THE EARLY HISTORY OF THE SUNDAY SCHOOL

by Al Vedder and Kathy Crowell

According to Joshua Clark, "during the latter part of the ministrations of Rev. William A. Clark among us" (ca. 1817) "the children of the parish were usually, after service, called around the chancel for catechetical instruction. These seasons were, it is said, peculiarly interesting. A Sunday-school was organized under the superintendence of Mr. Clark; but not so much interest was at this time manifested in this noble auxiliary to the Church, as might have been expected, though the attendance of a few was very regular and punctual. After the Rev. Amos Pardee took charge of the parish, an increased regard for this nursery of youth was apparent, and was productive of good fruits and much holy and lasting instruction. Miss Lydia Babcock (now Mrs. Sprague) and Mr. J. O. Wattles, were among the teachers."

James O. Wattles was a noted attorney in Manlius Village. Lydia Babcock was a sister of Deodatus Babcock. She accompanied him to Manlius in 1815. Deodatus Babcock was a teacher at the Franklin School on Pleasant St. and also served as clerk to the vestry for two years. He was ordained in 1820. He also was the father of Rev. Theodore Babcock, D. D., rector at Christ Church from 1883 to 1900.

Lydia Babcock was a talented seamstress who owned her own business at the west end of the present Masonic building annex. She owned the Roberts' home at 306 Seneca St. and married Col. John Sprague there in 1836. Her wedding is well-described in Henry C. Van Schaack's "History of Manlius Village."

Clark continues, "A large Bible-class of Sunday-school teachers and others was formed, under the teachings of Mr. Pardee, and numbers of adult persons there received strong and lasting impressions, of which they speak with unmingled satisfaction even at this late day. Mr. S. D. Wattles was the first person baptized in the new Episcopal Church edifice, by the Rev. W. A. Clark. Perhaps there are few parishes in western New York, with the same numbers, and of the same age, and under like circumstances, which has sent abroad so many Churchmen 'thoroughly furnished' as this; and it may be traced to the sound doctrine which has been taught at these Sunday-schools and Bible-classes, under good teachers, able superintendents, and devoted pastors.

Upon the Rev. William J. Bulkeley's leaving the parish" in 1827 "as it was unknown to him who would succeed to the rectorship, or when the vacancy occasioned by his leaving would be filled, he felt anxious that this institution should be placed under the direction of the vestry, which was done. N. P. Randall, Esq., and Mr. Joseph Smith, were chosen a committee to draft a constitution and rules for the government of the school. It has flourished and drooped with varying success from time to time, as engagedness or languishment seemed to predominate. "

When Clark wrote his Christ Church history in 1842, there were 12 teachers and 60 pupils in the Sunday School.

PAROCHIAL OBJECTS

1. At the northwest section of the church is a memorial plaque to "Nicholas P. Randall for many years senior warden of the church died 3/7/1837 aged 56 years and to Sybil Dyer his wife died 8/3/1887 aged 87 years. Both departed this life in the communion of the church catholic and in the sure and certain hope of eternal life hereafter." Nicholas P. Randall was a noted Manlius Village attorney. Sybil Dyer was the aunt of Palmer Dyer who was rector of Christ Church, 1822-23.

2. At the southeast end of the church is a plaque dedicated "To the Genius and Worth of J. Nims, Artist 1842." Jeremiah Nims was born in 1818 at Manlius, N. Y. and died March 6, 1842 at Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies of consumption. He was the son of Lemuel C. Nims, fuller, and Phylinda Guilford. Jeremiah was a portrait artist of which the "Catalogue of American Portraits" says:

Nims, a self-taught artist of great promise, was born in Manlius, New York. He was living and working in New York by 1839 when he began exhibiting his work at the National Academy of Design; his ambition may be estimated from the fact that he sent no fewer than nine portraits to the annual exhibition of the Academy in 1840. The following year he was made an associate member of the Academy.

Nims' self-portrait, done in oil, used to hang in the New York State Historical Society. On the reverse of this canvas is a landscape, also drawn by Nims.

3. Memorial plaque: "To the Glory of God and in Loving Memory of Rev. George G. Perrine 1838-1923." Perrine was rector of Christ Church from 1907-1913 and from 1917-1919.

4. Memorial plaque: "In loving memory of Albert V. Slater b. 1905 d. 1989".

5. The pulpit was given to Christ Church by Christ Church, Oswego in 1891. It was restored in 1954 through the efforts of Russell Fudge, chairman of the 150th Year Restoration Committee. Christ Church in Oswego was organized in 1822, Rev. Amos Pardee, presiding. This Oswego church was built in 1828, and burned in 1862. The second Episcopal church was built in 1854. Whether the pulpit came from the first or second church is not clear.

6. The Baptismal font was given in memory of Neal F. Willcox, All Saints' 1899.

7. The glass cabinet in the narthex was given in memory of Donald Deaveraux Nims b. 1909 d. 1969.

8. The candle holders in the chancel were given to the glory of God the Day of Pentecost 1988 in memory of John Barnes Crosby.

9. The altar top was given to the glory of God in loving memory of Edward C. Franz and Harvey M. Randall by Steven F. Randall and family 1989.

10. The altar and chandelier are given to the glory of God and in memory of Alfred Thomas Jones by his family and friends (n.d.).

11. The portrait of Amos Pardee in the narthex loft was given by descendent Marie Webb in 1994. Pardee was rector of Christ Church from 1818-1821.

12. The bell is original, and was in the church by 1814. The bell cracked in April 1822, and was repaired at Auburn.

13. The first organ in the church was replaced in 1850 by a new organ. The organ was purchased, in part, through the fund-raising efforts of the Ladies' Benevolent Association.

RECTOR'S STUDY

The Rector's study is dedicated to Mary Alice Wehrle b. 1922 d. 1985

CHURCH MARKER

The marker in front of Christ Church was accepted from the New York State Historical Society for the community by Manlius Village Mayor Charles Curtiss on October 29, 1939. The original application to the state for the marker was made by E. E. Clemons of Manlius who put it in place during the exercises held in front of the church. Following the exercises were addresses given by Dr. Paul M. Paine of the NYS Historical Society, Major Harry C. Durston, village historian; the Rev. Frederick C. Ransier, a former member of the Manlius parish, and the Rev. George Dudley Barr, rector of Christ Church.

THE STAINED GLASS WINDOWS

The first stained glass window was the Taylor memorial window above the altar. This window was made by William Meyers in Buffalo, and installed in the new chancel in February 1867. It is in memory of Dr. William Taylor, a noted physician who had an extensive practice in Manlius village. Taylor died September 16, 1865.

The stained glass windows for the body of the church were ordered in 1889. The church officers successfully endeavored to get the families who ordered memorial windows to select designs which were in harmony with one another. In 1890-1891, the installation of eight windows in the body of the church was completed. Six were memorial windows.

The frames for the windows were built by the Collin, Arnold and Sisson furniture company of Fayetteville. The frames were installed in 1889.

In January 1890, the first set of windows was placed in position.

In March 1890, two additional windows were placed in position. They were imported from England at a cost of nearly $1,000, and were said to be as fine as any in the state outside of New York City. One piece of glass was broken while in transit, and that was the one representing the head of a figure of the Savior. Although it was to have been replaced by a perfect piece, the crack over the Savior's head in the right window of the Hibbard-Cold memorial is still visible.

In October 1890 five more windows made to order in Munich and London were expected to arrive soon. These windows were detained in the New York custom house and not received until 1891. In March 1891, these windows were placed in position.

In Rev. Theodore Babcock's report submitted to the 23rd Annual Convention of the Episcopal Church held in June 1891, Babcock commented: "Within the past year the old windows in the body of the Church have been replaced by eight beautiful stained glass ones, six of them memorials, at a cost of nearly $2,000 to the donors."

The Nixon memorial window was placed in position in 1905. This window is the most northerly on the west side of the body of the church. The most southerly Flanders window on the west side was placed in position after 1932. Presumably these two windows replaced the non-memorial windows ordered in 1889. The 1889 memorial windows probably were moved to the narthex.

In 1911, the vestry approved raising $300 for repairs "and that the two stained glass windows by placed in front of the church and a new window be placed in South West corner of Church." The narthex windows were made by Mayer & Co. of Munich and New York, and were ordered in 1889. Possibly, these windows once were at the far north and south ends on the west side of the church, and later replaced by the Nixon and Flanders windows.

