CHAPTER LI.

TOWN OF CAZENOVIA.

    CAZENOVIA was formed from Whitestown and Paris, March 5, 1795, and derives its name from Theophilus Cazenove, the first agent of the Holland Land Company. It originally embraced an extent of territory nearly equaling Madison county. De Ruyter, which then embraced the present towns of Georgetown, German, Lincklaen, Otselic and Pitcher, was taken off March 15, 1798; Sullivan, then embracing the town of Lenox, Feb. 22, 1803; Smithfield, which embraced portions of the present towns of Fenner and Stockbridge, and Nelson, March 13, 1807; and a part of Fenner, April 22, 1823. It is the central town upon the west border of the county, and is bounded on the north by Sullivan, on the south by De Ruyter, on the east by Fenner and Nelson, and on the west by Manlius and Pompey. Its length is about fourteen miles, and its greatest width 5-1/3 miles. The surface is a rolling upland, broken by the deep and rugged valleys of Chittenango and Limestone creeks. The latter stream crosses the south part of the town in a westerly direction, furnishing near the south-west border of the town two beautiful cascades, one ninety and the other sixty to seventy feet in height, and the former, entering the town near the center of the east border, flows in a westerly direction to the central part of the town, where it makes a wide detour and pursues a northerly direction, forming in the latter part of its course through the town a portion of the east boundary, and receiving the waters of Cazenovia lake, a beautiful sheet of water in the north part of the town, having an elevation of 900 feet above tide, and forming a reservoir for the Erie canal, for which purpose it was brought into use in 1867. Chittenango creek is a feeder for the Erie canal, and it was brought into use as such in 1840. It furnishes in its course through the town many valuable mill sites, having a fall of several hundred feet, one perpendicular fall of 136 feet at Chittenango Falls, three miles north of Cazenovia, where the water plunges over a ledge of limestone and forms a beautiful cascade.

    The town is mostly underlaid by the rocks of the Hamilton group. The Ithaca group comes to the surface in the south-east part, and the Onondaga limestone in the north-east part. The latter is extensively quarried in the locality of Chittenango Falls, and furnishes a good quality of water and common limestone. The soil in the northern and central parts is a gravelly loam, and in the southern part a clayey loam, underlaid with hardpan.

    The Syracuse & Chenango Valley railroad and the Cazenovia & Canastota railroad cross the town centrally, the former from north-west to south-east, and the latter in a southerly direction, intersecting each other about a mile south of Cazenovia village. The latter road was built by a stock company in 1871, between the villages indicated by its name, a distance of fifteen miles, and was extended to De Ruyter in 1877.1

    The population of the town in 1875 was 4,240; of whom 3,765 were native, 475 foreign, 4,100 white, 40 colored, 2,022 males and 2,218 females. Its area was 30,332 acres; of which 25,603 acres were unimproved. The cash value of farms was $2,013,017; of farm buildings other than dwellings, $327,090; of stock, $282,602; of tools and implements, $77,703. The amount of gross sales from farms in 1874 was $214,864.

    There are fifteen common and one Union school districts in the town. During the year ending Sept. 30, 1879, there were twenty-two licensed teachers at one time during twenty-eight weeks or more. The number of children of school age residing in the districts at that date was 1,192. There were four private schools, with forty-two pupils in attendance. During that year there were eleven male and twenty-five female teachers employed; the number of children residing in the districts who attended school was 818, not residing in the districts, 64; the average daily attendance during the year was 490.959; the number of volumes in district libraries was 1,840; the value of which was $768; the number of school-houses was sixteen, fifteen frame and one brick, which, with the sites, embracing 4 acres and 83 rods, valued at $4,230, were valued at $15,100; the assessed value of taxable property in the districts was $1,921,475.

    Receipts and disbursements for school purposes:--

Amount on hand Oct. 1, 1878$     281.38
    "     apportioned to districts2,635.96
Raised by tax3,316.72
From teachers' board150.50
    "     other sources429.12
----------
Total receipts    $6,813.68

Paid for teachers' wages$4,595.86
    "     libraries80.59
    "     school apparatus8.25
    "        "     houses, sites, fences, out-
houses, repairs, furniture, fences, &c
933.18
    "     incidental expenses829.85
Amount remaining on hand Sept. 30, 1879365.95
----------
Total disbursements$6,813.68

    Cazenovia, like many other towns in the county, is rich in incidents suggestive of the occupancy of this region of country by a race of people anterior to those from whom the present inhabitants are descended. In various localities, and notably so at the head and upon the outlet of the beautiful lake within its borders, the plow has disclosed evidences that the aborigines have camped with more or less permanency and at places in considerable numbers, and pursued their domestic avocations, hunted, fished, trapped, tilled, and buried their dead; while to the west of the head of the lake is a locality of no little interest to antiquarians, known as Indian Fort. It is situated on the west line of the town, partly in Cazenovia and partly in Pompey, upon a slight eminence, nearly surrounded by a deep ravine, the banks of which are quite steep and somewhat rocky. Says Mr. J. H. V. Clark:--

    "The ravine is in shape like an ox bow, made by two streams which pass nearly around it and unite. Across this bow at the opening was an earthen wall running south-east and north-west, and when first noticed by the early settlers was four or five feet high, straight, with something of a ditch in front, from two to three feet deep. Within this inclosure may be about ten or twelve acres of land. A part of this land when first occupied in these latter times was called 'the Prairie,' and is noted now among the old men as the place where the first battalion training was held in the county of Onondaga. But that portion near the wall and in front of it, has recently, say five years ago, (1840,) been cleared of a heavy growth of black oak timber. Many of the trees were large, and were probably 150 or 200 years old. Some were standing in the ditch and others on the top of the embankment. There is a considerable burying place within the inclosure. The plow has already done much toward leveling the wall and ditch, still they can easily be traced the whole extent."2

    This is but one of a series of similar fortifications, nearly, if not quite all of which, says the same author, are "situated on land rather elevated above that which is immediately contiguous, and surrounded, or partly so, by deep ravines, so that these form a part of the fortifications, themselves. At one of these, on the farm of David Williams, in Pompey, the banks on either side are found to contain bullets of lead, as if shot across at opposing forces. The space between them may be three or four rods, and the natural cutting twenty or twenty-five feet deep." This locality has been fruitful in relics which prove its aboriginal occupancy subsequent to the advent of the Jesuit missionaries.

    In this vicinity was found the famous Pompey stone, which has been the subject of so much speculation and learned inquiry, but still remains an unsolved enigma.3 West of the hill and north of the road from Cazenovia to Pompey, there was a fortified point, probably very ancient, as here there are no remains indicating intercourse with civilized races. One of the remarkable characteristics of the pottery found here, are raised and molded faces, laid on the corners of quite artistically formed cups. Many specimens of these are in the collection of the Smithsonian Institute. South of this, near Mr. Sweetland's farm, there was also a fort, but less is known of it. A very fine grooved stone was found here and is now in the possession of Mr. L.W. Ledyard, of Cazenovia. Another of these stones from Delphi has enriched the Smithsonian collection. No remains of European origin are mingled with the numerous objects which have been found at the foot of the lake, but the aboriginal work there discovered is of a very high order, including polished stone, and very fine specimens of stone drilling. East of Bingley, near the brick-yard, there was an intrenched work and relics were found there.4

    SETTLEMENTS. --- That portion of this town embraced in the Gore, together with the other towns embraced in that tract and the town of Nelson, comprised the purchase of the Holland Land Company in this and Chenango counties. With respect to this purchase and the subsequent early operations of this company we cannot do better than quote from a letter from Major Samuel S. Forman, dated Syracuse, Nov. 20, 1851, and addressed to the trustees of Cazenovia village, in acknowledgment of the compliment in naming after him the street on which he resided while living in Cazenovia. Its statements may be regarded as authoritative.5 He says:--

    "In the winter of 1792-'3, I became acquainted in Philadelphia with Theophilus Cazenove, Esq., and John Lincklaen, Esq., both from Amsterdam, in Holland. Mr. Lincklaen, and Mr. Boon, of Rotterdam, in Holland, (in connection with the great Holland


    The grandfather of Willess C. and Wilson L. Perkins, on their mother's side, was Joseph Coley, who was born in London, England, in the year 1765, where his father was a jeweler. In 1773 when Joseph was about eight years of age, his father removed with his family, from London, and settled at Johnstown, in the State of New York, where he cleared a farm upon which he resided until his son Joseph arrived at full age, and married a young lady the name of Mary Willess. Joseph Coley and wife removed to Saratoga county, where they occupied a farm some few years. They soon, however, removed to the town of De Ruyter, in Madison county, where they purchased and occupied a farm including the spot since known as the "De Ruyter Springs," where the family resided a number of years and until 1806, when they removed to New Woodstock, in the town of Cazenovia, where he purchased and cleared a farm upon which the family remained during his residence here. On the 19th of August, 1810, Joseph Coley was ordained as a minister in the Baptist church, and afterwards became quite prominent as a preacher in that denomination. His wife, Mary, departed this life September 30th, 1845, at the age of 77 years. After the death of his wife the Rev. Joseph Coley resided with his son Willess, at New Woodstock, until his death, which occurred September 25, 1856, at the age of ninety-one years. Of this marriage there were ten children, one, while an infant in the cradle, perished with the burning of their log house during their residence in the town of De Ruyter. The remaining nine, four sons and five daughters, viz:--Willess, Betsey, Polly, Nancy, Laura, Charles, William, J. Madison and Hubbard, with his wife, composed his family at the time of his residence in New Woodstock. Nancy Coley, the mother of Willess C. and Wilson L. Perkins, was born May 9th, 1795.

    Abiezer Perkins was born in Deerfield, in the State of Massachusetts, in the year 1754, and in 1781, at the age of twenty-three, he was married to Irene Loomis, and in the year 1803, he removed with his family to the town of Cazenovia, in Madison county, N. Y., and located on a farm which he had previously purchased about two and one-half miles south of Cazenovia Village, on the road leading from that place to De Ruyter. It was thickly covered with heavy timber, and a line of marked trees only indicated the highway leading past his new home. He cleared the land of its timber and reduced it to a tillable condition, and resided upon it until his death, which occurred September 20th, 1825, at the age of seventy-one years; his wife, Irene, survived him about eleven years, and departed this life September 6, 1836. They were both members of the Baptist church in which Abiezer Perkins was at the time of his death and for many years previous thereto, a Deacon. Of this marriage there were five sons and two daughters, as follows; Byram, Jeduthan, Eliab, Polly, Sally, Elemander, and Stillman. Elemander, the fourth son was born September 13th, 1792, and on the 9th of May, 1813, at the age of twenty-one he married Nancy Coley, before mentioned, who was at the time of her marriage eighteen years of age. After their marriage they resided for some years in the family of Deacon Abiezer Perkins, where on the 5th of December, 1814, Willess C. was born, and on the 8th of October, 1816, Wilson L. was born. These two brothers were the only sons of this family, and their lots seemed cast together, and together they have since lived and labored. In the spring of 1822, Elemander Perkins, with his wife and two sons then composing his family, removed to the farm then recently purchased by his father-in-law, the Rev. Joseph Coley, about one-half mile further south on the De Ruyter road, which he carried on for a number of years, occupying the same house with his father-in-law.

    In the autumn of 1824, Elemander purchased a farm of about seventy acres located on the hill about one and one half miles from Cazenovia Village, on the road leading from Mechanicsville to Delphi. To this place he removed his family in the spring of 1825. Here was born on the 26th of April, 1830, an only daughter, Mary Irene, who afterwards and on the 29th of December, 1847, at the age of seventeen, was married to Charles J. Halliday, and died the following year, Oct. 19th, 1848. Elemander Perkins continued to reside here with the remainder of his family until his death in the 62nd year of his age, on the 10th of April, 1854. His widow survived him many years in vigorous active life, but after a short illness died December 21st, 1876, aged 81 years.

    There remains of the family of Elemander Perkins only the two sons, Willess C., and Wilson L., who have lived together and wrought with a common interest on the old homestead with exception of a short interval, since their boyhood, and by their continual industry and close attention to their business, have from time to time, added to the original farm until at present they own and cultivate about five hundred acres which they hold in common.

    The elder of these brothers Willess C., was never married. Wilson L. at the age of twenty-four and on the 11th of March, 1840, was married to Lucretia Rice, daughter of Isaac and Anna Rice of Cazenovia, N. Y. She was at the time of her marriage in the twenty-second year of her age. They resided in the family of Elemander Perkins before mentioned, where on the 6th of May, 1841, was born to them a son, Franklin R., and on the 17th of the same month the young wife and mother departed this life.

    Two years later and on the 1st of May, 1843, Wilson L., was married to his second wife, Sarah M. Salisburg, daughter of Mason and Rhoda Salisbury of Cortland, N. Y. She was twenty-two years of age at the time of her marriage. They removed to Lyons, Wayne county, N. Y., where they resided a short time, but subsequently and in 1846 returned to the town of Cazenovia, and took up their residence on the farm which the brothers Willess C., and Wilson L. had then recently purchased from the estate of David Billings situated about one and one-half miles south from the village of Cazenovia, on the De Ruyter road and adjoining on the south the farm owned by their father, Elemander. Here on the 10th of October,1847, was born to them a son, Judson O., and a little more than two years later and on the 31st of March, 1850, another son, Charles H. But just beyond three years from that time the saddest event in the history of that household came upon them. On the 1st of August, 1853, the husband was again left a widower, and his children without a mother and another faithful earnest life was closed to this world forever. Shortly after this event Wilson L., with his three sons again returned to his old house where with his brother and mother all lived together as one family, until the 28th of October,1856, when Wilson L. was married to Sophia E. May, of Akron, Ohio, grand-daughter of Luke and Patience May, of Cazenovia, in the twenty-first year of her age.

    The eldest son of this family, Franklin R., after spending some time as a student at the Oneida Conference Seminary at Cazenovia, where he graduated in 1860, commenced the study of law and was admitted to practice as an attorney and counselor in the year 1864. In the same year he was commissioned as captain of Company E in the 22d Regiment of N.Y. S. V. Cav. and served with that Regiment in the war of the Rebellion until January, 1865, when he was honorably discharged and returned to the study of law, and in August, 1866, commenced practice in the city of Buffalo, N. Y., where he is still located, having served two successive terms from January 1st, 1872, to January 1st, 1876, as city attorney at that place. On the 10th of May, 1876, he was married to S. Louise Wright, daughter of William W. and Eleanor Wright, of Buffalo, N. Y.

    The second son of this family, Judson O., after spending some time as a student at the "Oneida Conference Seminary" at Cazenovia, entered "Madison University" at Hamilton, N. Y., where he graduated with the class of 1872, entered the "Hamilton Theological Seminary," from which he graduated in 1874, was ordained as a minister in the Baptist church, settled over a congregation of that denomination in Copenhagen, N. Y., where he is still pastor, and in 1879 opened a school at that place called the "Perkins' Academy" which he is still conducting. He was married to Ella M. Newton, daughter of Christopher and Mary Newton, of Cazenovia, N. Y., on the 4th of November, 1874.

    The third son, Charles H. after attending school for some time at Cazenovia, and after arriving at manhood remained at home assisting in the business of the farm. He was married to Alice C. Kingsley, daughter of A.Z. and Polly Kingsley, of Hamilton, N. Y., on the 16th of October, 1872. She was twenty-two years of age at the time of her marriage. They settled and commenced house-keeping on the farm in a house located on the De Ruyter road. Here on the 15th of July, 1874, was born of this marriage a daughter, Alice C., and later in the season and on the 28th of September, the young mother passed away leaving the new home lonely and desolate. Five years later and on the 2d of December, 1879, Charles R. married his second wife, Charlotte A. Taber, only daughter of B. W. and Amanda Taber, of Cazenovia, N. Y., and settled in his former home. The brothers Willess C., and Wilson L. Perkins, still reside at their old homestead and carry on their farm.


Company,) were anxious to embark in wild lands. They set out on a tour for that purpose and came up to old Fort Schuyler, (now Utica,) there they separated. Mr. Boon went northerly to view the lands twelve miles from Utica, and afterwards purchased 60,000 acres, and laid out a village, calling it Oldenbarnveldt, in honor to a great Dutch character of that name-now the village is called Trenton. Mr. Boon returned home and the late venerable and venerated Col. Mappa succeeded him in the agency. Mr. Lincklaen took a westerly direction from Utica and viewed the 'Road Township,' 6 (now Cazenovia,) and Township No. 1, now called Nelson, likewise the gore, now called De Ruyter, Lincklaen, Pitcher and Brakel, containing altogether 120,000 acres. Mr. Lincklaen informed me that he hired two hardy men to accompany him to explore his purchase and that they were eleven days in the wilderness; himself, then young and slender, enjoying excellent health and activity, and fond of being out planning improvements.

    "Messrs. Cazenove and Lincklaen observed to me 'as you have lately returned from a long tour to the southward, how would you like a northern one?' and made me proposals which I accepted. At this time I had just returned from nearly a two years' tour to the Natchez, accompanying a connection with a large family who had a contract with the Spanish Government, when Spain held that country. I met Mr. Lincklaen by appointment in New York in April, 1793. He requested me to purchase a large assortment of merchandise and every article that I thought would facilitate the settlers in a new country. The object was for the encouragement of settlers, and not for the profit of the store. We proceeded on to Utica. Here was the starting place. Fifteen hired men with a few days' provisions in their knapsacks and axes on their shoulders, a pair of oxen to a cart loaded with provisions for men and beast, implements of husbandry, &c, was sent on the Genesee road as far as Canasaraga. Mr. Lincklaen and myself on horseback in a few days accompanied the train. At Chittenango we left the Genesee road, turned south up the creek about one mile, following an Indian path zig zag up a heavy hill, the axe men widening the way so as to let the cart go on. By the time we arrived to the summit of the hill night overtook us. Now preparation was made for the night; the oxen made fast and the horses also, a large fire was made. The next thing to be done was to take out our jack-knives and the cook to exhibit his bread and raw pork. Each one catered for himself. Some eat the pork raw; some sharpened a long stick and put the pork upon it and roasted it in the fire. Next for sleeping; the trunk of a large tree was our headboard, our feet near the fire, and the ground our bed. We all arose early. After partaking our bread and pork, business commenced again with opening the cartway. The teamster said another yoke of oxen was necessary, so Mr. Lincklaen dispatched him back to Whitestown to buy them. Mr. Lincklaen then proposed for him and me to proceed on with one horse to the lake, as the teamster had my horse, we would 'ride and tie' and keep the Indian path, and leave the hands, supposing that by night they would come to us. On our arrival at the outlet at the south end of the lake, we discovered a small bark cabin and some signs of men. The horse 'Captain' was turned loose on the little prairie, the saddle and portmanteau, &c, laid in the hut. We strolled about, viewed the grounds, Mr. Lincklaen highly gratified to find it better for building than he expected. When night drew nigh we made for the bark cabin; presently three men cane in, total strangers. After the usual salutations they had recourse to their wallet and displayed their bread and raw pork; they, perceiving we could not follow suit, very kindly tendered to us their hospitality, which we very cordially accepted. We explained to them who we were and our situation and gave each other our respective names. They proved to be our near neighbors, living from three to five miles off, which in those days was considered near by. Their names was Joseph Atwell, Charles Roe and ---- Bartholomew, all from Pompey Hollow. No tidings from our people; sleeping hour has arrived, preparations for sleeping. The three strangers a foot on a fishing excursion. Mr. Lincklaen and myself had one saddle and portmanteau for our pillows, with 'Lion' near by, 'Captain' on the prairie. Before we awoke our fishermen took French leave of us. About 8 o'clock A.M., yet no tidings. Mr. Lincklaen concluded that it would be prudent for him to make back tracks to know the cause of the delay of the foresters, and leave 'Captain' and faithful 'Lion' with me. Now I am entirely alone in the wilderness in the north-west parts of Herkimer county, N.Y. About 10 A.M. I thought it would be prudent for me to follow Mr. Lincklaen. I took the bridle, caught the 'Captain,' and leading him to the hut, put saddle and the heavy portmanteau with $500 in silver on the horse. The money had depreciated, so that it could not here buy me a piece of bread. I commenced my retrograde movement, 'Lion' preceding me. I walked and led the horse; presently I beheld two men approaching me. On advancing to me they gave their names, Jedediah Jackson and Joseph Yaw, two commissioners appointed by a company in Vermont to go and 'spy out' the land in township No. I. They said they had met Mr. Lincklaen and that he referred them to me for further directions to the town now called Nelson. I had the pleasure about 2 P.M. to meet a man with a budget of eatables and drinkables which Mr. Lincklaen had sent me from our magazine cart. Our 'Lion's' olfactory nerves were so keen that he had to be held back by the collar till his turn came. The cause of this great delay was the breaking of the axletree of the cart near where we left it.

