The Syracuse Standard may properly claim the longest life of any newspaper in this city. In the year 1816 Evander Morse, a prominent citizen of Onondaga Hill, published the first number of the Onondaga Gazette, which he continued about five years. The village on the Hill was the contending for supremacy with the Valley, and this early newspaper was one of the evidences that the former was gaining the ascendency through its possession of the county seat. The paper passed into the possession of Cephas S. McConnell in 1821, who changed its name to the Onon- daga Journal. In 1827 Vivus W. Smith became proprietor and two years later, following the tide of migration towards Syracuse, he removed the establishment to the city. There was then in existence in Syracuse a newspaper called the Syracuse Advertiser, which was started as the second journal in the village (preceded in 1823 by the Onondaga Gazette) by John F. Wyman and Thomas P. Barnum. Norman Rawson was also connected with it for a time, but Mr. Wyman soon assumed entire control, which he continued until 1829, at which time the Onondaga Journal was brought in, as stated, and the two papers were consolidated under the name of the Onondaga Standard, the firm being Wyman & Smith, with the latter as editor. John F. Wyman was a man of ability and considerable prominence in the early history of Syracuse, his name often appearing as secretary of public meetings and in other relations. The partnership of Mr. Smith and Mr. Wyman was dissolved, 1832, Mr. Wyman retiring. Thomas A. and Silas F. Smith had been learning the practical part of the printing business in the office, and soon afterward they assumed proprietorship of the paper, Vivus W. Smith continuing as editor. He soon withdrew, however, and the Journal was transferred to Asahel L. Smith, brother of Vivus W., and William Crandall. Mr. Crandall was an able and vigorous writer and his columns exercised a powerful political influence. He remained on the paper until the close of the exciting campaign of 1840, and was succeeded January 1, 1841, by Marcellus Farmer as editor and part owner of the establishment. The firm was Smith & Farmer and under their management the paper flourished as an indepen- dent Democratic organ. Mr. Farmer retired at the end of four years, went to California, and while on the return voyage in 1852 was lost at sea. Mr. Crandall came back as editor of the paper for Mr. Smith and continued until January 1, 1846, when Patrick H. Agan purchased a half interest and assumed the editorial chair. This he continued twenty years, until May, 1866, when, owing to political changes, he withdrew. Mr. Agan. who is still living, was a fearless and independent writer, and under his editorial guidance the Standard gained the respect and confidence of its constituency. In 1847 the Syracuse Democrat, started in 1846 by Clark & West and sold the next year to John Abott, was absorbed by the Standard. Various political changes culminated in 1848 in the rejection of the regular delegation to the Baltimore convention of Democrats, and left the “Barnburners,” as they were termed, no part in the choice of a presidential candidate and at liberty to bolt, which they did, and the Standard supported the act and advocated Van Buren. The paper suffered loss of patronage on this account, and soon afterward Mr. Smith sold his interest to Moses Summers, who had been foreman of the establishment, and the firm became Agan & summers. Eight years later Mr. Agan sold his interest to William Summers, brother of Moses, and the firm style became Summers & Brother. The Democratic party had meanwhile been united and the Standard continued in support of the party until 1856, when it refused to support Buchanan, accepted more liberal ideas and hoisted Fremont colors. In 1850 the Standard absorbed the Syracuse Reveille, started in 1848 by William L. Palmer and William Summers. In May, 1846, a daily issue was published, but suspended three months later. It was resumed in January, 1850, and continued as a five-column sheet two years, when it was enlarged two column, in which form it was issued until its change to a quarto, as noted further on.
With the breaking out of the Civil was Moses Summers joined the army. He had become an active Abolitionist and was one of the prime movers in the Jerry Rescue, which occurred on the 3d of October, 1951, and the Standard supported the government during the war in the most unqualified manner. Mr. Summers returned home in 1865 and continued at the head of the paper until May 9, 1866, when Charles E. Fitch, a gifted writer, acquired an interest in the establishment. On July 23 of the same year the firm of Summers & Company was formed, consisting of the Summers Brothers, Charles E. Fitch and Henry A. Barnum. Mr. Fitch, Moses Summers, and F. A. Marsh (the later acting as city editor) acted as editors of the paper, while William Summers was business manager. A more vigorous and aggressive policy was adopted, the paper was made a nine-column sheet and it soon advanced to a leading position among the journals of the State. After the death of President Lincoln the Standard opposed the Johnson administration and supported Horace Greeley for president. With his defeat and the election of General Grant the Standard adopted an independent policy, but within a year again fell into the straight Republican ranks, where it has ever since continued.
