HISTORY OF

SARATOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK.

by NATHANIEL BARTLETT SYLVESTER

1878

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CHAPTER XXIII.

SARATOGA COUNTY IN THE GREAT REBELLION OF 1861.

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The citizens of the county of Saratoga are justly proud of her brilliant record in the great southern Rebellion. In the following pages we give two separate accounts of the doings of the 77th Regiment of New York Volunteers, and one account of the 30th Regiment of New York Volunteers. The first account of the 77th has been kindly written for this work by General French, and the reader will find it a highly interesting and exhaustive article. The second account of the 77th Regiment has been kindly furnished by a prominent officer connected with the regiment, and although it duplicates some matters touched in the first account, it is so interesting that it is given entire. The account of the 30th has been written by Col. Searing, and will be perused with equal interest.

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I. - THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH REGIMENT NEW YORK STATE VOLUNTEERS.

The 77th Regiment New York State Volunteers, also called "The Bemus Heights Battalion," was organized in and largely recruited from Saratoga County. Three of its companies had their skeleton organizations outside of the county, - one in Westport, and one in Keeseville, in Essex county, and one in Gloversville, Fulton county. On the 21st day of August, 1861, Hon. James B. McKean, of Saratoga Springs, then being in Congress as a representative from the Fifteenth (now Twentieth) district, issued the following circular letter to his constituents:

"FELLOW-CITIZENS OF THE FIFTEENTH CONGRESSIONAL DISTRICT, - Traitors in arms seek to overthrow our constitution and to seize our capitol. Let us go and help to defend them. Who will despond because we lost the battle of Bull Run? Our fathers lost the battle at Bunker Hill, but it taught them how to gain the victory at Bemus Heights.

"Let us learn wisdom from disaster, and send overwhelming numbers into the field. Let farmers, mechanics, merchants, and all classes - for the liberties of all are at stake - aid in organizing companies.

"I will cheerfully assist in procuring the necessary papers. Do not misunderstand me. I am not asking for an office at your hands. If you who have most at stake will go, I will willingly go with you as a private soldier.

"Let us organize a Bemus Heights Battalion, and vie with each other in serving our country, thus showing we are inspired by the holy memories of the Revolutionary battle-fields upon and near which we are living.

"JAS. B. McKEAN.

"SARATOGA SPRINGS, Aug. 21, 1861."

This call met with a prompt and patriotic response from every town in the county, and from other parts of the congressional district. Company organizations and recruiting stations were established in various localities. Everywhere, indeed, the fife and drum could be heard calling to arms, and enthusiastic young men went from place to place bearing the stars and stripes, and urging their fellows to enlist for the war.

Orders were at once issued from the adjutant-general's office at Albany, establishing a branch depot and recruiting-station at Saratoga Spring, and directing all companies organizing for the regiment to assemble there preparatory to being mustered into the United States service.

The county fair-grounds lying a little east of the village of Saratoga Springs were chosen and very soon put in readiness for the reception of the recruits. This rendezvous was called "Camp Schuyler," and before the 1st of October seven companies, containing over six hundred men, had enlisted, marched into its inclosure, and chosen their company officers, as follows:

Saratoga Company. - Captain, B.F. Judson; first lieutenant, L.M. Wheeler.

Ballston Company. - Captain, C.C. Hill; first lieutenant: N.P. Hammond.

Wilton Company. - Captain, W.B. French; first lieutenant, John Carr.

Northumberland Company. - Captain, Calvin Rice; first lieutenant, James Terhune.

Greenfield Company. - Captain, Lewis Wood; first lieutenant, William R. Carpenter.

Charlton Company. - Captain, A.F. Beach; first lieutenant, N.H. Brown.

Westport Company. - Captain, R.W. Arnold; first lieutenant, William Douglas.

Then came the Waterford company, Jesse White commanding; the Stillwater and Half-Moon company, J.C. Green commanding; the Clifton Park company, J.B. Andrews commanding; and the Edinburgh and Providence company, J.J. Cameron commanding; all of which organizations were soon after consolidated into one company, with J.B. Andrews as captain, Jesse White as first lieutenant, and John J. Cameron as second lieutenant, Mr. Green retiring on account of ill health.

