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Submitted by Kathy Crowell

Source:  Chapter XXVIII, part I,  in Dwight C. Bruce's Onondaga Centennial, Boston:  The Boston History Company, Publishers, 1896, Vol. I, pp. 398-440.

It has been clearly indicated in the foregoing chapters that between the date of the organization of Onondaga county, now just a century ago, and the founding of the village and city of Syracuse, a comparatively long period elapsed.  The reader of these pages may have already become aware of the principal reasons for this circumstance.  They are embodied in the following facts:  Much of the immediate locality was a low, swampy jungle, apparently unfitted for the site of a village or any compact settlement.  It can probably truthfully be stated that no city in the Untied States was founded in such a dismal spot as Syracuse.  It was not until some time after 1800 that it was thought expedient to endeavor to maintain a good road across it, unless it were constructed on a "corduroy" basis.  Even the Indians shunned it and made their trails on the higher ground on either side.  Quite large tracts of the site would not even produce trees of any considerable size until they were drained, and were overgrown with rank shrubbery and such saplings as are commonly found in cedar swamps.  The Onondaga Creek, then much larger in volume than now, wound its wonderfully devious way from south to north across the tract, into which flowed the Yellow Brook from the northeastward, and trailed its sluggish current among the logs and brush, creating a paradise for frogs.  Moreover, the site was practically surrounded with villages that were prosperous and growing before there was more than a mere hamlet here.  Onondaga Valley (or Hollow) had its newspaper, its mills, numerous stores and shops, church and school, before any one was sanguine enough to predict that Syracuse would ever overtake it in population.  The same communities were engaged in a fierce strife for possession of the county buildings at a date when such a pretension on the part of Syracuse would have provoked only ridicule.  Salina, close by on the north, was a still more active and enterprising community, with an enormous product of snowy salt going out to various markets, when Syracuse had only a few cheap dwellings and shops standing in or near the low lands.  Manlius, on the east, had a considerable population at the beginning of the century, before Syracuse had awakened a thought.  Not only was the site unfitted for a village, but there seemed to be not the slightest necessity for one in the locality.  Against all these really weighty reasons there existed that fact that the site is centrally situated in the Empire State; that is all there was to recommend it.  If it could have been foreseen that the bluff known as Prospect Hill (then forty or fifty feet higher than now) and the swelling hills over which now pass James street and East Genesee street, and the rising plateau of Danforth, would eventually be covered with stately homes, there would have been a little added brightness in the prospect; but no such anticipations were entertained by the pioneers.

The site of Syracuse lies within the boundaries of the Salt Springs Reservation, and in 1794 was in the town of Manlius, as was also all the reservation lying east of the lake and Onondaga Creek.  In 1804 a legislative act authorized the surveyor-general to sell 250 acres of the reservation, the proceeds to be applied to the improvement of the Seneca Turnpike within Onondaga county.  The advertisement of sale stated that there was a good mill site on the tract(1).  James Geddes was appointed by the surveyor-general to lay out the tract, in which task he endeavored to not only include the mill site, but to exclude as far as possible the swamps and low lands; in the latter effort he was not very successful, although he gave the tract a very irregular outline.  The maps (2) of 1819 and 1834, accompanying these pages, show the boundaries of the tract.  The sale took place in June, 1804, and the land was purchased by Abraham Walton for $6,550.  Considering the character of the land and the immediate prospects of the settlement, the price was considered a fair one.  From this purchaser has been handed down the title of "Walton Tract."  James Geddes, Moses Carpenter and John Young were appointed commissioners to disburse the fund to the contractors on the road; but most of the business was done by Mrs. Geddes.

The first settler on the site of Syracuse was Ephraim Webster, and he was also the first in the county.  In 1786 he built his cabin for trade with the Indians on the bank of Onondaga Creek near its mouth, made that his headquarters for several years and later lived at the Valley, as fully described in the earlier pages of this volume.  In 1793 Webster's trading station was occupied a short time by Benjamin Newkirk, but he can hardly be considered as having been a settler.

At this time the Indians had a number of cabins along the west bank of the creek, and near by on the same side of the stream was a large Indian burying ground, from which in later years many skeletons were disinterred.  As far as known Webster and Newkirk were the only white residents on the site of Syracuse prior to 1800, if we except the general and somewhat indefinite statement in Clark's Onondaga (vol. II, p. 87) that a Mr. Butler and a Mr. Hopkins were located a little west of the first bridge over the Oswego Canal on James street, near a spring of water, the latter in 1797, and the former in 1799.

In the spring of 1800 Calvin Jackson, son of Col. Jeremiah Jackson of Jamesville (whose name has appeared in earlier pages), built a small log house near where Montgomery and East Genesee streets cross the Central Railroad, and in that swelling on December 28, 1800, was born Albion Jackson, probably the first white child born in Syracuse, excluding Salina.  There is no positive record of a permanent settlement here until 1805.  In the same year of his purchase Mr. Walton laid out a part of his tract into village lots and sold to Henry Bogardus a half acre for $300, embodying in the contract a stipulation already binding upon Walton in his purchase, that he should within a certain time erect a building on the lot and keep therein, or cause to be kept, a public tavern.

In 1805 Mr. Walton built the first mills in Syracuse, thus improving the disputed mill site.  He constructed a dam of logs across the creek about where it is crossed by West Genesee street, and the roadway passed along the top of the dam.  The mill stood on the east bank of the stream partly on the High School site and partly in what is now the street.  It was two stories high with an attic, contained two runs of stones, and was painted red, giving it the well-known title of "the red mill."  The first dam stood only about a year when a spring freshet carried it away.  The second was built about where West Water street crosses the creek, and a wooden bridge was erected over the creek at Genesee street.  This second dam was replaced in 1824 by one built of stone.  These dams created a large pond, the size and situation of which are shown on the maps of 1819 and 1834.  In the same year that the grist mill was erected, Mr. Walton built a saw mill south of Genesee street on the east side of the creek, and at a little later date Rufus Parsons established near by a linseed oil mill, both of which were operated down to about 1830; the oil mill was subsequently occupied as an axe factory.  A tannery stood still farther south.

When Mr. Walton laid out his village lots the place was called "South Salina;" it was an off-shoot, a mere branch of Salina.  In1805 Amos Stanton, father of Isaac and Rufus Stanton, became one of the earliest permanent residents of the place.  What is now North Salina street was then called "Cooper" street,(3) and Mr. Stanton purchased an acre of land on the east side of the street about where it crosses the Oswego Canal, cleared the tract as soon as practicable, and with a few more acres to the southeast of his purchase, began farming; in the winter season he, like most of the early inhabitants, worked in the salt industry.

In accordance with his stipulation Mr. Bogardus built a tavern on the site of the present Empire House in 1806.  While the work was in progress he occupied a small frame house which he had built about on the site of the Convention block on the east side of Genesee street.  The tavern was 35 by 45 feet in size, two stories high, according to Mr. Clark, while the reminiscences of Mr. Cheney describe it as a story and a half structure, 20 by 30 feet in size(4).  Mr. Bogardus was succeeded by a Mr. Burlingame in 1808, and two years later Joseph Landon took the house.  The place soon began to be known as "Bogardus's Corners," while the tavern was often called the "South Salina Hotel."  Landon was succeeded in 1812 by James Ingalls, who was followed in 1815 by Sterling Cossitt, from whom the settlement became known as "Cossitt's Corners."  This name did not long please the inhabitants; perhaps it seemed to lack dignity, or it may have been realized that with the future possible death or removal of all the Cossitts, the name would lose all significance and propriety.  Whatever the cause, the hamlet was about 1809 given the name "Milan," which it bore a few years, and was then changed to "South Salina."

In 1805 William Lee and Aaron Cole opened a blacksmith shop and were among the first mechanics in the place.  In the same year that Mr. Bogardus built the tavern, a Mr. Merrell erected a small frame dwelling nearly opposite on the east, but prevailing sickness and the hopeless prospect discouraged him and he took down his house and removed elsewhere.

In 1807 (possibly a year earlier) a Mr. Blake made a small clearing about half way between the Bogardus tavern and Salina, and began farming.  In the same year a road running north and south from the Walton Tract was laid out six rods wide, as a State road, under direction of the surveyor-general.  The work was done by Moses Carpenter and two others, and a part of the road afterwards became Salina street(5).

For a considerable period after the building of Bogardus's tavern and the Walton mills it was believed that the center of settlement and business would be in that vicinity, and such was, indeed, the case for a number of years, as we shall see.  Previous to the year 1820 immigration was slow.  For this there were good reasons, some of which have been touched upon.  The locality was unhealthful, as well as uninviting, and many of the inhabitants suffered severely from sickness, even down to 1825, or later.  The villages in the Valley, on the Hill, and at Salina attracted most of the new comers.  The hamlet in the swamp, with its several incongruous names, was a subject of ridicule and of little other expression.  Perhaps the prevailing sickness induced Dr. Ziba Swan to locate here in 1807, and in 1808 Jonathan Day settled near the site of the old court house corner of Division and North Salina streets).

In 1811 Rufus Stanton opened a tavern on the east side of North Salina street, just south of the site of the bridge over the Oswego Canal, while in 1814 two men, Sidney Dole and Milan C. Taylor, who were then operating the Walton mills, opened the first store in the place about on the site of the Wieting block.

The prospects of the place now began to brighten.  The obstacles to settlement gave birth to and stimulated the growth of their own remedy.  Men were coming forward who were not wont to abandon a desired object because its attainment was difficult.  And still there was an element of accident among the forces which produced the early Syracuse, entirely dissociated from the fact that it was so near the salt springs and must necessarily share in their rapidly increasing prosperity.  The Erie Canal project had been under discussion since the early years of the century, and by the end of the first decade was assuming a definite character and receiving the favor and active aid of many prominent men.  It early became a political issue, and in 1807 a "canal ticket" was formed with Judge Joshua Forman, Federalist, and John McWhorter, Democrat, at its head.  Judge Forman lived at the Valley and was one of the foremost men in Central New York; he was elected to the Assembly and became at once one of the first and most enthusiastic advocates of the canal.  It is this apparently simple fact that constitutes the element of accident alluded to, and which answers the oft-repeated question, how could so prosperous a village as Syracuse have been founded on such a site?  The Erie Canal made the Syracuse of 1825 and later a possibility.

