allen. For two score years, while the hemlock forests of the surrounding towns were melting away, this firm, with a large corps of employees, transacted business on an extensive scale. From the beginning to the present time it has been a prosperous concern, and valuable to the country around as a marketing point for the several raw materials it most required. It is situated on the Chittenango, some distance from the corporation.

    Before 1810, there was a small tannery in the east part of the village which was for many years owned by John Williams. Rufus Allen, before building his works in the Chittenango Valley, purchased this of Mr. Williams and carried on the business here.

    Cedar Grove Woolen Mill was built about 1837, by E. S. Jackson & Son. It was purchased by Henry Ten Eyck in 1850. Mr. Ten Eyck manufactured woolen tweeds. The mill had five sets of machinery, run by eighty hands. There were a number of dwelling houses, all occupied. The works were in fine order and paying well, when in 1852, the establishment was burned. Mr. Ten Eyck lost heavily and many people were thrown out of employment.

    Seven or eight years ago (in 1863 or '64), L. E. Swan built, on the grounds of the Cedar Grove Mill, a manufactory of binder's paper board, which is still in operation.

    Shelter Valley Woolen Mill was built in 1848, by the firm of Williams, Ledyard & Stebbins, of a capacity for three sets of woolen machinery. Tweeds were mostly manufactured here. With forty or fifty hands this mill turned off 2,500 yards per week. In 1869, the factory was burned. On the same site, Messrs. Williams & Stebbins are (1871) erecting a new mill on an improved plan, at a considerable outlay of capital.

    Fern Dell Sash, Blind and Door Factory, was built by Ledyard Lincklaen in 1851. It is now (1871) owned by O. W. Sage & Co. The firm employs about forty-five hands and six teams; uses about 1,000,000 feet of pine lumber, twenty barrels of glue, two tons of finishing nails, and fifty reams of sand paper annually. They also turn out about 18,000 doors, 15,000 pairs of blinds, and 250,000 lights of sash each year.

    All the foregoing manufactories were and are situated on the Chittenango Creek, a short distance from each other, in the following order: The old Williams factory on Farnham street, between Albany and Williams streets; the Cazenovia Paper Mill next down stream; the Cedar Grove Woolen Mill a short distance from the last, just outside the corporation; next down stream the Tannery; next the Sash and Blind factory; and still further down the Shelter Valley Mills. On South street was situated the old Distillery and Brewery of John Hersey, an institution of the past, widely known and largely patronized in its day.14 The Eagle Foundry was built on Albany street, south side, east of the creek, (Brewery Lane) by Elisha Allis, about 1842, but was subsequently moved up stream. It passed through various hands, and is now (1871) carried on by Mr. James Dodge.

    Among the manufactories are, a Morocco Factory, located east of the village between Nelson and Peterboro streets, established by Mr. Phinney about 1851, a fine General Machine Works on Albany street, (where the oil mill stood) owned and successfully conducted by Marshall O. Card, and a Lock Factory, where the American Lock Co., under the superintendence of Mr. Felter, make a variety of locks of excellent quality, well secured by ingenious mechanism from the arts of burglars.

    Bingley Mills about two miles from the village, on Chittenango Creek, was one of the early flouring mills of this section. It has been owned by Mr. William Atkinson since September 12th, 1831.15 This is a longer time than any other mill in town has been run by the same man. There is a saw mill near here, and some mechanics have also located near by. Some sixteen houses give Bingley quite the appearance of a hamlet.

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    Madison County Bank was organized in Cazenovia, the date of its charter being March 14th, 1831, with a capital of $100,000. Its first President was Perry G. Childs. It performed a successful business during the years of its existence, up to the expiration of its charter, January 1st, 1858.

    The Bank of Cazenovia was incorporated February 21st, 1856, with a capital of $120,000, secured by stocks and mortgages on real estate. The first board of directors were: Charles Stebbins, Ledyard Lincklaen, Benj. F. Jarvis, John Hobbie, David M. Pulford, Austin Van Riper, Lewis Raynor, Reuben Parsons and E. M. Holmes. The first officers were: Charles Stebbins, President; B.F. Jarvis, Cashier. It survived the panic of 1857, and well maintained its reputation as a reliable institution. In 1865, it was changed to the National Bank of Cazenovia, with a capital of $150,000. Its present officers (1870) are: B.F. Jarvis, President; Cyrus Parsons, Vice President; C. B. Crandall, Cashier.

CENTRAL NEW YORK CONFERENCE SEMINARY.