The stained glass window in the loft over the narthex is in memory of Lewis W. Babcock b. 1852 d. 1901, who may have been a son of Theodore Babcock. Theodore Babcock was a beloved rector of Christ Church who served from 1883 to 1900.

Originally, the windows in the church were protected by inside blinds for many years. Later, outside shutters were used. There once were two chimnies and two windows on today's north side (originally, its south side). Around 1845, a 7' x 8' room was added between these northern two windows. In 1866, new pews were installed in the vacant space where the pulpit originally was, and a new chancel was built at this time. The remaining pews and slips appear to be original.

The following notes include some data published in a pamphlet (n.d.) produced by Christ Church sometime after 1986. The windows are listed, starting in the narthex and continuing, counterclockwise, east to west.

1. The two windows in the narthex were ordered from Mayer & Co. in 1889 and came from Munich. Originally, they were installed in the body of the church.

2. May memorial window, ordered in 1889. This window came from Munich, Germany. It memorializes Elijah Eaton May, a warden and vestryman of Christ Church for many years, and Emeline Williams Stimson May. Emeline was a daughter of Nathan Williams, a noted Manlius village businessman.

3. The Hibbard-Gold memorial window was ordered in 1889 and installed in 1890. It came from London, England. The opalescent glass depicts Faith and Christ.

4. Van Schaack memorial window, ordered in 1889 and came from London, England. The opalescent glass gives texture and richness. Crown symbolizes Christ's sovereignty; wheat, Christ as the bread of life; lilies, purity; grapes and wines, "I am the vine; ye are the branches." Henry Van Schaack was a vestryman of Christ Church for many years, a much-beloved village attorney, and the author of The History of Manlius Village.

5. Twitchell memorial window. Ordered in 1889. Depicts birth (spring flowers) and death (fall colors, foliage). Curtis Twitchell was a noted farmer and businessman who lived on Whetstone Rd. The Twitchell home is pictured in Clayton's history of Onondaga Co.

6. Taylor memorial window, described above. Depicts St. Luke, the physician disciple. Winged ox is symbol of St. Luke. Dr. William Taylor had a large medical practice in Manlius Village, served in Congress, and also was a vestryman of Christ Church for many years.

7. Nixon memorial window. Installed in 1905. Called the Resurrection Window because it depicts open tomb with angel, Mary Magdalene, Mary, wife of Clopas, all witnesses to the Resurrection.

8. Remington memorial window, ordered 1889. Came from Munich, Germany. Figures in early Renaissance style. Illustrious Remington was a warden and vestryman of the church for almost fifty years.

9. Hughes memorial window, ordered 1889. Came from Munich, Germany. Memorializes mother and daughter who lived in house directly east of the church. Symbols include lamb carrying the cross (victory); pelican feeding young with her own blood (Christ's sacrifice).

10. Flanders memorial window. Maker not confirmed. Use of opalescent glass characteristic of Tiffany, but harsher in this window. Installed after 1932.

11. Babcock memorial window in the loft is in memory of Lewis W. Babcock d. 1901, and was installed around 1911.

REFERENCES

Clark, Joshua V. H. "A History of Christ Church, Manlius" from the "Gospel Messenger," April 9, 16, 30, 1842. Utica, N.Y.

Hayes, Charles Wells. Diocese of Western New York. Rochester: Scranton, Wetmore & Co., 1904.

Journals of Annual Conventions of the Diocese of Central New York 1869 to 1912.

Journals of Annual Conventions of the Diocese of Western New York 1819 to 1868

Lowndes, Arthur (ed.). Archives of the General Convention, The Correspondence of John Henry Hobart." New York: Privately printed, 1912.

Storke, Elliot G. History of Cayuga Co. Syracuse: D. Mason & Co., 1879.

Van Schaack, Henry C. A History of Manlius Village. Fayetteville: Recorder Office, 1873.

CONSTITUTION - of the Manlius Tract Society

May 7, 1823

Art. 1. This society shall be known by the name of the Manlius Tract Society.

2. Its object shall be to purchase and distribute Tracts, Sermons, and other such publications, relative to the peculiar doctrines, rites and ceremonies of the Protestant Episcopal Church - tending to explain and defend her distinctive tenets and her Liturgy and to inculcate the principles of virtue and religion.

3. The officers shall consist of a President, two Vice Presidents, and a secretary, who shall also be Treasurer. The election to take place hereafter at the annual meeting in July, the minister of the Church to be President ex officio.

4. The names and number of Tracts to be purchased from time to time, as the funds may permit, shall be determined by the President: and all purchases and all distributions shall be made by him or under his direction.

5. Every person who will subscribe and pay twenty five cents per annum, and hereafter directed shall be a member of the Society, and every member shall be entitled to one copy of each Tract which shall be purchased.

6. The Society shall meet on the first Wednesday in Jan'y, April, July, and October as such hour and place as the President may appoint.

7. At each of the quarterly meetings, divine service shall be performed, and an address given by the President or by such person as he may appoint, and every member shall pay to the Treasurer one quarter of the amount of his annual subscription.

8. The officers of the society, and the vestry of Christs Church, Manlius, shall constitute a Board of Managers, whose province it Shall be, by a vote of two thirds, to alter the Constitution, and by a majority, to pass resolutions, and enact bye Laws.

JOSHUA V. H. CLARK'S HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH, MANLIUS

The following "History of Christ Church Manlius, N. Y." is an extract from Joshua V. H. Clark's lecture on the early history and settlement of the town and village of Manlius. Clark's lecture was presented to the Manlius Lyceum in March 1842. Rev. Seth Davis, rector of Christ Church Manlius, requested that an excerpt of Clark's lecture be published in the "Gospel Messenger." This excerpt appeared in the April 9, 16 and 30, 1842 issues of the "Gospel Messenger, and Church Record of Western New-York." It is the oldest published history of the village of Manlius that has been secured to date.

Clark's excerpt is reproduced exactly as it was printed. The footnotes which follow were prepared by Kathy Crowell and Al Vedder in March 1995, and include material to which Clark apparently did not have access.

HISTORY OF CHRIST CHURCH MANLIUS, N. Y.

by Joshua V. H. Clark (1)

The first intimation we have of any thing like a congregation of Episcopalians in this vicinity is in the years 1798, 1799 and 1800, at which time the families of Messrs. David Green, John Roberts, Jonathan Hurd, Ward, Dodge, Gould, and some others residents of the townships of Pompey and Manlius, and friends to the Protestant Episcopal Church used to assemble at each others dwelling on Sundays for the purpose of worship (2). There dwellings were then in most instances many miles apart. The services were conducted in the full forms of the Church, and a sermon usually read. These meetings are represented as having been attended with marked punctuality, so much so that if one of the number was absent, it was a matter of deep concern to the rest for fear the absent one might be sick, or some accident might have befallen him by the way. How cheering must have been the sound of the quiet teaching of the gospel of peace to those lovers of the Lord. How sublime their worship of the Most High, when conducted under such circumstances. It betokens a devotion among those hardy yet faithful pioneers of the (then) West, which it would perhaps be found difficult at this day to institute a parallel. Far from the influence of ministerial instruction, they still continued firm and steadfast in the apostles doctrine and fellowship and in prayers. The earliest recollection of an Episcopal Clergyman, in this region, was the Rev. Philander Chase, (now Bishop of Illinois) who passed through this country towards what is now Buffalo, in 1797. He preached at "Old Fort Schuyler" (Utica) and at "Cayuga" (Auburn) while on that tour, but no mention is made of his preaching nearer Manlius than those places, he made no stay in this part of the country (3). The Rev. Davenport Phelps, was undoubtedly the first Episcopal Clergyman who preached in the town of Manlius. This he did in the month of March 1802 (4). This meeting was held in the school house, once standing near where Mr. John Bowling's house now stands in this village. This was also the first school house erected in the village of Manlius (5). Mr. Ralph R. Phelps, brother of the Clergyman, a very early settler here and a resident at that time, and Alvin Marsh, were the only persons at all acquainted with the services of the Episcopal Church. Those persons held the only two prayer books at that time in this place (6). It is said a large congregation assembled, many of whom were attracted by curiosity to attend this first Episcopal meeting in the "settlement." There is one person (Mrs. Wm. Taylor,) still living in the village and a member of this communion who attended that meeting (7). She declares herself though then quite young, as having been much affected by the beauty, simplicity, and sublimity of the church service, and with particular feelings of regard for the officiating Clergyman. This may be considered as the planting of the Church here. Though years have since rolled away, and the locks of the young have whitened with age, and death with unerring certainty has numerically reduced the frail tenants of the past, yet the Church, "the Church" has gradually grown, the number of her members has steadily increased, and may spiritual blessedness long attend her progress, and Heavenly perpetuity crown her triumphant career.