    "When all the men and cart arrived at the spot which Mr. Lincklaen had selected for the present location, being a little west of a small ravine, and nearly opposite where Ledyard Lincklaen, Esq., now resides, at the south end of the lake,7 the first business was to build a large log house, containing one room for a store, one for Mr. Lincklaen and one for a kitchen, and also another large one for a farm house. These men located in the beautiful white oak grove between the ravine and the outlet of the lake. A large warehouse in front of the store, and a few rods off was also determined on and subsequently built. These preparations for building were begun about the 8th day of May, 1793. * * *

    "Mr. Lincklaen expected that the Road Township * * * would have been surveyed and laid out in farm lots before he came on to open the sales. He dispatched James Green (the Major) with a pocket compass to direct him through the wilderness some forty miles to Oxford for Mr. Lock, the surveyor, to come immediately and lay out this township, Mr. Lincklaen having advertised that the first ten families who moved on should have one hundred acres of land for one dollar per acre. This generous proposal brought on very unexpectedly that number of families from adjacent towns between Utica and Cazenovia. Some fine young people, it was said, abbreviated their courtship to take advantage of these proposals. The workmen had not completed their log house when the families, or some of them, came on, and found no place to shelter them; but the workmen had the gallantry to give up the large tent for their accommodation and increased their exertions to shelter themselves in their own building.8 When Mr. Lock came on to survey the land, the woods were alive with settlers to pick their lots. Some were so fortunate as to secure berths in the surveyor's service, and deposited their money in the office till called for to apply on their purchases. As soon as the number of lots could be ascertained they would hasten to the office to have it entered. The competition became so great that the sales were suspended for a time for fear of making mistakes.9

    "The price of the land opened at one and a half dollars per acre, except as to the ten families above mentioned.

    "The terms of payment were ten dollars cash down, balance in ten years with annual interest, and conditioned for certain improvements. Two miles were reserved off the north end of Road Township, and laid out in ten acre lots for the benefit of the villagers. * * * I believe the village plat was not laid out until the next summer, 1794.10

    "It was first intended to lay out the village on the west bank of the lake; but the north line of the company went only to the north line of P.G. Childs, Esq.

    "Judge Wright, of Fort Stanwix, (now Rome,) began to lay out the village, but was called home before completion. After him the late Calvin Buiteau, Est., completed it. The village was named in honor of Theophilus Cazenove, Esq., the Holland Land Company's agent residing in Philadelphia. The location of the village must be regarded as a fortunate one, being almost surrounded by water, viz: the lake on the west and on the south by the outlet of the lake, which, uniting in the mill-pond with Chittenango creek, flows easterly and then northerly, furnishing a never-failing head of water, with a gentle fall of 700 feet within about eight miles, including, however, in the descent a beautiful cascade of about 140 feet, forming fine sites for hydraulic purposes, the whole distance having solid beds of stone and gravel and capable of propelling machinery at every few rods, which it seems your enterprising citizens have already to a considerable extent improved for years past, and new erections are of late being made, and all the distance made of easy access by a plant [now Macadamized] road through a valley which was formerly considered wholly waste land. The prospect now is that you will become a large manufacturing city that will vie with Lowell.

* * * * * * * * *

    "* * * of all the little group of sixteen or seventeen who encamped in the woods on Chittenango Hill about the 6th or 7th of May, 1793, I don't know that another lives. Probably not, Col. Lincklaen and myself being perhaps nearly the youngest. Among these were James Smith, Michael Day, John Wilson, James Green, David Fay, Stephen F. Blackstone, Philemon Tuttle, David Freeborn, Gideon Freeborn and Asa C. Towns."

    In 1794 Mr. Lincklaen built a saw and grist-mill, each of which was the first of its kind in the town. The latter stood on Chittenango creek, about a quarter of a mile above its junction with the outlet of the lake, just below the steep bank contiguous to the residence of George S. Ledyard. This mill was sold by the company to Dr. Jonas Fay, and was soon after burned, together with a brewery and distillery. Afterwards the site of S. F. Chaphe's mill was occupied.

    Mr. Lincklaen, who died of a paralytic affection, Feb. 9, 1822, aged 53, was succeeded in the agency of the Holland Company's lands by his adopted son, Jonathan Denise Ledyard, who, in 1822, purchased the unsold lands belonging to that company, and was for seventy-six years a resident of Cazenovia and prominently identified with all its substantial interests till his death, Jan. 7, 1874.11

    Major Samuel S. Forman continued for several years to be a prominent and influential merchant in Cazenovia, at first as a partner with the Holland Land Co., though for a time without his knowledge, and subsequently taking their store upon his own account. He was the third son of Samuel and Helena (Denise) Forman, and was born at Middletown Point, N.J. July 21, 1765.12 He attended a Latin or Grammar school at Freehold till the close of the Revolution, and immediately after engaged as a clerk in a mercantile business conducted by his uncle Lieut. Col. Forman, and brother-in-law, Major Burrows. After a brief engagement he entered the employ of his brother-in-law, Major Ledyard, and Col. Benjamin Walker, who were co-partners in a wholesale hardware and commission business in New York City. During his five years' service here he was sent as supercargo of a vessel to Charleston. He was afterwards engaged in mercantile business on his own account at Middletown Point, but abandoned that in 1789 to join in the expedition to Natchez as stated in his narrative. Having organized a military company at Cazenovia, he was appointed by Gov. Jay, Major of the regiment to which it was attached. While residing here he held many places of private and public trust. In 1808 he was married to Miss Sarah McCarty, of Salina. His only children were a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Mary Euphemia, wife of Dr. Abraham Van Gaasbeck, of Syracuse. Major Forman had an extensive acquaintance with public men, and was related by birth and marriage to many persons of distinction. He removed to Onondaga county and died at the residence of his daughter in Syracuse, Aug. 18, 1862.

    Jonathan Forman, an elder brother of Major Samuel S. Forman, was born Oct. 16, 1755. He was an early resident of Cazenovia, and the first to take up land in the town of Nelson. He took up three lots lying just south-west of Erieville, which is located on lot 145, but he never settled on them. Eldad and Lemuel Richardson cleared the required six acres. He was a Lieut-Col. In the American army during the Revolution, and a Brig-Genl. Of Militia in this State. He was prominent in military matters and was active in organizing the militia brigade of Madison county. He afterwards located at Pompey Hollow, and died May 25, 1809. His wife Mary Ledyard, was born Sept. 5, 1758, and died May 31, 1806. He was the grandfather of Gov. Horatio Seymour, and a relative of Hon. Joshua Forman, the founder of Syracuse.

    Other settlers of 1793 were Archibald Bates, Day Fay, William Miles, Noah Taylor, Isaac Nichols, Ira Peck, Nathan Webb, Shubael Brooks, Samuel Tyler, ____ Augur. Bates was one of the party who accompanied Mr. Lincklaen. He took up a farm about two miles east of Cazenovia and died there, he and his wife. His youngest son, John, is living in Chittenango. Day Fay also accompanied Lincklaen, and settled in the same locality as Bates, where Cyrenus S. Smith now lives. He died Oct. 29, 1826, aged 64, and Mercy, his wife, Nov. 5, 1843, aged 82. Asa Fay, brother to David, settled in the same locality, where the Mulligan's now live, and died July 8, 1861, aged 88, and Sarah, his wife, March 26, 1866, aged 82. William Miles settled in the south part of the town. Noah Taylor's wife was the first white woman to settle in the town. Isaac Nichols, who, like Taylor, accompanied Mr. Lincklaen, settled on the east shore of the lake. His daughter Millison, who was born Aug. 8, 1793, was the first child born in the town.

    Lewis Stanley and David Smith joined the settlements in 1794. Stanley came in with his father's family from Hartford, Conn., and settled near the village of Cazenovia, where he died April 30, 1857, aged 76. His first wife, Betsey Smith, died Jan. 30, 1830, aged 39; and his second wife, Maria Dunbar, who was born in Ashfield, Mass., Sept. 27, 1805, died Jan. 7, 1868. Mr. Stanley was a prominent and active member of the Methodist church and a warm friend of Cazenovia Seminary.

    David Smith was a native of Massachusetts, and came here from Clinton, where he settled with his parents at the age of seventeen. He located about a mile south of New Woodstock, on the farm now owned and occupied by Luther Hunt. He took up 150 acres, but soon after sold 50 acres to Edward Curtis, who came in a little later from the Eastern States. Smith built in 1817 or '18 the hotel in New Woodstock now occupied by Chauncey J. Cook, and in 1818 removed to the village and kept that hotel, till the spring of 1831. He was succeeded by his son Erastus and his brother-in-law, Asa Merrill, who kept it two years, when Jonathan and Jerman Smith, brothers of Erastus, took it. Jerman died Jan. 18, 1836, aged 23, and after a few years, Artemas and Orrin Smith, two other brothers, took charge of it, Artemas continuing till his death, and Orrin for some time after alone. David continued to reside in the village, working a small farm, till his death, July 7, 1844, aged 72. He married here Betsey, daughter of Thomas Merrick, who died Nov. 26, 1846, aged 72.

    Jonathan Smith, brother to David, came from Clinton a year or two after him. He settled in the west part of the village of New Woodstock. He took up 150 acres, which embraced the whole of that portion of the village lying south of the Hamilton and Skaneateles turnpike. He built the house now owned by Silas E. Morse and occupied as a tenement house. It was the first tavern in the village, and was kept by him for many years. He had three wives but no children. After the death of his third wife, in Rochester, he went to Ohio on a visit and died there.

    Settlements were made about this time by Charelvell Webber, William Simms and Isaac Morse, at New Woodstock. Webber died April 4, 1811, aged 41. Chandler Webber, another early settler in this locality died June 13, 1837, aged 78, and Beulah, his wife, Jan. 1, 1831, aged 63. Isaac Morse died Sept. 24, 1858, aged 86, and Salley, his wife, Jan 4, 1860, aged 77.

    Abraham Tillotson came from Hebron, Conn., in 1795, and settled two miles south of Cazenovia village, where Gardner Perkins now lives. A few months later he removed to the locality known as Pompey East Hollow, about two miles west of Cazenovia village, on the farm now owned and occupied by Charles Hunt, (but forming only a portion of Hunt's farm,) where he was engaged in farming and brick making some twenty years, the latter part of the time in company with his son Ephraim. He resided there till his death. He had five children who mostly married and settled in the town; but not one is living. Four of Ephraim's children are living in Cazenovia, Jabez, Ephraim B., A. Wheeler and Mrs. Orange Atwell. None of the other descendants are living in this locality.

    Walter Childs came from Woodstock, Conn., his native place, in 1796, and took up 100 acres on the west side of Cazenovia Lake, on the turnpike from Cazenovia to Manlius, four miles west of Cazenovia, on the farm now occupied by Mr. Norton, where he died Dec. 14, 1857, aged 81. After working here two summers he returned to Connecticut and married Rhoda Burley, of Union, Conn., and with her returned to Cazenovia in 1798. She died April 1, 1839, aged 58. They had six children, all of whom, except Willard T., who died in infancy, and Aldis, who is now residing in Danforth, a suburb of Syracuse, married and settled in Cazenovia. Only one other is living, Thomas, a carpenter and joiner, in Cazenovia village.

    Jacob Ten Eyck, a native of Albany, removed thence in 1797 to Cazenovia, and engaged as a clerk in the store of Samuel S. Forman, where he remained six or eight years, when he engaged in mercantile business on his own account, continuing till about 1830, during the time carrying on also several stores in Chautauqua county. He then retired from business and succeeded Perry G. Childs as President of the Madison County Bank, which office he held during the further continuance of the bank, till the expiration of its charter. Mr. Ten Eyck came here when about twelve years old, and married here Miss Betsey, daughter of Joseph Burr, of Cazenovia, a native of Hartford, Conn., by whom he had three children, Mary A., Henry and Elizabeth, the latter of whom died unmarried July 6, 1853, aged 29. Mr. Ten Eyck and his wife died of yellow fever in Savannah, in 1853, the former on the 6th and the latter on the 3rd of May, both at the age of 67.

    Jeduthan Perkins settled previous to 1800 in what was known from him as the Perkins' district, south of Cazenovia, and raised up a prominent and influential family. Francis Norton came from Connecticut in 1800, and about 1810 or '12 removed to the south part of the town of Nelson, locating on the Daniel Moore farm, where he died June 8, 1858, aged 80, and Sally, his wife, Sept. 7, 1863, aged 81. James Covell settled about 1800 in the north edge of the town on the farm which is in part occupied by Dr. T. L. Harris. He removed about 1828 or '30 to Chautauqua county and died there. Hendrick DeClercq, a native of Amsterdam, Holland, settled in the town in 1800. His wife, Mary Ledyard, came here form Connecticut on horseback in 1798, and lived to a very advanced age. Her father, G. S. Ledyard, and his kinsman Colonel Ledyard, were killed in the massacre of Fort Griswold, at Groton, in the Revolutionary war. Levi Burgess was another settler of this year, (1800). He died Sept. 22, 1862, aged 91, and Ruth, his wife, Jan. 15, 1858, aged 81.

    Joseph Holmes, a native of Munson, Mass., came here from Chesterfield county, N.H., in 1891, and settled in the locality of New Woodstock, where he died Oct. 15, 1859, aged 80, and Sally, his wife, June 8, 1849, aged 68. Caleb VanRiper settled the same year at the head of the lake, where he carried on the tanning business, and died Jan. 9, 1845, aged 81, and Phebe, his wife, June 28, 1847, aged 75. The tannery has long since disappeared, likewise the saw-mill which was afterwards built in the same locality.

    Edward Parker and Phineas Southwell, originally from Massachusetts, came from Boonsville, Oneida county, in 1802, and settled at the head of the lake. Parker died Aug. 20, 1840, aged 80, and Rebecca, his wife, Sept. 9, 1829, aged 67. On Southwell's farm was an Indian clearing of some fifteen acres, which bore evidence of recent cultivation. This farm has yielded many aboriginal relics.

    Robert Fisher and Isaac Warren came about 1803, and settled in New Woodstock. Fisher, where James Tucker now lives, and Warren, where Ezra Webber now lives. Warren afterwards removed to and died in De Ruyter, where the only one of his children living, Eli, now resides. John Savage settled in this village a little later. He took up some fifty acres, including the land on which the Baptist meeting-house now stands. His house stood a little north-west of the church. He was a carpenter and joiner, and resided here till his death, Aug. 10, 1851, aged 88. Elizabeth, his wife, died Aug. 31, 1826, aged 53.

    Samuel Thomas came from Litchfield, Conn., in 1804, and located in Cazenovia village, where he carried on the harness-making business till his death, March 12, 1861, aged 80. His eldest son, Samuel, who had been in company with him from about 1832, succeeded him, and, with the exception of some four years spent in the town of Pompey, continued the business here till his death, June 26, 1870, aged 61, when his son, H. Birney Thomas, who became associated with him in 1868, succeeded to and still carries on the business.

    Deacon Isaiah Dean and his wife, Nancy, came this same year, (1804,) from Galway, Saratoga county, and took up a farm on the west line of the town, in Pompey East Hollow, where William Hunt now lives, and where both died, the Deacon in January, 1873, and his wife, April 25, 1866. They had six children.

    William Moore, a native of Connecticut, came from Western, Mass., in January, 1805, and settled about three miles south of Cazenovia village, on the farm owned then and till his death (April 20, 1849, aged 70,) by his brother-in-law, Daniel Damon, who came here from Western, Mass., a few years previously. Moore came with his wife, Polly Damon, by whom he had four children, all of whom were born in this county. Moore removed after a few years to Smithfield, and thence in 1814 to Nelson, where he died July 18, 1853, aged 78, and his wife, Jan. 29, 1854, aged 79. Daniel Damon married here Kezia Litchfield, of Cazenovia, and died on the farm on which both resided till their death, Feb. 14, 1832, aged 44.

    Christopher Webb came from Canterbury, Conn., in 1860, and settled on lot 29. He died March 1, 1837, aged 82, and Mary, his wife, May 4, 1831, aged 65.

    Ebenezer Knowlton came from Dartmouth, N.H., in 1806, with his wife, Ruth Smalley, and one child, Edmond, and settled in Cazenovia village, where he carried on chair making, the manufacture of linseed oil and pointing till his death, Jan. 28, 1842, at the age of 72. His oil mill, which was established in 1815, was the first in this section of the country, and was continued in operation till about 1848, by his eldest son Edmond, who still resides in Cazenovia. The chair business to which he succeeded was established at a very early day by Nehemiah White, and was discontinued with the oil-mill.

    Rev. Roswell Beckwith, a Baptist clergyman, of Lyme, Conn., where Jan. 13, 1780, he married Lydia Dow, a native of that place, where all their children were born, removed thence in 1795 to Coeymans, and thence in 1807 to Cazenovia, where he died Feb. 2, 1836, aged 82, and his wife, April 16, 1834, aged 78.

    Bishop Tucker came from New Jersey soon after 1800, and settled in the south-east part of the town, about two miles east of New Woodstock, on the farm on a portion of which James Ryan now lives, and resided there till his death. His children married and settled on adjoining farms in the same locality, and most of them died there.

    Other early settlers were Abiel Ainsworth, and Reuben Bryant. Ainsworth was for many years a deacon in the Baptist church in Cazenovia, where he died at a very advanced age. He was twice married and had six children, five of whom are living, but none of them in this county. His son, S. C. Ainsworth, was for several years pastor of the Baptist church of Brookfield and subsequently of the church in Earlville. Reuben Bryant settled a mile east of Cazenovia, where Robert Tackabury now lives.

    TOWN OFFICERS.13 --- The following are the officers of Cazenovia in 1880:--

    Supervisor---J. Harvey Nourse.
    Clerk---Jesse W. Hall.
    Justices---Edgar N. Wilson, George H. Benjamin, Gilbert S. Poole, Lysander Nourse.
    Assessors---George H. Atwell, J.J. Morse, Harrison L. Wellington.
    Commissioners of Highways---William C. Sherman, N. L. Webber, O. P. Ferry.
    Overseers of the Poor---E. B. Tillottson, Ezra Webber.
    Constables---Benjamin T. Ball, Matthew Moochler, Harrison Rathbun, Merrill C. Wood.
    Collector---Benjamin T. Ball.
    Inspectors of Election---District No. 1-Byron A. Cargille, Charles A. Fox, Charles H. Post. District No. 2-W. A. Crandall, Burr Wendell, John Fairchild. District No. 3-J. C. Tillotson, J. T. Reynolds, B. H. Stanley.
    Sealer of Weights and Measures---Eber D. Peet.
    Game Constable---William B. Downer.
    Excise Commissioners---Edmond Flanagan, B. H. Stanley, Stephen Newton.

CAZENOVIA.

    Cazenovia is beautifully situated on Chittenango creek, on the east shore and at the foot of the pretty lake of the same name. It is the seat of wealth, culture and refinement, and these combined with its natural attractions, and eligible location, make it a favorite and much frequented summer resort. It lies a little north-east of the center of the town. The Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad (Cazenovia and Canastota) passes centrally through it and the Syracuse and Chenango Valley Railroad contiguous to it, opening up ample railroad communication. The former connects with the New York Central at Canastota, its northern terminus, with the Delaware, Lackawana and Western Railroad at Cortland, and the Erie Road at Elmira, three great popular thoroughfares; while the latter connects with the first two roads at Syracuse and with the New York, Ontario and Western Railroad (Midland) at Earlville.