In September, 1873, Mr. Fitch sold his interest to his partners and not long afterward took the editorial chair of the Rochester Chronicle. Mr. Summers again put on the editorial harness and in the same year T. D. Curtis, C. H. Lyman, and George W. Edwards acquired a portion of the property, Mr. Curtis and Mr. Edwards joining the editorial staff. A little later a controlling interest passed to Charles E. Hubbell, who engaged Chester A. Lord, now of the New York Sun, to act as editor-in-chief. This connection continued only six weeks, when Hugh McDowell, a graduate of Syracuse University, became the principal owner, Mr. Summers continuing as political editor. A few years later Mr. Summers permanently retired from the profession and was made warden of the Port of New York, where he was killed by a fall on June 15, 1882. In August, 1880, Mr. McDowell sold out to J. F. Durston and E. B. Alvord, and the stock company which had been formed turned over the whole property to the new buyers. Mr. Alvord soon withdrew. Under, Mr. Durston’s editorial management the Standard maintained its former excellence. On the 25th of December, 1883, the form of the paper was changed to a quarto and has so remained. In the winter of 1883 J. F. Durston took as partners Howard G. White, George E. Dana, W. W. Cox, and Forbes Heermans, as directors of the business affairs of the establishment. Soon afterward Mr. White bought out the whole concern, but Mr. Durston remained editor until April, 1887, when the present managing editor, Charles R. Sherlock, was installed. On the 11th of October, 1887, the plant was removed to its own building on East Genesee street, where is now located a modern, first-class establishment.
The Syracuse Journal is the oldest daily newspaper in Syracuse and Onondaga county, and its weekly edition is one of the oldest in Central New York. The ancestor of this newspaper was the Western State Journal, started March 20, 1837, by Vivus W. and Silas F. Smith. In 1844 the name was made the Weekly Journal and on July 4 of that year Silas F. Smith began publishing the Daily Journal. These papers have had various owners: In 1847 Barnes, Smith & Cooper; in 1849, Vivus W. Smith; in 1853, Seth Haight and D. Merrick; in 1854, Thomas S. Truair; in 1860, Truair, Smith & Miles; in 1872, Truair, Smith & Co.; in 1874, Truair, Smith & Bruce; in 1884, Smith & Bruce; in 1885, the Syracuse Journal Company.
The Journal has had various editors during its long life. Its. most distinguished editorial conductor was Vivus W. Smith, who was justly esteemed one of the foremost political writers of this State. His son, Carroll E. Smith, has been editor of the paper since 1862 and continues in the chair at the present time. Anson G. Chester, Andrew Shuman, Silas F. Smith, D. W. Fiske, Dwight H. Bruce, Edward Cooper, James Terwilliger, Thomas S. Truair, and George G. Truair have held editorial relations with this journal. Three times the establishment has been destroyed by fire, and the present plant embraces all modern facilities of a first class newspaper concern. The Journal has always been a straight Whig and Republican organ, conservative and elevated in tone and wields a powerful influence throughout the State.
The Syracuse Daily Courier was started October 1, 1856, during the presidential campaign which resulted in the election of James Buchanan. Its founder was F. L. Hagadorn, and subsequently it passed to possession of H. S. McCullom. In the campaign of 1860 the Courier supported Breckinridge for president. The friends of Douglass, therefore, started another paper, which they called the Union, with Daniel J. Halstead, proprietor. At the close of the campaign the two papers were consolidated under the name of the Syracuse Courier and Union, with D. J. Halstead sole proprietor. The last name was dropped about 1872 and the Syracuse Daily Courier has been the name ever since. On the 1st of January, 1876, Mr. Halstead took as partners Milton N. Northrup and S. Gurney Lapham, under the firm name of D. J. Halstead & Co., each of the partners owning one-third. William H. Green, who had been editor of the paper more than ten years, was succeeded by Milton H. Northrup, and Mr. Lapham became associate editor. In May, 1873, D. J. Halstead & Co. were succeeded by the Courier Printing Company, the bulk of the stock being held by the late proprietors. Daniel Pratt was president of the company, S. G. Lapham, secretary, and Mr. Halstead, business manager. Mr. Northrup continued in the editorial chair. In 1879 William C. Ruger was made president of the company and Mr. Northrup secretary, treasurer, and manager. This arrangement continued until February 5, 1894, when the property was sold to the Syracuse Courier Co., composed of John F. Nash, president; Herbert F. Prescott, vice-president; Austin N. Liecty, secretary and treasurer; and Melville A. Sheldon and F. H. Johnson. These officers and members continue the same connection. The editor in-chief is John F. Nash; managing editor, Herbert F. Prescott; city editor, Joseph Tebeau.