    In 1824, the project was originated to establish a Conference Seminary in Cazenovia. The proposition was, to take the courthouse and remodel it suitable for school use, and so release the Methodists --- who had purchased it for a place of worship, and were in debt --- from their oppressive liability. The public mind was, at the time, active in enterprises; various improvements were being originated; literature was on the advance, and receiving encouragement everywhere, and facilities, at this point, for higher grades in education, seemed to be imperatively demanded. Rev. Charles Giles, one of the most prominent ministers of the Conference, in his "Pioneer," writes: ---

    "At this favorable juncture, I was fully convinced that the time had come for our Conference to engage in a public literary enterprise. Learning being an auxiliary to religion in every department of the Church, we, therefore, greatly needed a literary institution, under the supervision and patronage of the Conference, and Province, at this time, was opening a way for us to engage effectually in the undertaking."

    A village meeting was called; much public spirit was manifested, and the movement seemed to be indeed timely. It was embraced in the plan that the institution was to be conducted upon liberal principles; sectarianism was to form no branch of instruction; the students would be left free to attend any church of their choice. Rev. George Gary, Perry G. Childs, and John Williams, of Cazenovia, did all that could be done to give form and tangibility to the design, and Rev. Charles Giles carried it up to the next annual Conference to obtain official action upon it. The project seemed visionary, but a resolution was passed which gave sanction to the plan. Says the above writer: --- "Still, some of the members imagined that it would end there, and perish like Jonah's gourd; but no; we were then provided with authority for action; hence we moved onward, constitutionally and with zeal, to test the liberality of our friends and the community around us. After struggling with opposition, and enduring many cares and embarrassments, our efforts were crowned with success, and the seminary finally became established."

    It was incorporated as the "Seminary of the Genesee Conference," in 1825; it was the first institution of that grade established by the Methodists on the American continent. In 1829, the Oneida Conference was formed from a part of the territory belonging to the Genesee, and the name of the seminary was changed to "Seminary of Genesee and Oneida Conference." In 1835, it was changed to "Oneida Conference Seminary," which name it retained until 1868, at which date a new Conference was formed, embracing Oneida, Oswego, Madison, Onondaga, Cayuga and Cortland counties, and named the "Central New York Conference," that of "Oneida conference" being dropped. Subsequently, the seminary has taken on the name of the Conference as last instituted.

    The courthouse was a substantial brick building, standing on a conspicuous and beautiful location; it formed the nucleus of the present seminary buildings. In 1830, the courthouse building was remodeled and added to, and now the whole presents a pleasing and noble appearance.

    From an historical poem, delivered by Rev. Dwight Williams before Conference in Cazenovia, April 19, 1868, the subjoined is extracted: ---


			"At the Conference call [1830]
		The young Oneida, with beginnings small,
		Musters her sons.  Where now yon classic pile
		Lifts up its towers to greet the sunlight's smile,
		The first our infant Conference was called;
		The Courthouse building, old and yellow walled,
		Was then both learning and religion's shrine,
		And here our fathers met for work divine.
		Ah, well! Perhaps our Conference was nursed
		Within our honored Alma Mater first;
		Give her the double honors she hath earned
		Since first the fires upon her alter burned.
		These walls of stone,16 within whose shadows we
		Convene today, were resting silently
		Within the deep primeval ledge,
		Nor yet had known the touch of chisel's edge;
		Our ark had but a transient resting-place,
		And on yon Chapel fell the precious grace,
		As once on Obed Edoms' house it fell,
		And friend and stranger felt the charmed spell."

    Rev. Nathaniel Porter was the first Principal of the institution. How he labored to establish the Seminary with a respectable reputation and give it a high standing; how he toiled to elevate the M. E. Church in the vicinity; how he bore the heaviest burdens and toiled unceasingly until his energies were exhausted, is vividly remembered by many whose hearts were deeply in the cherished work. Dr. Porter went from Cazenovia to New Jersey, in 1830, to recruit his broken health. The anticipations of his friends failed, for he died in Newark, in that State, August 11, 1831, in the 31st year of his age. He was talented and successful, and in his death there passed beyond the constellation of the M. E. Conference a bright star of light, distinguished for its brilliancy, purity and warmth, growing all the more bright as it passed away.