    It contains six churches,14 the Central New York Conference Seminary, a union free school, three hotels,15 a printing office,16 a private bank, several stores,17 a manufactory of mowing machines, a sash, door and blind factory, a woolen-mill, a flouring-mill, planning-mill, saw and planning-mill, a planning-mill and cabinet shop, a manufactory of glass ball traps, a foundry, various mechanic shops, and a population of nearly 2,000.

    The name of the village, like that of the town, perpetuates the memory of Mr. Cazenove, the agent of the Holland Land Company, and was incorporated under its present name Feb. 7, 1810. 18 The first corporation meeting was held May 1, 1810, at the house of E. S. Jackson, in said village. Elisha Farnham, one of the justices of the town, presided, and A. D. VanHorne was appointed clerk. The following named officers were then elected: Elisha Farnham, P. G. Childs, Jonas Fay, E. S. Jackson and Samuel Thomas, Trustees; J. N. M. Hurd, Treasurer; Jacob A. Dana, Bailiff and Collector. At a meeting of the trustees held at the same place May 9, 1810, Jonas Fay was elected President and Caleb Ledyard, Clerk.

    The following are the officers of Cazenovia village in 1880:--

    Trustees---E. B. Knowlton, W. W. Watkins, Burr Wendell.
    President---I. Newton Goff.
    Clerk---W. D. Wells.

    The following have been the Presidents and Clerks of Cazenovia village from 1810 to 1880:--


PRESIDENTS.CLERKS.
1810.Jonas Fay.Caleb Ledyard.
1811.Samuel S. Forman.do.
1812-'13.Jabish N. M. Hurd.Edward S. Stewart.
1814.do.Charles Stebbins.
1815.Noble S. Johnson.do.
1816.John Williams.do.
1817.Ezekiel Carpenter.do.
1818.William Whipple.do.
1819.Matthew Chandler.do.
1820.Samuel Thomas.do.
1821.Ezeliel Carpenter.do.
1822.Zadock Sweetland.Samuel Thomas.
1823,'5.Perry G. Childs.do.
1824,'6.Charles Stebbins.do.
1827.Ebenezer Knowlton.do.
1828.John Williams.do.
1829.Jesse Kilborn.William J. Hough.
1830-'1.Ezeliel Carpenter.do.
1832.Lemuel White.do.
1833.E. Carpenter.do.
1834-'5.John Williams.Chas. H. S. Williams19
1836.William Burton.William J. Hough.
1837.do.Sidney T. Fairchild.
1838.William J. Hough.do.
1839.Benjamin F. Clarke.do.
1840.do.Calvin Carpenter.
1841.William J. Hough.Calvin Carpenter.20
1842.Rensselaer Jackson.do.
1843.S. H. Henry.do.
1844.Simon C. Hitchcock.Calvin Carpenter.
1845.Henry TenEyck.do.
1846.Sidney T. Fairchild.Richard Thomas.
1847-'8.William Burton.do.
1849.S. H. Henry.do.
1850.S. C. Hitchcock.do.
1851-'6.Elisha Litchfield. do.
1857.Lewis Raynor.George L. Rouse.
1858.Lewis B. Stone.Charles Stebbins.
1859.B. Rush Wendell.do.
1860.William L. Storke.Charles Stebbins, Jr.
1861,'3.Lewis B. Stone.do.21
1862.do.L. Wolters Ledyard.
1864.D. Eralzman Haskell.Delos W. Cameron.
1865.Albert Card.do.
1866.Lewis B. Stone.22Charles Stebbins, Jr.
1867.Charles Stebbins, Jr.Geo. M. Weaver.
1868.do.John Fairchild.
1869-'70.Martin Spear.D. W. Cameron.
1871.Orrin W. Sage.do.
1872.George L. Rouse.do.
1873.23Everet S. Card.J. W. Howson.24
1874.Winfield S. Smyth.Augustus P. Clarke.
1875.George S. Ledyard.John C. Fowler.25
1876.William M. Burr.H. B. Smith.
1877-'8.do.W. D. Wells
1879.R. J. Hubbard.do.
1880.I. Newton Goff.do.

    MERCHANTS.-The first merchant in Cazenovia was Samuel S. Forman, who, was we have seen, came here with John Lincklaen in 1793, in the employ of the Holland Land Company. The first store, a compartment of the first log building erected, stood at the foot of the lake, near the residence of Mr. L. W. Ledyard.

    The following is a copy of the contract entered into between Mr. Lincklaen and himself, the original of which is in the possession of the Messrs. Ledyard:--

    "Articles of agreement made and concluded on in Philadelphia this seventeenth day of March, 1793, between Mr. Jno. Lincklaen of the one part and Samuel S. Forman of the other part, viz: the said Forman engages to go with the said Lincklaen in the back parts of the State of New York, to form a settlement and take charge of all merchandize as is assigned to him, transact the business under the directions of said Lincklaen, and in his absence said Forman to superintend generally the business to the best of his abilities.


    Linus Montague was a native of Cazenovia, Madison county, N. Y., born July 22, 1799. One of a family of eleven children, of Oreb and Lydia (Annis) Montague, who settled in Cazenovia about 1796. Of the large family of children but one is not living—the youngest son, Oreb, who is a Baptist clergyman residing in Wisconsin. Linus Montague worked on his father’s farm until 1824, when he married Miss Harriet Abbey, daughter of Theodore and Abigail (Porter) Abbey. She was born Sept. 6, 1796, in Connecticut, and came with her parents to Cazenovia in 1801.

    They were born, the father in 1769, and died in 1812, the mother born in 1774, and died in 1811. They had a family of eight children, three sons and five daughters, of whom only two daughters are now living. Mrs. Montague and her youngest sister, Susannah, who married John Forshey, and is now living in Augusta, Mich. After Mr. Montague’s marriage he took the entire management of the farm, his father living with him until his death, which occurred in 1825, the mother having died two years previous. He carried on farming until 1842 when he came to live in Cazenovia village where he was engaged in the marble business for several years. After retiring from that he was engaged in various enterprises until 1860, when he retired from active business.

    To Mr. And Mrs. Montague were born three children, Richard Porter, born June 4, 1825, nor living in Cazenovia, Wilfred Weed, born Oct. 5, 1827, now living in San Francisco. In 1862 he married Elizabeth (Gray) Southworth, a native of New York city, but at the time of their marriage a resident of San Francisco. Harriet Louise, born Nov. 24, 1832, married R. R. Robertson, of Syracuse, Sept. 12, 1862.

    Linus Montague died Feb. 15, 1879. In early life he became identified with the Presbyterian church at Cazenovia, and until his death was a constant, earnest member, holding the office of Elder in the church for many years. Zealous in its interests, he was unceasing in his endeavors for the advancement of religion. He was a staunch Republican and an active supporter of that party. A man fond of reading and deeply interested in all articles of a public character.

    His venerable widow, now in her eighty-fourth year, retains possession of her faculties to a remarkable degree, and bids fair to live and be a comfort and blessing to her children for many years. She also is a member of the Presbyterian church as Cazenovia.

    The second son, Wilfred Weed is engaged in the hardware business in San Francisco. The firm is W. W. Montague & Co., 110, 112, and 114 Battery street, San Francisco, with an office at 54 Cliff street, New York city.

    He also owns and runs a large ranch of several hundred acres about fifty miles from San Francisco, and is one of the most prominent among California’s prominent men.


    "The said Lincklaen on his part engages to pay the said Forman for his services Five hundred Spanish Milled Dollars per annum; one-half payable in six months from the commencement of the year, and the other half at the expiration thereof, in the city of New York, or the place of establishing the business, to be a the said Forman's option. Also the said Lincklaen engages to pay all* expenses of said Forman, viz: Travelling expenses, boarding, washing, lodging and every other expense that unavoidable accrues while in the employ of said Lincklaen, and also will further give said Foreman one hundred acres of land within the Township where the store and settlement is to be fixed.

    "This agreement to continue for one year only, commencing on the twenty-fifth day of March instant in New York-the said Forman agrees to give up the said Land if the parties hereof do not agree for more than one year, or said Forman do not put a settler on it-the said Lincklaen agrees to pay said Forman's expenses back to New York (City) on the dissolution of their agreement.

    "In Witness whereof, the Parties here hereunto interchangeably set their hands & seals, the day and year first above written.


"Signed, sealed and }	"N. B.  The word all [which
Delivered in the     >	we have marked with an * for
Presence of          }   convenience of reference] in
Morey & Co,		the twentieth line from the top
P. Jacob Schwartze."26 on the preceding side was in-
					terlined before the signing."
						"J. Lincklaen Antz."
						"Samuel S. Forman."

    Mr. Forman subsequently, at the suggestion of the company took the store upon his own responsibility, and traded here some thirty years. The building he last occupied as a store, on the south-west corner of the square, is still standing, and is occupied as a dwelling by A. T. Cross. From here he removed to Peterboro and afterwards to Syracuse, where he died at an advanced age.

    Jabish N. M. Hurd, who came here about 1800, was a rival merchant of Mr. Forman's. His store was located on the north-west corner of the square, on the lot now occupied by the residence of Mrs. Alvin Foord, next to the Presbyterian church. Mr. Hurd traded here till about 1827, when he removed to Albany and died there. Eliakim Roberts was contemporary with Hurd, and was trading here as early as 1803. He occupied the south-east corner of the square, where the Lake House now stands. Jacob TenEyck engaged in mercantile business about 1804 or '05. He developed an extensive business, which he continued till about 1830.

    Jesse Kilborn was born in Litchfield, Conn., Aug. 8, 1778, married Abigail Ward of that town, and in 1806 removed to Cazenovia, where he engaged in mercantile business, which he continued till his death, May 14,1842. After having held various minor public and private trusts he was elected to the Assembly from this county in 1832.

    William M. and Joseph Burr, brothers, came from Hartford, Conn., their native place, in the fall of 1811, and opened a store on the site of the Burr Block. They did an extensive business, continuing till near the death of Joseph, who removed to Ludlowville, and died there soon after.

    Benjamin T. Clarks was another of Cazenovia's most enterprising merchants. He came here at an early day and traded for many years on the corner of Albany and Mill Streets. He was born in 1797 and died in 1875, though he had retired from mercantile business some years previous to his death. John Williams was engaged in mercantile business here from 1815 to 1847, and as merchant and manufacturer he was for a long series of years one of Cazenovia's most energetic and valued business men.27 In 1847 he sold his mercantile business to Henry Nichols and Samuel D. Clark, who traded but a few years. Thomas P. Bishop engaged in mercantile business about the same period as Coman, perhaps a little earlier. He was a prominent and influential man, and was a Member of Assembly from this county in 1857. He traded here some forty years, and sold in 1866 to John Richard Watts and Rollin Knox Blair, who traded about six years, when Watts bought his partner's interest, and some ten months after associated with himself as partner Eber Peet, to whose father, Eber Peet, Watts sold after about two years. About a year later the elder Peet sold to his son and partner, who in October, 1878, sold to John Richard Watts and Peter Powell Cobb, who still continue the business under the name of Watts & Cobb.

    E. B. and E. D. Litchfield, brothers of Elisha C. Litchfield, and natives of Onondaga county, were engaged in mercantile business here in company from about 1833 to 1840, when they removed to New York. William Greenland, and his son William S., came from New York in 1834, and commenced the merchant tailoring business, which they continued in company till the death of the elder Greenland, Dec. 26, 1866, aged 72, since which time William S. Greenland has continued the business alone. Burton & Perkins commenced dealing in stoves and tinware about 1834, and after trading some ten years, sold to George C. Brown, who, in 1848, associated with himself as partner, his brother Charles. They traded in company till the death of George C., June 30, 1871, aged 47, since which time Charles Brown has continued the business alone.

    In 1834 William Mills, Charles Crandall and Frank Mosely, under the name of Mills, Crandall & Moseley, established a book-store in Cazenovia, carrying on at the same time an extensive business in the publication of school books. They continued some twenty years, when Moseley retired and went to Janesville, Wis. Mills retired a year or two later and went to Syracuse. Crandall continued the business till about the opening of the war, when he sold to Chester L. Chappell & Son, who, some three years later, sold an interest to John Annas, who retired after about a year. In 1866, William Winthrop Watkins bought an interest with Chappell & Son, and within a year purchased the remaining interest, since which time he has carried on the business alone.

    John C. Reymon, clothier, came here from Syracuse and commenced business in 1841, having since continued it. L.G. Wells came here with his parents from Pompey, in 1830, and in 1842 established himself in business as a furniture dealer and undertaker, continuing till Oct. 10, 1878, when he transferred the business to his sons, Dwight W. and Edward G., who still continue under the name of L. G. Wells' Sons.

    Henry Groff, general merchant, a native of Herkimer county, commenced business in 1844, in company with Arnold Woodward, under the name of Woodward & Groff.

    John Hobbie came from Truxton in 1840, and having clerked five years with Litchfield & Ten Eyck and Coman & Loomis, in 1845 formed a co-partnership with Benjamin T. Clarke, with whom he traded six years under the name of Clarke & Hobbie, when Samuel D. Clarke, son of Benjamin T., purchased his father's interest. In 1856, Benjamin T. Clarke and George L. Rouse purchased Samuel D. Clarke's interest, and the business was conducted under the name of Hobbie, Rouse & Co. till about 1867, when George L. Rouse, who is a native of Cazenovia, purchased Clarke's interest. The firm then became and has since remained Hobbie & Rouse.

    The other merchants now doing business here are: George Morse, dealer in drugs and paints, who commenced business in 1847, in company with John F. Irons, whose interest he purchased at the expiration of two years; Andrew Dardis, dealer in boots and shoes who emigrated from Ireland to Cazenovia in 1853, and in 1855 engaged in mercantile business here; Ebenezer B. Knowlton, a native of Cazenovia, who commenced the jewelry business about 1848, and has since continued it; E. A. Blair, dealer in harness, trunks, &c., who commenced business in March, 1863, at which time he bought out T. S. Whitnall; Bowman H. Stanley, grocer, who commenced business in 1863 in company with his brother Benjamin F., to whom he sold after a year, and of whom he purchased again in 1866, having since been associated two years from March, 1877, with his son, C. M. Stanley; Tillotson, & Nichols, (L. B. Tillotson and E. R. Nichols,) general merchants, successors to a business established about 1861 or '62 by J. D. Beach, from New York; H. Birney Thomas, dealer in harness, trunks, &c., to whom reference is made in connection with the early settlements; David F. Dean, dealer in groceries, millinery and ladies' furnishing goods, who, in 1869, in company with his brother James C. Dean, bought out Jesse W. Hall; Will H. Crittenden, jeweler, a native of Cazenovia, who commenced business in April, 1870; Colton & Webber, (Henry H. Colton and Wm. H. Webber,) hardware merchants, who commenced business Aug. 1, 1877-Colton had previously carried on the same business in company with Henry. A. Johnson and H. H. Hannam, under the name of Colton, Johnson & Co.; Nichols & Covell, (Joseph Nichols and Charles W. Covell,) clothiers, who commenced business in 1871; Wells Bros. (John Aldrich and W. DeLos,) general merchants, natives of Nelson, whence they removed in childhood with their parents to Cazenovia, and commenced business in 1873-J. W. T. Rice's parents came from Conway, Mass., to Cazenovia, in 1813; Henry A. Rouse, general merchant, a native of Avoca, Steuben county, came to Cazenovia with his parents in 1836, and commenced business in April, 1876; Mrs. L. M. White, milliner, from Utica, commenced business in April, 1876; Samuel T. Jackson, dealer in hats and caps, who commenced business in March, 1877, in company with his cousin, Frank E. Jackson, to whom he sold April 1, 1879, and opened his present store June 1st following; Frank E. Jackson still carries on the business of hats, caps, boots and shoes; A. E. Nettleton & Co., (G. E. Prosser,) boot and shoe dealers, and natives of Fulton; Isaac L. DeClercq, grocer, who commenced business Dec. 21, 1878, at which time he bought out W. B. Noxon, who traded some two or three years; M. L. Savage, milliner, from Cooperstown, who commenced business in April, 1878; Jesse W. Hall, jeweler, a native of New Berlin, who commenced business to March, 1878, at which time he bought out John Greenland, who did business here some twenty years; William Donnelly, grocer, who commenced business in March, 1878; Severe Dorion, druggist, a native of Syracuse, who commenced business April 1, 1879, at which time he bought out H. M. Cushing, who had traded some five years; E. C. Hackley, confectioner, a native of Cazenovia, who commenced business Oct. 30, 1879; and C. M. Stanley, confectioner; who commenced business in October, 1879, having previously been in company a few years with his father, Bowman H. Stanley.

    POSTMASTERS. --- The post-office at Cazenovia is said to have been established and maintained by John Lincklaen at his own expense till its revenue made it self-supporting. How long it was maintained in this manner we are not advised; but as early as 1800 it was received under Government patronage, as it shown by the following documents, the originals of which are preserved at the post-office:--

    "P.O. at Cazenovia, N. Y., in Acct. current with the General P.O. from 1st Oct, 1799, to 1st Jan'y, 1800:--


DR.

"Topostage of letters which remained in office last qr$  1.56½
"postage of unpaid letters received from other offices this qr 18.68
"postage of letters undercharged from other offices this qr .12 ½
"postage of paid letters sent from this office this qr33.59 ½


$53.96 ½
"Tobalance as above, being amount of postage collected on letters this qr 51.66 ½
"amount of postage on newspapers and pamphlets this qr.96


52.62 ½

CR.

"Bypostage of letters overcharged and sent this qr $    .58
"postage of letters now remaining in this office1.72
"balance carried down51.66 ½


53.96 ½
"ByComs. On 51 D. 66 ½ c. Letter Postage, at 30 per cent $15.50
"Coms. On ---- D. 96 c. Newspaper Postage at 50 per cent   .48


15.98
"bal. Due to the General P.O. paid Mr. Lincklaen, Esq.,
as per receipt
36.64 ½

E. E. Jan'y 1, 180052.62 ½
    S. S. F., P. M.

    " Rec'd Cazenovia, Dec. 31, 1800, of Samuel S. Forman, P. M., in this place, thirty dollars and ninety-two cents, being the balance due this qr. As per acct.

"J. LINCKLAEN."

    The office was kept in Mr. Forman's store, and was removed as early as 1803 to the store of Jabish N. M. Hurd, who was then the postmaster. He was succeeded in 1821 by Jesse Kilborn, who held it nineteen years, Judge Justin Dwinelle, who held it about two years, William Phillips, who held it a short interval, Renesselaer Jackson, till 1853, George Brown, from 1853 to 1861, Seneca Lake, C. Hyde Beckwith, who held it about sic months, but was not confirmed by the Senate, E. Bowen Crandall, who was appointed in April, 1867, and John H. Howson, the present incumbent, who was appointed March 28, 1871.

    PHYSICIANS.---The first physician to locate at Cazenovia was Isaac Lyman, who came from Northampton county, Mass., as early as 1799,28 and practiced here till his death, Oct. 20, 1854, aged 85. He resided where Rollo Mitchell now lives. He married here Mary, daughter of Rev. Joshua Leonard, who died July 5, 1846, aged 63.

    Theophilus Wilson, a native of Acworth, N. H., established himself in practice here in 1814, having then recently graduated at Dartmouth University; but had only just entered upon a promising practice when he was stricken down by death, caused by taking corrosive sublimate which was handed him by his sister by mistake for cream of tarter. Death ensued April 6, 1815, at the age of thirty. He was highly esteemed.

    Jonathan Silsby, a native of Acworth, N. H., educated at Dartmouth College, came here soon after the death of Dr. Wilson and practiced till his death, June 1, 1831, aged 44.

    David Mitchell was born in Westmoreland, N. H., May 1, 1795, and was graduated from Amherst College. He studied medicine in New Hampshire, and in 1816 removed to Madison county, settling and practicing one year in the town of Nelson. In 1817 he located at Cazenovia, where he practiced till his death, Aug. 31, 1873. He married, in 1817, Sarah, daughter of Siva Coman, who still survives him, and is living in Cazenovia.