Connected with the publication of the Daily Courier was issued the Semi-Weekly Courier, the successor of the Weekly Onondaga Courier. In 1874 the publication of the Sunday Courier was begun, which was one of the pioneers of Sunday journalism in this State. The Sunday edition was discontinued in 1884. The Courier is the exponent of staunch Democratic doctrines and is ably conducted.
The Syracuse Evening Herald was founded by Arthur Jenkins, and the first issue made its appearance on the 15th of January, 1877, from a job printing office on West Fayette street. The paper was started under the humblest auspices, the founder being almost wholly without capital. The first list of employees consisted of five journeymen printers, one apprentice, and one editor, besides Mr. Jenkins, who divided his time between reporting, managing the business, and as foreman of the composing room. In spite of these untoward circumstances, there seems to have been a place waiting for the little journal, for on the thirtieth day of its publication its sales reached 3,000 copies. The obstacles encountered by Mr. Jenkins in his efforts to place the paper on a firm foundation were of the most trying description. The very meager capital with which he began soon gave out, but the employees, who shared his own confidence in ultimate success, generously came to his assistance and accepted part payment for their labor, leaving the remainder for future payment. Gradually the prospects for the paper grew brighter until finally it was possible to pay off the hands regularly on Saturday nights. Down to this time the proprietor owned neither type nor press, and in order to more fully control the mechanical work of making the paper a small plant was purchased; but the payment for it brought new trials, and at times it was a grave question whether the paper would live or die. At the right time, however, a few citizens of whom the Herald had made friends by its course, made it several small loans, and one man who believed in the future of the journal, lent liberally of his means to transfer the institution from individual to corporate control. A stock company was formed, a faster press was bought, and in August, 1878, the establishment was removed to commodious quarters at No. 41 West Water street, the size of the paper being at the same time increased to seven columns. The growth of the circulation was steady and soon reached 6,000 copies. The printing facilities again became inadequate, and on January 15, 1880, the first four cylinder press between Albany and Rochester was purchased for the Herald. On the 16th of May following, the Sunday edition was first issued and has since continued with a large circulation. Again the Herald outgrew its publication facilities and on the 1st of May, 1883, the office was removed to the Crouse building on Warren street, and in 1893 removed a few doors north where spacious quarters were prepared for it in the Herald building.
Upon the organization of the Herald Company in 1888, Mr. Jenkins was elected president, a position he has ever since filled. Francis E. Leupp acquired an interest in the company soon after its formation and was its first vice-president when the office was created on June 24, 1885. Mr. Leupp, from the time of his connection with the paper, was its managing editor until the opening of the presidential campaign of 1884., when in order to devote his whole attention to editorial work, he yielded that desk to Benjamin E. Wells, who, except for the interval in 1892-1893, has filled the position to the present time. Mr. Leupp’s connection with the Herald ceased in the spring of 1885, James E. Baily securing his interest in the company, and succeeding him in the Vice-presidency. Mr. Baily died May 1, 1891, In July, 1892, Mr. Baily’s stock was purchased by James S. Gordon and Burt E. McKevett. In 1895, Mr. Gordon was elected vice-president of the company, which position he continues to hold.
The Evening News, a Democratic daily, was started by the News Publishing Company on the 8th day of February, 1892. It was the first attempt to publish a daily paper in Syracuse to be sold for one cent. Mason C. Hutchins was the first editor-in-chief, and was succeeded by Milton H. Northrup, September 17, 1894. J.C. Knauber is city editor. This paper is ably edited and has proved successful in all respects.