Mr. Phelps preached several times while a missionary in western New York, during the years 1803, '4, '5, and '6, at this place, Eagle Village, Morehouse' 5 Flats, (one mile east of Jamesville) and at Onondaga (8). In the year 1805, on the 11th of August a Church was organized under the style and title of "Trinity Church of Manlius and Pompey" (9). At this time Aaron Wood, Esq. was chosen chairman of the society meeting. Aaron Wood and Richard Salmon were elected wardens, and Jonathan Hurd, Charles B. Bristol, Michael Prindle, Ralph R. Phelps, Nathan Hawley, David Green, Alvin Marsh, and John Roberts were elected vestrymen (10).

This is the oldest organization of a religious society in the county of Onondaga (11). The society were unable to secure the regular services of a Clergyman at this early day, and its members depended almost entirely on the Missionaries--Rev. Davenport Phelps, and Rev. Amos G. Baldwin for spiritual instruction (12). The first Christmas festival celebrated in the county of Onondaga, was at the Court House on the "Hill" at Onondaga in 1805. Several

persons went out from Manlius, and the Rev. Davenport Phelps administered the holy communion to 19 persons. It is reported as having been a season of peculiar rejoicing among the friends of the Church (13).

On the Journals of the Convention of the Diocese of New York for 1806, the Rev. Davenport Phelps is noted as a missionary at Manlius and Onondaga, is represented as prosecuting his mission with "zeal and fidelity." The Rev. Ashbel Baldwin, preached at Eagle Village and Manlius once or twice in 1806 (14).

In 1807 Bishop Benjamin Moore visited Manlius and preached one Sunday. The Rev. Amos G. Baldwin preached and administered the holy communion in a barn on Pleasant street and the daughters of David Green were baptized, and are said to be the first persons baptized in the town of Manlius, if not in the county of Onondaga (15).

The Rev. D. Phelps reports a Church organized at Manlius, styled "St. Paul's (evidently a mistake the Certificate of incorporation says Trinity) consisting of Episcopalians in Manlius and Pompey of about 20 families, and for the faithful performance of his duties as a missionary, he received the thanks of the Convention and of the committee of the Protestant Episcopal Church, for propagating the Gospel in the State of New York, and for the satisfactory information afforded to the convention of his labors.--This year the Rev. D. Phelps mentions having officiated in the town of Sullivan, Manlius, Pompey and Onondaga, and the organization of several new congregations (16).

1808. This year Mr. Phelps and Mr. Baldwin were considered stationary at Geneva and Utica. At the same time they were employed as missionaries in parts adjacent among destitute congregations. It is at this time stated that a large field is open for missionary labor, but that the Committee are destitute of means for supporting more than two. Mr. Baldwin and Mr. Phelps again received the thanks of the Convention for their faithful services as missionaries.--This is the last account of the labors of the Rev. Davenport Phelps in this parish, and we offer a condensed sketch of his life, in the hope that a brief biographical notice of so distinguished a man may act as a stimulant to some youthful missionary to do likewise.

Davenport Phelps, was a native of Hebron, Connecticut; born 1755, graduated with the reputation of high classical attainments, at Yale College, 1775 (17). He after entered the army of the revolution, was taken prisoner, and carried to Montreal, where he acquired a thorough knowledge of the French language. His mother was the daughter of Doct. Eleazer Wheelock, President of Dartmouth College. He married Catherine, the daughter of Doct. Gideon Tiffany of Hanover New Hampshire. He followed the business of a merchant in company with his uncles at Hartford Connecticut.--He afterwards moved to New Hampshire, where he practiced law, and served as a magistrate in 1792. He with his brother-in-law jointly obtained a grant from Gov. Simcoe of 84,000 acres of land in U. Canada (18). He afterwards opened a law office, and established a printing office at Niagara. He also had a store at that place, which was conducted by an agent. He had a refined taste for Agricultural and Horticultural pursuits and paid considerable attention to those arts.

He was early a religious man. He sought to obtain ordination from the English prelate the Bishop of Quebec. It was then his intention to devote his ministerial labors to the advancement of the church among the Mohawk Indians.-And it was partly at the instance of Capt. Brant, head chief of the Mohawks, that he applied for orders (19). He however failed in that quarter, through the interposition of Gen. Israel Chapin, of Canandaigua and Col. Aaron Burr, of New York. Mr. Phelps visited the city of New York as a candidate for orders. Mr. Phelps was ordained a deacon in Trinity Church in the city of New York, by Bishop Benjamin Moore, Dec., 13th 1801. He immediately returned to Canada, and entered on the active duties of a missionary, holding frequent services, and traveling far and wide in the discharge of his duties. His residence then and for a number of years previous was upon his farm about three miles from Burlington Bay. In 1803 he was ordained priest, in St. Peter's Church Albany by Bishop Moore, from that time forward he entered upon the life of a missionary in the Western part of State of New York (20). His course was marked by a success unparalleled and a zeal and industry inimitable. Our own immediate neighborhood, will long attest the perseverance of his master character and many a viscsitude in life's weary pilgrimage will be forgotton, before the effects produced by his untiring efforts will be named among things that once have been. In 1805 he removed his family to Onondaga, from U. C. (21). He subsequently removed to Geneva, where he died many years ago, and all that was mortal of him rests under, Trinity Church at that place, beneath the sacred spot where he, once so faithfully preached the gospel, and so effectually labored for the salvation of souls. The monumental tablet formerly erected to his memory was broken off on the erection of that edifice, and lie prostate now over his remains beneath the Church (22). We can scarcely contemplate the character and services of this good man, without feeling a thrill of awe and veneration for his worth and excellence, and a glow gratitude and satisfaction that his teachings and precepts, are left us as a rich legacy of brilliant examples for imitation.

In 1809, the Rev. A. G. Baldwin, missionary at Utica, preached one Sermon at Manlius, and administered the holy communion to 12 persons, and reports the Church at Manlius, in a condition to give to a clergyman "the greater part of a decent support," with such assistance as might be received from others in the vicinity (23). In January 1810, the Rev. Parker Adams, made the first permanent engagement, as an Episcopal Clergyman, over this parish, he preached here but six months, and is reported as having labored efficiently during that time (24). He held services in the Franklin School-house, which was then new, and the upper story answered as a Gallery. It was arranged with a moveable floor, separating the two rooms, upper and lower (25). The Church seemed to revive under the ministration of Mr. Adams, and its members were encouraged to persevere. In Dec. of this year, the Rev. William A. Clark, preached here, and for one year after, continued the services of the church, about one half the time. January 16th 1811, the society was organized under the title of "Christ Church Manlius." The first organized society having forfeited its charter privileges in not having kept up a regular constituted set of Wardens and Vestrymen, as a corporate body. The names of the wardens and vestrymen elected at this time, were Timothy Hatch and Jonathan Hurd, wardens, Jas. A. Sherwood, Daniel Green, Nathan Stuart, Alvin Marsh, Hezekiah L. Granger, Charles B. Bristol, Youngs Ledyard; and Benjamin Wood, Vestrymen; Rev. William A. Clark, presiding (26). Easter Monday, in each year, was fixed as the day for the annual election of officers. This first meeting of the society, was held at the Franklin school-house, the usual place of worship. A special meeting was held on Easter Monday, 1811, when Jonathan Hurd, and Timothy Hatch, were elected wardens, and Youngs Ledyard, H.L. Granger, Alvin Marsh, Chas. B. Bristol, Walter Colton, John Phillips, Sylvenus Tousley, and James A. Wattles, were elected Vestrymen.--The first subscription, circulated to secure the services of Rev. William A. Clark, was dated April 29th 1811, and was drawn to complete an engagement entered into, on the preceding first of December. At a meeting of the wardens and vestrymen, of Christ Church Manlius, held at the Franklin schoolhouse Sept., 5th 1811 : the Rev. William A. Clark, in the chair, James C. Wattels, clerk, pro tem. It was resolved, That a plan of a church be prepared by William A. Clark, Walter Colton and James C. Wattles, to be presented to a society meeting, soon to be convened, and the report of said committee should present to said meeting, the best mode of building, and also to state the best means of disposing of the pews, after the church should be built. It was further resolved to circulated a subscription for the purpose of raising the salary of the Rev. William A. Clark, and another for the purpose of purchasing materials for erecting a church edifice.--This was the first movement of the Vestry with respect to building, and it is the first meeting of the Vestry, on record (27). All the other preceding information, relative to the Church here, the writer has been obliged to obtain from foreign sources.