The Keeseville company soon after arrived, Wendell Lansing commanding; also a company from Greenwich, Washington county, Henry R. Stone commanding; both of which were subsequently consolidated, and chose Wendell Lansing captain, and Jacob F. Haywood first lieutenant. Gloversville sent a full company, commanded by N.S. Babcock, which was the last, and completed the ten company organizations of the regiment.

Here at "Camp Schuyler" the soldiers had their first experience of army life. They were fed by R.H. McMichael, one of the proprietors of Congress Hail, and soon became accustomed to the tin-plate and pint cup, roll-call, reveille, and tattoo. They were instructed in the school of the soldier and guard and camp duty.

The officers, for a while, shared the quarters of their comrades, but afterwards procured accommodations at Congress Hall, and there remained, studying military tactics, and receiving instruction in the manual of arms, sword practice, and army regulations, until the regiment moved to the front. Recruits were added daily, and the company officers directed all their energies in obtaining sufficient men to enable them to choose second lieutenants and noncommissioned officers, and thus complete the company organization.

Some changes were made in company officers already chosen. Winsor B. French, who had been elected captain of the Wilton company, and held the rank of fourth captain, at the request of the colonel, resigned and accepted the appointment of adjutant with the rank of first lieutenant. Wendell Lansing resigned the captaincy of the Keeseville company on account of age and ill health, and Franklin Norton, of Greenwich, was elected in his place. James Terhune also resigned the first lieutenancy of the Northumberland company, George S. Orr being chosen in his place. At length all the companies, having obtained the requisite number of enlisted men, elected their second lieutenants and completed their organization. The captains then drew by lot their places and rank in the line, as follows: A being first; B, second, etc.

Company A. - Read W. Arnold, captain; William Douglas, first lieutenant; James H. Farnsworth, second lieutenant, - Westport, Essex Co.

Company B. - Clement C. Hill, captain; Noble P. Hammond, first lieutenant; Stephen S. Horton, second lieutenant, - Ballston Spa, Saratoga Co.

Company C. - Benjamin F. Judson, captain; Luther M. Wheeler, first lieutenant; John Patterson, second lieutenant, - Saratoga Springs, Saratoga Co.

Company D. - John Carr, captain; Winsor B. French, adjutant and first lieutenant; Chester H. Fodow, second lieutenant, - Wilton, Saratoga Co.

Company E. - Lewis Wood, captain, Greenfield, Saratoga Co.; William B. Carpenter, first lieutenant, Providence, Saratoga Co.; Halsey Bowe, second lieutenant, Saratoga, Saratoga Co.

Company F. - Judson B. Andrews, captain, Mechanicville, Saratoga Co.; Jesse White, first lieutenant, Waterford, Saratoga Co.; John J. Cameron, second lieutenant, Saratoga, Saratoga Co.

Company G. - Calvin Rice, captain, George S. Orr, first lieutonant, - Gansevoort, Saratoga Co. Lucius E. Shurtleff, second lieutenant and quartermaster, Galway, Saratoga Co.

Company H. - Albert F. Beach, captain; N. Hollister Brown, first lieutenant, Charlton, Saratoga Co. George D. Story, second lieutenant, Malta, Saratoga Co.

Company I. - Franklin Norton, captain, Greenwich, Washington Co.; Jacob F. Haywood, first lieutenant; Martin Lennon, second lieutenant, - Keeseville, Essex Co.

Company K. -Nathan S. Babcock, captain; John W. McGregor, first lieutenant; Philander A. Cobb, second lieutenant, - Gloversville, Fulton Co.

Field and staff officers were then appointed as follows:

Colonel. - James B. McKean, Saratoga Springs.

Lieutenant-Colonel. - Joseph C. Henderson, Albany.

Major. - Selden Hetzel, Albany.

Surgeon. - John L. Perry, M.D., Saratoga Springs.