The Syracuse Post, a Republican morning newspaper, was established in the summer of 1894. The first copy of the paper was issued July 10, 1894. The certificate of incorporation of the Syracuse Post Company was filed in the office of the secretary of state at Albany on the 5th day of June, 1894, with the following named persons as incorporators: Frank W. Palmer, John W. Truesdell, Charles W. Snow, Thomas Merriam and Anson N. Palmer, all of the city of Syracuse. The first board of directors was composed of the following: Frank W. Palmer, John W. Truesdell, Charles W. Snow, John Dunn, jr., Jacob M. Mertens, Martin A. Knapp, Theodore E. Hancock, Hendrick S. Holden, Thomas Merriam, Anson N. Palmer, and Willis B. Burns, all of Syracuse. The company was organized by the election of Anson N. Palmer as president; Charles W. Snow as vice-president; and James J. Farrell as secretary and treasurer. Hon. Frank W. Palmer, late public printer at Washington, was the editor-in-chief and manager of the paper, and William A. Jones of this city was managing editor. Mr. Palmer remained with the paper through the year 1894, and was succeeded as editor by William A. Jones, James J. Farrell being appointed business manager. The Syracuse Post Company purchased The Weekly Express in July, 1894, and now issues it under the name, The Syracuse Post-Express, as the weekly edition of the daily Post. The editorial department of the Post is now in charge of William A. Jones and the business department in charge of A. T. McCargar. The Post is a member of the Associated Press and is issued every week day morning, and is at this time the official Republican paper in the city of Syracuse.
The Syracuse Catholic Publishing Company was organized in May, 1892, with a capital stock of $20,000. J. M. Mertens was president; John J. Cummings, vice-president; James K. McGuire, secretary and treasurer; with these and the following directors: Edward Joy, William P. Gannon, Nicholas C. McKeever, Francis Baumer, Arthur Hamel, and John G. Dunn. The publication of the Catholic Sun was commenced and has since continued. Its character is indicated by its name, and the paper has become a recognized authority and a welcome visitor in Catholic circles. A job printing business is carried on in connection with the paper. The first editor of the paper was Jacob Knauber. The present editor is George McDonald, an able writer, a graduate of Niagara University and of a leading educational institution in Ireland. William Muench is now president of the company, and Mr. McGuire remains secretary and treasurer.
The Sunday Morning Times was established in November, 1876, by Fralick, Hitchcock & Weed. Mr. Fralick withdrew at the end of about a year and the paper was continued by Hitchcock & Weed until the death of the former, when A. M. Knickerbocker acquired an interest. The establishment was bought in 1888 by A. M. Knickerbocker and M. B. Robbins. The Times was edited during the first seven years of its existence by H. P. Smith. Mr. Knickerbocker is the present editor, assisted by Gurney S. Strong, city editor. The paper has always enjoyed an extensive circulation, and is ably conducted.
The Weekly Express was established in 1887 by Stephen Stedman. The paper gained a large circulation throughout Onondaga county. Mr. Stedman sold the paper to the Post Publishing Company, who continued it as their weekly edition.
The Northern Christian Advocate )organ of the M. E. Church) is a weekly journal which was founded in Auburn by the Rev. Mr. Robie in 1840. In 1844 he sold the paper to the General Conference and from that time until 1862 it was published under the supervision of a publishing committee, the Conference appointing the editors. In the last named year the Conference placed the paper in the hands of the Methodist Book Concern, of New York city. In 1872 they transferred it to Syracuse and its publication continued here by Nelson & Phillips, as agents of the Book Concern until it passed to the present firm of Hunt & Eaton. The present editor of the paper is Rev. J. E. S. Sawyer, D. D.
The American Wesleyan (now Wesleyan Methodist), organ of the Wesleyan Methodist Church, was removed from New York to Syracuse January 1, 1848, by L. C. Matlock. In October, 1868, Cyrus Prindle became the editor and he was succeeded by Adam Crooks. He was followed by Rev. D. S. Kinney, who continued until his death in 1889. Nathan Wardner the accepted the chair, and was succeeded in 1892 by A. T. Jennings. In 1887 a handsome brick block was erected on Onondaga street, in which the paper is published, books printed and sold, etc.
The School Bulletin is an educational journal published monthly. It was started September 1, 1874, and in April, 1875, was consolidated with the New York State Educational Journal and was published by Davis, Bardeen & Co., until 1880, when it passed under sole ownership of C. W. Bardeen, who has since been the editor and publisher. The Bulletin is an acknowledged authority on all educational topics.