At a meeting of the wardens and vestry held 27th Dec. 1811, a resolution was passed, directing a subscription to be raised for finishing their house of worship, (then the Franklin school-house) and for contingent expenses, and a resolution inviting the Presbyterians in the vicinity to unite with the Episcopalians in erecting a church, and provision was made in the resolution that when they were organized into a society, they should occupy and enjoy privileges in the church equal to their share of the cost or money paid in.

The first recorded meeting of the society was held on Easter Monday 1812. Jonathan Hurd and Youngs Ledyard, elected wardens, and Nathan Stewart, Ralph R. Phelps, Ephraim Knapp, John James, James O. Wattles, Chas. Mosley, Hezekiah L. Granger, Robert Oliphant, Vestrymen.

At a meeting of this Vestry Sept. 9th 1812, Sylvenus Tousley and Azariah Smith were constituted a building committee, and were authorized to collect building materials, and make contracts necessary to proceed with building the Church.

In Sept., 1812, the Rt. Rev. John Henry Hobart, accompanied by the Rev. John Bowden, D.D, Rev. Ashbel Baldwin, and Wm. A. Clark held divine service in the Masonic Hall in the tavern then kept by Ralph R. Phelps, Esq., now occupied by Mr. H. W. Ewens (28). At this time, the rite of confirmation was administered by the Bishop, to many of the most respectable citizens of the village, (number unknown) and the holy communion was also administered to the members of the Church.

At the Convention in Oct. 1812, "a certificate of the incorporation of Christ Church Manlius, in the village of Manlius, was read and approved, and the same received into union with this church." At the same convention the Rev. William A. Clark, reported that since Nov. 1811 his labors were divided principally between Auburn, Skenatelas and Manlius. He reports the state of things promising at Manlius and the number communicants about twenty (29).

In January 1813, a plan was adopted for building, and the subscription before circulated was assigned to Messrs. Tously and Smith, who were to collect and expend the monies as therein directed. This year Mr. Clark entered into an engagement with the vestry to continue services all the time at a salary of $600, per year.

The vestry received a donation from Trinity Church, New York, of the sum of $1000, which was appropriated towards finishing the church. In October 1813, the Rev. William A. Clark represented our parish in convention for the first time and reports a church nearly completed at an expense of about $5000.--Baptisms 9, communicants 30. He bestows a gratifying compliment on the unanimity, liberality and attention of the whole village to public worship.

The first regular burying place in the village was near the limestone factory. Bodies were interred there soon after the first settlements were made in the village 1792, and up to 1810 (30). The Moseley family buried in a knoll a little N. W. of Doct. Wm. Taylor's dwelling (31). In 1809, Mr. R. R. Phelps, Sylvenus Tousley and James O. Wattles, buried children where the present burying ground is. In 1812 this plot was purchased for a place of interment, and in 1813, it was laid out in lots under the direction of the vestry of Christ Church, by which corporation it is owned. A committee consisting of N. P. Randall, A. Smith and R. R. Phelps. Mr. Joel Huntington was appointed Superintendent and Ella Prindle, sexton. The original purchase has since been considerably enlarged (32).

Oct. 1814, the Rev. W. A. Clark, reports the church ready for consecration. His labors principally given to Manlius, and says, "the growth of the church in this place has exceeded my utmost expectations." Baptisms, (infants 19, adults 5,) twenty-four, and communicants, forty.

At a meeting of the Vestry, March, 1814, it was resolved that the pews and slips should be conveyed by lease to run 500 years, subject to reversion if the purchase money and tax for incidental expenses, was not paid within eighteen months after the sale. This resolution at the next meeting of the Vestry was rescinded, and the pews sold and conveyed by deed. Pews and slips were advertised for sale at public auction on Saturday the 26th of March 1814.--Wm. Ward auctioneer : Messrs N. P. Randall and Charles Moseley were appraisers and managers of the sale. It was resolved that the appraisal should not be less than $3650. It was afterwards reduced to $3350. It was resolved that N. P. Randall, J. O. Wattles, S. L. Edwards (33), be a committee for executing deeds of pews and slips. Pews and slips were sold and conveyed as the preceding resolutions anticipated.

In August, 1815, Bishop Hobart consecrated the church at Manlius, and thus remarks "At my visitation of the congregation at Manlius. The church in that village, which is a very neat and commodious building, was consecrated by the name of Christ Church, and forty-four persons were confirmed. The congregation is increasing, and owes much to the labors of the Rev. W. A. Clark." In Oct., 1815, Mr. Clark reports baptisms (infants fifty-six, adults sixteen) seventy-two, and communicants "more than sixty."

1816. At the Convention in October this year, Mr. Clark reports baptisms thirty, communicants seventy. Mr. Clark closed his labors with this congregation, August, 1817--having been connected with us, as a missionary and rector, about seven years; which is a much longer period than any of his successors have occupied this position. His labors were eminently useful among us, and were crowned with singular and regularly progressive success. Of his abilities as a spiritual teacher, and of his industry as a servant in this vineyard of the lord, many who are now living will bear witness. Of his virtues, of his faith, of his spiritual-mindedness, not a shade clouded their brightness, not a spot dimmed their lustre. Peace be to his ashes!

After Mr. Clark left the parish, Rev. Ezekiel Gear officiated occasionally (34). Rev. Amos Pardee was called to take charge of this parish in 1818, and entered on his duties the first of October of that year. Mr. Pardee' s labors were divided--one-fourth of the time at Perryville and Jamesville. He continued in charge of the parish three years. Bishop Hobart visited Manlius, held confirmation, and preached one sermon, in 1818, and in 1819 preached one sermon in the evening.

After the resignation of Mr. Pardee, in 1821, Rev. Messrs. Whipple, Baldwin, Solomon Davis, and Peck, severally preached here occasionally (35). In Sept., 1822, Rev. Palmer Dyer accepted a call to the rectorship of this parish, and continued in charge for one year. In 1823 a call was extended to Rev. William J. Bulkeley, which was subsequently accepted, and he entered on the duties of minister to the parish, January 1, 1824 (36).

In March, 1826, the subject of moving the church from the hill where it formerly stood, was first discussed at a meeting of the vestry, at which time considerable anxiety was manifested on that subject. Mr. Bulkeley closed his labors here in the spring of 1827. He did not enjoy good health during his residence among us; he possessed a very feeble constitution, having been for some years afflicted with a pulmonary disease. He soon after sought a more genial clime, in hope the soft breezes from the West Indian seas might restore him to health. He subsequently took charge of the Episcopal parish of St. Croix. The change of climate did not, however, permanently check the insidious spoiler in his progress, and death soon closed his earthly pilgrimage. The immediate cause of his death was congestive fever. Many fond recollections cluster around the memory of this estimable clergyman. In some degree he might be said to have been eccentric; but the dignity of the pious divine never forsook him, and the grace of the true gentleman always accompanied his walks, and characterized the man.

Rev. B. H. Hickox accepted an invitation to the rectorship of this parish, and commenced his official duties in July, 1828, and continued here two years. The Churches at Pompey and Fayetteville were organized through the influence of Mr. Hickox, and those at Jamesville and Green's Corners, strengthened (37).