In Judge Forman's early advocacy of the "grand canal," as it was commonly termed, it was natural and, perhaps, not opposed to the public welfare, that he should evince a deep interest in having it pass through the village at the Valley where he lived and owned much property.  His prophetic eye saw a great and beautiful city uprising around his home through which would pass myriads of boats bearing the commerce of the State.  He appealed to his neighbors and friends to give their influence and means to the enterprise, assuring them that the canal would become a fact and would pass through or near their village and northward along the western side of the valley and around the hill westward.  A memorial to the legislature was prepared by him, to which he found it not difficult to obtain signatures, but they were often accompanied by doleful predictions of high taxes and ultimate disaster.  The pretense that the canal would ever be of any advantage to their little village was simply ridiculous to many good citizens, and they said so; they might sign a memorial, but more substantial aid was generally withheld.  The fact is, the canal project received bitter opposition and ridicule in many localities, and particularly in rural communities.  It was too grand an undertaking to be comprehended by any except broad minds.  This opposition and ridicule at home finally had their legitimate effect, and Judge Forman transferred to Salina his entreaties, prophecies and promises, in an effort to enlist the influence that was denied him at home.  He eloquently portrayed to the citizens of the northern village the advantages they would derive from having the canal pass through that place.  The leading men of Salina thought less favorably and talked more in derogation of the project than those in the Valley, and smarting under the lack of appreciation accorded his favorite project, his dauntless spirit aroused, he thenceforward threw his powerful influence in favor of the direct route between the two villages which had spurned his offer, and which was finally followed.  He firmly determined and maintained his position in all places and on all occasions, that a great city should ultimately bestride the canal on the shore of Onondaga Lake--a city that should draw the very breath of their existence from the villages to the northward and the westward(6).  The idea was preposterous in the opinion of one who had calmly considered and closely studied the site of Syracuse.  But Judge Forman and the few local men who agreed and worked with him, ignored all consideration of obstacles to their plans and pressed forward.

One of the first steps toward the desired end was the formation of the company of Forman, Wilson & Co., in 1814, composed of Judge Forman, Ebenezer Wilson and John B. Creed, and the purchase by them of a large part of the unsold portion of the Walton Tract, for which they paid about $9,000.  A part had been previously sold to Michael Hogan and Charles Walton, who held their interest in common with Abraham Walton.  During the succeeding few years not a day or an opportunity was lost by Judge Forman and his associates in their enthusiastic efforts to advance the interests of the still insigifnicant settlement.

After the name "Milan" was given to the place, when steps were taken to secure a post-office by that name, it was learned that it could not be done, as there was already an office of the same name in the State.  Judge Forman, therefore, in about 1817, applied the name "Corinth" to the village, by which, or as "Cossitt's Corners," it was known only a few years.  At about the time of the purchase of the tract, the company established a large slaughter and packing-house in a grove a little north of Church street, and a prosperous business was carried on until 1817, especially during the latter part of the war of 1812.

Although the yearly growth of the settlement was still slow, nothing could now turn back the tide of prosperity.  In 181 the Walton Tract passed to the possession of Daniel Kellogg and William H. Sabine (the latter a law partner of Judge Forman.)  For these two men Judge Forman acted as agent in the sale of lands, removing to Syracuse in 1819, where he built a substantial frame house a little south of Water street in about the line of Clinton street.  In the spring of this year Owen Forman, brother of the judge, and John Wilkinson, a law student in the judge's office, who located in Syracuse in the same year, laid out the tract into village and farm lots, under the direction of Judge Forman, as agent for the new owners (7), and a considerable number of sales were made.  John Wilkinson bought the Globe Hotel corner and a little later built a small law office thereon.  Mr. Wilkinson was admitted to the bar in 1819; further particulars of his life are given in Chapter XXVI.

Mr. Wilkinson was appointed the first postmaster of the village in 1820 (February 24).  His first office was in the store of Amos P. Granger, on the site of the Syracuse Savings Bank.  Desiring to change his office in 1824, he proposed to John Durnford, then located in a building on the site of the Onondaga Savings Bank, that the office be removed thither; Mr. Durnford objected for lack of room.  Mr. Wilkinson argued that there was plenty of room, and to clinch his argument he went over to his office, packed up the whole paraphernalia, mail matter, letter bags, letter boxes, etc., and carried it on his shoulder to Durnford's store.  He was then given possession of a corner.  Some time later the office was removed to the east wing of the Syracuse House.

At some time between 1818 and 1824 "Corinth" was renamed Syracuse, after an unusual series of changes.  The new name was chosen on the suggestion of Mr. Wilkinson, to whom it was brought to mind during the reading of a poem, in which the ancient city of Syracuse, with a "Salina" near by, was mentioned.  When a new name was proposed, a committee consisting of Mr. Wilkinson, Judge Forman and Rufus Stanton, was appointed to make the selection, with the result of unanimity in favor of Syracuse.

It was in this year (1819) that Oliver Teall(8) became a resident of Syracuse and settled in what became known as "Lodi," as seen on the map of 1834.  He purchased extensive tracts of land in that section and built mills which were operated by the surplus water from the canal under concession from the State.  On the 27th of March, 1821, a law was passed by the Legislature (chapter 176) entitled, "An act to supply the village of Syracuse with wholesome water."  The franchise under this act was transferred to Mr. Teall in 1829, and he constructed the first water supply in the village.

While the village was thus progressing, the canal project did not languish.  Judge Geddes made his final report in 1816, and it became a certainty that the great waterway would pass through Syracuse.  This fact, with the eloquent arguments of the energetic men who were now deeply interested in the place, greatly stimulated growth and general improvement.  Work was begun on the middle section of the canal in 1817, and on the 21st of April, 1820, the first packed boat (the Montezuma) arrived in Syracuse from the West.  A crowd collected to witness the novel spectacle, and it contained the usual contingent of pessimists; but the actual sight of the boat floating easily and rapidly on the turbid tide silenced all forebodings, which were displaced by shouts of joyful welcome.  The succeeding Fourth of July was celebrated for both its own significance and for the opening of the canal, and the village was filled with people.  The exercises were held in a grove in rear of the site of the Townsend block; Thaddeus M. Wood presided, Nathan P. Randall read the Declaration of Independence, and Samuel Miles Hopkins, of New York, delivered the oration.  This was the first celebration of Independence Day in the village.

If a passenger had landed in Syracuse from the Montezuma and remained long enough to fully survey the place he would have seen about nine-tenths of the whole valley still covered with forest or brush.  Along each side of the main north and south, and the east and west roads, the trees and bushes had been cut away for only a few feet.  He would have noted that the "clearing" in which the village stood extended only from the canal near Clinton street south to Fayette street and east to Warren street; while north of the canal it reached to Church street and east to Warren.  Only two frame houses besides the tavern on the Empire House corner would have met his gaze, with log houses scattered about the dry ground and slab cabins for the canal laborers.  Judge Forman's pasture extended back perhaps fifty rods from the line of Clinton street and eastward to Salina street, most of it covered by an open pine grove.  And if our traveler by the first canal boat had remained in the place twenty-four hours he would have become a promising subject for fever and ague.  In 1820 the population was only about 250 persons, one of the chief causes of the slow growth being the distressing an prevalent sickness.  During the building of the canal, especially, fevers were alarmingly frequent and fatal.  Thirty of the laborers near by died and were buried near the corner of Fayette and Clinton streets.  The stagnant waters on the eastern and southeastern part of the village site did not subside until May or June and left decaying vegetation to breed disease.  Teams traveling from the Valley to Salina in the spring were often forced to leave the road and follow the higher ground on the east.  In the vicinity of what is now Fayette Park and farther east and south was then a famous shooting ground.  These conditions and the great unhealthfulness of the locality caused the founders of Syracuse much anxiety.  It was realized by them that something must be promptly done to counteract such baleful influences, or Syracuse would remain an insignificant hamlet.  Judge Forman and his associates accordingly took the matter in hand, and in the winter of 1821-22 a survey was made which showed that the level of Onondaga Lake was nearly as high as some of the surrounding territory at high water, and that it set back in the creek and often flooded the lower lands and always kept them wet.  It was determined to lower the outlet and an appropriation was obtained from the Legislature for the purpose and for a system of drainage.  A part of the expense was to fall upon the owners of lands benefited by the improvement.  The law authorized the judges of the County Court to appoint three freeholders of the county, who should assess the amount of money to be raised upon the benefited lands, and provided that the lands could be sold after public notice of four weeks in case of non-payment of the assessments; if not redeemed within six months, with ten per cent, added, the sale would be absolute.  The law permitted  citizens to construct their own ditches, according to the plans of the commissioners; but if they did not do so, then the commissioners could do the work and charge the land owners with the expense.  While this law was at the time considered arbitrary, the great benefits which it was to confer finally reconciled the people to its execution.  It was one of the most beneficent measures ever adopted in the interest of Syracuse.

It was probably in the year 1820 that the first school house was built in Syracuse.  (See engraving and history in later pages).  It stood on the north side of Church street on the first lot east of the present Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad crossing, where the brick school house of district number four was subsequently built.  In 1821 Hiram Deming taught school there and was succeeded by William K. Blair.  The year 1821 saw the organization of the First Baptist Society, which in 1824 erected the first church edifice; it stood on the site of the present Universalist church.  Religious services had been held previous to that time in private residences and in the school house.

Upon the opening of the canal a stone bridge was built over it on Salina street, with a single arch, and scarcely high enough to permit the passing of boats with passengers on their decks; this was built in 1823, and was superseded by a wooden bridge, and that by the first iron bridge.  It is related that on account of the first bridge being so low, passengers were sometimes injured when riding on deck, and that when Canal Commissioner Earll's attention was called to the fact, his reply was "Yes, I will have the cause of these complaints removed by deepening the bottom of the canal at that point."

The tendency of settlement and business was now turning south of the canal.  Rufus Stanton had continued farming on the land east of Salina street, and in 1815 had a field of twenty acres of grain, at the northwest corner of which was erected the Syracuse House.  The tract was afterwards sowed with grass seed, enclosed with a rail fence, and in 1820 was bought by Luther Buell (brother of the grandfather of H. B. Buell, of McCarthy's wholesale house), and Shubael Safford (grandfather of John D. Safford of Syracuse), who began the erection of a brick hotel fifty feet square, two stories high with basement.  Mr. Safford fell from a scaffold during the work on the building and was killed.  The accident delayed the building, which was finished by Henry Eckford in 1822, after his purchase of the tract.  It was called the Syracuse Hotel, but in 1827, after the accession of the Syracuse Company, was rebuilt in an enlarged and improved style, and renamed the Syracuse House.

In 1823 what remained unsold of the Walton Tract again changed hands, passing from Kellogg & Sabine to Henry Eckford, of New York city, who sold it in May, 1824, to an organization called "The Syracuse Company," from whom very many of the later real estate titles of the village and city were derived.  The price was $30,000.  This company was composed of William James, John Townsend, Isaiah Townsend, and James McBride.  The deed transferred the land in trust to Moses Burnet and Gideon Hawley; further draining of portions was inaugurated, and the sale of lots was vigorously pursued.