The first German newspaper published in Syracuse was the Onondaga Demokrat, the initial number of which appeared September 4, 1852. It was in the autumn of that year that the city was visited by Kossuth, of the Hungarian patriot. The Germans of the place had raised a fund of more than $300 which was placed in the hands of George Saul to present to the visitor. It had been announced that Kossuth would address the Germans in the City Hall, but he plead indisposition and sent word that if the Germans would call at his hotel he would briefly address them. This course angered the Germans, and the fund was turned over to Mr. Saul and used in founding the Demokrat. Although much of the money had been contributed by Whigs, the politics of the paper were made Democratic. It was first issued from a building on the corner of North Salina and James streets. In 1857 the paper came out for the Free Soil party, supporting Fremont, and has ever since adhered to Republican principles. In January, 1863, the Demokrat was purchased by John L. Roehner, a practical printer. His first editorial in support of the Union so pleased Andrew D. White, that he presented Mr. Roehner with a new outfit of type. In August, 1880, Mr. Roehner sold the paper (the name of which had been changed to the Union) to John Ziegler, who in the following December transferred it to Alexander von Landberg. He was succeeded in July, 1895, by its present owner and editor, J. Peter Pinzer. In 1860 the office was removed to its present location in the Ackerman block, on North Salina street. In the fall of 1863 it was again removed to the next block north, where it was burned out within a few months, and then returned to its former quarters.
The desertion of the Democracy by the Onondaga Demokrat in 1856 left the Democratic party without a German organ in Syracuse. A company calling itself “The Independent Democratic Society,” with Jacob Pfohl at its head, was organized, and on July 1, 1858, issued the first number of the Central Demokrat, with William Mueller, editor, and Julius Schwarz, business manager. The paper was issued from the Star Building on the site of the Syracuse Savings Bank. The paper was well edited, but the management was not so successful, and on the 12th of November, 1858, it was turned over to Joseph A. Hofmann with a burden of debt. The Demokrat, under its new management, entered upon a career of prosperity and influence, which has continued to the present time. Soon after Mr. Hofmann took charge of the paper the establishment was removed to the Davis Block on East Water street just east of the site of the Bastable Block; from there, in 1864, it was transferred to the present No. 728 North Salina street whence it was removed to its present handsome quarters in the Hofmann Block, corner of North Salina and Catawba streets. In 1888, after a successful career of thirty years, Mr. Hofmann turned the editorial and business management of the establishment over to his son, Louis C. Hofmann, a young man of exceptional ability and natural fitness for his work. He died Nov. 16, 1890. FrankJ. Kuntz is now the business manager and J. A. Hofmann, editor.
In 1874-5 the Zion’s Aue was published by Rev. Alexander Oberlander. Although self-supporting, the paper was discontinued at the end of the year.
In Ma, 1875, two young printers, Frederick G. Kaufman and J. Peter Pinzer, began the publication of Das Sontagsblatt, first as a weekly, and later as a semi-weekly under the name of Die Freie Presse. Julius Jaixen was editor. The paper was independent in politics, and was successful. In the summer of 1870 the Freie Presse was purchased by Alex. von Landberg and merged with the Union. This was the final German newspaper venture in Syracuse.
The mortuary list of newspapers in Syracuse is a long one, as it is in all similar places, and need only be briefly described here. In 1814 Lewis H. Redfield began the publication at Onondaga Valley of the Onondaga Register. Mr. Redfield was a practical printer and a writer of ability. He continued the paper at the Valley until 1829, when he removed it to Syracuse and consolidated it with the Gazette, the first paper issued in the village, under the name Syracuse Gazette and Onondaga Register. In 1832 the establishment was transferred to Sherman & Clark, who changed the name of the paper to the Syracuse Argus, and suspended the publication about two years later.
In October, 1826, the Salina Sentinel was started in the village of Salina by Rueben St. John. The name was changed in the next year to the Salina Herald, and continued a short time under the management of Fred Prince, when the name was changed to the Salina Courier and Enquier. It was soon afterwards suspended.
The Onondaga Republican was started in Syracuse in 1830 by W. S. Campbell. In 1834 it passed to J. B. Clark & Co., who changed its name to the Constitutionalist. In 1835 L. A. Miller became the proprietor and changed the name to the Onondaga Chief. He sold out in 1837 to J. M. Patterson, who issued the paper as the Syracuse Whig. In 1838 it passed to J. K. Barlow, who continued it about one year.