    Alvin Foord was born in Montpelier, Vt., Jan. 1, 1799, and was graduated from the medical department of Dartmouth College. In 1828 he removed from his native place to Cazenovia, where he practiced his profession till within a few months of his death, which occurred April 16, 1877. Josiah Knowlton came from Fairfield, N. Y., about the same time as Dr. Foord and practiced here till about 1843, when he removed to Batavia and died there.

    Dr. Fordyce Rice was the son of Isaac Rice, who was born in Conway, Mass., Oct 18, 1773, and emigrated to Cazenovia in May, 1813, and who settled three miles south of Cazenovia village, on the farm now occupied by E. S. Perkins. He was a farmer and cattle dealer, and died in Cazenovia village, Jan. 5, 1852, aged 78, and his wife, Anna Ware, Dec. 19, 1861, aged 82. He had twelve children. Dr. Fordyce Rice was born in Conway, Mass., and came with his parents to Cazenovia in 1813. He commenced the study of medicine about 1832, with Dr. Abel, of Utica. He commenced the practice of his profession here about 1835, continuing till 1862, when he removed to Iowa, where he now resides. E. M. Adams was practicing here in 1847, and continued several years. He left soon after the death of his wife. John K. Chamberlayne came from Mr. Upton about 1848, his grand-parents having been among the first settlers in the town of Guilford. He practiced here till 1870 and removed to Utica, where he is now practicing. Stephen M. Potter was practicing here as early as 1839. He is a native of Galway, Saratoga county, and came here from Orleans county. He removed to Pompey about 1867, and subsequently to Manlius, where he now resides.

    The present physicians are: Isaac Newton Goff, who was born in Lenox, N. Y., May 26, 1833, educated at Cazenovia Seminary, graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, in March, 1858, and commenced practice in Cazenovia, where he has since continued, except one year (from August, 1862, to July, 1863,) spent in the army as assistant surgeon of the 17th N. Y.: Edgar C. Bass, who was born in Warren, Herkimer county, May 31, 1831, educated at Oxford Academy and Cooperstown Seminary, graduated at the Albany Medical College June 8, 1858, and in 1867 located at Cazenovia; Elbert A. Ainsworth, who was born in Brookfield, N. Y., July 19, 1849, graduated from the Medical College of Syracuse University Feb. 5, 1874, and commenced practice in Cazenovia Feb. 25, 1874; A. D. Smith, who was graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, commenced practice at Nelson Flats in 1865, the year of his graduation, removed thence after eight or nine months to New Woodstock, where he practiced till 1876, when he removed to Cazenovia; and Henry Foord, who was born in Cazenovia April 6, 1839, educated at Cazenovia Seminary and Hamilton College, graduated from the Medical Department of the University of the city of New York, Feb. 15, 1876, and after practicing one year in Rome, removed to Cazenovia.

    LAWYERS.---Cazenovia was an early field of legal enterprise, and while it was the county seat from 1810 to 1817, it attracted to it men of somewhat distinguished ability in the legal profession. Schuyler VanRensselaer and Samuel Sidney Breese established themselves in practice here towards the close of the last century, but Van Rensselaer remained here but a short time. Breese was the first Clerk of Chenango county, receiving the appointment March 19, 1798. He practiced here as late as 1808. He removed to Oneida county, which he represented in the Constitutional Convention of 1821, and in the Assembly in 1828.

    David Dearborn, David B. Johnson, and probably others who remained but a short time, came here during the first decade of the present century. Dearborn and Johnson practiced here for many years, the former till his death, July 22, 1847, aged 78.

    Perry G. Childs, a graduate of Williams College, came here from Pittsfield, Mass., about 1807, in which year he married Catharine Ledyard. He was one of Cazenovia's most distinguished lawyers, and practiced here till his death, March 27, 1835, aged 56. He was appointed a member of the Council of Appointment, Jan. 10, 1822, and was a State Senator from 1819 to 1822.

    Charles Stebbins was born in Williamstown, Mass., in May, 1789. He graduated at Williams College in 1808, at the age of nineteen, and in 1810, removed to Cazenovia. He was admitted in 1813. He died here March 23, 1873. He served in the war of 1812 as Aid-de-camp to Gen. Hurd. He was elected State Senator in opposition to Gerrit Smith, in 1805, and served four years. Jan. 9, 1830, he was appointed Bank Commissioner, and held that office till1840. In 1819, he married Eunice, daughter of Josiah Masters, of Schaghticoke, N. Y., who was born in 1794, and died in Cazenovia, May 5, 1871. They had five children.

    Justin Dwinelle was an early and prominent lawyer in Cazenovia. He graduated at Yale College in 1805, and established himself in practice here between 1811 and 1815, continuing till his death, Sept. 17, 1850, aged 66. He married Louise Whipple, who was born in May, 1795, and died in April, 1875. He was a Member of Assembly in 1821-'2; was appointed County Judge Feb. 7, 1823; a Representative in Congress in 1823-'5, and District Attorney in 1837.

    William J. Hough, a native of New York, read law in the office of Childs & Stebbins, and was admitted about 1820. He practiced here till 1853, when he removed to Syracuse, and died there. He was a Member of Assembly from this county in 1835-'6, and a Representative in Congress in 1845-'7.

    Charles H. S. Williams practiced here a few years between 1830 and 1840. He removed to Buffalo, and afterwards to San Francisco, where he died. Cutler Field practiced here about that time, and removed to Cooperstown. Levi Gibbs practiced here a few years about the same time. He removed to Elmira and died there. Sidney T. Fairchild came here at a comparatively early day and read law with Perry G. Childs. Calvin Carpenter, a native of Cazenovia, where his parents were early settlers, and whose father, Ezekiel Carpenter, was a sheriff of this county, read law with William J. Hough, with whom he practiced a few years after his admission soon after 1840. He removed to Elmira, and died there. Richard Thomas, also a native of Cazenovia, read law in Ohio, returned to Cazenovia soon after 1840, and practiced till his death march 5, 1857, aged 38. Hobert G. Paddock, a native of Cazenovia, read law with William J. Hough, a militia General, and was admitted about 1846. He practiced till about 1856, and removed to Cazenovia. ---- Abrams practiced here a few years about 1840.

    The present lawyers are: Charles Stebbins, who was born in Cazenovia, July 3, 1827, was graduated at Hobart College in 1846, read law with messrs. Stebbens & Fairchild, of Cazenovia, was admitted in 1849, and after two years' practice in Syracuse, located at Cazenovia, where he has since practiced. He was a commissioner to revise the Statutes from July 1, 1871, to Jan. 1, 1875, and Private Secretary to the Governor, from Jan. 1, 1875, to Dec. 31, 1876; Delos W. Cameron, who was born in Peterboro, N. Y., Jan. 13, 1832, was educated at Peterboro Academy, read law with Hon. Sidney T. Holmes, of Morrisville, was admitted in January, 1856, established himself in the practice of his profession at Chittenango, whence, Jan. 1, 1858, he removed to Cazenovia, where he has since practiced. He was District Attorney in 1862-'64, and Collector of Internal Revenue of the 22d District of New York in 1870-'71; William L. Storke, who was born in Coventry, N. Y., Dec. 31, 1808, read law in a fugitive way while practicing civil engineering in Dunkirk, and afterwards in the office of R. White, at Olen, removed to Cazenovia in 1857, was admitted in 1860, practiced till May, 1869, in Prattsville, Greene county, whence he removed to Cazenovia, where he has since practiced. He was a Member of Assembly in 1866, and a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1867-'68; Edgar M. Wilson who was born in Harwinton, Conn., Jan. 26, 1850, was educated at Cazenovia Seminary, read law with More & Allen, of Cazenovia, and Horace Packer, of Oxford, was admitted May 2, 1876, and commenced practice in Cazenovia; Burr Wendell, who was born in Cazenovia, Nov. 29, 1853, was educated at Cazenovia Seminary, read law with D. W. Cameron, of Cazenovia, was graduated at the Albany Law School, May 20, 1878, and immediately after commenced practice in Cazenovia; and Frederick Clarke, who came here recently from Clarksville.

    MANUFACTURES.---Cazenovia was early the seat of important manufacturing enterprises, attracted by the splendid water power of the Chittenango, but many of her noble industries have fallen to decay. The first important manufacturing enterprise was the trip hammer works of Luther Bunnell, which were established as early as 1811, and did an extensive business for many years. Next was Nehemiah White's chair-shop, referred to in connection with the early settlements. In 1813, a woolen mill was built by John Lincklaen and Elisha Star, and is said to have been the first in Madison county. This soon after passed into the hands of Matthew Chandler & Son, the former of whom invented the wire harness for looms.

    About 1810, Thomas Williams and his son John came from New Hartford, Oneida county, started a tannery on the site of John Hearsey's old distillery, which they continued till 1815, and sold it to R. & R. G. Allen. In 1829, John Williams bought of Orrin Chandler, the woolen factory to which he had succeeded after his father, Matthew Chandler. The building was destroyed by fire May 1, 1834, and the present one (the shop of M. J. Trowbridge,) was erected the same summer. There Mr. Williams carried on the woolen manufacture till his death, July 14, 1851, aged 63. He was the first to introduce power looms in the town.

    Leonard Williams, son of John, who had been interested with his father in the above business, Sept. 1, 1847, formed a co-partnership with George S. Ledyard and John Stebbins, under the name of Williams, Ledyard & Stebbins, and in that year they bought of John Williams 24 acres of land, including the water privilege on Chittenango creek, 1 ¾ miles below the village, and the saw-mill and fulling-mill, the former of which was built and operated by David B. Johnson, and the latter by Sidney Roberts, of whom John Williams bought the property. Messrs. Williams, Ledyard & Stebbins tore down the fulling-mill, and in 1848 erected the Shelter Valley Woolen-Mill, continuing the saw-mill in operation some five years, when it too was torn away. The woolen-mill was burned Dec. 9, 1869, and rebuilt in 1871, by Williams & Stebbins, Ledyard having retired from the firm in 1870. March 17, 1879, Williams sold his interest to Mr. Stebbins, the present proprietor. The business was discontinued in July, 1876, owing to the depression in prices which made it unprofitable and caused a general decline in the manufacture of woolen goods. The mill contains two sets of machinery, and when in operation gave employment to forty persons.

    John Williams carried on the wool fulling and tanning business from 1840 to 1850 in the tannery established by Elisha Farnham at a very early day. The old building is now occupied as a blacksmith shop by Mr. Clark. It is located near the foundry, adjacent to the Albany street bridge.

    About 1810, Zaddock Sweetland build the Cazenovia paper mill, which he operated till within a few years of his death, which occurred May 12, 1855, aged 73, doing a gradually increasing business, to which his sons succeeded under the name of Sweetland Brothers. They developed a large business. The mill was burned in 1859, and rebuilt by them in 1860. In the spring of 1865, the dam was swept away by a freshet, which did immense damage to property on this creek. Henry Munroe purchased the property and rebuilt the dam. The mill was afterwards partially destroyed by fire, and subsequently, after having been rebuilt, wholly so, since which it was not rebuilt.

    The tanning business was carried on in the Allen tannery by Dardis & Flanagan from 1869 to 1874, and by Andrew Dardis and his son, John A., till 1876.

    The Cedar Grove woolen mill we have already noticed in connection with the early settlement of Jacob Ten Eyck. During the war L. E. Swan commenced the manufacture of binders' board on the site of that mill.

    The American Lock Manufacturing Co. was incorporated Oct. 27, 1875. The capital stock was $25,000, divided into shares of $100 each. In 1875 the business of the American Lock Co., organized some years previously for the manufacture of Felter's patent locks, which did business in the machine shop near the bridge on Albany street, was purchased, and the same year the building, occupied by Stephen Chaphe for a machine shop, was bought and fitted up for the use of the Lock Company. The business was continued till April, 1878, when it was sold to the Yale Lock Manufacturing Co., of Stamford, Conn., and removed to that place. The works gave employment to fifteen or twenty persons.

    Fern Dells Mills were originally built in 1849-50, by Ledyard Lincklaen, for a woolen mill, but never used for that purpose. About 1850, O. W. Sage, Newton Ames and Charles Ames occupied the building for the manufacture of sash, doors and blinds, continuing till about 1867, when Newton Ames sold his interest to O. W. Sage, to whom Charles Ames also sold about a year after. About 1872, Carlos Nichols became associated with Mr. Sage, to whom he sold again soon after. In July, 1874, T. W. Thayer bought a one-third interest, and in the fall of 1875 Ambrose Ames bought a like interest. In May, 1877, O. W. Sage leased his interest to Amos & Thayer, to whom he sold it in the spring of 1878. The works are situated on Chittenango creek, about a mile north of the village, and give employment to forty persons, in the manufacture of all kinds of sash, doors and blinds.

    The Crawford Mower and Reaper Works, situated on Chittenango creek about one-fourth mile below the village, were established at Ilion in 1871, by Joseph F. Crawford, who removed thence in 1875 to Cazenovia, at the same time purchasing the Onondaga Chief establishment at Manlius, which he removed and merged the same year, with this, occupying the old Cazenovia foundry, which was established in 1825 by the Shapley Brothers, and occupied the site of American Lock Manufacturing Co.'s building. The present stone building occupied by Mr. Crawford was build by him in 1875. Its dimensions are 125 by 90 feet, partially one and partially two stories in height, affording floor room 375 feet in length and 45 feet in width. In the spring of 1876, the management was changed to a stock company, under the title of J. F. Crawford & Co. (limited), with a capital of $200,000, and incorporated as such Feb. 15, 1876, with J. F. Crawford, President, W. S. Smyth, Treasurer, S. E. Brown, Secretary, each of whom held his respective office during the continuance of the company, which was dissolved by reason of a failure to comply with the provisions of the statute, which requires the stock to be sold within a specified time. Feb. 15, 1878, the stock company sold to Crawford & Co., under which title the business is at present conducted. The works employ 5 to 10 men, but have a capacity for 75 to 100 man, which number were employed in 1876. The chief article of manufacture is mowers and reapers; but a full and general line of agricultural implements is manufactured. Connected with the establishment is a jobbing department in which general machine work is done. The motive power is furnished by three Carley turbine water-wheels, propelled by water from Chittenango creek, which has a fall at this point of 16 ½ feet.

    Lake Mills of Cazenovia, flouring and grist, were built at a very early day by Dr. Jonas Fay. The present proprietor is Reuben Parsons, who bought the property in 1850 of William Burton, who operated it several years at two different times. He sold to and bought of A. L. Sims. They contain four runs of stones, which are propelled by water drawn from the outlet of Cazenovia Lake, which has a fall of about nine feet.

    The foundry and machine shop located near the creek bridge on Albany street, was built for and occupied as an oil-mill by Edmond Knowlton till within a year or two of 1865, when it was purchased of Chester Bates by the present proprietors, Stone, Marshall & Card, (John J. Stone, Justice W. Marshall and Milton E. Card,) who converted it to its present use, and employ a capital of $5,000 to $6,000.

    The saw and planning-mill on Chittenango Creek, owned by S. F. Chaphe, was built, the main part, some seventy years ago, and has since been added to.

    Mr. Chaphe, in company with Reuben Parsons, purchased the property, including the grist-mill, of William and James Burton, in 1850, and after two or three years they divided, Parsons taking the grist-mill and Chaphe, the saw-mill, which contains two log saws, a slab saw, and three splitting saws. In 1874, Mr. Chaphe erected an additional building for a planning-mill. It stands adjacent to the saw-mill, and is propelled by the same agency, a steam engine of twenty-five horse power. The new building contains three planers---a matcher and planer, a surfacer and a Daniels' planer, and splitting and cut-off saws. The business employs some four persons and required a capital of about $6,000.

    The Glass Ball Trap Manufactory of Cazenovia. In April 1878, M. E. Card and Will H. Crittenden connected the manufacture of a glass ball trap (for the use of marksmen,) which was invented by Mr. Card and patented by himself and Mr. Crittenden, May 7, 1878, and again, with improvements, April 22, 1879. The manufacture was commenced and is still continued in the foundry and machine shop of Stone, Marshall & Card. The business gives employment to five men. Up to Nov. 1, 1879, about 3,000 traps have been made, and a considerable portion of them shipped through W. W. Greener, of London, their agent in Europe, to nearly all the English colonies, as well as Poland, Austria, France, Italy, and Germany. The demand for them is largely increasing, and seems likely to develop an important industry for Cazenovia.

    M. J. Trowbridge is engaged in the manufacture of cabinet ware and doing a general jobbing business, which he commenced in 1864, at which time he bought of Leonard White the building he now occupies, which was erected by John Williams for a woolen factory in 1834, on the site of one burned the same year. It was discontinued as a woolen factory about the time the Shelter Valley factory was built, about two miles below the village. He employs three or four hands, mostly in jobbing and repairing.

    BANKS. --- The Madison County Bank was organized under the safety fund act, March 14, 1831, with a capital of $100,000, in 2,000 shares, and Lemuel White, Jacob Ten Eyck, Justin Dwinelle, Bennett Bicknell, John Knowles, Sylvester Beecher, Elias P. Benjamin, Jonathan D. Ledyard and Samuel Thomas were appointed commissioners to receive subscriptions.

    The first directors were P. G. Childs, Jacob Ten Eyck, John Hearsey, Jesse Kilborn, H. H. Cobb, Rufus Allen, William M. Burr, Arnold Ballou, Bennett Bicknell, John Williams, Lemuel White, J. D. Ledyard, Sylvester Beecher. The first President was Perry G. Childs.

    The Bank opened for business Jan. 1, 1832, in the building now occupied as an office by B. Rush Wendell, which was erected for its accommodation and occupied by it during the period of its existence, till the expiration of its charter. It confined its business to operations within the county and thus helped to develop local interests and industries. It was prosperous and paid during the first fifty years an annual dividend of ten per cent, besides two extra dividends of five per cent each, and during the last two years, an annual dividend of fifteen per cent. At the expiration of its charter it returned to the stockholders 125 cents on the dollar.

    The Bank of Cazenovia was incorporated Feb. 21, 1856, with a capital of $120,000. The first directors were, Charles Stebbins, Ledyard Lincklaen, Benjamin F. Jarvis, John Hobbie, David M. Pulford, Austin Van Riper, Lewis Raynor, Reuben Parsons and E. M. Holmes. Charles Stebbins was the first president and B. F. Jarvis, the cashier. In 1865 it was changed to the National Bank of Cazenovia, and the capital increased to $150,000. It failed in 1876 and was succeeded in the same building by the private bank of E. S. Card & Co., who failed in 1880.

    HOTELS. --- The Lincklaen House was built in 1835 by a stock company of which John Williams was the prime mover, and into whose possession the property came in 1839. He retained possession till his death in 1853, when Oliver Jewell, who had leased it from 1841 to 1852, bought it and continued to keep it till his death, July 28, 1877, at the age of 82. The present proprietors, Clark & Jewett, purchased the property Oct. 1, 1877. The Cazenovia House was built at an early day. The present proprietor, Perry Crandall, purchased the property in March, 1877. The Lake House was bought by C. B. Stanton, in October, 1879, and is now (November, 1879,) undergoing extensive repairs.

    BANDS. --- The Cazenovia Band was organized in 1852 or '53, under the leadership of Peter LaCounty, who continued its leader some two years. He was succeeded by E. M. Parmelee, who filled that position till his removal from the village in 1857 or '8. Henry M. Cushing was the leader in 1873, and John Keeler, in 1874-'6. Aug. 9, 1876, the Bank was re-organized and uniformed under Keeler's leadership, which continued till the spring of 1878, when L. P. Blair became and still continued its leader. The Band play ten mouth pieces.

    The Crittenden Band was organized Dec. 8, 1874, under the leadership of W. C. Jackson, who was succeeded in that office in 1876, by William Greenland, who acted in that capacity two years, and was succeeded in 1878 by Prof. Anton Koerner, the present leader. The Band play sixteen instruments, including drums, and have acquired a wide and enviable reputation for their proficiency. They take their name from the drum major, Will. H. Crittenden, who is a jeweler in Cazenovia. Charles F. Morse is the Secretary and Treasurer of the Band.