    Rev. Augustus W. Smith succeeded Dr. Porter as Principal. The subsequent Principals we name in their order as follows: --- W. C. Larrabee, George Peck, G. G. Hapgood, Henry Bannister, (continued 15 years,) E. G. Andrews17, A. S. Graves, and W. S. Smyth, who is the present incumbent. In 1840, the number of pupils was 327, in 1871, 555. The Seminary has ever maintained a high standing, numbering among its pupils many who have from time to time gone forth to fill the most honored stations in society. Our Legislative Chambers, our Judicial Halls, have noble men who trace their fitting for usefulness back to the kindly walls of Cazenovia Seminary. Our institutions of learning, our missions in India, China and other quarters of the globe, are filled with earnest laborers, talented men and women, who hold, with love and reverence, memories of the careful guidance and wise training of this, their Alma Mater.

    In 1870, the Seminary buildings were improved, and a large addition was put on. In every respect the old buildings were made convenient by modern appliances, and beautified by modern art. Its facilities for accommodating its increasing patronage have been greatly enhanced. The trustees have secured a new charter of incorporation, and a corporate seal.

PROMINENT MEN.

    THEOPHILUS CAZENOVE "was the first General Agent of the Holland Company. When the Company made their first purchase of lands in the interior of this State and Pennsylvania, soon after 1790, he had arrived in this country and acted as their agent. In all the negotiations and preliminary proceedings connected with the large purchase of Robert Morris, of this region, the interests of the Company were principally confided to him. His name is intimately blended with the whole history of the title. When the purchase was perfected he was made General Agent, and under his auspices the surveys were commenced. The author can only judge of him from such manuscript records as came from his hands. These exhibit good business qualifications and great integrity of purpose. In all the embarrassments that attended the perfecting of the title, he seems to have been actuated by honorable and praiseworthy motives, and to have assisted, with a good deal of ability, the legal managers of the Company's interests."18

    He returned to Europe in 1799, ending then his connection with the Company. He resided for a considerable time in London, after which he went to Paris, and we believe it was in M. De Talleyrand's home that he died.

JOHN LINCKLAEN.

    Very much of Mr. Lincklaen's active part in the early history of this county, will have been gathered from the history of the town of Cazenovia, and it may lend to his name sufficient interest to justify a brief personal mention of his life; one in which a bold and adventurous spirit was controlled by a firm character, and one which, commencing in the gay life of European capitols, ended peacefully in a home of his own making in the New World.

    Jan von Lincklaen was born in Amsterdam, Holland, December 24, 1768. His boyhood was principally passed in Switzerland, where he was educated by a private tutor. At the age of fourteen he entered the Dutch Navy, remaining in the service for some years, and attaining promotion to the rank of Lieutenant under Admiral De Winter. While in this service he visited the most important places in Europe and Asia, and passed some considerable time at Smyrna and Ceylon.

    In the year 1790, he came to this country under the patronage of Mr. Stadnitski of Amsterdam, the principal director of the Holland Land Company's affairs in America.

    In the year 1792, he penetrated the wilderness of Central New York, and surveyed the land subsequently purchased by the Holland Land Company, and early in the following year (1793), intrusted with the agency of the tract, he commenced the actual settlement of Cazenovia, naming it after his friend Mr. Cazenove, an Italian. Young, active, and persevering, he turned his attention to the needs of his new settlement, and at once commenced laying out roads, building bridges, erecting mills and warehouses, and all that a new home demanded, and he soon found himself surrounded by a prosperous community, in the place where his refined taste had induced him to make his new home.

    In this active way he labored for nearly thirty years, and won for himself a reputation for integrity and accuracy, and proved himself in all ways a friend to the poor, and a neighbor devoted to the welfare of his townsmen.

    John Lincklaen's name was also connected with the Holland Purchase in the Genesee country. According to the then existing laws of this State, those of the Holland Company then in Holland, could not purchase and hold real estate, being aliens. After several changes in the trustees, and transfers of portions of the land, sanctioned by the Legislature, the whole tract of the celebrated "Morris Reserve," containing about three and a quarter million acres, was deeded to the individuals, in their own names, who represented the three separate branches of the Holland Company. These were: --- Herman Leroy, John Lincklaen and Gerrit Boon. In conveyances of these vast estates made subsequently, we find the names of Herman Leroy and Hannah his wife, John Lincklaen and Helen his wife, Gerrit Boon, Paul Busti, William Bayard, James McEvers, the Willinks, and others.