Thus far the village had existed without a newspaper.  Onondaga Hill had enjoyed the blessing since 1816, the Valley since 1814 (with an ephemeral sheet started in 1811), when Lewis H. Redfield began the publication there of the Onondaga Register, and the need of a more strictly local and directly interested journal was strongly felt.  In April, 1823, the first number of the Onondaga Gazette was issued in Syracuse by John Durnford.  It contained only one mercantile advertisement, that of Kasson & Heermans.

The neighboring village of Liverpool was still a place of much more importance than either Syracuse or Salina.  Farmers found a good market there and received cash for their products, while in most instances in the other villages, salt was offered in exchange.  The amount of business done in Syracuse in 1825 was much less than at the Valley, and most of the stores were still on the north side of the canal between the two bridges.  A dwelling on the corner of Mulberry and Fayette streets was considered far in the country; and when Ezra Town, about 1825, determined to open a grocery on the south side of the canal, he was assured by the wise men that he could not succeed; but he did, and conducted it on temperance principles.

At the beginning of the year 1825 there were about fifteen merchants of various kinds in the village, with the usual shops, mills, etc.  Streets had been extended to some extent and somewhat improved in character, though there were seasons when many of them were almost impassable.  Very little sidewalk had yet been constructed.  The canal was finished in November, 1825; the salt industry was remarkably prosperous and increasing with rapid strides, and all outward signs pointed to the rapid advancement which followed.  These auspicious indications prompted the inhabitants to cheerfully support the plan of village incorporation, and on the 13th of April, 1825, the necessary act passed the Legislature.  The first village election was held on the 3d of May, 1825, when the following officers were elected:

Joshua Forman, president; Amos P. Granger, Moses D. Burnet, Heman Walbridge, John Rogers, trustees; James Webb, Alfred Northam, Thomas Spencer, assessors; John Durnford, treasurer; John Wilkinson, clerk; Henry Young, poundmaster; Jesse D. Rose, Henry W. Durnford, constables; Daniel Gilbert, justice of the peace.

Meetings were held with great frequency by the trustees and provision made for setting in motion the new government.  The corporation was divided into two highway districts, the dividing line being the canal from the east line of the village to the "strong bridge (which had been built over the canal on Salina street); thence along the center of the Turnpike to the Onondaga creek; thence up the same to the canal, and from thence along the line of the same to the west line of the village."  The map of 1834 shows the village boundaries.

Now Syracuse began to advance with rapid strides.  The simple machinery of the village government was soon in smooth working condition.  The second meeting of the trustees was held on May 4, when a resolution was adopted "that Othniel H. Williston, George W. Palmer, Hiram C. Woodworth, and James Mann are severally fit persons to be licensed as tavern keepers."  At the meeting of May 8, grocer's licenses were granted to Joseph Thompson, Henry Newton, Stephen W. Cadwell, Paschal N. Thurber, Joel Owen, Peter Van Olinda, Henry W. Durnford, Hayden Rice, William T. Arnold, Ambrose Kasson, Bush & Vose, Andrew N. Van Pattern, and Ralph Waldby.  If a grocer sold liquor, he had to pay $25 additional to his grocer's license fee.  Canal street (now Pearl) "running parallel to the Lateral Canal at the distance of 100 feet therefrom," was ordered to be opened from Foot street to Salina street.  (The lateral canal was what is now the Oswego Canal between the Erie Canal and Salina).  Willow street was opened from Lock street to the lateral canal, and Lock street from Foot (now James) to Willow.  "Robber's Row" was ordered to be opened four rods wide.

At a meeting held May 9, it was determined to procure "a good fire engine," and Moses D. Burnet was designated to ascertain the cost.  On the following day ordinances were adopted providing that the "streets and canal should be kept clear of logs, lumber, etc.; that no property should be landed on the banks of the canal on Sunday, penalty, $5; that liquor shops should be closed on Sunday and at 11 o'clock evenings, penalty $2.50; that no guns should be fired in the village, penalty $1; that no hogs be permitted to run at large, penalty 25c.; that no boisterous noise, profane or obscene talk should be permitted, penalty $5."

At the meeting of May 13, Salina, Warren, Clinton, Water, Washington, Fayette and Church streets received the village authority for their names, and it was enacted that "the Seneca Turnpike through said village shall be called Genesee street;" while at the same time "the street leading east from the public square north of the canal" was named Foot street.  "The street running from the Turnpike to the canal, next west of Gifford's house with its continuation," was named South Franklin street.  "The street leading to the mill race, north of the canal, thence along the same to the Seneca Turnpike," was made Mill street.  The street west of Onondaga Creek, which had been known as "Apple" street, was renamed West street.  At this meeting steps were taken for building the Oswego Canal bridge in James street and for opening "Clinton street, on both sides of Washington."  On the 24th of May it was ordered that proposals be advertised for lighting and trimming the four lamps "now put up, and such as may be put up."  This was probably the first call for bids on any contract in the village.  It was also provided, in this connection, that "persons applying shall state the price they will charge per lamp, to be lighted only on dark nights."

When we consider that all this business was accomplished in about three weeks from the incorporation, it will be seen that the trustees were wide awake.  The race with Salina was begun.

The condition of the streets at the time under consideration is indicated by a resolution passed at a meeting on the 6th of June, ordering that the lumber, etc., which had been left on "the public square be removed to-morrow, etc., and John Wilkinson see to this order (9)".  Mr. Wilkinson was forced to remove the lumber himself, as the owner did not appear--unless it was Mr. Wilkinson himself.

At a meeting held June 15, $125 were appropriated to inclose "the burying ground with a decent fence, painted, with a gate."  Moses D. Burnet was authorized to provide "a decent pall and bier."  The first burial ground in the village of Syracuse was at the intersection of Clinton and West Fayette streets, as shown on the map of 1834.  Burials ceased here before 1819 and were probably not more than thirty in number.  The second burial ground was situated on the west end of block 77; it extended from Church street to the Walton line.  This was never used for its contemplated purpose, and what became known as "the old cemetery," was laid out on the Forman and Wilkinson map at the corner of West Water and Franklin streets; this is the ground for which the appropriation was made for a fence.  The first burial in it was the body of Eliza Spencer, first wife of Thomas Spencer, who died April 2, 1824.

On the 14th of July, 1825, $450 were appropriated for opening and improving Clinton street, and "$250 "for improving the road to the furnace."

The Marquis de La Fayette made a tour of this country in 1825 and honored Syracuse with a visit.  He came eastward from Marcellus, made a short stop at the hotel on Onondaga Hill (where he had breakfast), and in the Valley, whence he proceeded with an escort to the old Mansion House.  He was met by a large assemblage of people of the village and surrounding country, and Judge Forman, president of the village, delivered an eloquent address, tendering the distinguished guest the hospitalities of a grateful people.  La Fayette made a fitting response, after which a repast was served.  The general and suite, with the Onondaga committee of escort, left for Utica on the packet boat Rochester.

At a meeting of the trustees, held October 11, 1825, Judge Forman stated that he had engaged a fire engine at the cost of $935, and Thomas B. Heermans was appointed a captain of a fire company, with authority to enlist thirty-five men as members.  This action had been taken in pursuance of the following resolutions, which were adopted at an earlier meeting of June 7, 1825:

  Whereas, The Albany Insurance Company has proposed to this village, that the said company will loan the sum of $1,000, to be used in the purchase of a good and sufficient fire engine, with proper implements, to extinguish fires, on the following conditions:  The village to secure the payment of that sum in four years, by a bond under the corporate seal, two years without interest, and after that at three per cent. a year for the remainder of the time, therefore,
  Resolved, That the trustees of the village be authorized to effect the loan of the sum of one thousand dollars on the terms aforesaid, and that the same be applied to the purchase of a good first-rate engine, and that they procure the same under the corporate seal.
  Resolved, That the sum of one hundred and fifty dollars be raised for the purpose of building an engine house, purchasing hooks and necessary ladders, which sum to be assessed on said village, pursuant to statute.

Some difficulty must have been encountered in effecting the loan, for another meeting was held "at the house of James Mann" (Syracuse House) on the 28th of November, when other similar resolutions were adopted, but providing for the payment of seven per cent, interest on the loan.  On the 3d of November, when other similar resolutions were adopted, but providing for the payment of seven per cent. interest on the loan.  On the 3d of January, 1826, the trustees adopted resolutions ordering housekeepers to provide themselves with leather buckets, bearing the name of the owner, ordinary dwellings to have one each, two-story houses to have two, and taverns to have four.  John Rogers and Moses D. Burnet were at the same time authorized to contract for the building of an engine house "22 feet by 16 feet, 8 feet posts, and to be neatly painted and furnished with a good box stove, which building to be placed in a line with and next to the barn of John Rogers."  This engine house, as nearly as can now be learned, stood about on the site of the southeastern corner or side of the Bastable block, near Genesee street, where stood the small brick dwelling of John Rogers, the first brick building erected in the village, and removed when the present new Bastable block was erected.  The membership of the first fire company was as follows:  John Durnford, Stephen W. Cadwell, Paschal Thurber, Linneus P. Noble, Agrippa Martin, Thomas Spencer, Edward Chapman, Joel Owen, William O. Chope, Henry Van Heusen, Harman Van Heusen, Russell Hebard, Zopher Adams, Humprey Mellen, Samuel Mead, Theodore Ashley, John Wall, Volney Cook, Archibald L. Fellows, Seth K. Akin and Henry Gifford.  This list embraced most of the prominent citizens of the place.  Suitable fire hooks were ordered of Henry Van Heusen, at a cost of $18.75, and on the 4th of December, 1827, a hook and ladder company was formed, with the following members:  Daniel Elliot, David Stafford, C. Walbridge, Ambrose Kasson, J. C. Fields, J. Whitney and Captain Archer.  These facilities for fire extinguishment served the village until 1832.

It was probably in 1827 that the first so-called police duty was performed, as in March of that year the records show the payment of $25 to H. W. Durnford "for services as police constable."  In the following year the same sum was paid to Charles Cook for like service.  Police duty, at least aside from what was done by the regular constables, was doubtless of a transient and intermittent character for some years after the village of was incorporated.