    FIRE DEPARTMENT. --- The first legislative action of the village after its incorporation had reference to providing protection against fire. At the first corporation meeting, held May 1, 1810, $100 were voted for the purchase of a fire engine. At a meeting of the trustees June 2, 1810, "it was ordered" "that Hezekiah Strong, Jacob A. Dana, Daniel Gilbert, Nehemiah White, John M. Black, Joab Gillett, Caleb Ledyard, Wm. Adams, Timothy Foster, M. P. Mathew, Wm. Wells, and Isaac Dawson be firemen for the village of Cazenovia, and that they meet on Monday next at 8 o'clock A.M., to choose a captain from their number, who shall have the direction of the engine, and the firemen belonging to the fire company, and that the captain shall call out and exercise the company in using and examining the engine at least once a month, which shall be on the last Saturday in each and every month, and that the time of meeting on said Saturday at sun two hours high in the afternoon and may be kept out till sun-set." Non-attendance at the meetings without satisfactory excuse made the person so absenting himself liable to a fine of fifty cents and expulsion from the company.

    Dec. 4, 1810, it was ordered "that within ninety days from this date every merchant and tavern keeper within the said village furnish himself with five leather fire buckets holding eight quarts, to be in length sixteen inches, and every other owner or occupant of any other house or building within the said village furnish himself with one leather fire bucket of like dimensions, and that the owner of a bucket procure his name to be put on the same, and that each and every owner of a bucket or buckets keep the same hung up near the outer door of the house or store and be appropriated to no other use except in cases of fire, and that every person neglecting or refusing to comply with this ordinance within the time limited shall be subject to a fine of twenty-five cents for each week thereafter for such neglect or refusal, to be collected as the law directs."

    Dec. 28, 1810, O. E. Baker, Charles Stebbins, Thayer Holden, Asahel Bumpus, Alfred Hitchcock and Gardner B. Wood were appointed firemen in place of the same number "absent from the fire company." June 10, 1812, the fine for non-attendance was made one dollar and it was "ordered that in addition to the fire buckets already ordered the following be procured on or before the first day of September next under a penalty for every neglect or refusal to comply, the sum of twenty-five cents for each and every week thereafter for each bucket, viz," for each tavern two buckets, and for each store, "blacksmith shop, office, shop, distillery, ashery and all other buildings where fire is actually kept," one bucket. An engine house was built in 1812, at a cost of $55.

    Affairs pertaining to the fire company, etc., form a very prominent part of the village legislation at an early day. May 6, 1816, the fire company was disbanded. May 7, 1817, the fire engine was ordered to be sold. Dec. 11, 1817, Ebenezer Reynolds and Sylvanus Dyer offered to repair it for $60, and that the village might then have the privilege of selling it to them for $15. The offer was accepted. May 8, 1822, it was "ordered that every occupant of a dwelling in this village furnish himself with a ladder sufficient to reach to the roof of his house, except those persons who, in the opinion of the trustees, have other convenient means of ascending their roofs, and that every person neglecting to furnish such ladder as aforesaid by the first of July next shall forfeit 12 ½ cents for every week's neglect thereafter." Oct. 4, 1922, the engine house was ordered to be sold at public auction the following day. In May, 1827, $20 were voted for the purchase of hooks and ladders for the use of the village in case of fire. In May, 1829, the trustees were authorized to purchase (if they in their judgment thought proper,) "one of Daboll's fire engines." July 14, 1829, a new fire company, composed of thirteen members, was organized, and at a meeting of this company July 15, 1829, John W. Birge was elected its "captain." This company was disbanded March 12, 1831, and a new one composed of eighteen members formed the same day, of which Rufus Allen was elected captain, Rensselaer Jackson, vice-captain, and Elisha Allis, chief engineer. Sept. 16, 1834, the trustees were ordered to purchase a fire engine of Messrs. William Platt & Co. for $700. In May, 1835, they were authorized to build three "sufficient reservoirs" to hold about 10,000 gallons each, and to pay Elisha Allis "a reasonable sum in their discretion" for building an engine house, $92 were allowed for the latter. June 3, 1835, a hook and ladder company was organized.

    May 1, 1843, the fire company adopted by-laws and the name Cazenovia Fire Co. No. 1. July 1, 1843, Fire Co. No. 2 was organized with 16 members. Aug. 16, 1844, the trustees were authorized to purchase another fire engine of equal power with the larger one then in use, with necessary hose, and to repair engine No. 2 in proper manner. The new engine was bought of L. Button & Co. for $550; also 167 feet of hose for $115.54. Cazenovia Fire Co. No. 2, composed of thirty members, was organized Dec. 21, 1844.

    March 5, 1854, $2,000, payable in annual installments of $400 were voted for the purpose of building a hall, in conjunction with the town, which, at the annual meeting in that year, voted a like amount, according to the provisions of an act of May 5, 1847, authorizing the erection of town houses, the village to have the right of perpetual use of the basement for the use of the Fire Department, and the hall for village meetings. March 6, 1855, $400 were voted for the purchase of school-house lot and building thereon in District No. 1. and $200 for adapting it for use as an engine house. Previous to 1855, the basement of the "Free Church" was used for several years as an engine house.

    Owahgena Fire Co. No. 1 was organized July 12, 1862, with twenty-five members, and Abram Lockman, foreman; and Deluge Fire Co. No. 2, the same date, with the same number of members, and H. A. Gifford, foreman. July 13, 1863, $792 were voted for a new fire engine. Aug. 22, 1863, the trustees authorized the chief engineer to purchase of Cowing & Co., of Seneca Falls, a fire engine for $1,150. May 2, 1874, it was "voted that active firemen shall henceforth be exempt from the poll tax." March 19, 1875, the fire, hook and ladder and hose companies were disbanded.

    March 30, 1875, were organized: Engine Co. No. 1, with forty members; Engine Co. No. 2, with twenty-four members; and a Hook & Ladder Co. with twenty-two members.

    The Fire Department as at present constituted consists of Owahgena Engine Co. No. 1, organized in 1877; Deluge Engine Co. No. 2, organized in 1877; and Ledyard Hose Co. No. 1, organized in September, 1879. The equipment consists of two hand engines, two hose carts and 1,000 feet of leather hose in good condition for use.

    The following will serve as an interesting comparison of the population and wealth of the village at the respective dates:--

    A census of the village in 1803 gives the names of the heads of families, their occupation, and the number of persons in each family, as follows:--

John Lincklaen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
J. N. M. Hurd, storekeeper and postmaster. . . . . .7
S. S. Breese, lawyer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Hiram Roberts, blacksmith and tavern-keeper. . . . 17
Isaac Lyman, doctor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Wm. Whipple, carpenter and constable. . . . . . . . .4
Moses Phillips, brick-maker. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Roberts & Hill, carpenters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Elisha Farnham, tanner and shoemaker. . . . . . . . .7
Eliakim Roberts, storekeeper. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Horace Paddock, blacksmith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
Ebenezer Johnson, tavern-keeper . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Wm. Kyle, clerk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
Jonathan Forman, storekeeper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9
Samuel Ashard, miller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6

---
Total population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100

    Tax list of Cazenovia village in 1811, the year succeeding its incorporation, at which time it had a population of 500:--


TAX.VALUATION.
E. S. Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10 00$4,000
William McLean . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 903,000
Eliakim Roberts . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 204,000
J. N. M. Hurd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 204,000
Samuel S. Forman . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 003,000
Elisha Farnham . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 204,000
Jeremiah Whipple . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 752,500
Luther Bunnell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 75 2,500
Elisha Starr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 752,500
Joseph Burr, Jr., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 602,000
Thomas Williams & Son . . . . . . . 4 181,800
Jonas Fay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 00800
R. P. Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 602,000
Joab Gillett . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92400
P. G. Childs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 501,500
Samuel Thomas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 221,400
David B. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 84800
Jeremiah B. Pierce . . . . . . . . . . . 2 301,000
Alfred Hitchcock . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 301,000
Isaac Lyman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 501,000
William Whipple . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 761,200
Jesse Kilborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 84800
Uriah Aldrich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 84800
Vebber Crocker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 64700
James Moore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 301,000
Fay & Richardson
Mills and dwelling house . . . . .
4 602,000
Selah Munson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 141,800
Eli F. Hill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 15500
Matthew Chandler . . . . . . . . . . . 1 15500
Orrin Chandler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
Ami Crocker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92400
Noble S. Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 301,000
Widow Chloe Andrews . . . . . . . 1 15500
John Townsend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
Richard French . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44200
John Francis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 15500
John B. Seely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92400
Hezekiah Bowen . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
John Locke . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1250
Nathan Williams . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38150
Otis Ormsbee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92400
Orin E. Baker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 38600
Horace Bills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
William Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
Samuel Dutton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
Brevoort & Allis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92400
Amos Parmely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Timothy Foster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69300
Nehemiah White . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Andrew Russell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69300
Edward S. Stewart . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
John Lyon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Calvin Elmore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
John Kelly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69300
Richard Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Rinaloo Webber . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 15500
Zadock Sweetland . . . . . . . . . . . 50 ----
David Dearborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 ----
David Kern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58250
John Anderson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69300
John Lewis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Ebenezer Brown . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Ebenezer Johnson . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
Manassett Prentice . . . . . . . . . . . 23100
Obadiah Seely . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46200
John Lincklaen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 602,000
Murray B. Lester . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 -------
Caleb Ledyard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 -------
Total tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
$ 150
Total valuation . . . . . . . . . . .
63 550

    This tax was levied for the contingent expenses of the village in 1811.

    Tax list of Cazenovia village in 1879:--

Real Property . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$568,300 00
Personal Property . . . . . . . . . . . . 275,950 00

-------------
Total valuation . . . . . . . . . . . . $844,250 00
Property Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,708 75
Poll Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 00

-------------
Total Tax . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $2,849 75

    Thus, while the population of the village in 1811 was one-fourth of that in 1879, the tax was only one nineteenth.

    CAZENOVIA SEMINARY. --- As early as 1819 the Methodists were agitated in Conference over the subject of a denominational educational institution. Cazenovia and Ithaca were rival competitors for its establishment, and the Conference decided in favor of the latter, but it failed to reap the benefits of the advantage thus gained, and on the recommendation of a committee appointed by the Conference July 15, 1823, to take into consideration the interests of the contemplated school, it was decided to locate it at Cazenovia and fit up for its accommodation the old court house in that village, which had previously been purchased by the Methodists, who were embarrassed by reason of their inability to pay for it. Revs. Charles Giles, George Gary and Elias Bowen, and Messrs. Solomon Root, Luther Buell, John Peck, Jacob Ten Eyck, David B. Johnson and Charles Stebbins were appointed to carry the resolution into effect. The transfer of the building was effected, and the institution, which was named The Seminary of the Genesee Conference, was opened in it Dec. 1,1824, with eight pupils, under the principalship of Rev. Nathaniel Porter. During the year (1825) 121 students were registered, and in 1826, the number increased to 145. This is the first "Conference Seminary in the Methodist Episcopal Church," and the second seminary in the United States under the control of the Methodist Episcopal church.29 It was incorporated April 6, 1825, and the following were the first trustees: George Gary, Elias Bowen, Henry Wells, Charles Stebbins, Jacob Ten Eyck, Charles Giles, John W. Peck, Luther Buell and David B. Johnson.

    In 1826 the need of increased accommodations was felt, and in September of that year "it was resolved to build larger." In due time an addition was made to the west end of what is now the chapel of the Seminary, and occupied as a boarding hall. On the division of the Genesee Conference in 1828, the name was changed by an act of the Legislature to the Seminary of Genesee and Oneida Conferences.

    Dec. 24, 1830, the Legislature was again petitioned to change its name, in anticipation of a seminary to be established within the bounds of the Genesee Conference, to the Oneida Conference Seminary.

    In 1831 Professors Tyler, Larrabee and G. Peck were appointed to establish a library, and very soon thereafter it was resolved to charge students 12 ½ cents per quarter for its use. In this year also was inaugurated the policy of granting free tuition, under limitations, to ministers.

    In 1832 two additional buildings were erected, one of brick, 36 by 50 feet, three stories high, and one of wood, 100 by 22 feet, two stories high. The former occupied the ground now covered by the front hall, and the latter the site of the present dining hall.

    In 1839 a three years' course of study was adopted, on the completion of which diplomas were conferred. This, it is believed, was the first graduating course adopted by any seminary in the State.

    In January, 1846, the policy of free tuition to the children of the members of the Oneida Conference, whose fields of labor lay within the patronizing district of the Seminary, was adopted. This privilege was subsequently enlarged so as to embrace all ministers of the Gospel. In 1847, in consonance with a change in the charter, was inaugurated the policy of non-resident trustees, and it gave rise to a distinction which has since obtained that of local and full-board meetings. The first full-board meeting under the revised charter was held May 11, 1847, and a plan of organization to meet the circumstances of the increased number (six members having been added to the board,) was adopted. The resident trustees were constituted a prudential committee to transact the business of the board under certain conditions. They were to have no power to hire teachers or make any change in the faculty except at the intervals of the meeting of the full board; they might not expend to exceed $200, except for the payment of the faculty and steward; and were required to make a full report of their proceedings from term to term to the full-board.

    Additional accommodations having for some time been painfully felt, in 1853 an additional building was erected. About this time the present chapel was converted to its present use. In this year (1853) the prize system was instituted by R. R. Wendell, of Cazenovia, who established and has since maintained a gold medal scholarship prize. With the continued growth of the Seminary, still further increased facilities were demanded for the accommodation of its patrons. This want was felt and an attempt made to meet it as early as 1863, but the plans then projected were not completed until 1870, when the buildings were brought substantially to their present condition.

    In 1868, incident to conference changes made that year, the name of the institution was changed to the Central New York Conference Seminary. In 1873, the name was again changed by statute to Cazenovia Seminary; but proving unsatisfactory the action was repealed. In 1875, an interesting period in the history of the institution, its semi-centennial anniversary was appropriately celebrated, and those who met to do honor to this occasion found ample cause for congratulation. The growth of the Seminary has been steady and marked, and its influence of a most salutary character. Notwithstanding it has labored constantly under harassing pecuniary embarrassment, its management has been efficient and such as to inspire and retain the confidence of its numerous patrons. In 1839, the Seminary ranked as tenth in the State, as measured by the number of students and the apportionment of public moneys; in 1843, it was the third; a few years later it was second; and since 1872 it has stood first.30 In 1875, the applicants for admission to its walls and advantages were so numerous that the trustees were obliged to refuse admittance to many for want of room.

    The Seminary buildings as at present constituted are four in number, but connected, and include the building that was originally the old court house. Two are used for boarding purposes, and two for chapel, lecture and recitation rooms. They afford accommodations for 150 boarders, and recitation facilities for 400 pupils. All are in good repair, and are valued, with the grounds, which are estimated at $6,000, at $60,000.

    The following is a statement of its finances as exhibited in the report to the Regents, August 1, 1879:--


RESOURCES.
Value oflot and buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$60,000.00
"library, comprising 3,046 volumes . . . . . . . . . .3,050.00
"philosophical apparatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3,518.00
"furniture, not fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3,000.00
"organs and pianos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,200.00
"tuition bills uncollected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301.68
Cash inTreasurer's hands August 1, 1879 . . . . . . . . . . .112.70


----------

Total resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71,182.38

LIABILITIES.
Mortgage on lot31$32,940.00
Floating indebtedness9,219.09
For furnaces175.0042,334.09

----------------------

Excess of resources over liabilities28,848.29

    Revenue for the year ending July 3, 1879:--

Fromtuition collected or considered collectable . . . . . .$4,956.12
"the Regents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410.34
"the income of the boarding department . . . . . . . . .8,229.72


------------


12,596.13

    Expenditures for the year ending July 31, 1879:--

Forcompensation of teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$5,591.04
"principal debts due . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400.00
"rent on property leased by the Seminary . . . . . . . . . .30.00
"repairs of buildings and other property . . . . . . . . . . .702.50
"fuel and other incidental expenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1,108.56
"expense of boarding departments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5,618.07
"agents' salary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597.5014,047.67


------------------------

Excess of expenditures over revenue . . . . . . . . . . . .
$451.49

    The teachers receive a stated salary which is paid by the trustees, and not in any way conditioned, except music, painting and drawing, and French, which are conditioned upon the income of their departments.

    The following constitute the present faculty: E. Walter Hall, M. A., Principal, teaches mental and moral philosophy; Isaac N. Clements, M. A., teaches Latin and Greek; Loring S. Hutchinson, Ph. B., teaches mathematics; Lucius M. Underwood, Ph. M., teaches natural sciences; Augustus P. Clark, M. A., teaches the commercial department; T. H. Hinton, teaches music; A. Delos Smith, M. D., teaches anatomy, &c.; Charlotte M. Chubbuck, M. A., teaches History and English Literature; Francis Chamberlain, teaches elocution; Fannie Foord, teaches painting, &c.; Mrs. Sarah T. Hall, teaches French.

    Prices of tuition: Common English studies, $9.00; mathematical and higher English, $11.00; classical, including the preceding, $13.00.

    Present Officers: Rev. James Erwin, President; E. S. Card, Vice-President; George L. Rouse, Treasurer; D. E. Haskell, Secretary. The Trustees are: Rev. E. W. Hall, J. C. Tillotson, Rev. B. Shove, Rev. George W. Izer, Rev. U. S. Beebe, P. Mattoon, Rev. Elijah Horr, Jr., Rev. William Reddy, D. D., Rev. James Erwin, D. E. Haskell, George L. Rouse, E. S. Card, D. W. Cameron, F. W. Weeks and Horace K. King.

    UNION FREE SCHOOL DISTRICT No. 10, in the TOWN of CAZENOVIA. --- During twenty years previous to the annual district meetings in districts No2. 10, 17, and 21 in the village of Cazenovia, held in October, 1874, there had been two unsuccessful attempts to establish a Union Free School therein. At that meeting committees were appointed from districts Nos. 10 and 17 to confer with a similar committee from district No. 21, from which, for reasons, a committee was not appointed, and the project was therefore postponed.

    At the annual district meetings, held the second Tuesday of October, 1875, in each of the foregoing districts the project was revived, and A. Dardis, D. W. Cameron and J. C. Tillotson were appointed a committee, from district No. 10; J. C. Dean, H. M. Cushing and W. L. Storke, from No. 17; and A. P. Clarke, J. A. Curtiss and D. R. Dean from No. 21. These committees were instructed to act jointly in preparing the initiatory proceedings. They held a joint meeting at the office of D. W. Cameron and perfected measures culminating in the circulation of a petition, calling for the consolidation of said districts and for a meeting to be held for the purpose of determining whether a Union Free School should be established therein, in conformity with the provisions of Chapter 555 of the laws of 1864 of this State, which was numerously signed.

    November 26, 1875, a meeting was held. Of the 139 voters in districts No. 17 there were present 79; of the 109 in No. 10, there were present 52; and of the 124, in No. 21 there were present 80; of the 372 voters in the three districts, there were present 211. It was decided to establish a Union Free School in those districts by the following vote:--

DistrictNo. 21, affirmative, 65; negative,10.
"" 10," 37;"6.
"" 17," 60;"11.




----
----



Totals
162 27.

    It was voted that seven trustees constitute the Board of Education, and that they be divided into three classes; the first of two, to serve one year; the second of two, to serve two years; the third of three, to serve three years. A. P. Clarke and P. H. Donnelly were elected to the first class; J. A. Curtiss and J. W. Howson, to the second class; and G. L. Rouse, D. W. Cameron and W. M. Burr, to the third class.

    The first meeting of the Board was held Dec. 6, 1875, and G. L. Rouse was elected President; A. P. Clarke, Clerk; Francis C. Philps, Treasurer; James Dodge, Collector.

    January 10, 1876, the site of the school-house in district No. 21 was selected as the site of the new school-house for the Union School; and to this was to be added by purchase from H. TenEyck a piece of land four rods wide, running from the center of said school-house lot to Hurd street. The school-houses and lots in districts No. 17 and 10 were directed to be sold.