Assistant Surgeon. - George T. Stevens, M.D., Westport.

Chaplain. - David Tully, Ballston Spa.

Adjutant. - Winsor B. French, Wilton.

Quartermaster. - Lucius E. Shurtleff, Galway.

All of which officers were duly commissioned by the governor of the State of New York, and on the 23d day of November, 1861, with the enlisted men, mustered and sworn into the United States service "for the term of the war unless sooner discharged," and on the 28th day of November marched out of camp and started for Washington, D.C. They numbered as follows:

 

 

Officers.

Men.

Total.

Field and Staff.

 

 

8

Company A

3

84

87

B

3

91

94

C

3

78

81

D

3

80

83

E

3

80

83

F

3

82

85

G

3

83

88

H

3

80

83

I

3

79

82

K

3

87

90

In all

 

 

864

 

A few men of each company were left behind on account of absence and sickness, and joined the regiment afterwards, First Lieutenant N.P. Hammond being left in command of the depot.

During the fall about fifty recruits were enlisted by him and sent on to the regiment; and in the summer of 1862, the regiment having become greatly depleted by losses sustained in the peninsular campaign, disease, and resignations, efforts were made to fill it up, and Capt. John R. Rockwell, 1st Lieut. William H. Fursman, and 2d Lieut. Cyrus F. Rich, with a company of eighty-nine men raised at Schuylerville, were added to it. At the same time Lieuts. S.S. Hastings, Joseph H. Loveland, and John W. Belding organized a company of sixty men and joined the regiment. Lawrence Van Demark, of Stillwater, and Alonzo Howland, of Mechanicville, recruited about sixty-four men, were commissioned first and second lieutenants respectively, and with their men were also assigned places. Maj. W.B. French and Lieut. David J. Caw, and others, while the regiment was lying at Harrison's Landing, were sent home on recruiting service, recruited two hundred and thirty men, and thereafter about fifty men were added to the regiment and six officers appointed from civil life, making in all fifty-two officers and fourteen hundred and sixty-nine men who, from first to last, joined the regiment. Of these a large number re-enlisted in 1864 for three years more.

The regiment thus organized proceeded by rail to Albany, thence by boat to New York city, where the resident sons of Saratoga gave them a splendid collation, and a beautiful regimental banner and guidons. "The banner was an exquisite piece of work, of the richest fabric, - a blue ground, with elegant designs in oil. On one side was represented an engagement, in which the American soldiers, led by Washington, were fighting under the old flag, - thirteen stripes and the union jack. On the reverse was pictured the surrender of Burgoyne, at Saratoga, under the new flag, - the stars and stripes, - first unfurled in the goodly city of Albany, and first baptized in blood at the decisive battle of Bemus Heights, which resulted in the surrender of Burgoyne and the virtual success of the Revolution.

"We had already a beautiful national flag, the gift of the patriotic young ladies of Mr. Beecher's seminary at Saratoga."

The regiment arrived at Washington, on the 1st day of December, and were at once ordered into camp at Meridian Hill, about two miles north of the city. On the 15th day of February, 1862, the regiment crossed the Potomac and joined the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division, at Camp Griffin, with which organization it remained through the war. It will be interesting to know that, at this first advance of the enemy, it took one hundred and thirty mule teams to move the camp equipage, and that after Chancellorsville but one team was allowed to each regiment for that purpose. The brigade comprised, besides our own regiment, the 33d and 49th New York, and the 7th Maine, and was commanded by Gen. Davidson. Gen. W.F. Smith ("Old Baldy") commanded the division.

Soon after arriving in camp the regiment had its first experience in night marching, having been ordered out on a reconnaissance about six miles towards Vienna and return. The New York papers called it a general advance of the army. The army moved on the 8th day of March to Manassas: but finding no enemy it was decided to proceed against Richmond by way of Fortress Monroe and the Peninsula. Accordingly, the army was embarked and sent down the Potomac to the mouth of the James river, and debarked at Fortress Monroe, the 77th at Hampton, a little deserted village near by. On March 26 a grand advances or reconnaissance in force, was ordered.