Sept. 1, 1830, Rev. James Selkrig made an engagement for six months. During the winter of 1830-1, and while this parish was destitute of a clergyman, there was an unexampled revival of religion among all denominations of Christians in this village, and during its progress numbers were added to the different communions. A large proportion embraced the doctrines of the Episcopal Church. The gratuitous and pious teachings of the venerable "Father" Pardee at this time, will be remembered as long as life shall last, by those who listened to his goodly counsels. The storm detained him not from his duty, nor worldly pleasure, nor circumstance, diverted him from his purpose. Whenever the troubled spirit needed calming, his presence and voice were ever ready and present to soothe. He ministered to the necessities of the needy soul with a devotion that would have done him honor in the most perilous times of persecution. This is a brilliant spot in the life of this good man--and may a bright halo of glory encircle his lasting fame! May his sun go down in peace!(38)

Rev. A. S. Hollister accepted an invitation, and entered on his duties as a clergyman here, May 1, 1831. In Sept. 1832, a resolution was passed to have the church moved to where it now stands; and in October following it was moved upon wheels, with the bell hanging and stoves standing, without racking the joints, or jarring off so much as a square foot of plastering (39). Mr. H. closed his labors among us the 1st of May, 1835, after a stay of four years. Rev. Jesse Pound succeeded him in the fall of 1836 (40). During the first year of his ministerial labors, his time was equally divided between this Church and Trinity Church, Fayetteville: the remainder of his time was wholly employed in this parish, till Nov. 1, 1838. Rev. S. G. Appleton took charge of this parish for two years, from Dec. 1, 1838. The present rector, Rev. Seth Davis, commenced his labors among us under very favorable circumstances, on the 1st of April, 1841.

On the first of December, 1814, a respectable number of ladies met at the house of Mr. John Clark, in this village, and resolved to form themselves into a society, having for its objects the promotion of useful knowledge, and the exciting of each other to deeds of charity and benevolence. They adopted a constitution for their government. The society was known by the name of the "Female Reading and Charitable Society of Manlius:" their motto was, "It is more blessed to give than to receive." The sum of two dollars was contributed at the first meeting. They were to meet the first Thursday in every month, and the anniversary meeting was to be held the first Thursday in September of each year. The lady at whose house they met was bound to select and read from the Bible "at least one chapter:" after which the same lady might read, or cause to be read, such other literary, moral, or religious article, as she might think proper. The number of members was limited to ninety acting members. These meetings were to be held alternately at each other's houses, and no entertainments of "cake, tea, or wine, could be allowed." Every member was required to "behave with the utmost order and decorum." Each member was obliged to contribute at least four cents at the close of every meeting. The amount of collections were from $2 to $10 at each meeting. No member was allowed to withdraw without giving satisfactory reasons.

It is truly gratifying to look over the records of this band of worthy females, combined and meeting expressly for the purpose of enlightening their minds on Christian morals and scripture truths, and of contributing to enable them to do deeds of charity, and dispense the blessings of benevolence to such as were most in need.--Chapters from the Bible, sermons, and other religious writings, constituted the burden of their reading. It is remarked as being a source of great mental and religious improvement. Rev. W. A. Clark, at the first anniversary, preached a sermon from the words, "Make to yourselves friends of the mammon of unrighteousness, that when ye fail they may receive you into everlasting habitations."

This Society continued till its annual meeting in Sept., 1818, after which it seemed to diminish in interest, from the fact of its having been a Union Society of Presbyterian and Episcopalian ladies. As the congregation was also made up of the two denominations, different opinions seemed to clash. Several members of the Society thought it conducted with too much "form." After the dedication of the Presbyterian house of worship, in 1819, and the influence of Rev. W. A. Clark and wife was withdrawn from the Society, by removal from the parish, the ladies of the Presbyterian society withdrew. luring the latter part of the existence of this Union, Mrs. John Clark, an aged lady of great strength of mind, and possessed of a remarkable conciliatory disposition, as well as most exemplary piety, and whose influence in the Society was considerable, was, perhaps, one very efficient instrument in keeping the Society together so long as it existed. This Mrs. Clark was the mother of three distinguished clergyman of that name (41). The name of the Society was now changed to the "Ladies' Benevolent Society of Christ Church, Manlius." The records of that Society (if there were any) are not to be found; but it is said "a chosen few" kept it in existence by regular semi-monthly meetings. During the stay of Rev. A. S. Hollister, the Society was revived under a new constitution furnished by him and labor at articles for the comfort of the poor, and fancy articles for sale, constituted a part of the exercises. One of the main objects contemplated by this new organization, was to provide for the wants of the Sunday-school; which institution in particular, and also the whole congregation, are under great obligation for their spirited efforts in replenishing the library belonging to the school. A Fair was held by this Society, the avails of which, some $75 or $80, were appropriated for the finishing of the basement-room of the church, for the convenience of the Sunday-school. Subsequently another Fair was held, and about $25 expended for pulpit furniture, lamps, &c., and about $30 for missionary purposes. The ladies also furnished a box of clothing for the Green Bay station, valued at about $45, and a valuable Bible and Prayer-Books for the desk, at $40 (42).

During Rev. Jesse Pound's ministry here, the Society was again reorganized, and the constitution amended. The Society continued its regard for the Sunday-school, and many indigent though worthy persons have been relieved by their exertions. They subsequently held a Fair, at which time the sum of $115.93 was collected, which sum was put at interest, for the purpose of assisting the vestry to purchase a parsonage, for which laudable act they received the thanks of the vestry (43).

Sunday-school.--During the latter part of the ministrations of Rev. W. A. Clark among us, the children of the parish were usually, after service, called around the chancel for catechetical instruction. These seasons were, it is said, peculiarly interesting. A Sunday-school was organized under the superintendence of Mr. Clark; but not so much interest was at this time manifested in this noble auxiliary to the Church, as might have been expected, though the attendance of a few was very regular and punctual (44). After the Rev. Amos Pardee took charge of the parish, an increased regard for this nursery of youth was apparent, and was productive of good fruits and much holy and lasting instruction. Miss Lydia Babcock (now Mrs. Sprague) and Mr. J. O. Wattles, were among the teachers (45). A large Bible-class of Sunday-school teachers and others was formed, under the teachings of Mr. Pardee, and numbers of adult persons there received strong and lasting impressions, of which they speak with unmingled satisfaction even at this late day. Mr. S. D. Wattles was the first person baptized in the new Episcopal Church edifice, by the Rev. W. A. Clark (46). Perhaps there are few parishes in western New York, with the same numbers, and of the same age, and under like circumstances, which has sent abroad so many Churchmen "thoroughly furnished" as this; and it may be traced to the sound doctrine which has been taught at these Sunday-schools and Bible-classes, under good teachers, able superintendents, and devoted pastors.

Upon the Rev. William J. Bulkeley's leaving the parish, as it was unknown to him who would succeed to the rectorship, or when the vacancy occasioned by his leaving would be filled, he felt anxious that this institution should be placed under the direction of the vestry, which was done. N. P. Randall, Esq. and Mr. Joseph Smith, were chosen a committee to draft a constitution and rules for the government of the school. It has flourished and drooped with varying success from time to time, as engagedness or languishment seemed to predominate (47).

FOOTNOTES

1. The "Gospel Messenger was a four-page weekly newspaper that was started by Rev. John C. Rudd, D.D. in Auburn in 1826, and later moved to Geneva, then Utica. This edition was produced by Rev. Dr. John C. Rudd at Utica. Although it mostly advocated Episcopalian doctrines, the "Gospel Messenger" was liberal to all sects.

At the end of the April 9 publication, Clark made this note: "Those who attended the lecture, will observe that the first paragraph is written out more fully, though the substance is the same."

This excerpt was modified, for Clark's note was followed with this comment: "The writer of the above will see that we have made an alteration in relation to Mr. Phelps' maternal relation to his marriage and business connection. The same error prevails in Stone's life of Brant, owing probably to our own haste in furnishing from our rough notes that which appears in the work of Col. Stone. The alteration we have made will be found correct in the forthcoming life of Mr. Phelps.--Ep. Mess."

Because numerous typographical errors occurred in the publication and because Clark relied on oral history and secondary research sources, we have specifically focused on dates. We wish to thank Cynthia McFarland, archivist of the Central New York Diocese of the Episcopal Church, Syracuse for making available the "Gospel Messenger," Diocesan convention journals and Bishop Hobart's collection of missionary letters, including those of Rev. Davenport Phelps.

2. In his later book Onondaga; or Reminiscences of Earlier and Later Times; and Oswego (Syracuse: Stoddard and Babcock, 1849, Vol II), Joshua V. H. Clark says:

"The first knowledge we have of any thing like a congregation of Episcopalians in this vicinity, is in the years 1798-99." Gould is no longer mentioned although there was an A. P. Gould in Jamesville mentioned in later issues of the "Manlius Repository." We suspect "Ward" is the William Ward family who moved to Manlius in 1793 or 1794, depending upon which source is used. Dr. William Taylor and Alvan Marsh, vestrymen of Christ church. Each married a daughter of Ward. Interestingly, Susannah Ward's name is mentioned in 1798 as being a sister at early Baptist covenant meetings in the area. Susannah was William Ward's widow

William Ward died in 1795, and was first buried in the Ward cemetery near today's Kinloch Commons, just west of Limestone Creek on W. Seneca St. His second burial site is in Christ Church cemetery. Ward's gravestone at this latter site is a beautiful work of art (see footnote 30).