The first store of Sidney Dole and Milan C. Taylor (1814) has been mentioned.  During work on the canal in 1817 the firm of Northrup & Dexter, who had a contract on the work, succeeded Dole & Taylor, and continued in trade until 1821.  The following list embraces most of the merchants who began business between 1820 and the incorporation of the village:

  Amos B. Granger came down from Onondaga Hill in 1831 and opened a dry goods store which fronted on the canal on the east side of Salina street; besides this store there were then only a few small groceries and general stores.  Henry Newton opened a store in 1822.  Archy Kasson opened a hardware store in 1822; Kasson & Heermans, general store, in 1823; G. M. Towle, forwarding and commission business, April, 1823; George Davis & Co., July, 1823; John Rogers & Co., November, 1823; William Malcolm, 1823; Haskell & Walbridge, saddlers and furnishers, 1824; and in that year J. Vanderheyden, Mead & Davis, A. N. Van Patten, and H. & W. Dowd began business as merchants, with Hiram Judson, jeweller, and H. Hyde & Co., forwarders.

From this time forward, business enterprises of various kinds multiplied rapidly.  Dr. Basset, who succeeded Dr. Ziba Swan, was in the village during the building of the canal and had an enormous practice considering the number of inhabitants, for almost everybody was sick.  He was succeeded by Dr. David Colvin, who was in practice here many years, and by Dr. Jonathan Day, who died with cholera in 1832.  John Wilkinson was practicing law, and Alfred Northam opened an office in 1824, while Harvey Baldwin and Schuyler Strong were added to the number of attorneys in 1826.  The second newspaper, The Syracuse Advertiser, a Jackson organ, was started in 1825.  The first Presbyterian church was organized December 14, 1824, and St. Paul's on the 2d of May, 1826.

The principal factors of this very remarkable and rapid growth were the salt industry, the canal, the spirit of enterprise among the citizens, and, strange as it may seem to-day, the intense and aggressive rivalry that came into existence between Syracuse and Salina, which reached disagreeable if not disgraceful proportions and did not wholly disappear until 1840 or later.  The development of this rivalry was due chiefly to the a class of the inhabitants of Salina who found it impossible to remain silent and inactive while being outstripped by a mushroom rival that was a mere hamlet in a swamp when their own village was a large and prosperous place.  "Salt Pointers" for many years merely smiled with incredulity at intimations that Syracuse would ever become a rival of Salina; but the time came when their scorn changed to fear and jealousy, which were greatly intensified by the opening of the canal.  Salina was incorporated a little earlier than Syracuse (March 12, 1824), a fact which hastened the same action in the younger village.  It should not be understood that jealousy led to any overt acts on the part of the authorities of Salina, or by the better class of its inhabitants, whatever may have been their sentiments.  Such was not the case, except as demonstrated in the very active opposition to the location of the court house in Syracuse (1828-9); but the spirit of antagonism and jealousy was communicated to the younger generation, and particularly to the laboring class who were employed in the salt works and who constituted a numerous element of the population.  These were rough in their habits and unused to the amenities of life, and hence were quite ready to insist that Syracusans had no real right to build up a rival village at their very doors, and should not do it if they could prevent it.  They supported their position with their own crude arguments and often with their fists.  This rough element often visited Syracuse, sometimes led by Dean Richmond, and missed no opportunity for provoking the young men of this place until a conflict would follow, which on some occasions became almost a riot, as we shall see.  This rivalry, as before intimated, became an important factor in the rapid growth of Syracuse.  The population which was about 500 in 1825, reached 6,929 in 1830, while general improvements and infant industries sprang up on every hand.

Some brief notes upon the condition of the village from 1827 to 1830 will be of interest here.  In 1827 there were no blocks (or squares) in the Fourth ward as now bounded; none north of the Walton line; none west of Apple (West) street on the north side of the canal; none south of Fayette street and none east of Mulberry street.  No street north of the canal had been opened or worked, except Salina street and what little had been done on the "Foot Road," (James street) (10).  The only bridge over the canal east of Warren street was at the Lodi Locks.  Major Moses D. Burnet lived in what is now the Century Club house, though it has been slightly changed.  He built first a large frame house on West Genesee street, on the site of the Judge Comstock place.  Nelson Gilbert lived in a small house on the site of the Cathedral parsonage, and on the block between the two canals, John Boyd, a Scotchman, lived a sort of hermit life in a shanty and raised and sold garden truck.  There was a small house near the present corner of McBride and Ash streets, and a few whitewashed shanties along the Oswego Canal north of willow street were called "White Hall."  Peter Wales, the first butcher of the village, lived in a small house just north of the Oswego Canal bridge on the west side of North Salina street.  On the same side of the street, corner of Division, was a tavern kept by Henry Blake, which was called at different times the "Center House," and the "Half Way House."  The Foot Road (now James street) was passable by teams only to Lodi street.  A gulf extended across the road at the site of Gen. D. H. Bruce's residence (James and Highland), cutting off travel.  South of the road and east of Lodi street there was no cleared land, and most of what was cleared in other localities abounded with stumps.  "Robber's Row" in 1827 had become a busy place, owing chiefly to canal traffic.  Columbus C. and David Bradley occupied the basement of Amos P. Granger's building, next to the Salina street bridge, and the next three stores were occupied successively by Thomas and Elisha George, Dexter Pepper, and William K. Blair; Mr. Blair afterwards built a four-story block there.  The site of these buildings is now covered by the Syracuse Savings Bank building.  Farther east were the groceries of Stephen W. Cadwell and Paschal Thurber (the largest in the village), and Deacon Henry Chamberlain.  This latter building is standing now, the front just as Deacon Chamberlain built it.  Still further east Robert I. Brockway had a butcher shop as early as 1830, and was succeeded by Caleb Davis, father of the late chief of police, Thomas Davis.  The north side of Robber's Row was occupied by cheap structures which were built prior to 1824.  Gilbert Fitch lived in the old Greyhound Hotel in 1827, and Thomas Spencer in a small dwelling next west.  The next building was a two-story house occupied by Messrs. Cadwell and Thurber.  Hugh Hancock had a shoe store in a small building on the corner fronting Salina street.

On the Salina street side of this block (82) lived Dr. Colvin, ___ Lewis, a brother-in-law of Sterling Cossitt, and James Sackett (11).  Just north of the corner of Salina and James streets was a plain two-story building with the law office of Thaddeus M. Wood and his son-in-law, Charles A. Baker, on the first floor and John F. Wyman's printing office on the second floor, with the law office of Alfred Northam and Elias W. Leavenworth in rear of it; the latter office remained there until 1828, when they removed to the east wing of the Syracuse House.  All north of that was the property of James Sackett.  The block where stands Andrews Brothers James and Warren street grocery was unoccupied at this time, but the block next on the north was used by Deacon Thomas Spencer for a boat yard and dry dock.  The corner of Willow and North Salina streets was vacant in 1827 and about 100 feet north stood the dwelling of Elisha F. Wallace, father of Judge William J. Wallace.  A little farther north was the house of Rufus Stanton, built in 1808.  The old Mansion house stood on the Empire house corner and was kept in 1825 by O. H. Williston; it was removed in 1844-45 to clear the site for the present structure.  There was no building on this block on Salina street north of the hotel.  A one-story building next west of the Mansion House fronting the "public square," contained three stores, two of which were occupied by Volney Cook & Co., the fashionable dry goods dealers of the village, and by the harness shop of Silas Ames (who came down from the Hill).  Next west of the Mansion House was the wood structures shown in the Townsend block engraving.  The first 33 feet of the brick Marvin block was built by the Syracuse Company and was occupied in part by the lottery office of S. C. Brewster, in which Hiram Deming bought a quarter of the ticket which drew $50,000.  Samuel Copp was Mr. Brewster's manager.  Next was Marvin & Norton's fur store.  That part of the row was built by Asa Marvin, whose partner was Elbert Norton.  Directly after the death of Elbert Norton about 1832, that part of the block was occupied by E. B. Wicks & Co., who removed from the structure adjoining the Mansion House.  Next came Dr. John W. Hanchett's drug store and office, over which he lived about fifteen years.  Next to this was the shoe store of Adonijah Root, father of Mrs. John R. Whitlock.  On the corner was a two-story frame building, part of which was occupied by the Presbyterian society for a session room before they built one.  On the second floor was the dwelling of Mrs. Barlow, mother of Jason, Augustus, John and Benjamin R.  John and Benjamin Barlow were both printers, and Benjamin became superintendent of the Five Points Mission, New York.  Her oldest daughter, Mary, was the first wife of C. T. Longstreet; the second daughter was the second wife of Dr. John C. Hanchett; and the third was the wife of J. P. Ballard.  Next west was the store of B. B. Batchelder and adjoining that the store occupied by Samuel Ketcham, and at one time by Samuel Weaver.

The only dwelling then on North Clinton street was on the southeast corner of Church street and remained there until the county buildings were erected.  Clinton street was then a mere alley and was long known as "Clinton Alley."  East of the house on the corner of Church street was a small dwelling built for the Syracuse Company, (12) occupied in 1827 by Gardner Lawrence.  The remainder of the block was devoted to the stables and grounds of the Mansion House.  In 1825 Andrew N. Van Pattern and John Rogers built on the north side of Church street between Salina and Warren, what was called "the circus house," a large wooden structure in which was a "ring" and rude seats for spectators; various shows were given it.  On the southeast corner of the block (80) surrounded by Church, Clinton and Genesee streets, a Mr. Gates, son-in-law of Sterling Cossitt, kept a tavern in 1827.  Capt. Joel Cody, a popular packet officer between Syracuse and Utica, lived next west, and Matthew W. Davis, son of Matthew L., the early merchant, lived just west of the site of the present First Baptist church.  The next dwelling west was occupied many years by Joseph Slocum, father of the wife of the New York millionaire Russell Sage.  There were a few other unimportant houses on the block.