    His acquaintance embraced many learned and distinguished men, (among them Talleyrand, at the time seeking in America a refuge from European disturbances;) and his reading, as evinced by his library, was varied and extensive, in English, Dutch and French. He rendered the English language with purity and ease, for which we have the excellent authority of President Nott, of Union College, who said that he knew of no foreigner who used our language so correctly as Mr. Lincklaen. His tastes were scholarly and literary, which gave to his graceful person, always elegant in dress and manner, an air of refinement, and which marked him as one of nature's superior types of men. His high sense of honor, his deep love of integrity, together with his fineness of organization, placed him beyond the ordinary mind; hence there seemed between himself and the mass a distance, perhaps affecting his general popularity, which was not the offspring of pride, but was, rather, owing to an awkwardness in adapting himself to the mass. Between himself and Peter Smith there existed intimate business and friendly relations, their friendliness being in a great measure cemented by harmonious views in politics, both being Federalists. Frequent visits were interchanged in which Gerrit Smith, then a youth, often participated. In those days Gerrit Smith learned to admire and love Mr. Lincklaen, whose fine and noble qualities, in all the years that have passed, he has cherished and revered; and now he says: --- "in my eye Mr. Lincklaen was a beautiful man, a lovely character."

    Mr. Vanderkemp19 and Col. Mappa, two of his most intimate friends, were Unitarians, and for a time he was influenced by this doctrine. His pastor, Rev. Mr. Leonard, leaned toward these views, but during the ministry of Rev. Mr. Brown, who succeeded Rev. Leonard about 1814, in a revival of great power, Mr. Lincklaen devoted himself to a candid consideration of religious views, which led to his adopting the Trinitarian belief and devoting himself to a Christian life, and all his after life attested to the earnestness and fullness of his convictions.

    In forwarding the erection of the "Old Church on the Green," he gave his time and means unsparingly, and the noble frame and graceful spire raised at that time, are now the just pride of a large congregation, who have made of the old landmark one of the most beautiful churches in our county.

    His first residence was on the ground now covered by the house of Sidney T. Fairchild, Esq. This building was destroyed by fire in 1806, and he then selected his place at the foot of the Lake, on a site that commands a beautiful view of the entire length of Owahgena. This house, built of brick, is still standing, occupied by the family, and is evidence of his thorough care in working soundly and well.

    The original warehouse and store was on the Lake, west of the outlet, among the venerable trees of a white oak opening. The Land Office was for a time near his entrance gate, and afterwards in a building erected for the purpose on land at the foot of Albany street.

    The agency passed on to one, to whom he gave the position of an adopted son, J. D. Ledyard, whose eldest sister, he married in 1797.

    Mr. Ledyard eventually assumed the entire remaining property from the Holland Land Company, and by him the office was removed again (to open a full view of the Lake from the village), and a third building was built in the business part of Cazenovia, where it now (1870) remains.

    At this time the business of the tract is comparatively small. A limited number of contracts are yet unpaid, but the "settlers" are fast paying them up and taking their deeds; and of the original one hundred and thirty thousand acres of this Holland purchase, now only four or five hundred acres remain unsold; and as railways are threading the valleys through which Mr. Lincklaen and his men made their "blaze marks," these will soon be purchased and cleared, and ere long the whole venture that brought an European Naval Officer to settle on fair Owahgena, will be only a matter of local history.

    Mr. Lincklaen's eventful and active life was changed to that of a suffering invalid in 1820, by paralysis, and his death resulted from the disease no skill or care could avert, on the 9th of February, 1822, while he was yet at the age of many hale men, fifty-four years.

---------

    SAMUEL S. FOREMAN came with John Lincklaen as a merchant and remained in Cazenovia several years. Under Mr. Lincklaen's patronage, he had at one time several stores established in small villages in different sections of the county. He was an energetic, public spirited man and possessed much influence. He subsequently removed to Syracuse. The author in indebted to him for much of the early history of Cazenovia.

---------

    JONATHAN FOREMAN was an elder brother of Samuel S. Foreman. He was an officer in the Revolutionary war, enlisting as ensign and rising by regular grades to Colonel. He held a General's commission in the militia, was very energetic in forming the old Military Brigade of Madison County, and was always prominent at parades, having a true soldierly bearing. These brothers were relatives of Hon. Joshua Foreman, the founder of Syracuse. Miss Helen Ledyard, who became the wife of John Lincklaen, was a niece of the Foreman brothers.