The Syracuse American was started in 1825 by John Adams, and lived about a year. Under the pretentious title of the Empire State Democrat and United Review a paper was issued in 1840 by Hiram Cummings and continued about three years. The Onondaga Messenger was started in 1841 by Joseph Barber. In 1842 the name was changed to the Statesman, and the paper lived about another year. The first daily newspaper in Syracuse was the Evening Mail, which was published about three months in 1833 by Vivus W. Smith. The Morning Sentinel (daily) was started in January, 1843, by N. M. D. Lathrop, and continued about a year, when the name was changed to the Onondaga Sentinel, and the paper was issued weekly, except in brief intervals, until 1850.
In 1844 J. N. T. Tucker, editor, and James Kinney, publisher, started the Democratic Freeman. It continued thus a short time, when the name was changed to the Syracuse Star. In 1846 Kinney, Marsh & Barnes were the publishers; in 1847-48, Kinney & Marsh; in 1849-51, Kinney & Masters. It soon afterwards passed into the hands of George F. Comstock, as publisher, and Winslow N. Watson, editor. In 1852 S. Corning Judd became editor and proprietor. In October, 1853, it passed to Edward Hoagland, who changed the name of the paper to the Syracuse Republican and continued it about one year. From the same office was issued in 1846 the Syracuse Daily Star, which continued until the Weekly Star was changed to the Republican and the journal took the name of the Syracuse Daily Republican, and was discontinued simultaneously with the weekly.
Other ephemeral newspapers were the Bugle Blast and Young Hickory, campaign papers, published about three months in 1844, the former by S. F. Smith and the latter by Smith & Farmer. The Liberty Intelligencer, started in 1845 by Silas Hawley, and continued one year. The Free Soil Campaigner and the Clay Banner, campaign papers, published in 1848 by Agan & Summers. The Impartial Citizen, started in 1848, by Samuel Ward, a colored man of ability, and continued one year. The Crystal Fountain, published about three months in 1848 by A. B. F. Ormsby. The Adventist, published three months in 1849, by De Los Mansfield. The Literary Union, begun April 7, 1849, by W. W. Newman, J. M. Winchell and James Johnonnot, was issued about a year and a half. The Liberty Party Paper was started July 4, 1849, by John Thomas, and lived two years. The Central City (daily) was published a short time in 1849 by Henry Barnes. The Syracusan (monthly) was established in 1850 by William Mosely; in 1851 the name was changed to the Syracusan and the United States Review. It continued thus until 1856, a part of the time under the name of the Syracusan and Onondaga County Review. The Syracuse Independent, published about three months in 1850, and the Evening Transcript (daily) started in the same year by Washington Van Zandt. The Archimedian, started in 1850 with B. F. Sleeper, publisher, and John Abbott, editor, was discontinued in the following year. The Central New Yorker, published in 1850 a short time by L. P. Rising, and the Family Companion (monthly) issued during a part of the same year. The Temperance Protector (semi-monthly) started in 1850 by William H. Burleigh, continued about two years. The Carson League, another temperance organ, begun in 1851 by Thomas L. Carson, publisher, and James Thomas, editor, lived a number of years, and was published a part of the time in Albany. The American Medical and Surgical Journal (monthly) started January 1, 1851, by Porter & Russell, continued about five years. The Journal of Health, published about six months in 1851, by S. H. Potter. A monthly called the Unionist and another called the Union Herald, and the Reformer, were three papers that had a short existence at the period in question. A French paper named La Ruche, started in 1852 by A. L. Walliath, lived only a few months. The Home Circle, published about a year in 1855 by L. W. Hall. The American Organ (daily) began in 1855 by Way & Miner, soon passed to H. P. Winspr, who suspended it a year later. The Onondaga Hardshell started October 26, 1855, lived through its second number. In 1856 C. B. Gould started the Syracuse Daily News, which lived only a short time. The American Citoyen (French) was published less than a year in 1868 by Dr. Cadeaux. The Sunday News (weekly), the first Sunday journal in the city, started by an association of practical printers in August, 1872, suspended in 1877, after several changes in proprietorship. The Sunday Herald, established in the seventies by J. W. Gait, lived several years, and was edited a part of the time by Charles E. Fitch. The Temperance Union (monthly) started in June, 1877, afterwards changed to a weekly, published and edited by Samuel Gaylord. The Constitutionist and State Free Trader was started in 1862 as an organ of the Liquor Dealers Association, to defeat the prohibitory law, and lived to December, 1863.