On the northwest corner of Church and Salina streets was Isaac Stanton's stone-cutting shop; he died in 1832.  The three lots next west of the corner were bought in 1829 successively by B. Davis Noxon, Hiram A. Deming, and Amos P. Granger, who built the brick houses still standing, demolishing or removing small dwellings built by the Syracuse Company.  Three other houses stood west of these lots on that street.  On the southwest corner of Genesee and Clinton streets, Booth & Elliott built in 1824 what became known as "the old saleratus factory" (site of the present Clinton block).  There were three stores on the lower floor, two of which fronted Clinton Square and one on Genesee street.  The two next the canal were occupied by D. & M. Dana, dealers in grain, etc.  L. O. Phinney had the other store.  (Deacon Dana built the first house east of the Baptist church, now standing.)  But when business drifted away from that locality, the building was taken by James Taylor & Co., who manufactured saleratus there.  The building was burned August 23, 1859.  West of this block was in 1827 the Eagle Tavern, kept first by Ezra Rhyne, and later by William A. Robinson, afterwards proprietor of the Onondaga Hotel.  Judge Forman built the next dwelling on the west and the next three were occupied respectively by Pliny Dickinson, Rev. Dr. John W. Adams, and Josiah Wright, now occupied by D. O. Salmon.  Dr. George Hooker lived in 1827 in the house built in 1824 by Henry Gifford, on the corner of Genesee and Franklin streets, which with the residence of William Malcolm, corner of Washington and South Salina streets, were then the finest in the village.  Henry Gifford built and occupied the first house south of Genesee on Franklin street and later erected his handsome residence on the corner of Genesee and North West streets.  On block 85 were three small houses fronting Genesee street, and on the west side of Franklin street was a good house built about the time under consideration by Heman and Chester Walbridge, the successful merchants.  Only a few other small dwellings were on this block.  On block 197 were the saw mill, the oil mill, and a tannery, while on block 66, west of the creek, was a small house nearly on the site of the Allen Munroe residence, occupied first by Henry Young, and where Sterling Cossitt lived many years.  Near the southern corner of block 65 was a large two-story house built by Judge Forman, and occupied in 1827 and later by Major Burnet.  A few poor dwellings stood on West street, occupied at this time by Herman Hyde, William James (miller in Major Burnet's stone mill), and Gilbert Horton, a cooper.  To the westward of this region were the salt fields of the Syracuse and Onondaga Coarse Salt Companies.  Joseph Savage was superintendent for the latter company and lived in a large house on the north side of Genesee street, just east of what is now Leavenworth avenue.  All the land about the head of the lake and south of the road leading from Geddes to Salina and below the bluffs, was uncleared and undrained swamp.

Turning to the territory south of the canal and east of Salina street, it may be stated that between Fayette Park and Chestnut street there were no buildings and no cultivated land.  The forest had been cut away on the north side of the Turnpike, but the stumps were all standing in 1827-8.  South of the Turnpike, the swamp, shrubs and trees were in their primeval condition.  Capt. Oliver Teall had two small saw mills and a grist mill near the Lodi locks.  The streets in the eastern part of the city were the Turnpike, the Jamesville road and Beech  street between the turnpike and the canal.  A little-traveled wood-road ran south from the Turnpike to the Valley about on the line of Renwick avenue.  Yellow Brook ran in Water street from Lodi as far west as Lemon street, where it turned southerly and crossed Genesee street east of Almond, continued on through the swamp to the neighborhood of Harrison street where it turned northwesterly, passed across the site of the Farmer block, crossed Warren street on the site of the Dr. Powers residence, and ran thence northerly, crossing Jefferson street about midway between Salina and Warren streets, and Salina street about 300 feet south of Fayette through a deep depression; thence it turned southwesterly to Onondaga Creek.  There was not a building on the west side of South Salina street south of Yellow Brook, nor on the east side south of the fourth lot south from Fayette street.  When the Syracuse Company purchased the Walton Tract they found this immediate region covered with stumps and underbrush.  Building a farm house south of the corner of Salina and Jefferson streets on the east side, they leased it to Jacob Husenfrats (or Hausenfradt) who contracted to clear their land.  By industry he soon had the tract covered with grain and vegetables.  Olmsted Quick had a boat-house on the Yellow Brook for the craft in which he fished in the brook and the mill pond; he was a shoemaker.  Zophar Adams was making brick in 1824 on the west side of Salina street near the brook.  The section now intersected by West Onondaga street was in 1824-5 mostly a cedar swamp, with some dry places where blackberries grew in luxuriance; it was also a resort for game, and hunting and blackberrying expeditions thither were part of the pleasures of that time.

The block bounded by Salina, Washington, Warren and Fayette streets was vacant in 1824, excepting some large trees.  The First Presbyterian church was built in 1825 on the site of the McCarthy stores.  On the southwest corner of the block surrounded by Salina, Washington, East Genesee and Warren streets, where the telegraph office of the Western Union is now situated, Archy Kasson built a two-story dwelling in 1824; later this was displaced by the Exchange Hotel, long a popular resort and place for holding meetings.  Soon after 1827 a row of one-story offices, their roofs sloping eastward, were built between the hotel and the Syracuse House.  In the east wing of the Syracuse House Col. Elijah Phillips had the stage office, up before which Jason C. Woodruff was wont to drive his four-in-hand stage teams with a grand flourish.  Adjoining the stage office was, in 1827, the law office of Harvey Baldwin and Schuyler Strong, east of which was the drug store and office of Dr. Mather Williams.  (For biographical sketch of Dr. Williams, see Chapter XXVII).  In 1824 a Mr. Waterbury owned a small building on Genesee street adjoining the gateway to the Syracuse House stables, where he kept a little grocery; in that year Joel Owen purchased the property and kept a bowling alley there.  Later he built the present brick block on the site now owned by his son of the same name.  Next east of the Waterbury place, Jabez Hawley had his cabinet shop; he died in 1835.  From this building to Warren street the lots were vacant until after 1827.  On the corner was the blacksmith shop of Henry Van Heusen (and others), brother of S. V. B. Van Heusen who died within the present year (1895).  Mr. Van Heusen at an earlier date had his shop on the southwest corner of Clinton and Genesee streets.  In early years H. W. Durnford owned the two lots south of the corner, and a small house stood on the southeast corner; these were purchased by Samuel Larned who built a plain brick structure where he kept a hotel called the Alhambra; a part of the lower story contained stores.  The hotel was afterwards called the Tremont (kept at one period by Barnet Filkins), and still later the Sherman House.  The building finally burned and the Larned building took its place.

Block 111, bounded by Salina, East Fayette, Warren and Jefferson streets, was nearly vacant until after 1824.  A small house stood on the site of the Washington block near the corner of Salina and East Fayette streets.  Northward of the Hausenfradt dwelling stood the barn of the three-story brick tavern built on the corner by Joel Kinney, where he conducted the American Hotel on temperance principles.  The lots on this corner were sold originally by the Syracuse company--lot number 1 to Archibald Perkins, and it passed through the hands of Henry Perkins, Lewis Averell, and Lewis Kinney; lot number 3 to Amos P. Granger and by him to Lewis Kinney.  On the 1st of April, 1848, the First Presbyterian Society bought the property for $10,000.  Just south of the tavern barn mentioned stood in 1827 two one-story dwellings and south of them a two-story house in which Mrs. Dickinson taught a young ladies' school.  On the site of Francis Hendrick's block Harvey Baldwin erected before 1827 a two-story brick building, and in that vicinity were several of the wood houses built by the Syracuse company.  In 1827 I. De Blois Sherman built south of the corner on Warren street the brick dwelling long occupied by Dr. Lyman Clary, on the site of which is now being erected a brick block by Edward T. Hawkins.  The west side of Warren street was unoccupied except by this house.  The first Episcopal church, finished in 1822, stood on the site of the Granger block; the church is now the old St. Mary's, stand-on the corner of Montgomery and Madison streets.

Block 109, surrounded by Washington, Montgomery, Fayette and Warren streets, contained a number of buildings before 1830.  Col. Elijah Phillips lived in a house built about 1824 by Jonas Mann on the Vanderbilt House corner, which became the historic Cook's Coffee House.  On the Montgomery street corner, site of the Yates, was a dwelling built by A. N. Van Patten just before 1827, which became the L. H. Redfield home.   Next to the Redfield house was the two-story brick house of Capt. Hiram Putnam.  Jason C. Woodruff lived on the Warren street side and had his livery stable in the rear.  These and one other dwelling were all the buildings on the block until later than 1827.  The next block south (112)had only four small houses, all probably built by the Syracuse company, until after 1827.

Samuel Phelps had a blacksmith shop on the site of the Myers block in 1827, aside from which this block (55) and block 122 on which is now the Joy building, were vacant.

In early years the land on which stands the Onondaga Savings Bank was separated from the land east of it (block 94) by an alley which extended back to the canal, the part where the bank stands being numbered 93.  On this part was a brick building which came to a point on the western end, where was Pliny Dickinson's jewelry store; next to that John Van Epps sold dry goods.  In the upper part was printed the first number of the first newspaper in the village in 1823.  To this building was removed the post-office in 1824.  Adjoining the alley was the store of Jonas Mann and Humphrey Mellen, and next to this was Madame Raoul's fancy goods store.  To the eastward as far as Warren street were three-story buildings partly of brick and partly wood, built to project over a passage way along the canal, many of which were used for canal business.  Here Henry Newton had a grocery and Joseph Slocum occupied the two eastern stores.  These buildings were burned in 1834.  East of Warren street on the canal the block was considerably built up between 1824 and 1830.  A three story brick building at the western end was occupied by the storehouse of Jon Rogers and was burned November 18, 1827.  The eastern end was occupied by the building now standing which was erected by William Malcolm for a storehouse.  Between these blocks were a number of cheap wooden buildings.  Just east of this was the canal basin extending south to about the front line of the first City Hall and covering a large part of Montgomery and Market streets in that square. (See map of 1834).

On the site of the Bastable block in 1827 was a small dwelling occupied by a man named Walker.  Daniel Elliott owned the site and afterward built on it a two-story wooden building for stores and offices.  Next east of this was another wooden building erected in 1817, in which a tavern was kept, and adjoining this was the old brick dwelling built by John Rogers in 1825, whose stone steps were a marvel; this was one of the first brick houses in the village and stood in nearly its original form until the erection of the present Bastable block in 1893.  No other buildings were on this square until after 1827.

A Mr. Russell had a small pottery on the block east of Market street, and Nathan Van Benschoten lived in a small dwelling east of the pottery.  He afterwards built the house still standing on the northeast corner of the square and lived and died there.  The blocks on either side of the canal east of Mulberry street (48 and 52) were almost unoccupied until about 1830.  Harmon W. Van Buren lived in a house built by his father, Peter Van Buren, on the east side of Mulberry street and afterwards built his brick residence on the south side of Water street.  His tannery and shoe shop, where he laid the foundation of his fortune, were near by.

Block 56 fronting on Fayette Park was vacant until after 1824 and mostly covered with large trees.  Henry Gifford cut the timber here for his first house.  John Daniels owned the Crouse dwelling corner before 1825, and built a tavern there which he sold to a Mr. Luce.  It was kept by Jared Phelps in 1827 and later was owned and occupied by Judge Sylvanus Tousley; it was demolished when the Crouse residence was built.  What is now the park was bisected by the Turnpike, which ran diagonally across it.  Mulberry street stopped at Genesee, and there was no other house east of Mulberry street in 1827, and no street on which to build, excepting Genesee.

South of the canal and west of Clinton street improvements were limited in character in early years.  In 1824 a foot bridge crossed the canal a little east of the site of the present Clinton street bridge and near its north end Deacon Henry Chamberlain had a small meat market.  On the north side of Water street west of Clinton, Hiram Hyde, son-in-law of Judge Forman, had two storehouses; he died in 1825.  The building was removed about 1830 by Willett and Henry Raynor and the original of the Jerry Rescue Block built on the site.  This was the only building in 1830 on that side of the creek.  Le Grand and William Crofoot made brick about this time on the site of Greenway's malt house.