    In 1878 the school-building in District No. 10 was removed to the lot on Sullivan street, in rear of the Sullivan street school-house, and fitted for use, to give needed increased accommodation.

    December 8, 1876, Miss Ellen F. Beebe was chosen Principal. She was followed in that office Aug. 8, 1877, by Prof. W. W. Bass, who still retains that position. At the former date the tuition of non-resident pupils was fixed at $3 per term. Oct 14, 1879, this was changed to $5 to $8 per term in the several grades of the schools.

    The school-houses are frame buildings. The three sites are valued at $3,400, and the school-houses at $2,700. The assessed valuation of all the property taxable in the district, real and personal, was $810,210.

    The present trustees are G. L. Rouse, D. W. Cameron, W. M. Burr, A. P. Clark, P. H. Donnelly, J. W. Howson, and Charles Stebbins. The officers are George L. Rouse, President; Charles Stebbins, Clerk; William W. Watkins, Treasurer, and Azel Backus, Collector.

    CHURCHES. --- Those who settled this region of country were a religious people, who brought with them a love of religious institutions and the religious observances to which they had been accustomed in their Holland and New England homes, hence, soon after the azure blue of heaven's high dome became visible through the first clearings in the dense forest wilderness which surrounded their rude habitations, devout thanksgivings ascended to the power which had preserved them from past dangers and a continuance of that merciful protection fervently invoked in public gatherings of their numbers; and within six years from the time the first habitation was planted in these wilds as the herald of an on-coming civilization we find them an organized band for the more effective prosecution of their religious plans and purposes.

    It is recorded that at a meeting held at the school-house near the lake, in Cazenovia, Nov. 13, 1798, pursuant to notice given by Jedediah Turner, Sen., Oct. 28, 1798, for the purpose of electing trustees for the Presbyterian congregation of the town of Cazenovia, agreeable to an act passed April 6, 1784, of which Samuel and Sidney Breese were presiding and returning officers, Samuel S. Forman, Jedediah Turner, Sen., Samuel Coats, Sen., Asahel Jackson, Jeremiah Clark and Joseph Williams were elected trustees, to be known and distinguished as "The trustees of the First Presbyterian congregation of the town of Cazenovia." There was then neither minister, elder or deacon.

    At the first meeting of the trustees held Nov. 17, 1798, it was resolved to circulate a subscription paper for the support of preaching, the subscriptions to which were to be paid either in cash or produce at John Lincklaen's mill near the lake. Then the trustees met pursuant to adjournment, Dec. 10, 1798, the subscriptions stood thus:--
Jeremiah Clark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .$  31.00
Samuel Forman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77.50
Jedediah Turner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.00
Samuel R. Coats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39.00
Asahel Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81.00
Joseph Williams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45.50

---------

$293.00

    Samuel S. Forman was appointed Treasurer, and the amount of bond fixed at $500.

    At a meeting of the congregation Dec. 25, 1799, the trustees were clothed with discretionary power to engage a minister on such terms as they judged most prudent. March 2, 1799, the trustees agreed to invite Rev. Joshua Leonard, "to tarry with us awhile and preach." At a subsequent meeting held to confer upon the subject of continuing Mr. Leonard, it was agreed to allow him "$6 per Sabbath and pay all his expenses of board and horse-keeping, provided he does not settle with us." Up to April 25, 1799, preaching was held at different places, the place of meeting being designated by the congregation,) and the inconvenience attending that practice made it desirable to settle a pastor and establish meetings regularly at one place. Accordingly on that date it was decided to circulate another subscription paper, which authorized the trustees to raise not exceed $400 per year for a term of three years, for the purpose of supporting a settled minister to preach regularly every Sabbath at the school-house near the lake.

    May 17, 1799, a church of the Presbyterian order was organized under the ministrations of Rev. Mr. Leonard, composed of the following named eight members: Jedediah Turner, Jacob Dannals, John Tappan, Samuel Ruggles Coats, Anne Howd, Mary Dannals, Eunice Coats and Alethis Root; and in that month and year Mr. Leonard was engaged as pastor at a salary of $300 per year. He was installed June 6, 1799. At the close of the installation exercises the congregation met at the house of Simeon Garrett, and after electing trustees, instructed them to make a pulpit and seats in the school-house32 and such other small improvements as they deemed necessary, and pay the same from the funds of the Society. Here they worshiped till 1806.

    July 7, 1813, Mr. Leonard requested that the pastoral relation be dissolved, as owing to feeble health he did not feel able longer to perform the duties of a settled pastor. The request was acceded to. During his pastorate the membership had increased to 121. Nov. 26, 1813, a call to become their settled pastor was extended to John Brown, a licentiate from the Orange Association, at Hanover, N. H., who had officiated for a few Sabbaths previously, at a salary of $700. He was ordained Dec. 8, 1813.

    A parsonage was built in 1816, at a cost of about $1,000 on an acre of ground purchased of John Lincklaen for $100. Nov. 11, 1816, the Society adopted as a seal the device "of a pigeon bearing an olive branch."

    Jan. 19, 1829, Mr. Brown requested a dissolution of the pastoral relation to enable him to accept a call from the Pine Street Church in Boston. A call was given Rev. Charles White, of Thetford, Vt., June 25, 1829. He was installed July 22, 1829, and served them till the spring of 1832, increasing the membership from 224 to 326. From the time of his departure till October, 1832, the pulpit was supplied for short periods by Revs. Andrew Yates, Ware, J. Foote, Henry Snyder, John Gray, James Adams, Eli Burchard, Orin Catlin, James T. Ostrom, James Stanley. During this time Sept. 17, 1832, a call was given James Adams, but not accepted. Dec. 24, 1832, a call was given I. N. Candee, and likewise rejected. March 7, 1833, a call was extended to Rev. Eleazer S. Barrows, of Utica, at a salary of $700 and the use of parsonage. He commenced his labors in May following, and was installed by the Presbytery of Cartland, Jan. 8, 1834. In this year (1834) repairs and improvements were made on the church to the value of $788. During Mr. Barrows' pastorate, which was dissolved by the Presbytery Feb. 3, 1841, a division occurred which resulted in the separation of quite a large colony to form "The First Congregational Church," of Cazenovia, which built and worshiped in the present "Concert Hall." "The seceders were ministered to by Rev. Jabez Chadwick and subsequently by Rev. John Ingersoll. Rev. Shepard K. Kollock, of New Jersey, supplied the pulpit for six months ending May 1, 1842, at which time Rev. Thomas K. Fessenden, of Farmington, Conn., was invited to preach with a view to settlement. He commenced his labors June 1st. July 25, 1842, a call was given him, but his examination, though sustained by the Presbytery, did not result in his settlement. Rev. William E. Holmes supplied them sixteen Sabbaths ending the first Sunday in April, 1843. Nov. 27, 1843, a call was extended to Rev. James Radcliff Davenport, who asked to have the pastoral relation dissolved Sept. 17, 1846. He was succeeded by Rev. E. J. Gillett, who requested a dissolution of the pastoral relation in the month of April, 1849.

    Rev. Dr. George S. Boardman became the pastor in 1850. Oct. 13, 1864, after a pastorate of nearly fifteen years, he was constrained on account of ill health to ask the church to unite with him in requesting the Presbytery of Onondaga to dissolve the relation, to which it assented, and though able to discharge the duties of the office only part of the year, continued his salary to Jan. 1, 1865. The session house connected with the church was built in 1854. March 6, 1865, a call was given Rev. Nathaniel P. Campfield, who had engaged to fill Dr. Boardman's place during his temporary illness, and continued to serve the church till his death in 1868. Rev. Dr. Mann, of the Reformed Dutch Church ministered to the congregation several months in 1869. Nov. 8, 1869, a call was extended to Rev. Dr. D. Torrey, of Honesdale, Penn., who entered upon his labors in December following and still continues them.

    A new parsonage was erected in 1870, at a cost of about $5,000. The church has a funded indebtedness of $1,100 and a present membership of about 200.

    The Methodist Episcopal Church of Cazenovia. In the early part of the present century Cazenovia was visited and ministered to by circuit preachers. In 1816 the Cortland circuit was formed and Cazenovia was included in it. Rev. William Cameron was the preacher and that year formed a small class in the village, consisting mostly of young people, who were zealous and united. In 1817, Elisha Bibbins and George Peck were the preachers on this circuit, and the latter describes the church in Cazenovia in that year as consisting of "John Rowland, his wife and two daughters Grace and Hannah; Eunice Parsons, subsequently extensively known as the devoted 'Sister Cobb,' * * *; Stephen Dodge and his sister, Luany Martin, Dolly Codwell, with a few others whom we cannot now name, together with some half a dozen who lived out of the village, * * * Mr. Rowland owned the old grist-mill on the outlet, and was a man of some means; the remainder of the class were poor, a majority of them single persons.33

    No records of the church prior to its incorporation have been preserved; hence we are unable to definitely trace its history during the succeeding interval. Its legal organization was effected at a meeting held in the Chapel of the Seminary Nov. 4, 1830, when the name of The First Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Cazenovia was adopted, and Timothy Crandall, Russel G. Allen, Whitman Cobb, Augustus W. Smith, William Sherman, Newell Wright and David B. Johnson were elected trustees. At the first meeting of the trustees held at the office of D. B. Johnson Nov. 19, 1830, D. B. Johnson, was chosen chairman, and A. W. Smith, secretary. R. G. Allen and Rev. Z. Paddock were appointed a committee to circulate a subscription for the building of a chapel to be constructed of brick or stone. The sums subscribed were to be paid in three equal installments, the first June 1, 1831, the second June 1, 1832, and the third June 1, 1833. All subscriptions that were to be paid in building materials were to be paid by June 1, 1831. The subscriptions were not binding unless $3,000 were subscribed; and as only $1,448 were pledged, by nineteen individuals, the project was abandoned.

    Failing in this, and feeling the urgent need of a suitable place of worship, it was resolved Jan. 25, 1831, to attempt to raise the amount required by a sale of the pews in the contemplated building, which it was decided to erect on the corner lot south of the Seminary, fronting east, and to be build of brick or stone. The public sale of slips by venue was commenced Jan. 26, 1832, and was afterwards continued privately Feb. 2 and 3, 1832, Dec. 18, 1832, and Jan. 1, 1833; 42 slips being sold in the aggregate for $4,069.50. March 22, 1832, contracts were made with James Bisthrong and Drake Sellick to do the mason work and furnish the materials for $2,200; and with Robert Jenkins and Luke May to do the carpenter and joiner work and furnish the materials therefore for $2,705. April 2, 1832, the trustees decided to effect a loan of $3,000, which they did of Eliakim Roberts, on their individual notes payable in three years. The church seems to have been finished in 1833.

    In December, 1871, a subscription was commenced to raise funds to build a new church. The new church was dedicated Dec. 17, 1873, and a debt of $15,000 provided for. The entire cost of the building and furnishing was $35,000.34 Bishop Peck was present and read the dedicatory service.

    This church was first constituted a charge in 1825. The following have been the pastors since that time, those whose names appear in italics having deceased; Fitch Reed, 1825-'6; John Dempster, 1827-'8; Zachariah Paddock, 1829-'30; George Peck, 1831-'2; Joseph Castle, 1833-'4; Nelson Rounds, 1835; Luke Hitchcock, 1836; Vincent M. Coryell, 1837; William N. Pearne, 1838-'9; Joseph Cross, 1840-'1; Silas Comfort, 1842; Selah Stocking, 1843-'4; Lyman Sperry, 1845; Andrew J. Crandall, 1846-'7; David Holmes, 1848-'9, Daniel W. Briston, 1850-'1; Charles D. Burritt, 1852-'3; William Reddy, 1854-'5; Daniel A. Whedon, 1856-'7; Lyman A. Eddy, 1858-'9; Ephraim Hoag, 1860-'1; Luke C. Queal, 1863-'3; Albert S. Graves, 1864; Benjamin Shove, 1865-'6; O. H. Warren, 18670'8; Albert L. York, 1869-'70; Freeman H. Stanton, 1871-'2; Otis L. Gibson, 1873-'5; James Erwin, 1876-'8; Theron R. Green, 1879.

    The Baptist Church of Cazenovia. --- The earliest meetings preliminary to the organization of this church were held at the school-house two miles south of the village in 1803, and were conducted statedly by Elder Bacon, then pastor of the church at New Woodstock, to which the constituent members of this church belonged, and by his successors and others till 1813, when, greater accommodations being needed than the school-house afforded, they were transferred to the court house in the village, where they had previously been held occasionally; though the only Baptists living there were two females, both poor, and having intemperate husbands, until shortly before 1813, when Dea. N. S. Johnson, from Troy, took up his residence in the village. The meetings were continued in the Court house till 1817, when that building came into possession of the Methodists. In that year the foundation of a meeting house was laid and the superstructure erected upon it, and the following year was brought into condition for occupancy.

    Up to this time, however, no separate organization existed. Sept. 6, 1820, ninety-one persons-thirty-six males and fifty-five females-were dismissed from "The Baptist Church of Christ," at New Woodstock, for the purpose of forming a church in Cazenovia village.

    The church was destitute of a pastor about two years, but was supplied with preaching during this time principally by Elder Roswell Beckwith and their old pastor. In 1822 Elder David Pease, of Conway, Mass., was called to the pastorate, and served them five years. July 5, 1823, it was voted to establish a Sunday-School "for the benefit of the church." Elder Pease was made President, and Barak Beckwith, S. Newton and R. Beckwith, Jr., Directors. Elder Pease's pastoral relation was dissolved Dec. 25, 1826, though he continued his labors till March 13, 1827. March 22, 1827, it was voted to call Elder Lewis Leonard to the pastorate at a salary of $350, in quarterly payments, one-half in cash and the remainder in produce at cash prices, likewise the use of the parsonage. He commenced his labors in May, 1827, and continued them eight years.

    Elder Leonard's pastorate was dissolved March 14, 1835, he having received the appointment of agent by the Board of the Baptist Missionary Convention of the State of New York, to take effect May 1, 1835. The church was repaired in 1835, and dedicated in the spring of 1836. Deacon James Nickerson and Thomas Houston were called to ordination at the instance of this church, June 22, 1836, and supplied the pulpit a year succeeding Elder Leonard's departure. Rev. William Clarke, of Brookfield, succeeded to the pastorate in the spring of 1836, and served them till 1851. Oct. 25, 1851, Elder Lewis Leonard was invited to supply the pulpit, which he did for five months. In March, 1852, Rev. George Mathews, of Athol, Mass., was invited to visit the church, which he did, spending here the Sabbaths of April 11, 18 and 25. The latter date a call was given him, and he continued his labors till Feb. 22, 1854. April 24, 1854, a call was given Rev. William Clarke and accepted. His resignation was received and accepted April 30, 1864. July 3, 1864, Rev. B. Newton, of Coventry, was invited to supply the pulpit till otherwise provided for, which he did till December, 1864. In the meantime two calls had been given and declined. Mr. Adams, of Hamilton, officiated Dec. 31, 1864, and through him an invitation was given to J. B. Childs, a student at Hamilton, to supply the pulpit as often as convenient till the expiration of his theological term in August, with a view to settlement as pastor. He and Mr. Osterhout supplied them till March 4, 1865. At that date Mr. Childs was invited to supply them till Sept. 1st, when he received a call to the pastorate. He was ordained Sept. 27, 1865. He preached his farewell sermon, Jan. 12, 1868.

    The church underwent extensive repairs in 1868, and was rededicated Jan. 14, 1869.

    Rev. John C. Ward, of Frankfort, became the pastor in December, 1868, and sustained that relation till the close of March, 1873. For a year following the pulpit was supplied. Feb. 21, 1874, a call was given Samuel H. Greene, who was then pursuing theological studies, and at the same time supplying the pulpit. This was accepted, with the proviso that he be considered a permanent supply instead of pastor. He was ordained June 24, 1875. He is the present pastor.

    The membership of the church June 5, 1879, was 321.

    Their church edifice was burned in 1871, but regular appointments were maintained in an adjoining hall. The society rebuilt with brick at a cost of $15,200, and in June, 1880, reported the new edifice paid for and dedicated.

    St. Peter's Church, Cazenovia. --- November 4, 1844, William Greenland, Anson W. Spencer, Sherlock W. Perkins, Martin W. Shapley, J. Dean Hawley, Kendrick N. Guiteau, John Ryan, James Apostle White, Rollin A. Mitchell, D. Ira Baker, George Adams and John Adams met in the room occupied as the high school room, on the public square, where they were accustomed to celebrate divine worship according to the rites of the Protestant Episcopal church, for the purpose if incorporating themselves as a religious society. Rev. Mason Gallagher, who was then a missionary at this place, was called to the chair, and J. Dean Hawley was appointed secretary. It was decided to incorporate under the name of "The Rector, Wardens, and Vestrymen of St. Peter's church in the town of Cazenovia, in the county of Madison." William Greenland and Anson W. Spencer were elected church wardens, and Martin W. Shapley, Kendrick N. Guiteau, J. Dean Hawley, Sherlock W. Perkins, Charles G. Warden, John Ryan, Edward F. Pratt, and David G. Keeler, vestrymen.

    Previous to the organization, services had been held here by Bishops Onderdonk and Delancey, Revs. Drs. Burhans and Butler, and Revs. Mapes, Pardee, Dyer, Morey, Pound, Appleton, Davis, B. H. Hickox, F. C. Brown, Hollister and Buckley. Mr. Gallagher preached here for the first time on Tuesday, Sept. 10, 1844, in the chapel of the Seminary. Dec. 1, 1844, the first Sunday in Advent, the congregation worshiped for the first time in the room at the north-east corner of the square, which had been fitted up neatly and comfortably at an expense of about $200.

    Owing to an informality in the proceedings, the parish was not received into union with the Convention in August, 1845. It was subsequently re-organized and admitted the following year. The re-incorporation was effected Nov. 17, 1845.

    Rev. Mason Gallagher, who had officiated as rector since the organization, severed his connection with the parish in June, 1846, and removed to Dansville. Lay reading was statedly held till February, 1847, when Rev. S. H. Cox, Jr., took charge of the parish.

    Jan. 17, 1847, a site for a church was selected. The church was finished in 1848, and consecrated Dec. 28, 1848.

    May 13, 1850, Rev. Albert P. Smith was called to the rectorship and entered upon the duties of that office July 1, 1850, at a salary of $300 per year, and such additional sum as could be raised for his support. June 14, 1852, Mr. Smith's resignation was tendered and accepted, but he was "respectfully solicited to remain and officiate" as hitherto upon the same terms, so long as he deemed it "practicable and agreeable." May 1, 1854, Mr. Smith, who in the interval had continued to officiate as pastor, was again called to the rectorship, at a salary of $300.

    Rev. Albert P. Smith, D. D., still retains the rectorship, having had charge of the parish continuously since 1854, and uninterruptedly continued his ministerial labors since 1850.

    The present number of communicants (November, 1879,) is 95. The offerings during the past year were as follows: diocesan, $54.08; general, $110. The parish is in good condition financially and out of debt.

    St. James' Church, (Catholic,) at Cazenovia, was organized in 1849, by Rev. Michael Hayes, pastor of St. Mary's church, Syracuse, who had previously conducted meetings in private houses at intervals for some six months. In 1849, the walls (brick) of the church were built and the roof put on. It was finished in 1850. The first services were held in the church in May, 1850, before the pews were put in. The church was not entirely completed until 1852; it was dedicated June 26, 1854. Its cost was about $5,000. In 1862, it was enlarged and improved, at a cost of $4,500.

    Services were conducted in the church before its completion till 1853, By Rev. Michael Hayes and his assistants, Revs. Michael Hackett, William McCallian and John McMenomy. In 1853, Rev. James Cahill became the resident pastor, continuing until 1856, when he was succeeded by Rev. Michael Rooney, who remained until 1858. He was succeeded by Rev. Bonaventure Corney, who continued his ministrations till 1862, when Rev. P. C. Brady assumed the pastoral care, continuing his labors till his death, March 23, 1875, very highly respected by all denominations. The present pastor, Rev. C. A. Reilly, commenced his labors in May, 1875.