Here began a weeding-out process, graphically described by Dr. Geo. T. Stevens as follows:

"In this advance or reconnaissance of the whole army the qualities of the individual soldiers composing it were brought out in bold relief, The effect on our own division was marked. During the months we had been in winter quarters many officers and men had established marvelous reputations for bravery and hardihood, merely by constantly heralding their own heroism. But from this time these doughty heroes went back. Officers suddenly found cause for resigning, and enlisted men managed to get sent to the rear, and never showed their faces at the front again. On the contrary, some who were really invalids insisted on dragging themselves along with the column, fearful that an engagement might take place in which they would not participate. A sifting process was thus commenced throughout the whole division, and, to its honor, the poltroons were very soon sifted out; and from that time forth Smith's division never afforded a comfortable resting-place for men of doubtful courage. 'They went out from us, because they were not of us.' "

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FIRST ENGAGEMENT.

On April 4 the regiment received its first baptism of fire at a small place on Warwick creek called Lee's Mills. Here the enemy were intrenched, waiting to receive the attack. Their line of earthworks extended across the Peninsula about seven miles, Yorktown being about three miles to the east of Lee's Mills; and here began a "sifting process" that came near destroying the whole army.

Frank Jeffords, Company C, was the first of our regiment killed. Comparatively few were killed outright in battle, but the more deadly scourge of camp fever held high carnival and swept our ranks as with the besom of destruction. Nearly one-fifth of the regiment was put hors-de-combat at this place. On the 3d and 4th of May the enemy retreated to Williamsburg, where they were attacked and defeated after a long and severe engagement.

The 77th, with Smith's Division, stood in reserve all day ready to be called into action if needed, but was not actually engaged. On the 15th day of May, the army advanced to White House on the Pamunky, where the 6th Corps was organized and the 2d Division made a part of it; and thereafter during the period of its service the 77th formed a part of the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, and 6th Corps of the Army of the Potomac.

On May 23 the regiment first came in sight of the rebel capital, and from a small eminence received the fire of a battery and the 7th and 8th Georgia Regiments, who stood guard in front of the little village of Mechanicsville. Dr. Stevens describes the affair as follows: "Wheeler's battery responded nobly to the rebel artillery, and presently Gen. Davidson ordered Col. McKean to charge the village with his regiment. The men rose to their feet and started forward with a yell. Down the hill they rushed impetuously, cheering and yelling; but the two rebel regiments, the 7th and 8th Georgia, startled by the shouts, seized their muskets and ran, firing but one parting salute. Their battery also limbered up and beat a hasty retreat."

From this delightful village the regiment was recalled, and on June 5 transferred to Golden's Farm, on the south bank of the Chickahominy, and their advance on the city of Richmond, towards which they had so long toiled and struggled, forever postponed. The regiment lay here about three weeks, and so near the enemy that rifle-bullets from their picket lines frequently came whistling into camp.

At this time Col. McKean was compelled on account of sickness to abandon the front and leave the regiment. The terrible hardships of the march, the bivouac, the camp, and the Chickahominy swamp fevers had fearfully scathed the regiment, and many of its bravest officers and men were compelled to yield to the ravages of disease. Many died and many were discharged, the absent and sick often outnumbering those present and fit for duty. On June 26 Gen. Lee began the first of the series of battles that drove McClellan's once magnificent army from in front of the rebel capital to Harrison's Landing on the James river. The result of the first day's fight was announced as a great victory for the Union army. The joy of the army at this announcement knew no bounds. Bands of music played which had not sounded a note for nearly two months (not even a roll-call or drum-beat had been allowed, lest the enemy should learn our exact position); but now the air was filled with music, the camps were ablaze with patriotic fervor. All expected to march into Richmond at daylight. All night the regiment was under arms awaiting the hoped-for order to advance. Alas! alas! the order was passed in whispers from camp to camp, "Leave your tents standing; save a few of your most valuable effects; destroy the balance; the army must retreat. Be ready to meet any attack on your front and to march instantly on receiving the order." On the next day came the great battle of Gaines' Hill, just across the Chickahominy, in plain view of the regiment, which was all day under arms, and on June 28 the battle of Gaines' Farm.