3. Philander Chase was a 1796 graduate of Dartmouth College. Ordained in 1798, he succeeded Rev. Richard Wetmore that year as missionary in the western parts of the diocese. The western diocese of the Episcopal church generally is considered to be west of Utica.

It is true that the Chase journals do not mention Manlius. Early missionaries were required by the Bishop to keep journals in which they recorded services, baptisms, etc. The journals were to be submitted quarterly to the Bishop, and were usually carried by a trustworthy person traveling to New York City. Had Chase held a service in the town of Manlius, it would have been duly noted.

4. On Sunday February 7, 1802 Phelps read prayers and preached to a mixed assembly about 8 miles below Fort Schuyler (Utica). On the Sunday following he read prayers and preached to a similar congregation in Junius, about 26 miles east of Canandaigua. Phelps passed through Manlius between these dates, but makes no mention of a service, or to Manlius itself. In these early years, Phelps literally carried the Gospel from house to house (Archives of the General Convention, The Correspondence of John Henry Hobart by Arthur Lowndes, (ed.). New York: Privately printed, 1912). According to the December 27, 1802 minutes of the Military Lodge #93, F. & AM., the masons met "formed a procession in ancient form (at Eagle Village), walked to the school house (in Manlius Village) where there was a sermon delivered by Rev. Mr. Sylvester Palmer." Palmer was not an Episcopalian minister, however.

On February 26, Phelps stopped at Buffaloe creek (Buffalo) to visit one of the Native American tribes in the area, but they were gone from their castle to prepare for sugarmaking. Phelps and his family were in Grimsby, Ontario, Canada before March 1802 and remained in Canada throughout that year.

Phelps was impressed enough with the Manlius, Pompey, Onondaga Hill and Marcellus areas, however, to write about them to Bishop Moore on December 10, 1802. In a letter to Rev. John Hobart of January 5, 1803, Phelps expressed a desire to return to these areas in Spring 1803 where "churches might be immediately organized..." Phelps was not able to return until October 1803. On October 4, he read prayers and preached at Pompey and baptized four children. On Thursday, November 24, he baptized four children in Manlius, but did not mention prayers and preaching (Lowdnes, op cit.)

Phelps remained in the Manlius/Onondaga area until the end of November 1803. When he was in Manlius Village, he stayed at the (first) tavern of his brother, Ralph. Ralph R. Phelps, an attorney, bought the tavern from William Ward, Jr. in March 1803. It was located near today's Bruegger's Bagels, 112 Seneca St. The incorporation of Manlius Trinity Church took place at this tavern on January 18, 1804, but Davenport Phelps was not present. Around 1805, Phelps acquired another inn, and in 1810 sold his first tavern to Philip Warren.

For another reason why the first service was not in March 1802 see footnote 6.

When Phelps actually performed his first service is not clear. All the journals and letters to Bishop Moore and others are not available. It is clear, however, that Phelps preached and read prayers in Manlius Village on January 27, 1805 and February 3, 1805. (See footnotes 6 and 27).

5. Bowling is a typographical error. The correct name is John Rowling. Rowling was a gristmill owner whose house was located roughly at 115 Fayette St. Harnessmaker Martin T. Barnum bought the Rowling house from Norman and Sarah Otis in 1863 (146,397). It shows on the Sweet village map of 1874 on lot 86, block 1, #2. It also should be noted that Grace Moulter's history of Manlius Schools ("Weekly Recorder," 7/27/1889) claims the log school house stood on the corner near Mr. Costello's mill. Mary D. Shaw ("Early History of Education in the Town" in People and Places. Manlius: Manlius Historical Society, 1991, Vol. II, p. 66) says the school house was built in 1798 and stood north of Midler's Mill (owner after John Rowling). The plaque in front of Ben and Ben, attorneys at 107 Fayette St. is at the wrong location, for this was the site of the grist mill.

6. Ralph Phelps resided in Schoharie Co. in early 1802, for Davenport Phelps stayed there about a month before departing for the west. Unaccompanied, Davenport Phelps set out for the west on February 3, 1802. He used a small sleigh provided by Ralph Phelps, to carry essentials plus the prayer books and catechisms the Bishop had given him to disperse.

Ralph Phelps purchased property in Manlius Village in March 1803, and probably came here in the winter of 1802-03. Wintertime was the best period to move. Most likely he came to Manlius as a result of hearing about the area from his brother.

On July 5, 1803 a number of the "free holders and Inhabitance of the North part of the town of Pompey & South part of the town of Manlius" met at Ebenezer Butler, Jr.'s tavern (near the intersection of Sweet Rd. and Route 173) where they formed the Union Congregational Society. This society later met at Morehouse's Flats about one mile east of Jamesville. Among the elected vestrymen were Ralph R. Phelps and Aaron Wood. Both men later became vestrymen

of Manlius Trinity Church on January 18, 1804. Had Episcopalianism been strong in the area in the area of 1803, most likely Ralph Phelps would not have joined the Union Congregational Society.

It is true that prayer books were scarce. On June 10, 1806 Phelps sent a letter that was carried from Onondaga Hill to New York by Comfort Tyler. In the letter, Phelps informed Bishop Moore that he had written Rev. John Hobart for a few dozen prayer books and an additional number of small tracts. He noted:

"Those which have been heretofore furnished have manifestly their good effects; and there being a number of families who are disposed to become acquainted with our excellent Liturgy; & a number of our own communion who are not only destitute of prayer books, but who I fear are unable to procure for themselves, I have ventured to ask for a small supply from the Society which I earnestly hope may meet ye approbation of your Reverence" (Lowndes, op. cit.) Tyler brought back money, books and tracts. Phelps dispersed the books and tracts among communicants at Manlius, Onondaga Hill and Auburn. Certainly Phelps' brother, Ralph, would have been among the earliest to receive a prayer book.

Attorney Alvan Marsh was in the area by 1798 and married Susanna Ward, a daughter of William Ward, Sr.

7. Mrs. William Taylor's maiden name was Lucy Ward. She was another daughter of William Ward, Sr.

8. The Congregational church at Morehouse' 5 flats was incorporated July 5, 1803 (see footnote 6). St. Paul's, an Episcopalian church at Onondaga Hill, was incorporated on November 27, 1803. There is no information found on Eagle Village uncovered to date except that Ezekiel Callendar and Gen. Amos P. Granger were residents there and also communicants of Trinity (later Christ) Church.

9. The second incorporation of Trinity Church was on August 26, 1805. The notice of this meeting was made at morning service on August 11, 1805. The "Manlius" of Manlius Trinity Church possibly was removed because many of the communicants were from Pompey. Rev. Davenport Phelps witnessed the incorporation.

10. Richard Salmon was the father of Rev. Richard Salmon of the Episcopal church. Richard Salmon, Jr. was ordained in 1824. He served as missionary for many years in the western diocese of New York State. In 1849 he died of cholera on shipboard while traveling to establish a missionary colony in Texas.

11. In 1842, Christ church was not the oldest continuous religious society in the county of Onondaga. The Union Congregational Church was formed in July 1803. Originally the Church was at Morehouse Flats east of Jamesville. (Also see footnote #6).

12. Rev. Amos Glover Baldwin was primarily at Trinity Church, Utica in 1806, but also was a missionary in parts adjacent.

13. Phelps administered communion at Onondaga Hill "to only 8 or 9 persons.--The very bad state of roads and the inclemency of the weather (a number of the communicants living at a considerable distance) was the cause of their being so few. " (Letter to Bishop Moore from Davenport Phelps, 1/29/1806. Reproduced in Lowndes, op. cit.)

14. Ashbel Baldwin was rector of Christ's Church, Stratford, Conn., from at least 1799 to 1808 or later. More likely this was Rev. Amos G. Baldwin from Utica.

15. Phelps wrote Bishop Hobart that on Nov. 24, 1803 he baptized four children in Manlius Village. The 1807 baptism that Clark mentions was not the first.