    The congregation is a large one. The average attendance at the services of the church is 500. There is a large scattered population who occasionally attend. The church is free from debt, and has in addition to their house of worship, a parsonage, which was purchased in 1860 for $1,250, and a cemetery, embracing a little more than two acres, which was bought in 1861 for $200.

    Gen. J. D. Ledyard and his son, Ledyard Lincklaen were liberal contributors to the funds for the purchase of the cemetery, and to church improvements made in 1862. They were the principal donors of two stained-glass windows which embellish the church.

    The First Universalist Society of Cazenovia was organized March 22, 1853, at a meeting of which Fletcher Billings and Rufus May were chosen moderators and G. W. Parsons, secretary. William G. Burr, Rufus May and Chester S. Bates were elected trustees, George W. Parsons, clerk, and Amasa Swift, treasurer. S. B. Ward, Francis Parsons, Thomas Worlock, Albert Cook and Amasa Swift were appointed a building committee. A lot for a church site was purchased in the spring of 1853, and in that year their house of worship was built. It was dedicated Nov. 8, 1854, Revs. T. Fiske, C. E. Hewes and J. M. Austin participating in the ceremonies. Its cost was about $2,500.

    The church was admitted to membership in the New York Central Association in June, 1854.

    Services were conducted occasionally for two or three years by Rev. C. E. Hewes, a resident of the village. Rev. D. Skinner preached two or three times, and Rev. J. M. Austin, of Auburn, preached here once a month for about a year. Feb. 18, 1855, it was decided to engage Rev. J. G. B. Heath, as pastor. He remained a little less than two years and was the only regular pastor the church has had. After he left, Mr. Austin again preached occasionally for some three years. Only occasional meetings have since been held. The number of constituent members was thirty-one. The present membership is small.

    SOCIETIES. --- United Brethren Lodge F. and A. M. No. 78, at Cazenovia, was organized May 9, 1799. The first officers were Jeremiah Clark, M.; Ebenezer Johnson, S. W.; Joseph Yaw, Jr., J. W.; James Greene, Secretary. The other charter members were Seymour Pickett, John G. Myers, Richard Salmon and Daniel Mulholland. The first member initiated was Hooker Ballard, May 9, 1799.

    The early meetings of the lodge were commenced in the afternoon and continued during the evening, each member present contributing to the evening's entertainment (supper) twenty-five cents.

    Cazenovia Lodge No. 616 F. and A. M., was organized July 13, 1866, and chartered June 11, 1867. The first officers were Charles Stebbins, M.; Plyment Mattoon, S. W.; John K. Chamberlayne, J. W.; W. W. Watkins, Treasurer; George M. Watkins, Secretary. Regular communications are held the first and third Fridays of each month.

    Owahgena Lodge, No. 616 I. O. of O. F. --- The records of this lodge were destroyed by fire and but little definite information can be gleaned in regard to it. It was organized in 1845. Among the charter members were Sylvanus H. Henry, who died in California, William H. Dwinelle, now in New York, William Graanland, Sen., John Reymon, -----Curtis, Dr. Stephen M. Potter, now in Manlius. The first officers were William H. Dwinelle, N. G., Sylvanus H. Henry, V. G.; John Reymon, Permanent Secretary. The lodge went down in 1860, when the block on the site of the present Burr Block was consumed by fire. Everything belonging to the lodge was destroyed.

    Owahgena Lodge, No. 450 I. O. of O. F., was instituted May 10, 1876. The first officers were Thomas L. Harris, N. G.; David G. Keeler, V. G.; John Greenland, Secretary; Whittlesey Benjamin, Treasurer; Horace Bacon, R. S. N. G.; Azel Backus, Conductor. The only other constituent members were William Greenland and L. D. Morse. The lodge was chartered in August, 1876. It meets every Tuesday evening in Odd Fellow Hall, in the Burr Block.

NEW WOODSTOCK.

    New Woodstock is situated in the south part of the town, on the line of the Utica, Ithaca & Elmira Railroad, nearly midway between Cazenovia and DeRuyter. It contains two churches, (Baptist and Methodist Episcopal,) a district school, one hotel, (kept by Chauncey J. Cook, who purchased it March 17, 1873,) a saw-mill and cheese box factory, a grist and saw-mill, a cider-mill and machine shop, a cheese factory, two wagon shops, (Silas E. Morse and S. E. Gordon,) a blacksmith shop, (G. S. Pool,) a shoe shop, (Sanford Hayes,) two general stores, a grocery and feed store, a hardware store, and a population of 295.

    MERCHANTS. --- The first merchants of New Woodstock of which we have any information were Harvey and Alvin Smith, brothers, who traded here from about 1816 to 1830, and also kept a distillery, the latter of which they sold to Philetus Lathrop. Their store now forms the upright part of Joseph Slocum's residence. Joseph F. Clark was contemporary with the Smiths. He did business on the opposite side of the street, on the site of the late residence of Mrs. Eliza Smith, the first building east of the railroad on the north side of the street. He continued in trade till his death, Oct. 19, 1834, aged 50. Jesse B. Worden traded here from about 1816 to 1819. He left the mercantile business to engage in the Baptist ministry. Harvey Morris came from Log City (Eaton) about 1834, and opened a store in the building which forms a part of the store now occupied by Mr. Huntley, and traded here till his death, Nov. 25, 1842, aged 48. T. M. Avery, formerly from Perryville, succeeded Morris in that store immediately after his death. He traded but a few years and removed to Chicago.

    Baum & Stanton, the latter a native of this locality, and brother-in-law to the former, traded here some three or four years previous to the late war. They were succeeded in 1862 by O. D. Huntley & Son, (Oliver D. and William W.,) who came here that year from Sharon, N. Y., and traded till the death of the elder Hentley, Aug. 13, 1866, aged 64, when the business was sold to another son, T. F. Huntley, who after about a year admitted his brother William W. to partnership. After some three years the latter sold his interest to his brother, T. F. Huntley, who still carries on a general merchandise business. William W. Huntley resumed mercantile business in February, 1875, and still continues it.

    The other merchants now engaged in business are Gunn & Tucker, (E.W. Gunn and F. W. Tucker, the former of whom had been previously engaged in mercantile business here several years from 1856, in company most of the time with J. J. Tucker, and later with his cousin Alonzo Tucker,) who purchased the store they now occupy in 1876, and started the flour and feed business, to which they afterwards added clothing, and in 1878, groceries; Sunderlin & Tucker, (R. J. Sunderlin, a native of Chittenango, and J. J. Tucker, a native of Cazenovia,) hardware dealers and successors to a business established in 1865 by Mr. Sunderlin, who admitted his present partner in 1867; and Orrin S. Smith, general merchant, a native of Cazenovia, who commenced business in 1866, in company with J. Ferguson, whose interest he bought after about a year.

    POSTMASTER. --- John Ferguson, the present postmaster at New Woodstock, was appointed May 18, 1871.

    PHYSICIANS. --- The first physician at New Woodstock, it is believed, was Joseph Moffett, who came here about 1810, and practiced here till his death, April 3, 1820, aged 51. He was succeeded by Levi Gibbs, who practiced several years and removed to Perry, N. Y. Stephen P. Collins practiced here from about 1828 to 1838. He went to Chicago and died there. John Goodell, Jr., from Erieville, who practiced here several years, till his death, Jan. 25, 1850, aged 48. Lorenzo Heffron, also from Erieville, came directly after the death of Goodell, and practiced some two or three years, when he went to Fabius. C. W. Adams, from Onondaga county, bought Heffron's practice and continued some ten years, when he went west. A. D. Smith practiced two or three years previous to 1876, in which year he removed to Cazenovia, where he now practices. Joseph Ferry, a native of Nelson, practiced here about a year in 1876, and returned to Fabius, whence he came. Franklin Washington Root, who was born in Poultney, Vt., Jan. 29, 1820, and received his literary and medical education there and at the medical college at Castleton, Vt., where he graduated at the age of twenty-four. In December following, having married shortly previous to receiving his diploma, he removed to New Woodstock, from whence, in 1874, he removed to East Hamilton, taking the office and practice of David Y. Foote, M. D. In February, 1875, during his absence while attending the meeting of the State Medical Society at Albany, his house and office were destroyed by fire. He then removed to Hamilton, where he died May 8, 1876.

    The present physicians are N. P. Warner, who was born in Pitcher, N. Y., April 8, 1851, was educated at Cazenovia Seminary and the Cortland Normal School, was graduated at the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, March 1, 1875, and commenced practice at New Woodstock on the 13th day of the same month; and John F. Place, who was born in Guilford, N. Y., May 22, 1851, was educated at Norwich Academy, was graduated at Michigan University in March, 1874, practiced five years in Syracuse, and in February, 179, located at New Woodstock.

    MANUFACTURES. --- Roscoe Morse's cheese box factory was established about 1861, by Devolson and Roscoe Morse, brothers, who carried on the business in company some four years, when Roscoe bought Devolson's interest, and removed the factory from the north part of the village, where it was originally located, to the south part, its present location. The building was burned May 25, 1872, and rebuilt in the fall of that year. It also does custom sawing, containing one circular saw. The machinery is propelled by a twenty-horse-power engine. The establishment gives employment to three or four persons.

    The New Woodstock Mills (flouring, grist and saw,) were build some forty-three years ago by Samuel Walker, who previously owned a grist and saw-mill, which was built at an early day by Nathan Smith, and was washed away by a freshet shortly before the present building was erected. The present proprietor is J. J. Randall, who bought the property in 1869 of Wallace & Corbin. It contains three runs of stones and a circular saw. It is located on a branch of Limestone creek, a little north of the village. This stream has a fall at this point of 32 feet, and furnished a pretty constant water power, except in dry times.

    The cider-mill and machine shop, situated on the same stream, and a little below the grist-mill, was formerly used as a wool-carding shop, and has been several times rebuilt. It first came into the possession of the present proprietor, G. W. Wightman, in 1855. He sold it in 1861, and repurchased it in the spring of 1863. It was burned in the winter of 1862 and rebuilt by him in 1862. It was again burned in 1871 and rebuilt in 1872. Mr. Wightman is a cabinet maker, and first used the building as a furniture factory, subsequently converting it to its present use.

    Silas E. Morse and Henry S. Gorton are somewhat extensively engaged in the manufacture of carriages, wagons and sleighs, the former employing ten and the latter five persons. Mr. Morse commenced the business here in 1850, and was associated the first five years with Ralph Bell and James L. Savage. He also manufactures carriage bent work. He has employed ten men, winter and summer, for the last twenty-nine years. Mr. Gorton has carried on the business some twenty years.

    The New Woodstock cheese factory was the first one in the town. It was built in 1862-'63, by E. W. Gunn and J. J. Tucker, who were then engaged in mercantile business in New Woodstock. It is located in the north part of the village, and is now owned by J. M. Lownsbury & Sons. It received milk from about 600 cows.

    There are seven other factories in the town, viz: the Cazenovia factory, located in Cazenovia village, built in the spring of 1863, by Root & Maynard, is now owned by Augustus Kingsbury, and received milk from 300 to 400 cows; the Castine bridge factory, built about 1863, owned by Francis & Wood, and receives milk from about 300 cows; the Ridge Road factory, built about eight years ago, received milk from about 300 cows; the Perkins factory, located one and one-half miles south of Cazenovia, built about 1871, by Willess C. and Wilson L. Perkins, who still own it, receives milk from about 200 cows; the No. 9 factory, located at Websters, built about 1872 or '73, by a stock company composed of its patrons, by whom it is still owned, receives milk from 300 to 400 cows; the Falls factory, at Chittenango Falls, built some ten or twelve years ago, receives milk from some 200 cows; and the Union factory, located two miles north-west of New Woodstock, built in 1871, by a stock company, by whom it is still managed, and receives milk from some 250 cows.

    CHURCHES. --- The First Baptist church in Cazenovia, at New Woodstock. --- The Baptists of this town were not much behind the Presbyterians in cultivating this religious field. Those who settled in the locality of New Woodstock were mostly active young men from Woodstock, Conn., and Brimfield, Mass. Among them were a few who had been members of Baptist churches in the East, and others who inclined to their sentiments. Soon after the arrival of Rev. Joshua Leonard, who was the first minister in the town, they were favored occasionally with preaching by Elder Nathan Baker, of Pompey, who was then a licentiate. In 1800 Elder James Bacon, from Torrington, Mass., came here, and through his efforts a church was organized. In December of this year a meeting was held at the house of Ebenezer Corbin for the purpose of organizing a monthly conference. The five persons who attended it agreed to meet monthly in conference, and also arranged to secure the services of Elder Bacon half of the time. March 18, 1801, they met according to appointment, and, says the record, "having conversed about articles, both as to doctrine and practice, found ourselves so far agreed that we voted to send for a council * * * to come and look into our standing." They then numbered ten, but during the spring six were added by baptism. These sixteen were fellowshipped by a council which convened at the house of Isaac Morse, June 17, 1801.

    Their first pastor was Elder James Bacon, who was then far advanced in years, and soon felt constrained to relinquish the pastorate into younger hands by reason of age and infirmities. He died in 1812, aged 84. He was succeeded in the fall of 1804, by Rev. John Peck, who continued his labors with them thirty-one years. He was ordained by this church June 11, 1806. Two years previously (1802) a small log meeting-house has been built, but it soon became too small to accommodate the people. The church therefore united with the Presbyterians in this part of the town, and built a frame house thirty feet square. Each denomination was privileged to occupy it alternately half the time; but as not preacher was obtained by the Presbyterians, it was occupied all the time by the Baptists. By 1815, the church had outgrown this house, and in that year the foundation of a new one was laid. A larger edifice was soon after erected thereon. It was finished in 1816. In 1820 about half the members of this church withdrew to form the church in Cazenovia village.

    Elder Peck resigned the pastorate in November, 1834, but continued his labors till the first Sunday in January, 1835. He was succeeded in the pastorate by the following in the order named: Revs. John F. Bishop, Daniel Putnam, I. K. Brownson, John Fulton, N. Mumford, B. Morley, H. Garlick, P. C. Bentley, A. LeRoy, and Jan. 1, 1874, by Rev. J. N. Tolman, who was chosen to that office. In May, 1874, repairs on the church were begun, and June following it was reported beautifully and tastefully reconstructed and furnished. Mr. Tolman resigned in March, 1877, and in May following Rev. E. P. Brigham, the present pastor, entered upon his labors.

    The report to the Association in June, 1879, shows the estimated value of church property to be $6,000; the Sunday School, of which L. H. Slocum was superintendent, comprised 16 officers and teachers, and 165 scholars. During the year a troublesome church debt was paid off. The number of members at that time was 150.

    The New Woodstock Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in 1830, at which time it was on the Pompey circuit. The constituent members of this class were: L. Davis and wife, N. Abbott and wife, James Allen, Samantha Corbin and A. Merrick. The preachers on the circuit at that time were: F. Benjamin, B. Paddock and W. Batchelor. Services were held in the school-house at West Woodstock. A house of worship was built in New Woodstock in 1850, and enlarged under the labors of R. H. Clark. New Woodstock and Delphi subsequently became a separate charge. New Woodstock has twice been a station, twice on the charge with Delphi, and thrice on the charge with Shed's Corners, with which it is now connected. The present number of members is about 40; that of the Shed's corners church, 50. The estimated value of the church property connected with this is $4,000; and the parsonage, which is at New Woodstock, $1,000. The number of Sunday School officers and teachers connected with the two churches is 20; the number of scholars, 80.

    The following have served the church as pastors in the order named: John Nason, ---- Beebe, Wesley Fox, ---- Peck, Charles Blakesle, John H. Hall, ---- Winslow, W. E. York, ---- Ripley, ---- Rockwell, ---- Rogers, R. H. Clark, J. Gutsell, Walter Jerome, ---- Maxwell, B. W. Hamilton, Hubbard Fox, ---- McDonald, A. Harroun, T. F. Clark, H. W. Williams, from April 9, 1872, to Oct. 7, 1874, M. Z. Haskins, from Oct. 14, 1874, to Sept. 19, 1877, and Warren D. Fox, the present pastor, who commenced his labors in October, 1877.

CHITTENANGO FALLS.

    Chittenango Falls is situated on Chenango Creek, in the north part of the town, and lies partly in Cazenovia and partly in Fenner. The grocery, paper-mill, (wrapping,) cheese factory and blacksmith shop, and an extensive limestone quarry, are on the west side of the creek, in Cazenovia, and a few dwelling houses on the east side, in Fenner. There is a Methodist Episcopal church on the east side, which is on the Perryville charge, and has been since 1831. Previously it was on the Pompey circuit.

WEBSTERS.

    Websters is a station on the Syracuse and Chenango Valley Railroad, about two and one-half miles south of Cazenovia. A post-office was established here about four years ago. P. A. Webster was the first postmaster and still holds the office. There is a cheese factory at this place.

BINGLEY'S MILLS.

    Bingley's Mills is a flag station on the Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad, two miles above Cazenovia on Chittenango Creek. The grist-mill at this point was one of the earliest in this section of country. It was owned by William Atkinson from Sept. 12, 1831, till his death, May 20, 1871, aged 72. This is a longer time than any other mill in the town has been run by one man.35 It is a hamlet of about a dozen dwellings.

    MANUFACTURES. --- At "Belmont" on Chittenango Creek, two miles north of New Woodstock, is a grist and saw-mill owned by Mr. Jepson. It contains three runs of stones and a muley saw. About a mile above on the same stream, is a saw-mill owned by the Judd Brothers, which is doing considerable business. It was built by Clark Taber. It is located at "Castine Bridge," a hamlet composed mostly of the Scotts and Judds, two numerous families.

    WAR OF THE REBELLION. --- The record of the legislative action taken by this town with reference to its participation in the war of the rebellion is exceedingly meager; but such as it is we give it and rescue it from an oblivion which has engulfed the rest, a fact which is deeply to be regretted.

    At a special town meeting held Aug. 26, 1864, it was resolved by a vote of 276 to 43 to pay a bounty of from $100 to $500 to volunteers, either principals or substitutes, credited on the quote of the town under the call for 500,000, (to be followed by a draft Sept. 5th,) to the number requisite to fill said quota. The money therefore was to be raised on town bonds, payable Feb. 1, 1865. C. Hyde Beckwith, D. E. Haskell, B. F. Jervis, D. W. Cameron and J. D. Ledyard were appointed a committee to carry out the provisions of the resolution.

    At the annual town meeting of March 7, 1865, it was resolved that the Board of Town Auditors be authorized to issue, or direct the War Loan Committee to issue bonds sufficient to raise the amount necessary to pay $600 each to the requisite number of volunteers to fill the quota of the town under the call for 300,000 men, and such further calls as might be made.

    Cazenovia's contribution to the personnel of the army and navy during that sanguinary struggle was both prompt and generous---387 soldiers and 2 seaman, only a trifle less than ten percent of her entire population---and constitutes a record worthy of preservation in its fullest details. Of this number 28 were natives of the town. They were distributed, so far as the record shows, among the various branches of the service as follows: 1 in the 3d, 6 in the 12th, 1 each in the 17th and 27th, 18 in the 35th, 7 in the 61st, 3 in the 75th, 6 in the 111th, 1 in the 112th, 88 in the 114th, 1 each in the 121st, 122d and 147th, 3 in the 149th, 5 in the 157th, 2 in the 161st, 1 each in the 176th and 181st, and 2 in the 185th infantry regiments; 16 in the 2d, 9 in the 3d, 3 in the 8th, 1 each in the 10th and 12th, 3 in the 15th, 2 in the 18th, 1 in the 20th, 34 in the 22d, and 1 in the 29th cavalry regiments; 2 in the 1st, 4 in the 2d, 3 in the 3d, 1 in the 9th (heavy,) and 11th artillery regiments; 1 in the 8th Independent Battery; 2 in the 1st N. C. U. Vols., 1 in the 8th Indiana Vols., 10 Mass., 10th Wisconsin, 11th Ohio, 17th Connecticut and 46th and 143d Pennsylvania infantry regiments; 1 each in the 1st Vermont, 1st Wisconsin, 1st Veteran, 2d California and Nevada Cavalry regiments; 38 in the 1st colored (heavy) and 1st Ohio artillery regiments; and 1 in the 50th N. Y. Engineers.