Block 100, bounded by Salina, Washington, Clinton, and Water streets, was the principal business locality in early years.  The hardware store of Kasson & Heermans was on the Wieting block corner in 1824 and later, and that year their wooden building was replaced with a three-story brick building 70 feet deep on Salina street.  This closed the east windows of William Malcolm's hardware store situated thirty feet west of the corner.  Mr. Malcolm had given offense to Mr. Kasson and the character of the corner structure was in part retaliatory.  Elam Lynds and his son subsequently purchased the corner building and carried on the same business; they were succeeded by Horace and Charles A. Wheaton.  West of Malcolm's store fronting the canal the Syracuse Company built a row of wooden buildings for stores and shops; there were occupied about 1827 by Henry Green, tailor; Ross and Joseph Leslie, Charles Leonard (still living), harness maker; Agnew & Wood, tailors; Jonathan Day, drugs; Hiram Judson, jeweler; and E. T. Tefft, dry goods.  John Durnford taught a select school on the second floor next west of Malcolm's store.  Major Burnet, agent for the company, had his office west of this row, and built another east of it for John G. Forbes, who came down from Salina to practice law.  A wooden two-story house stood until after 1827 west of these buildings, occupied later by Charles Rust, cabinet maker, father of Stiles M. and Spencer Rust.  These last named buildings were on the site of the Townsend block, shown in engraving.   Next south of the Kasson & Heermans building on Salina street was a narrow alley running back behind three of the Water street lots, and adjoining the alley was the shoe store of James Pease; next to that was the cabinet shop of Theodore Ashley, with whom Charles F. Williston learned his trade and was partner some years.  Adjoining the Ashley building was a two-story brick, the side walls of which still stand.  William Malcolm's fine house was on the corner of Washington and Salina streets, and on the southeast corner of the square was the dwelling of Gen. James Mann, whose daughter, Mary, married Capt. (afterward general) R. B. Marcy, whose daughter was the wife of Gen. George B. McClellan.  (Following this paragraph is an engraving whose caption reads:   "Built by Henry Raynor (13), in West Water Street, about 1823.  (Sketched from memory by M. W. Hanchett.)

On block 99, bounded by Clinton, Washington, Water, and Franklin Sts., there were few buildings until abut 1828-30.  Judge Forman's house, which has before been mentioned, was removed westward to allow the opening of South Clinton street; after the judge left the village the house was occupied by Calvin Riley, who had a soap factory on block 91.  The Forman house remained until Jacob Crouse purchased the corner for his block.  The old stone house which stood as a landmark many years was erected very early and in 1827 was occupied by Judge James Webb.  West of this was the two-story brick house, built, owned and occupied by John Wall in 1827 and many later years by Columbus C. Bradley.  The only other building on this block was the brick dwelling built by Daniel Elliott for Dr. Mather Williams.  Block 97 had no improvements until later than 1827 and 98 was used as the burying ground from 1824 to 1841.

Block 107, bounded by Washington, Salina, Fayette, and Clinton streets, now in the business heart of the city, was very little improved until after 1830.  In 1827 John Wilkinson had his little law office on the Globe Hotel corner and just south of it his plain dwelling where he lived many years.  On the next lot south was the house of Thomas B. Heermans.  The next house was occupied by Alanson Edwards, and next west was James Manning's house, occupied later by Vivus W. Smith, John Garrison's two-story tavern was on the corner of Fayette and Salina streets; he purchased the lot in 1824 and for his building cut some pine timber west of Clinton street.  William B. Kirk, the La Fayette wagonmaker, sold him a wagon and at Mr. Garrison's death in 1826, purchased the tavern, partly to collect what was due him.  Thus Mr. Kirk's business career was changed; he took the hotel and made it popular, accumulated wealth, which he early invested in Central Railroad stock and later in real estate, and died in possession of a large fortune.  In 1869 he built the first Kirk block, in which he also kept a hotel (14).  This was removed to make room for the stately building erected by his son, William B. Kirk.  On the northeast corner of the square, in the rear of the Wilkinson house, was the two-story brick house of Dr. Jonathan Day, who in 1832, fell a victim to his unselfish labor among cholera patients.  He was a prominent man outside of his profession, had one of the earliest drug stores on Clinton Square, and his death was a great loss to the community.  These five were all the buildings on this now important block in 1827.

Block 110, next south of the one just described, had only three buildings in 1827.  On the site of the Pike block was a building similar to the Garrison tavern where Clark Hebard kept a public house.  This was soon purchased by Thomas J. Keeler, who greatly improved the property in later years.  Next on the south was a large unpainted building used for tenements, and just south of this and near Yellow Brook was a brick structure used for a tobacco factory.

In describing the western section of the city's site General Leavenworth wrote as follows:

  The woods on that portion lying west of the creek were of course the second growth, principally oak and hickory, interspersed with some hemlock.  Near the junction of the Cinder Road and Furnace street and north of the Cinder Road, there were many acres of land with very little wood growing on it.  This ground was cleared in 1827-8 and a race course made there.  The bridge across the creek on the Cinder Road was known as the high bridge, as it was quite high above the water, and also in contradistinction to the bridge on Water street, which was very low.  At the west end of the high bridge, on the north side of the road, lived Zophar Adams; he had a brickyard between his home and the creek.  He did much of the early village jobbing, and made Warren street from Jefferson street to Billings Park.  His was the only house west of the creek.

The first house built on the Cinder Road was by George T. M. Davis in 1829, which stood on two acres of land at the corner of Onondaga street and South avenue.  This old house now forms part of a dwelling on South avenue.  Mr. Davis married a daughter of Judge Forman in 1828.  Major Burnet's stone flouring mill stood on the site of the Amos mills, and was burned.  Water street extended across the creek but only to this mill.  Washington and Fayette streets terminated at Clinton street, and the latter extended from Clinton square to the Yellow Brook and was very little used.  Salina street terminated on the south at what is now Cortland avenue, the latter forming a part of the highway to the Valley.  The Cinder Road stopped on its eastern end at South Salina street and it was not until several years alter that East Onondaga street (as now named) was opened.  Many of these and other details are shown on the two old maps, and the course of the creek is indicated as it existed before the improvements of 1838-9.

The Yellow Brook was partly filled up in the summer of 1827 and Washington street was extended eastward.  Calvin Mitchell was paid $49.46 for making 83 roads and 7 links of road in Clinton street," and $200 were expended for "improvements on the south side of the canal, from the stone bridge to the engine house."  The dry dock and canal at James street were bridged about this time at a cost of $225.  In 1828 notices were posted in the village to the following effect:

  For the purpose of improving the road on Foot street and for the purpose of doing it with the best economy, any person needing earth for filling up lots or other purposes, may take it from Foot street hill, provided it be done in such a manner as to leave the road bed level, and in all cases to be taken between the stakes on each side of the road.

West street (Apple) was extended northward from the stone mill in 1828.

A census of the population of the village taken in 1829 gave the number as 2,565.  It was this year that saw the close of the bitter strife for the location of the county buildings, and although Salina won a partial victory by their erection midway between the two villages, Syracuse was not wholly disappointed; the removal from the Hill had been accomplished and the citizens of the young village bided their time.  Down to this time, very little sidewalk had been laid and what there was poor in character.  In August, 1830, the following ordinance was published:

  The Trustees of the village deem it necessary to order sidewalks on the several streets hereinafter specified, viz.:"  On Salina street from the Yellow brook (between Fayette and Jefferson streets) to the canal.  From the north side of Salina street to the side cut (Oswego canal): from that point on the east side of the street to the court House.  Also, from the bridge at the red mill, on Genesee street to Montgomery street, and from that point along the south side of Genesee street to Center Square (Fayette Park) and on all sides of the public square.  All of the above ordered walks must be so laid as to leave six feet for cellar ways.

In those times the sidewalks were laid of brick 4 by 8 or 8 by 8 inches in size.  From the newspapers of 1829-30 are gathered the following items that will aid in completing the description of the village at that date:

  A. Abbott and S. F. Myers had in a "new supply of medicines, paints and dyestuffs;" they were located in the east wing of the Syracuse House.  Samuel Goodwin's stock of goods in the store "in the brick block east of C. Walbridge & Co., on the south side of the canal," comprises "dry goods, hardware, cutlery, nails, groceries, cognac brandy, Holland gin, St. Croix rum, cannister powder, shot," etc.  At this time Chester and Heman Walbridge had a factory for the manufacture of chairs and other furniture near the canal locks not far from the present crossing of Mulberry street.  This was burned a few years later and was not rebuilt.  Bradley and Josiah Wright were in the "west store in the brick building erected by W. & H. Raynor, on the bank of the canal, near the wooden bridge in the western part of the village of Syracuse," where they offered Spanish hides, sole, upper and harness leather; also an assortment of choice groceries, storage and forwarding.  Johnson & Huntley were merchant tailors in the "east wing of Amos P. Granger's building," on the canal, where "garments were made with precision, and ready-made clothing sold," probably the first goods of this kind in the village.  Marvin Devoe & Co,. had taken the store recently occupied by C. Walbridge & Co., where they had a general store.  Volney Cook advertised carpeting, paper hangings and looking glasses.  His store was just west of the Mansion House.  Kellogg & Fitch announced that they had just returned from New York "with a good assortment of dry goods."  Dr. Jonathan Day says he "keeps his office in his drug store, sign of the mortar and pestle, where all calls in the way of his profession will be thankfully received and punctually attended to."  His store was then in the Syracuse House block.  E. Brewster wanted 30,000 sheep and lamb skins, delivered at "Chauncey Woodruff's market in the west part of Syracuse."  Woodruff was located on West Water St.  Henry Judson had "just received from New York military goods, watches, brittannia ware, musical instruments," etc.; his store was on Water street near Clinton.  D. & M. Dana would "pay cash for wheat," and sold flour, dye woods, Shaker brooms, Nova Scotia grindstones," etc., in the "Yellow Building."  They had also on hand a "few barrels of superior whisky."  John Rogers, that excellent citizen, had just "removed to the brick building formerly occupied by David Griffith & Co.," where he carried on storage and forwarding, and also had a stock of shoes to sell at wholesale.  This building was on the corner of Warren and East Water streets.  Newton & Humphreys had received on consignment 200 fancy chairs.  They soon removed "to the store lately occupied by Ambrose Kasson, opposite Clinton Row."  G. T. N. Davis would pay cash for rags, and offered 500 miner's pails, from the Waterloo pail factory, and paper of all kinds.  His store was in the Yellow Building.  Henry Van Heusen and Peter Moshell had entered into partnership as blacksmiths on the corner of Warren and Genesee streets, where the former had long had his shop.  James Pease, "one door south of A. Kasson's hardware store," Salina street, advertised boots and shoes.  Mr. Pease came from Lysander, where he cut timber on his father's farm, drew it to Baldwinsville, had it sawed and framed and soon after 1820 floated it on a scow via the new waterway and the Seneca River to the lake, and thence to Syracuse, and built his store.  It stood on the site afterwards occupied by the Mechanics' Bank building and now by part of the Wieting block.  A. S. Tilden had just opened a saddlery and harness shop "one door west of Williston's Mansion House."  Pliny Dickinson had his jewelry store "opposite the Syracuse House," on the north side of Genesee street, and about this time Elam Lynds and son purchased the hardware business of a. Kasson.  Dr. R. Belden, one of the earliest dentists in the village, had his rooms at "O. B. Teall's Onondaga House," or he would "be happy to wait on them (his patrons) at their homes."  Perhaps the quaintest advertisement of those days was that of Samuel Larned and one that announced the business that laid the foundation of a liberal fortune.  He said:  "The Boat Vendor, or Floating Store, owned by Mr. John Converse of the city of Troy, is now lying at the village of Syracuse, opposite Brockway's Mansion House."  Then followed a long list of groceries offered for sale, and the important statement that "all liquors are warranted of the purest quality."  Mr. Larned commanded this floating store with great success and became a strong rival of the local grocers.  Jason C. Woodruff carried on his livery at the old stand on Warren street, and announced that he would continue to run a daily line of stages to Homer.  E. W. Leavenworth was rapidly winning the fame that increased in after years, by arduous law work in his office in the east wing of the Syracuse House.  H. Winchester announced that he had removed "from the select schoolroom lately occupied by Mr. Walker to Masonic Hall, east of the Mansion House."  The "Syracuse School" was announced to open on December 10, 1829, under the general superintendence of Rev. G. S. Olds.  Jonathan Day and Henry Newton were the trustees.  H. Bennet had a lottery office in the village, and S. C. Brewster announced that on January 7, 1829, he would open a second one "in the first brick building west of the Mansion House."  A new daily line of post coaches had recently been established between the village and Watertown.  Reuben West and son carried on a general store and Ambrose Dunbar was the village barber.