In 1807, Pleasant St. did not extend westwardly beyond North St., so the barn where the baptism occurred was east of North St. The barn probably was owned by Charles Moseley, an early vestryman who bought the west portion of lot 87 in 1803 (see footnote 31).

It should be noted that Charles Wells Hayes (Diocese of Western New York. Rochester: Scrantom, Wetmore & Co., 1904, p. 32) says that the only record that Bishop Moore was in the old western diocese (west of Utica) was in 1806 and 1810. On September 10, 1806, Moore held a service at St. Paul's, Paris Hill. It would have been possible for the Bishop to visit Manlius around this time, but in 1806, but not 1807. However, if the Bishop came to Manlius September 1806, it would have been recorded in the August 1807 convention proceedings. The proceedings of this convention, however, do not mention that the Bishop came to Manlius.

16. What Phelps may have meant was that Trinity Church at Manlius was styled after St. Paul's church at Paris Hills. St. Paul's church at Paris Hills (now Paris) in Oneida Co. was incorporated in February 1797. This church was part of Phelps' circuit before 1807. Afterward, he operated primarily out of Geneva, N.Y.

St. Paul's Church was the first Episcopalian church to be organized in what is known as the old western diocese (west of Utica.) The church building still exists, but the corporate entity is no longer in operation. The second church organized was at Ouquaga Hills (now Harpursville) in Broome Co. in 1802. The third was at Onondaga Hill, Onondaga Co. on January 27, 1803. None of the above are in operation today as corporate bodies. The fourth church organized, Manlius Trinity Church (renamed Christ Church), is now the oldest Episcopalian church in New York State in continuous operation west of Utica.

17. Davenport Phelps graduated with high honors from Dartmouth College, not Yale, in 1775. Ralph R. Phelps also was a Dartmouth graduate, class of 1794. Their maternal grandfather, Eleazer Wheelock, was founder and President of Dartmouth.

Wheelock was a graduate of Yale in 1733. He was licensed to preach in 1734 and became pastor of the Second (or North) Society in Lebanon, Connecticut. He also was a farmer and a popular itinerant revivalist throughout the first Great Awakening.

18. Upper Canada. The area Phelps settled at was Burlington Bay, on the west shore of Lake Ontario.

19. Brant (Thayendanegea) sent letters to no avail on Phelps' behalf, without Phelps' knowledge. Apparently, the British did not appreciate the fact that Phelps had fought on the American side during the Revolutionary War. Brant was a life-long friend of Phelps, and had been a student of Phelps' maternal grandfather, Eleazer Wheelock, in Lebanon, Ct. before Wheelock moved to Hanover, New Hampshire to establish Dartmouth College.

20. There should be a period after quarter rather than a comma. There should be a comma after New York, rather than a period. Burr later became vice-president of the U. S. under Jefferson.

21. U. C. is Upper Canada. The Phelps family came back to the U. S. in December 1804. Phelps had intended to come in the summer, but due to family illness and the death of a son, his return to the duties of his mission at Onondaga was delayed.

22. Phelps was buried just west of Pultneyville, N. Y. on the shore of Lake Ontario. His still-existent gravestone contains the following inscription:

"Sacred to the memory of the Rev. Davenport Phelps, who departed this life on the 27th of June, 1813, aged 57. He was for many years a Missionary of the Prot. Epis. Church for the western part of the State of New York, and by his

indefatigable exertions in the discharge of all the duties of the pastoral office succeeded in diffusing much religious knowledge & informing many churches. He was the devoted servant of God, and the warm and unwearied friend of man." There may have been a commemorative tablet at Trinity Church, Geneva where Phelps served as rector until 1811. This church burned at a later date. Today, there is a memorial to Phelps in the second church that was built.

23. On February 5, 1810 Baldwin wrote Rev. John H. Hobart that "should a clergyman be established at the place I mentioned and a chh. should not be gathered at Vernon, I would go to Manlius" (Lowndes, op. cit.).

24. On November 1, 1809 Parker Adams took a one-year position at Waterford, NY near Schenectady. He wrote Rev. John Hobart from there on November 27, 1809. On May 12, 1810 he again wrote Hobart, saying he had only "been absent from this place for several weeks" (Lowndes, op. cit.). He could not have been at Trinity Church, Manlius for the first six months in 1810. Furthermore, if he was a rector in Manlius in 1810, why would Amos Baldwin write the bishop in February 1810 that he would go to Manlius (see previous footnote). Although Baldwin would be a more likely candidate than Parker Adams as a rector of Christ Church, There is nothing we have read in church histories to support that Baldwin actually came to Christ Church, Manlius on a permanent basis.

There is evidence that Rev. William A. Clark was in Manlius in December 1810. Clark was the first borrower from Rev. Amos G. Baldwin's Episcopal Theological Library at Utica in December 1810. When he borrowed the books, Clark listed his location at Manlius, N. Y. It is possible that Clark may have been an occasional lay reader at Manlius Village in early 1810. Clark was ordained deacon in Connecticut, October 31, 1810.

25. The Franklin schoolhouse was on the south side of Pleasant St., now the site of the annex of the First Baptist Church. The school was probably built in 1809 and later also was known as School #5. It most definitely was in operation in January 1810 and was still in existence in 1843. In 1810, the school lot was reserved and leased by Charles Moseley.

26. Daniel Green is David Green. Nathan Stuart is Nathan Stewart. It should be noted that the corporation of 1805 was never dissolved, nor record that Trinity Church forfeited its charter privileges. The 1811 incorporation simply may have been a name change, and would have required re-filing under the Act of 1801. There is no record that the 1911 name change from Christ's Church to Christ Church was recorded at the County Clerk's office.

27. This is the first meeting of the vestry on record, but it was not the first movement to build a church. On November 12, 1805 thirty-five men from the area subscribed over $500 in money, material and blacksmithing services to build a church at the west end of Manlius Village. Davenport Phelps wrote Bishop Moore on February 4, 1805 that: "Upon my arrival in this town" on January 6, 1805 "a vestry meeting was notified & a subscription set on foot for building a church, which bids fair to meet with success. The prospect to me is highly animating. Indeed Sir I cannot but anticipate churches rising in all the principal towns in this flourishing western hemisphere. Phelps journal of February 18, 1805 says that at the vestry meeting, "They at present calculate the building to be 40 or 45 by 60 feet. I have queried with them as to the size, but they manifested a disposition not to lessen it. For a new place Manlius is already wealthy & flourishing."

Later, Phelps returned to Manlius "where I found some demur had arisen respecting the place on which to build ye proposed Church. In order to conciliate ye difference & at their request I remained & read prs. & preached with them on Sunday ye 27th of January." On February 3, 1805 Phelps "again read prayers & preached at Manlius, which place I left two days after with the pleasing expectation of their making good progress in respect to the building..." (Lowdnes, op. cit). Change of location was not unusual. There were other sites recommended before the church was built north of the church cemetery in 1813. Before the church was removed to its present site in 1832, two other sites were raised as possibilities.

Phelps, who rode a white horse, covered an east-west circuit of around 60 miles from Paris Hill in Oneida Co. to Canandaigua. Amidst all these activities, Phelps even managed a late Fall trip to Oswego in 1805. Later, Phelps' circuit covered more than 100 miles east to west as the crow flies.

On January 30, 1806, Phelps wrote Rev. John Hobart that "I flatter myself that a small church will be soon built in Manlius. I think that nearly enough is already subscribed for raising & inclosing one of perhaps 30 by 45 feet." One day earlier, Phelps had written Bishop Moore of the church prospects, but in regard to building the church "their circumstances however I fear will not admit of their speedily recovering it without aid" (Lowdnes, op. cit.) Phelps spent most of 1806 in the Onondaga area, and probably resided at Onondaga Hill.

This church was never built. When Christ Church was built in December 1813, Trinity Church of N. Y. City paid for part of the cost.

The correct name of Marsh is Alvan Marsh. James C. Wattels is James O. Wattles.