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    NEW WOODSTOCK VILLAGE is situated in the south part of the town of Cazenovia. David and Jonathan Smith, and Charleville Webber were the first settlers in this locality. These men it is said came in before Mr. Lincklaen's settling party, --- stopped awhile at the shanty at the lake, and afterwards staked out their lots and settled near the site of New Woodstock. Isaac Warren, Robert Fisher and John Savage were also among the first settlers of this part of the town. Ralph Knight, (who was living in 1869, and the oldest resident of the village,) was born in New Woodstock, December 18th, 1796. Erastus Smith (also living in 186920) was another of the early native born citizens of New Woodstock. Joseph Holmes, a settler of 1801, was from Chesterfield County, New Hampshire --- his native place being Munson, Mass. Squire Letus Lathrop, and Edmund Knowlton are other residents of the town who were among the earliest natives of this place.

    This village being on the well traveled road, from Cazenovia southward through Road Township, was quite early a conspicuous settlement. The first Baptist Church of Cazenovia was organized here as its history shows, and the first meeting house of the town was built in this village in 1803. There was a store, a tavern and some shops at that time. A Methodist class was formed here, and Rev. Mr. Paddock and other Methodist ministers preached at this place at stated periods, before 1820. A select school was originated, which, after a few years of successful operation, was incorporated by Legislature as "New Woodstock Academy." The date of the Act was May 2nd, 1834. It is now extinct. At a later date the M. E. Church was built. A fine school house has been erected at a recent date, at a cost of about $3,000. In this a first-class graded school is kept. There is an extensive Glove Manufactory in New Woodstock. Its proprietors are (1869) Erastus Abbott, Joseph L. Hatch, James L. Savage, Elijah B. Warlock and Thomas Warlock. The village has also two carriage and wagon shops, several mechanic shops and mills, a hotel, four stores, besides its two churches, and about 300 inhabitants.

    A Good Templar's Lodge has been in existence about five years. It has thus far proved to be an institution, successful in sustaining itself, and in performing its sacred mission. (Note d.)

CHURCHES.

    The Presbyterian Church of Cazenovia Village, was formed in 1799, with eight members. Rev. Joshua Leonard was first pastor. The first place of worship was a school house, after the style of a chapel, situated on the west side of Sullivan street, north of the Green. In 1807, the society erected the first church edifice of the town. It was situated on the north side of the Parade Ground, facing Hurd street.

    The First Baptist Church of Cazenovia, was organized in New Woodstock, in 1799. Elder Bacon was temporary pastor. In 1803, the society, with the Presbyterians, built a meeting house. In 1820, the Cazenovia Village Baptist Church was formed. This society had, however, existed as a separate division since 1803, and had built their church about 1818. This was burned in 1871, and a fine new one erected on its site the same year.

    The M. E. Church of Cazenovia Village. A class was formed in this village as early as 1816, which existed till 1824, when it was reorganized by Rev. Geo. Gary. Rev. Fitch Reed first pastor. In 1830, they built the stone church. This has been removed, and a fine new one is being erected on the spot.

    The Congregational Church of Cazenovia Village, was built about 1838. The society are mostly removed. The building is now known as Concert Hall.

    St. Peters Church, Episcopal, of Cazenovia Village, was organized in 1845. Edifice built in 1848. First pastor, Rev. Mason Gallagher.

    First Universalist Church of Cazenovia, was organized in 1853. The church edifice was erected in 1853-4. It is situated at the foot of Williams street.

    St. James Church, Catholic, located near the old Parade Ground, was built in 1848.

NEWSPAPERS.

    Two newspapers in Madison County claim the precedence as being the first established; the Madison Freeholder, published at Peterboro, and the Pilot at Cazenovia-both originating in the year 1808.

    The Pilot was started in August, 1808, by Oran E. Baker, and continued till August, 1823.

    The Republican Monitor was instituted in Cazenovia, in September, 1823, by L. L. Rice. It was published by John F. Fairchild from April, 1825, to January, 1832; by J. F. Fairchild & Son, till July, 1840, and by J. F. Fairchild till March 4th, 1841, when it was discontinued.

    The Student's Miscellany, semi-monthly, was published at Cazenovia in 1831, by A. Owen and L. Kidder.

    The Union Herald was commenced in May, 1835, by L. Myrick and E. W. Clark. In 1836, Mr. Clark withdrew, and in 1840 the paper was discontinued.

    The Cazenovia Democrat was started in September, 1836, by J. W. Chubbuck & Co., edited by J. Dwinnell. In February, 1837, it was discontinued.

    The Madison County Eagle was commenced in this village in February, 1840, by Cyrus O. Pool. In 1841, it was published by Thomas S. Myrick and W. H. Phillips. In June, 1842, Myrick withdrew, an din Mary, 1845, it was changed to-

    The Madison County Whig. In August, 1848, Phillips was succeeded by H. A. Cooledge, by whom the paper was changed to

    The Madison County News in October, 1853. In May, 1854, it was again changed to

    The Madison County Whig, and in January, 1857, was discontinued.