    The record of bounties paid is also manifestly incomplete.36 It is as follows:--

10Received aTownBounty of$ 10
1"""160
1"""300
2"""400
2"""440
21"""450
45"""500
40"""570
82"County"50
64"""300
53"""500

------------

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES.

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JOHN LINCKLAEN.

    In addition to the reference already made to the life and services of Mr. John Lincklaen in connection with the early history of the village and town of Cazenovia, in which he took so important a part, an extended memoir would seem to be necessary.

    John Lincklaen was born in Amsterdam, Holland, Dec. 24, 1768. His early life was spent in Switzerland, where he received most of his education. At the age of fourteen he entered the Dutch navy, remaining in the service for several years, soon attaining the rank of Lieutenant under Admiral DeWinter. It was while in this navy that the opportunities presented themselves which allowed him to visit many of the most important places of Europe and Asia. In 1792 he emigrated to the United States in the employment of the Holland Land Company. He surveyed the land purchased by that Company, and the following year he was made general agent of the same.

    He soon conceived the idea of laying out a town, which he did, giving it the name of Cazenovia, in honor of his much esteemed friend, Mr. Cazenove, an Italian.

    For some thirty years of active life, Mr. Lincklaen held a place second to none in the industrial and social development of his town, and has left behind him abundant proof of his ability and wisdom in causing to be laid out and erecting the first buildings in what is now known as the pleasant village of Cazenovia, in Central N. Y., Madison county.

    John Lincklaen was also prominent in the Holland Purchase in Genessee county. As no foreign company could then hold and transfer lands, or give titles for the same in this country, under existing laws, the celebrated tract known as the Morris reserve, containing over thirty hundred thousand acres was deeded to the different persons in their own names who represented the different branches of the Holland Land Company. These were Herman Le Roy, John Lincklaen and Gerrit Boon.

    In 1814 Mr. Lincklaen became deeply interested in religion, and afterwards became an earnest christian-worker. He was active in the erection of the then new "church on the green," and contributed liberally towards its building and support. The same building having undergone thorough repairs from time to time is still an ornament to the village, and a memento of the founders.

    The side of Mr. Lincklaen's first dwelling is familiar to the early residents of the village on the bank of the beautiful Cazenovia Lake, opposite the present residence of Mr. Burr.

[JOHN LINCKLAEN.]

    This house was destroyed by fire 1806. He then selected a new site at the foot of the lake which was then known as Lake Owahgena, where he built a substantial brick house, which is still occupied by the family, and is considered one of the attractive spots in the town.

    Mr. Lincklaen in 1797 married the eldest sister of Mr. J. D. Ledyard. Mr. Ledyard succeeded Mr. Lincklaen as agent of the Holland Land Company, also succeeding to his private estate. Soon after, he removed the office to a more central position in the village, where it still remains, and is occupied by Ledyard Brothers, sons of J. D. Ledyard. Mr. Lincklaen's life so full of activity, so replete with generosity, with honesty, and all that makes manhood truly noble and great, was stricken amidst its usefulness and vigor. A victim of paralysis, he died in his prime, Feb. 9, 1822, aged fifty-four years.

    His memory will live long in the hearts of the then youth of the day.


JONATHAN DENISE LEDYARD.

    Jonathan Denise Ledyard, son of Benjamin and Catharine Forman Ledyard, was born at Middletown Point, N. J., June 10, 1793, and died at Cazenovia, Jan. 7, 1874.

    His father was a native of Groton, Conn., and a near relative of John Ledyard, the distinguished traveler, as well as of Col. Ledyard, who was treacherously slain during the Revolution, after the gallant defense of Fort Griswold. He served with credit in that war as major, and at its close engaged in business in New York as a hardware merchant, with his residence at Middletown Point. In 1794 he removed with his family to Aurora, Cayuga county, as agent and clerk for the apportionment of lands in the Military Tract. On the erection on Onondaga county in 1794 he was appointed by Gov. George Clinton, clerk of that county, and by Gov. John Jay, to the same office in Cayuga county, on its erection in 1799, holding the latter office till his death in November, 1803.

    His mother was sister to Gen. Jonathan Forman, also of Revolutionary memory, and to Major Samuel S. Forman, who accompanied Col. John Lincklaen in the settlement of Cazenovia in 1793.

    Jonathan Denise Ledyard removed with his parents to Aurora, and on the death of his mother, in 1798, was adopted by his sister, Helen, who was the wife of Col. John Lincklaen, who had no children of his own. At an early age he was sent to school at Albany, then kept by the celebrated Dr. Nott, and was afterwards placed in a school at Whitestown, under the charge of Dr. Halsey. He subsequently attended the Grammar School of Union College, after which he pursued the regular course at that institution, under the presidency of his old preceptor, Dr. Nott, graduating in 1812. He read law in the offices of Childs & Stebbins, in Cazenovia, and of Gen. Kirkland, in Utica, and was admitted to the bar in 1815, but never engaged in the active practice of his profession.

    Soon after attaining his majority he entered the land office of Col. Lincklaen, whom he succeeded in the management of the Holland Land Company’s establishment at Cazenovia, and in 1822 he purchased the remaining lands. The increasing infirmities of Col. Lincklaen, followed by his lamented death, in 1822, devolved upon Mr. Ledyard, then a very young man, the burden of the entire property, consisting of about 150,000 acres land, lying in the counties of Madison and Chenango. The depressing effects produced on the commercial interests of the country by the war of 1812, the severity of several untoward seasons, and the opening to settlement of the western country by the construction of the Erie Canal, made the task a very onerous one. But by great energy, untiring industry and strict probity, he succeeded in meeting his obligations to the company in such a manner as to leave a moderate competence for himself and family. He perceived that a coercive policy would result, not only in the ruin of many settlers upon the tract, but would, in the end, retard the growth of the country, by driving them to the better but more distant lands of the new States. Accordingly he forebore, encouraged, assisted, sometimes threatened, but rarely prosecuted, until, in 1844, he was enabled to pay the last installment of the heavy indebtedness incurred on the purchase of the property. He acquainted himself with the character, habits and business and family relations of his patrons, many of whom owe their prosperity, in large measure, to his judicious counsel, his gentle reproof, or his warm words of encouragement. He was regarded by the people upon his tract more as their friend and adviser than as their creditor, and there were few who did not look forward to a business visit with him with the pleasurable anticipation with which one expects to meet a valued friend. Of the many hundreds who purchased lands of him, there were very few with whom he had any dispute and almost none with whom he had litigation.

    From his earliest manhood he was largely interested in improving the thoroughfares of the county. He succeeded Col. Lincklaen as president of the third Great Western Turnpike, which was completed in 1810 at a cost of over $90,000, and until the dissolution of the company, superintended its affairs with great care and faithfulness. In connection with his son, Ledyard Lincklaen, he was largely instrumental in the construction of the plank road from Cazenovia to Chittenango, and took a warm interest in the completion of the railroad from Cazenovia to Canastota.

    He was largely interested in agricultural pursuits, and was the first President of the Madison County Agricultural Society, formed in 1841, administering its affairs with zeal and efficiency. In the militia he rose by various gradations to the rank of Brigadier General, resigning his commission in 1828.

    Continuing his residence in Cazenovia till his death he was foremost in the support of every project calculated to promote the prosperity or enhance the beauty of the village.

    In his social relations he shone even more conspicuously than in his business relations. His personal attachments were unusually strong, his sympathies large and his friendship enduring.

    He married Jane, daughter of John Strawbridge, of Philadelphia, who died Feb. 4, 1855, aged 62. His eldest son, Lincklaen Ledyard, inherited the Lincklaen mansion and the farm attached thereto. His name was afterwards changed by Act of the Legislature to Ledyard Lincklaen. He died April 25, 1864. His widow still occupies the place. Two sons are living, both in Cazenovia,--George S. Ledyard, who occupies the homestead just south of the village, and L. Wolters Ledyard, whose residence, "The Oaks," on the south shore of the lake, is very near the site of the first log cabin erected by the pioneers in 1793.

____________

JOSEPH BARNUM HOYT.

    Among all the names of prominent men whose histories and deeds are recorded on the pages of this book, none will be read with more interest and pleasure than that of him whose name heads this brief sketch. Well and favorably known to many of the citizens of the State of New York, never backward with tongue or pen in espousing the cause of right and justice, or to help the weaker side, if that was the right side, regardless of all else. His is one of the names which will go down to posterity with undimmed luster—one which will not be soon forgotten when the voice is stilled, and the hand that now wields the pen is motionless.

    Joseph Barnum Hoyt was born in the city of Utica, N. Y., Sept. 28, 1806. He is the second child and oldest son of David P. and Mary Hoyt, who came from Danbury, Conn., and settled in Utica in 1803. He received much of his education in the Utica Academy, and was a classmate of Horatio Seymour.

    November 24, 1829, he was married to Miss Margaret H. Gardner, of Salem, Mass. She was born in 1809. The fruits of this union were six children, five of whom are now living, one being the wife of John Crape, a prominent merchant of Albany, N. Y.

    Mr. Hoyt is well known as a writer of pamphlets and newspaper articles relating to the public good. He is a man who feels and thinks more of the ad-

[JOSEPH BARNUM HOYT.]

vancement of the public welfare than of his own interests, and has devoted much of his time and best energies in that direction. He was the first man to advocate the legal reduction of passenger fares on the N. Y. Central R. R. to two cents per mile, and after a vigorous resistance made by those in the interest of the company, the measure was finally carried through the Legislature, and has undoubtedly been of great advantage to the company as well as the traveling community. He also advocated about the same time the building of four tracks on the same line. He was one of the first to advocate the Union Pacific Railroad, and recommended that it be built by the United States Government as a national enterprise. He has been ever foremost in support of the great enterprises that have proved of permanent benefit to the people of the country, showing that he possesses in a marked degree the power of forecasting the future from the past and present signs of the times. During his residence in Utica, he was prominent as a citizen, and held several offices of trust and responsibility. Upon the death of his father he was appointed general agent by the administrators of his estate, and settled up the same.

    Mrs. Hoyt died Feb. 1, 1857. The following year he removed with his family to Cazenovia, where he has since resided.

____________

DR. THOMAS L. HARRIS.

    Dr. Thomas L. Harris, a brief sketch of whose life is here given, was born in Cazenovia, Madison Co., N. Y., on the 18th of Dec., 1824.

    He is the eldest of a family of six children, five of whom are now living. His parents William and Semantha Harris were, with the exception of a few years, life-long residents of Cazenovia. The doctor’s facilities for securing an early education, except those of the district schools were far inferior to those of the

[DR. THOMAS L. HARRIS.]

present day. Much of his time during the early years of his life was, in the summer, occupied in agricultural pursuits. Having a desire for mental culture and discipline, he spent a large share of his leisure time in reading and study. This method of securing an education without collegiate advantages was attended with many difficulties, which with dedication of character and persevering effort he overcame, and at the age of twenty-one years, with a desire for honorable distinction, and the means of obtaining a competence, he entered the office of Dr. George Sheldon, a prominent and successful practitioner of the time, and commenced the study of medicine. A previous though somewhat limited knowledge of Physiology and Anatomy, was now made available in the further prosecution of his medical studies.

    In the year 1848 having concluded the requisite course of reading and study and being deemed qualified by a board of medical examiners he commenced the practice of medicine. In 1854 he was married to Miss Sarah N. Hatch, of Cazenovia. As the result of this union, during in interval of thirteen years, four children were born, three of whom, two sons and one daughter are not living. During a long residence in Cazenovia, and an extensive and successful practice, extending over a term of thirty years, the doctor has found time to fill several official positions of trust to which he has been elected by an intelligent constituency. For a term of years he held the position of surgeon on the staff of Col. T. F. Petrie and Col. James Whitford. In the spring of 1862 having sustained a creditable examination he received the diploma of the Metropolitan Medical College. In 1864 he passed the examination of the Board of Censors and was duly elected a permanent member of the Eclectic Medical Society of the State of New York.

    At the Annual Meeting of the Society in 1876, Dr. Harris was unanimously elected president of the same and as an executive officer contributed to the success of that body, and the credit of himself.

    The doctor has for many years been closely identified with, and a zealous worker in the cause of temperance, a co-laborer with others for the elevation of humanity.

    An acute sense of individual responsibility and a strong conviction of accountability present and future has ever made him an earnest student, and worker in the cause of reform. As a citizen Dr. Harris has the esteem and confidence of the community. As a physician a constantly increasing and eminently successful practice speaks for itself.

____________

EPHRAIM B. HESLER.

    Ephraim B. Hesler was born in the village of Canajohara, Montgomery county, N. Y., Oct. 26, 1811. He is a son of Adam and Susan (Christian) Hesler. The former was born in the city of New York, Sept. 4th, 1790, and died at Cazenovia, February 22d, 1875. The latter was born at Fort Plain, Montgomery Co. N. Y., August 30, 1796, and died August 31, 1846. They were married Sept. 29, 1810, and had six sons who all reached maturity except one. The names and dates of births are as follows, Ephraim B., as above, Elias born Sept. 3d, 1813, died Dec. 19, 1832, Henry born April 1st, 1815, died Dec. 14, 1873, William, born Jan 26, 1817, and died March 4th, 1819, Harrison, born April 15th, 1819, died Jan. 21st, 1853, and Sylvester born Dec. 4th, 1825, now living at Fond du Lac, Wis.

    Ephraim came to the town of Cazenovia, with his parents when he was three years old. They settled at a little place in the town of Peth, where they resided the most of the time after their settlement in the town. His father was a tailor by occupation and followed the business during his active life.

    The early years of Ephraim were spent at home and he was put to learn the carpenter’s and joiner’s trade, when he was fifteen years old, which business he followed almost exclusively till 1860. He settled on the farm where he now resides in 1850, and has added to his first purchase until he has about 300 acres. Sept. 7th, 1830, he was married to Charlotte M. daughter of Samuel and Charlotte (Mills) Morris. Her father was born in R. I., 1768, and died in Cazenovia, 1860; her mother was born in Boston, Mass., in 1770 and died Feb. 11, 1808.


1 - Bonds issued by the town of Cazenovia in aid of the Cazenovia and Canastota Railroad Co., 600 bonds, each $100, dated Feb. 1, 1869, payable Feb. 1, 1889, at 7 per cent interest; 200 bonds, each 500, dated Feb. 1, 1869, payable Feb. 1, 1869, at 7 per cent interest.
2 - Schoolcraft's Notes.
3 - This is a small boulder about thirteen inches long and twelve inches wide bearing a most remarkable inscription and figures, which if genuine, and correctly interpreted, furnishes the earliest evidence of the presence of Europeans in North America. It dates back to a period earlier than the discovery of New England, New York or Virginia, a hundred years earlier than the founding of Plymouth colony, and within twenty-three years of the discovery of the new continent by Cabot. It has been reasonably conjectured by the author of Clark's Onondaga, to be a sepulchral monument, erected possibly by a party of Spaniards, who, stimulated by the love of adventure, allured by the love of gold, or driven by some rude blast of misfortune, may have visited this region, and lost one of their number by death.
4 - Contribution to the Cazenovia Republican of Mar 20, 1879, by J.W. Ledyard.
5 - A copy of this valuable letter is preserved in the records of Cazenovia village, from which we copy.
6 - So named because the proceeds arising from the sale of lands therein were to be applied to the construction of roads.
7 - The residence of L. Wolters Ledyard, "The Oaks," on the south shore of the lake, is very near the first log cabin built by these pioneers in 1793.
8 - Among these were Archibald Bates, Isaac Nichols, Benjamin Pierson, Noah Taylor, William Gillett and Anson Dean.
9 - Of the settlers on this purchase Major Forman elsewhere says: "I believe there was but one person who took up a lot of land during the first four years, while I continued in office, who could not write his name."
10 - The village of Cazenovia lies only partially in the tract originally purchased by Mr. Lincklaen, the center of Seminary street being the north line of that purchase. Afterwards, when it became desirable to use land to the north of this for the village plot, some 10,000 acres of the New Petersburgh Tract were purchased.
11 - Biographical sketches both of Mr. Lincklaen and Mr. Ledyard will be found at the end of this chapter.
12 - This is the date assigned by A. B. Caldwell in a biographical sketch of him published in the Albany Atlas and Argus, in 1861; though, says C.C. Dawson, of New York, in The Historical Magazine of December, 1869, to which we are indebted for information regarding Maj. Forman, "It is doubtful if the Major's exact age was known to any one except himself," so reticent was he of matters pertaining to himself.
13 - The earlier town records of Cazenovia, covering a most interesting period in its history, have not been preserved; hence we are unable to give a list of the first town officers, and much information which might have been gleaned from the early town legislation is irreparably lost.
14 - Presbyterian, Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Episcopal, Universalist and Roman Catholic.
15 - Lincklaen House, kept by Clark & Jewett, Cazenovia House, kept by Perry Crandall, and the Lake House, kept by C. B. Stanton.
16 - The Cazenovia Republican, see page 518.
17 - See next subject, "Merchants."
18 - This was recently the subject of an interesting correspondence. Dec. 13, 1875, Raoul de Cazenove, of Lyons, France, great-grandson of Theophilus de Cazenove, addressed a letter to the "Mayor of Cazenovia," expressing a kindly interest in the village and tendering a portrait of its founder and tendering a portrait of its founder, whose name has been so pleasantly associated with the village from its earliest history. This portrait, the property of the village, is now in possession of the Messrs. Ledyard.
19 - March 24, 1836, Sidney T. Fairchild was appointed Clerk vice Chas. H. S. Williams, resigned.
20 - August 13, 1841, Benjamin T. Clarke was appointed clerk vice C. Carpenter removed. Nov. 8, 1841, C. Carpenter was restored to the position.
21 - L. Wolters Ledyard was elected clerk Feb. 13, 1861, vice Charles Stebbins resigned.
22 - August 23, 1866 Harley S. Keller was elected President vice Lewis B. Stone, deceased, August 17, 1866, aged 60.
23 - July 6, 1873, the village voted to re-incorporate under the act of April 20, 1870, which makes the office of President an elective one by the villagers instead of the trustees as hitherto. The first election under this charter was held Dec. 3, 1873.
24 - April 3, 1871, George A. Spear was Elected Clerk, vice J. H. Howson resigned Feb. 12, 1873.
25 - May 6, 1875, Irving C. Forte was appointed Clerk, vice J. C. Fowler resigned.
26 - P. Jacob Schwartze was Mr. Lincklaen's body servant, and remained here with him some time. He afterwards kept a hotel in Utica.
27 - See subject of "Manufactures."
28 - He was initiated a member of the United Brethren Lodge No. 78, F. & A. M., of Cazenovia, July 10, 1799.
29 - The first was established at New Market, N. H., in 1817. "It prospered for several years, though financially embarrassed, and in 1825 its halls were closed." --- First Fifty Years of Cazenovia Seminary, (1825 to 1875,) to which we are mainly indebted for the sketch of this institution.
30 - First Fifty Years of Cazenovia Seminary, 1875.
31 - May 17, 1870, the trustees, to enable them to complete the improvements perfected that year, issued bonds to the amount of $30,000, payable in ten years from that date, secured by mortgage upon the real and personal estate of the Seminary corporation. Recently the whole amount of the bonded indebtedness of the Seminary was purchased by Hon. James Callahan, of DesMoines, Iowa, an aluminus of the Seminary, who proposes to donate it to the institution as soon as the floating debt is paid off, provision for which has been made by subscriptions from residents of Cazenovia and vicinity, who have from its inception been generous contributors to its support, irrespective of its denominational or sectarian bias.
32 - This school-house stood just across the outlet bridge, where the street turns toward the Chenango Valley Railroad Station.
33 - Early Methodism, p. 401.
34 - The cost of the church and fixtures as per report of the treasurer, Dec. 2, 1874, was $38,990.04.
35 - Gazetteer and Directory of Madison County by H. Childs, 1868-69.
36 - It appears that the entire bounty paid by the town was $56,990.00, which is probably far too small in amount.
Transcribed by Lorna Marks
Fall, 2003
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