The volume of business transacted in Syracuse and Salina at this time was larger than would be indicated by the same number of merchants in other places, owing to the large operations in salt manufacture and sale.  This industry formed the sound and active substratum of business, gave the community a source of income that was unfailing and inspired the highest confidence in the future.  Consequent upon the increasing business of the village banking facilities were needed, to meet which requirement the Onondaga County Bank was established and incorporated by the legislature under date of April 26, 1830, and the organization was perfected on the 13th of June.

No apology is necessary for devoting so much space to the foregoing detailed account of the conditions in the village in 1825-1830.  That period was a most important one; the population was increasing rapidly and included, as has been shown, many men of energy and high character, who devoted their zealous efforts to the development of the varied interests of the recently formed corporation, as well as to the advancement of their own fortunes; it was a period of activity in public affairs and public improvements, and the manufacturing and trade industries of the village were multiplying rapidly.  While it will be impossible to give such minute particulars of the village or city at any later period of its history, the reader, by comparing the foregoing with what follows, will be able to note the general progress of the place and arrive at a correct estimate of what has been accomplished in the sixty-five years that have since elapsed.

The names and occupation of some of the early leading men of the village have been given in preceding pages, to which may be added a few others who became residents prior to 1830 and were prominently identified with the growth of the place.

Among these was Henry Gifford, one of the very early settlers and one of the first to engage in the coarse salt industry.  He became a large holder of real estate and built may houses in the Fifth ward.  He was vice-president of the Syracuse Savings Bank, a trustee of the Water company and a man of high character.  He died June 20, 1872.

Christopher C. Bradley, who removed to Syracuse from Groton, N. Y., about 1822, and was for many years at the head of the leading foundry of the village, founded in 1832 on Water street and removed later to the Fifth ward.  He was active in promoting the growth of the place and died January 3, 1872.

E. B. Wicks located in Syracuse in 1828 and engaged in the hat and fur business and later was engaged in banking, and was a member of the leather firm of Ellis, Wicks & Co.  He was trustee of the village in 1833 and treasurer in 1837-8-9.

William Winton settled in Syracuse about 1826 and was for many years landlord of the old Exchange Hotel, on the northeast corner of South Salina and Washington streets, and later of the Globe Hotel; he was also engaged in the salt industry.  He was a trustee of the Onondaga County Savings Bank, and was elected mayor in 1868.  He died on the 18th of March, 1871.

John W. Hanchett, a prominent physician, came from Suffield, Conn., to Onondaga Valley in 1824; he removed to Syracuse in 1826, where he was engaged in the practice of his profession and as druggist.  He and his wife were of the twenty-six persons who organized the First Presbyterian church of Syracuse.  He died October 17, 1844.

Elias W. Leavenworth came to Syracuse in 1827 and began a long and honorable career; a proper biography appears in another place in this work.  He was conspicuous in all public affairs, a firm believer in the future of Syracuse from the first, and lived to be highly honored by his fellow citizens.

Cornelius T. Longstreet had come down from the Hill with may other enterprising men, to carry on a merchant tailoring business, first in Geddes and in 1830 in Syracuse, where he was associated with Henry Agnew, and the firm became the leading one in the business in this section.  From 1846 to 1852 he was in wholesale trade in New York city and amassed a fortune.  He was conspicuous in aiding benevolent institutions, was connected with the banking interests of the place, and lived a life of exemplary usefulness.  His death took place July 4, 1881.

Harmon W. Van Buren had established his tannery in Water street near Grape in 1825, where he carried on business until 1858, and then removed to about the site of the Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg freight house.  He also opened a leather store on Hanover Square which was conducted till his death in 1887.  Mr. Van Buren was zealous for the welfare of Syracuse and was treasurer of the village in 1840-41, trustee in 1829, and treasurer of the city in 1849.

Elisha F. Wallace, father of Judge William J. Wallace, settled in Syracuse in 1825 to practice law, but it was distasteful to him and he became a large salt manufacturer.  He held numerous local positions and was consul to Cuba from 1861 eight years.  He died on the 15th of August, 1870.

William H. Alexander, a native of Massachusetts, located in Syracuse in 1828; became one of the pioneers in the foundry business; was trustee of the village in 1837, and one of the first board of aldermen of the city.  He died on August 20, 1863.

Capt. Hiram Putnam came to Syracuse in 1829 and was a prominent and estimable citizen; was trustee of the village in 1832 and 1841; assessor in 1834 and 1836; was in partnership with T. B. Fitch in the drug business, and was officially connected with the banks of the place.  He died November 8, 1874.

Jacob S. Smith settled in the village in 1825 and began a long and successful business career.  Associated between 1830 and 1840 with Levi Chapman in the dry goods business, he later was a partner of H. W. Van Buren in the leather trade.  He was a member of the Board of education and otherwise received evidence of the confidence of his fellow citizens.  He died June 20, 1881.

Others who had taken up their residence in Syracuse in or before the year 1830 were Henry Shattuck, who came in 1826 from Pompey; he was a large real estate owner; was constable, deputy sheriff and deputy United States marshal, and died April 28, 1881.  Richard Savage, born in Syracuse in 1817, a large lumber dealer; built the St. Charles Hotel (now the Remington block), and died April 11, 1885.  Dudley P. Phelps, who entered the office of Dr. Jonathan Day in 1829, and afterwards studied law with Wilkinson & Outwater; was afterwards ticket agent for different railroads and later treasurer of the Onondaga County Savings Bank and the Trust and Deposit Company; was county treasurer in 1864-66, and a member of the Board of Education.  T. B. Fitch, who became a resident in 1830 and with Capt. Hiram Putnam conducted the "Green Drug Store" on the north side of Hanover Square; afterwards was instrumental in organizing the Mechanics' Bank, of which he was cashier; was a founder and trustee of the Syracuse Savings Bank and identified with many of the public and benevolent institutions of the city.  He died August 27, 1879.

The following is a list of residents of the city of Syracuse who located here prior to 1826, when the original village was organized, or who came here about that time.  It embraces principal citizens of that time, and doubtless there are others who should have a place in it:

  1792--Henry Young.  1798--Ezekiel Austin.  1805--Rufus Stanton.  1816--Albert Congdon.  1817--L. Crofoots.  1818--Christopher Hyde.  1819--Joshua Forman, Owen Forman, John Wilkinson, Thomas Spencer.  1820--Joel Cody.  1821--Amos P. Granger.  1822--Stephen Smith.  1823--John Durnford, Henry W. Durnford.  1824--Adonijah Root, Elihu Walter, Moses D. Burnet, Samuel Phelps, Hiram Judson, Joseph Savage, John H. Lathrop, Mather Williams, Henry Church, Milton Gilbert, Lucius A. Cheney, Timothy C. Cheney, Samuel Hurst, Archibald L. Fellows, William Sharp.  1825--E. F. Wallace, Ezra Town, Thomas Bennett, Isaac D. Lawson, Waranus Pratt, H. W. Van Buren, Samuel Mead, Bradley Carey, Barent Filkins, Russell Hibbard, Erastus Whiston, William K. Blair, Theodore Ashley, Jabez Hawley, Pliny Dickinson.  1826--M. M. White, R. R. Phelps, H. S. Green, A. A. Hudson, Dr. John W. Hanchett, John C. Hanchett, Willett and Henry Raynor, Isaak Wales.  1829--Lewis H. Redfield,  B. Davis Noxon.

During a few years after about 1820 the square surrounded by South Salina, Fayette, Washington and Warren streets was destitute of buildings, excepting the First Presbyterian church and some barns for the use of the stage lines.  The square was used as a short of "village green" and there the traveling caravans pitched their tents and exhibited the solitary elephant, with sometimes a lion, and boys played their games.  On the southwest corner of Warren and East Genesee streets in early days was a drug store which was something of a headquarters for the discussion of current topics.  On one occasion when several citizens were gathered there to settle the fate of the nation, a deer bounded directly through the glass of one of the front windows and into their midst.  The animal came from the east through Genesee street.  It is not too much to say that the little assemblage were surprised.  At about the same time a bear was killed in South Salina street.