    The Abolitionist was started in Cazenovia, in 1841, by Luther Myrick, and continued two years.

    The Madison and Onondaga Abolitionist was also published here, in 1843, by Luther Myrick and J. C. Jackson.

    The Madison Republic was commenced in this village in January, 1850, by W. H. Phillips, and continued about three months.

    The Cazenovia Gazette was published by Baker & Debnam, from October, 1851, to May, 1852.

    The Progressive Christian was established in April, 1853, by A. Pryne, and was continued two years.

    The Cazenovia Republican was started May 1st, 1854, by Seneca Lake. It was subsequently published by Crandall Bros.; afterwards by the Forte Bros., and now (1872) by E. B. Crandall, Irving C. Forte, editor.

    The Madison Observer was first issued in Cazenovia, in January, 1821, by Rice & Hall. It was removed to Morrisville in 1822.


1 - The writer visited this spot at the close of a cloudy October day; hence these impressions.
2 - Found upon the farms of W. B. Downer and G. R. Southwell, who have preserved many of these curiosities for the benefit of the antiquarian.
3 - This supposition is strengthened by the following: In September, 1861, a sunken canoe or "dug our," filled with stones, was discovered in the lake by a party of three gentlemen fishing. They succeeded in getting the canoe to the surface and towing it ashore. Its antique appearance excited much interest among the Cazenovians, and thereupon was kindled a flame of enthusiasm for the departed nobility of the race once the unquestioned lords of Lake Owahgena, who had sunk their canoes that the invading foe might not possess them. It was decided to return the relic to its bed of aquatic weeds where it had evidently long rested, with ceremonials befitting the occasion. Accordingly, on the 12th day of the succeeding October, all Cazenovia gathered at the Lake to witness the unique proceedings, in which thirty-one persons from among the most prominent citizens, dressed in aboriginal costume, took part. For a description of the ceremonies the reader is referred to the Cazenovia Republican, October 16th, 1861, and also to a photographic picture of the scene, preserved among a choice collection of pictures at the office of J. D. Ledyard, Cazenovia.
4 - See N.Y. State Gazetteer, pages 229 and 655.
5 - This was the year after the breaking up of the homes of the pioneers of Sullivan, in the history of which town will be found the cause of their destitution.
6 - See N. Y. S. Gazetteer, page 535.
7 - About the time of the laying out of the village of Cazenovia, Mr. Lincklaen purchased large portions of the New Petersburgh tract in different sections of the four Allotments, to the amount of upwards of 10,000 acres, which added to the first purchase, constituted a tract of 130,000 acres at that time in his possession.
8 - Admirals Von Tromp and DeRuyter were Generals of renown about the middle of the seventeenth century.
9 - Elijah Risley subsequently became justice of the peace. At a very early day, an Indian couple came to Squire Risley's , and were by him married. Soon after, becoming dissatisfied, owing to the reproaches of their Indian friends, who disliked their conformity to the custom of the whites, they called again to be unmarried. The minister being present, they were persuaded to be re-married by him instead, when they departed, appearing quite well pleased with the additional ceremony.
10 - See Spafford's Gazetteer of 1812.
11 - "About sixty-four years ago, Amasa and Ezra Leland took forty-five pickerel from Leland's pond, in the town of Eaton, and put them in our lake. For this service they received $40, this amount being raised by subscription in our town. A law was then passed by the Legislature, that no pickerel should be taken from Owahgena for ten years; and thus our waters were stocked with the beautiful fish which have afforded so much amusement to fishermen, and supplied our table with delicacies." --- Republican.
12 - Ledyard Lincklaen.
13 - About 1820, Mr. Chandler originated the idea of wire harness for weaving looms, and Ezra Brown invented machinery for making wire harness, and the business was very prosperous for a time.
14 - Many persons still living along the route, will remember the long and toilsome winter trips of Hersey's teams, performed as late as 1833, from Cazenovia to Utica, each hauling the standard load of two hogsheads of spirits.
15 - Died in 1871, since the above was written.
16 - The Methodist Church.
17 - Served twelve years, --- he is now one of the Bishops of the M. E. Church.
18 - Turner's History of the Holland Purchase.
19 - Mr. Vanderkemp was employed by the State to translate the old Dutch records into English.
20 - The date in which the author acquired this information.
Ttranscribed by Pam Wyrick
July, 2003
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