28. This was Phelps' second tavern. The tavern was located in what is now St. Ann's parking lot just east of the old Nathan Williams' home at 113 E. Seneca St. Around 1805 Phelps purchased all the lot 87 land east of 113 E. Seneca St. to the most westerly entrance off Seneca St. into the Manlius Village Cemetery. Phelps purchased the land from Finley MacLaren, an early merchant who died around 1806. In 1811, Phelps sold the tavern to Youngs Ledard, and vestry meetings continue here from 1812 to 1814. Elihu and Henry W. Ewers ran the tavern in the 1820s. It is briefly described in A History of Manlius Village by Henry C. Van Schaack (Fayetteville: Recorder Office, 1873). H. W. Ewens is Henry W. Ewers. Again, it is more likely that Rev. Amos G. Baldwin held service than Rev. Ashbel Baldwin.

In 1814, the vestry meetings were held at a hotel at the northeast corner of Seneca and Fayette Sts. The vestry later held meetings at a hotel between Wesley and Franklin Sts., and then returned to the old Phelps/Ledyard tavern before moving in 1824 to the third floor of the Masonic Lodge at the northwest corner of Seneca and North Sts. in Manlius Village.

29. William Atwater Clark was based at St. Peter's Church, Auburn following his ordination as deacon in October 1810, and also was a missionary at Manlius by late 1810 and also at Skaneateles. Unfortunately, he suffered from chronic rheumatism and soon after he received his Priest's orders from Bishop Hobart on September 5, 1812, he resigned his Auburn position to return home to Manlius Village.

30. This was the Ward cemetery, once located in the present Kinloch Commons. The old burying ground was sold by the Ward heirs to Reuben Bennett in 1821. Obviously, these bodies were removed to Christ Church cemetery before this date.

The limestone factory was the second of three cotton factories built in Manlius Village. It was a four-story frame building with basement built around 1826. The factory occupied the middle section of the commons.

31. Lucy Taylor, wife of Dr. William Taylor, bought Dr. Hezekiah Granger's residence at 501 Pleasant St. in 1824. Granger purchased it from James O. Wattles in 1810, and Wattles purchased it from Charles Moseley in 1808. A front addition to the house has since occurred. The current owners, Marilyn and Kent Jeffrey, bought the home from designer, Peter Mudge. Mudge told them that when he had the kitchen remodeled, the remodelers informed him that they covered over a log cabin door at the back part of the house. Unfortunately, Mudge was not there to confirm this. The present kitchen area of the Jeffrey home is the southernmost frame section attached to the main brick house. It is possible that Moseley lived in a log cabin on this site following his 1803 purchase of the west section of lot 87. Around 1808, Moseley built a tavern at 411 Seneca St. that was located east of the present location of Christ Church. However, it is unlikely that if a log cabin were at this location at one time that it was built by Moseley, for there were saw mills in the area at the time of his purchase. Moseley bought the property in 1803 from James Clarke of N.Y.C. It was under first option to Jabez and Content Cobb, who chose not to purchase it. The Cobbs ran John A. Schaeffer's log cabin tavern for a while. To answer the log cabin door riddle, we need the Jeffreys to remodel!

32. Phelps purchased this land from Finley MacLaren around 1805. On June 10, 1809, Eliza Tousley died, aged seven months. On March 25, 1809, infant Wattles died, aged 7 hours. On March 29, 1806, Mary R. Phelps died, aged seven months. Phelps buried his daughter here in 1806, for she is the only child of Phelps to die before 1810.

The lot 87 section of the original Christ Church cemetery was purchased from Ralph R. Phelps and James O. Wattles on March 12, 1813 by the wardens and vestrymen of Christ Church.

In an 1817 deed to Davenport Morey of land adjacent, Phelps acknowledged that he had sold two lots to the church. One lot was the burying ground; the other lot was the lot on which the church stood. As things go sometimes, the church lot was purchased in 1837 from Ralph Phelps by John Calvin Smith for $40. In 1856, Smith gave the church a small section at the south end of the old church lot for $1. In 1876, Smith sold the rest of the former one-half acre or so church lot for $200 to the Manlius Cemetery Assn. (incorporated 1866). The church originally may have been located near the vault area of the village cemetery.

Abbreviated names are Azariah Smith, Nicholas P. Randall and Ralph R. Phelps. Sylvenus Tousley is Sylvanus Tousley.

33. William Ward is William Ward, Jr. Many of William Ward, Sr.'s children remained in the area for a long period of time. James O. Wattles, Samuel L. Eds and Nicholas P. Randall were noted attorneys who resided in Manlius Village.

34. At the time, Gear was rector of St. John's Church, Onondaga Hill.

35. Solomon Davis was a Native American who ministered to the Oneida tribe, primarily at Oneida Castle. He was ordained deacon in Christ Church, Manlius by Bishop Hobart on September 13, 1829. He later went to Green Bay, Wisconsin with the second wave of the Oneida tribe where he remained a few years. Prior to 1829, he was a lay catechist. It is possible that he was in Manlius at this early date.

36. Bulkeley's report to the Diocese Convention in 1824 says his services began October 1823.

37. Hick's report to the Diocesan Convention for 1828 says his services started July 1827.

38. A portrait of Pardee recently has been given to Christ Church, Manlius by former Manlius Historical Society trustee, Marie Webb, a descendent. It is clear from church histories that Pardee was a solidifying force in the community.

39. Henry C. Van Schaack (op. cit.) correctly says that the organ also was included in the move. One can imagine that it probably needed a good retuning afterward. Rev. Algernon Hollister, rector at the time of the move, says the whole of the middle tier of slips, the pulpit and the chancel were also moved, and overall there was no injury worth mentioning. The building was then safely placed on a new foundation. The cost of the move plus repairs at the new site was around $1,000.

The church was moved by Ephraim Bowen of Union Springs in Cayuga Co. Bowen was the inventor of machinery that would "move the heaviest buildings with ease and safety" (December 18, 1832 letter to the editor of the Gospel Messenger," by Rev. Algernon Sidney Hollister, printed December 29, 1832, VI, 47). Elliot G. Storke's History of Cayuga County (Syracuse: D. Mason & Co., 1879) mentions Bowen, but not his machinery. It is possible that the hoisting mechanism used to lift Christ Church off its foundation was also used to lade goods on ships at Union Springs on Cayuga Lake. The Erie Canal was accessed from Cayuga Lake at its north end. Another unidentified source claims the equipment to move the church was used on the Erie Canal.

40. In his report to the Diocesan Convention of 1836, Rev. Jesse Pound says he took charge of Christ Church immediately following the previous convention which was held in Utica, N. Y. October 1-2, 1835.

41. The children are William Atwater Clark, Orin Clark and John A. Clark, all of whom received their Doctor of Divinity degrees. Mrs. Clark's maiden name was Chloe Atwater.

42. The Female Benevolent Assn. was revived in the summer of 1831. The group met weekly, sewed and made articles for sale. They also provided clothing for poor children in the Sunday School, and bought books and presents for the children. Any surplus funds originally went for missionary purposes. In 1832 the women from Christ Church, Manlius and from Trinity Church, Fayetteville donated a box of clothing to the Oneida tribe at Green Bay, Wisconsin. They also gave clothing to two men entering the ministry from Christ Church, and raised money for carpeting for the chancel and reading desk area, among other gifts (Hollister letter to the "Gospel Messenger," op. cit.). Today's Coterie group, with modifications, may have arisen from concepts underpinning the early Female Reading and Charitable Society.

43. This fair was held in late 1839. The parsonage at 113 North St. was purchased in 1849. Rev. John Gay was the first to occupy it. The house was formerly owned by Joseph Smith, a vestryman of Christ Church for many years before his decease on January 22, 1849.

44. According to church history, the first Sunday School in the western Episcopalian diocese was organized elsewhere in 1822. Certainly the efforts of Clark, and later Pardee, were earlier than this.

45. Lydia Babcock was a sister of Deodatus Babcock. She accompanied him to Manlius in 1815. Deodatus Babcock was a teacher at the Franklin School and also served as clerk to the vestry for two years. He was ordained in 1820. He also was the father of Rev. Theodore Babcock, D. D. (rector at Christ Church from 1883-1899).

Lydia Babcock was a talented seamstress who owned her own business at the west end of the present Masonic building annex. She owned the Roberts' home at 306 Seneca St. and married Col. John Sprague there in 1836. Her wedding is well described in Van Schaack's history, op. cit.

46. Clark means at the first church site. Simon Denison Wattles died in a War of 1812 battle at Fort Erie on September 17, 1814. He was 33 years of age when he died. He was baptized at Christ Church on April 8, 1814.

47. At the time Clark wrote this paper there were 12 teachers and 60 pupils in the Sunday School.