The block where now stands the Durston Memorial Building (Warren and James streets) was owned in 1820 by Daniel Kellogg, William H. Sabine, and Joshua Forman, who contracted with Thomas Spencer and David Johnson to build a boat-house and dry dock there, which have been previously mentioned.  The property passed to the Syracuse Company in 1824, who sold it to Mr. Spencer in 1828.  A document still in existence possesses historical interest in this connection; it is an agreement dated February 27, 1834, under which Maria Durston, of the town of Salina, indentured her son, John Durston, to Thomas Spencer, as an apprentice at boat-building, John Durston being then seventeen years old.  The agreement provided that Spencer should furnish "the said John good and sufficient meat, drink, washing and lodging, and also pay for his services at the rate of $75 for the first year."  The wages were gradually increased so that when the young man reached his majority he was to receive $200 a year.  The young boat-builder prospered and in 1843 purchased the property of Mr. Spencer, and it has ever since remained in the family.

In 1827 the trustees of the village appointed a "Protection Company" of twelve reliable citizens, whose duty was "to protect such goods as much of necessity be removed at a fire, and to direct the packing of the same."  Each member of the company was ordered to carry "a good and sufficient bag to all fires for the more safety of packing and removing goods."  it was also ordered that "the trustees shall each carry a staff at fires, such as shall be designated as insignia of office of fire wardens, for the purpose of compelling such (persons) as are unwilling to render due assistance in all cases at fires."

The political campaign of 1828, which resulted in the election of General Jackson to the presidency, was an important one and created considerable excitement in Syracuse; so much so that the event was celebrated by a "grand military ball" at the Syracuse House.  The event was in charge of A. N. Van Patten.  In the middle of the ballroom was placed a hickory tree, with artificial leaves and living squirrels in the branches.  The room was profusely decorated and six of the steel engravings that hung on the walls are still in the possession of William Kirkpatrick, of Syracuse.  The late Elisha Ford was present at the ball and was probably at his death the only person living who attended.

The late Bradley Carey's reminiscences of the period under consideration are interesting.  He said:

  "When I came to Syracuse in 1825 I was nearly twenty-one years of age.  The village then contained 800 to 900 inhabitants, for the most part north of and near the Erie Canal.  The old Mansion Tavern stood where the Empire House does now.  The salt men were just beginning to make salt by the solar process, and were building works south of West Genesee street.  Two years before I came here to live, or in 1823, I recollect attending a show in the hall of the Mansion Tavern.  Samuel Larned carried his show about on a canal boat, exhibiting at the towns along the canal.  I remember it consisted of wax figures, two of which were Lady Jane Gray and Mary, Queen of Scots.  We thought it was a great show in those days.  The greatest excitement we had in those days was town meeting.  The nearest polling place was at Salt Point, or Salina.  As town meeting came in the spring of the year we often had to go in sleighs over a very rough and much drifted road.  I remember one election, the first time Jackson ran for the presidency.  Excitement ran high.  There were two or three feet of snow in the road.  Both parties had sleighs carrying people to the polls, and as the road had only a single track, a trip to Salt Point was pretty rough.  When I came to Syracuse the only church in the village which was finished and occupied was the Baptist church, which stood where the First Universalist church stands.  In 1825 the First Presbyterian and the First Methodist churches were being built."


1.  While the subject of this land sale was under discussion, certain persons at Onondaga Hollow and at Salina denied the possibility of a water power, and so influenced the surveyor-general that he put a spirit level into his gig and came out from Albany expressly to examine the premises.  He, assisted by Mr. Geddes, took a level of the creek and found the power even better than had been represented, as made by the imperfect instrument.  Mr. Geddes had used in taking the first level--Clark's Onondaga, vol. II, p. 85.
2.  John Randel, jr., made the early maps not only in this immediate vicinity, but in Oswego and at other points in Central New York.  He possessed great professional ability, and his maps are prized for their accuracy.  He was a resident of Albany.  Before beginning a piece of work it was his custom to require his assistants to take an oath which read as follows:  "We, the subscribers, do severally swear that we will faithfully execute the trust reposed in us by John Randel, jr., as assistants.  So help us God."  Randel established the monuments in the Salina salt district in 1821.
3.  In early years the demand for salt barrels was immense, considering the existing facilities for their manufacture.  Through the northern part of Onondaga and the southern towns of Oswego county, an army of coopers were kept busy in this business as long as the requisite timber lasted.  Cooper shops in and around Salina were numerous, and the location of a number of them along this street gave it its name.
4.  Mr. Cheney wrote a few years later than Mr. Clark, and was not a practiced investigator; but he was a builder, a man of observation, and moreover boarded for a time in the hotel with his father.  His statement would, therefore, seem to be authoritative.
5.  This street has been encroached upon on the west side between Onondaga and Adams street in a manner that has called forth the condemnation of many good citizens.  M. C. Hand, who owned property on the east side of the street, was one of the most determined opponents of this encroachment, and made the most thorough investigation to prove that the street was originally laid out six rods wide.  The result of these investigations he has printed in detail in his volume, "From a Forest to a City," page 95, etc.  It is sufficient for our present purpose to state that, in spite of all opposition, embodying applications to the Common Council and other legitimate efforts to accomplish the object, the owners of the lots on the west side of the street in that locality crowded their sidewalks, trees and buildings eastward, cutting down the width of the street several feet and forever destroying its beauty and much of its usefulness.
6.  The Salina route for the canal would undoubtedly have been a good and natural one, the course being from a few miles east of the present city, northwestward behind the high grounds of the second and third wars, to Salina, and thence on westward.  The Hon. Thomas G. Alvord believes that it was the general expression, even by opponents of the project, that if we were to have a canal at all, it ought to pass through Salina; but the prominent people of the place at that time put no faith in either the practicability or desirability of the undertaking--and lost it.
7.  Following is a copy of the deed under which the transfer to Kellogg & Sabine was made.  It is recorded in Book V, p. 310, in the county clerk's office:

Jonas Earll, jr., Sheriff of Onondaga County to Daniel Kellogg and William H. Sabine.
DEED Dated October 26, 1818.  Consideration $10,915.00.
By virtue of a writ of fieri facias, issued out of the Supreme Court of the State of New York, against the lands of Joshua Forman, Ebenezer Wilson Junior and John B. Creed.  He sold at public auction to the highest bidder, a large quantity of land in the town of Onondaga, on lots 74-75-88-89-90-91-106 and 107.  "Also all that tract or parcel of land, granted by the people of the State of New York, by Letters Patent to Abraham M. Walton, dated the first of January, 1807, for two hundred and fifty acres, lying and being in the town of Salina, in the County aforesaid, at the place commonly called the four corners, saving and excepting thereout, one small lot of one half of an acre of land, and also two small lots, of one quarter of an acre each, and heretofore conveyed to Henry Bogardus, Ziba Swan, and one Van Tassel, etc."
8.  Oliver Teall was born August 5, 1788, in Killingworth, Conn., and was a son of Dr. Timothy Teall, who settled with his family in Manlius at an early day.  Working on a farm until he was about eighteen years old, he afterward engaged in making lime, the tanning business and shoemaking, iron smithing, etc.  He was lieutenant of a company in 1812, and marched to Oswego, gaining his well known title.  In 1818 he took a large contract on the middle section of the Erie Canal, and after he took up his residence in Syracuse, constructed the first water works, operated mills, dealt largely in real estate, was appointed superintendent of the canal, and actively supported the public institutions of Syracuse.  His wife was Catharine Walter, of Manlius, who died September 30, 1836.  Mr. Teall died August 15, 1857.  He was father of William W. Teall.
9.  In reminiscences of 1835, written by E. W. Leavenworth, he thus speaks of some of the streets in the Fourth ward:  "On the north side of James street all the land was in woods, except a narrow strip on each side of North Salina street, north of the bridge.  Block No. 35 was then higher than any part of it now is; it was a solid bed of pure gravel.  Between this block and Willow street there was a perennial frog pond, which was grown up to alders and other bushes, and was full of old rotted logs.  It was extended south to about the middle of the Foot street.  No attempt was made to drain this until Mr. Forbes built his house, when he induced the trustees of the village to put an eight-inch wooden pipe across James street not far from the east line of Townsend street.  When the lot owners graded James street in 1833-4 they cut through the bed of gravel crossing the street at Lock street, using the gravel in the work, and must have filled the frog pond six or eight feet nearly its entire length.
10.  When the Syracuse Company laid out what is now the Fourth ward and that vicinity, they gave their own names to several of the streets, as McBride, Townsend, James, while Burnet and Hawley streets were named from Major Burnet and Gideon Hawley, agents of the company.
11.  Mr. Sackett was a very peculiar and eccentric bachelor.  His tastes in dress were very singular, and he often wore a frock coat reaching nearly to his heels, a wide-brimmed hat with a veil over his face; he usually traveled about in a dilapidated sulky with a top patched up in varied colors.  When he was on foot he carried a large umbrella with a white patch on top.  When he was ready to build on his property he contracted for a house 22 x 40 feet in size.  As the contractor did not come and build as agreed, Sackett bargained with another man to do the same work and the structure was immediately erected.  Before it was finished the first contractor came with timbers, etc., for the performance of his contract.  Although Mr. Sackett was not bound to fulfill his agreement with this man, he said to him, "Here, put it up at the end of this one."  Of course he then had a house 22 x 80 feet.  With all his peculiarities he was a well-disposed person, correct and prompt in business matters.  At his death his estate was worth $150,000.  A part of his estate was land embracing and surrounding the site of the Cathedral.  This land, or part of it, was covered with a pleasant grove the possession of which greatly delighted Mr. Sackett.  One morning he arose to find nothing left of it but the stumps of the trees which had been neatly sawed off and marked with white chalk.  The afflicted owner made desperate efforts to learn who among his enemies did the deed but he never succeeded.
12.  The Syracuse Company erected many houses and nearly all were uniform in size and a story and a half high.  A few of these are still left in the city, two of them on South Warren street opposite Billings Park.
13.  Henry Raynor was born in Schagticoke, N. Y., August 7, 1799, and went to Oswego county, whence he removed to Onondaga Valley in 1822 and carried on business with his elder brother Willett.  In 1826 they settled in Syracuse and long formed the successful firm of W. & H. Raynor.  Henry built stores on the site of the Jerry Rescue block, and a block of dwellings (shown in engraving) on the oppose site of W. Water street which were recently demolished.  He was prominent in Whig politics, a bosom friend of Wm. H. Seward and chiefly instrumental in pushing forward that eminent statesman.  Mr. Raynor died March 7, 1866.
14.  Daniel Candee is authority for the statement than when Mr. Kirk came to Syracuse his desire was to buy a hotel then situated on the site of the Kearney brewery in the First ward.  But the price of the property was $4,000, which was $1,000 more than he possessed; so he contented himself with the purchase of the Garrison tavern, for which he paid $2,700.  He never claimed that this purchase was the result of foresight as to its subsequent value, but he was driven to buy it because he could not get the place he wanted.

Submitted 3 September 1999