At three o'clock on Sunday morning, June 29, the 2d Division, as the rear-guard of the army, quietly withdrew and marched to Savage's Station. Then came the battle of Savage's Station, and another repulse of the enemy; after that a long and terrible night march to White Oak swamp, which was reached about daylight; then a short rest, when a terrible artillery fire was opened upon the division by the rebels, described by Dr. Stevens as follows:

"Suddenly, like a thunderbolt, seventy-five pieces of artillery belched forth their sheets of flame and howling shells, and in an instant our whole division was thrown into the most perfect confusion by the deadly missiles which flew among us in every direction. Such cannonading had never before been heard by our army, and before our batteries could reply with any effect the horses were killed, the gunners dispersed, and the pieces disabled. It was a most perfect surprise; no one was prepared; men ran hither and thither seeking shelter behind any object which seemed sufficient even to conceal them from the view of the enemy."

Then the retreat was continued. The 77th led; Gen. Davidson directing that Adj. French ride at the head of the regiment and at his side, ready to receive any orders to be given to his "dear 77th," as he always afterwards called it. On the next day occurred the great battle of Malvern Hill. The 6th Corps held the right of the line, and was not actually engaged; then the further retreat to Harrison's Landing. Dr. Stevens thus speaks of the part the 77th took in this campaign:

"Since the arrival of the army on the Peninsula the experiences of the regiment have been varied. With the other regiments of Smith's Division it has spent a month at Yorktown, within musket-shot of the enemy. At Williamsburg it, with other regiments of its brigade, supported batteries in front of Fort Magruder, and when, in the afternoon, it received the order to go with the 49th to the assistance of Hancock, it started forward with cheers; the men going through the mud at double-quick. But when the two regiments arrived on the field their gallant brothers of Hancock's and of their own brigade had nobly accomplished the work in which they would gladly have assisted.

"We have seen how gallantly the regiment routed the rebels at Mechanicsville, capturing a flag and other trophies; and when on the Chickahominy Smith's Division held the line closest upon the enemy, it bravely assumed its part of the labor and danger. A portion of the regiment on picket on the 28th of June exhibited sterling heroism; and we need hardly refer to the noble sacrifice of that brave young soldier, John Ham. Disease and exhaustion had made terrible inroads upon the 77th. Instead of nearly a thousand men, with whom we came to the Peninsula, inspection in the middle of June showed only about two hundred and fifty men present for duty. Although this regiment had, from the very beginning, occupied an exposed position in the very front line; although it composed a part of Smith's Division, which had already become famous, both in the Union and rebel armies, for being always in closest proximity to the enemy, yet it had thus far lost very few men in battle. All the rest of those now absent had been stricken down by fevers, or worn out by the exhausting labors and exposures of the campaign. Among those attacked by typhoid fever was Col. McKean. After suffering a few days in the vain hope of soon being able to place himself again at the head of his regiment, he was removed from the poisonous atmosphere of the swamps to Washington, and thence to his home in Saratoga. The men looked upon his departure with sincere regret, for they not only respected him as an able commander, but loved him for his never-failing interest in their welfare. He had been to the regiment in the capacity of commander and father. His leave of the regiment was destined to be final; for, except as an occasional visitor, he never returned to it.

"Lieut. Bowe, a young man of fine abilities and greatly beloved by his regiment, after several weeks of absence, returned to camp on the 18th of July restored to health. On the very next day, while standing with several officers in a tent, he was fatally wounded by an accidental shot from a pistol, and died soon after.

"Changes occurred among the officers. The lieutenant-colonel and major left the service - the first by resignation; the other by dismissal. Adj. French was made major, and afterwards lieutenant-colonel, which office he held during the remainder of the term of the regiment."

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THE RETREAT FROM THE PENINSULA.

On the 16th of August came the order to "pack up and be ready to move," and at midday the regiment left with delight its camp at Harrison's Landing. Two days' march brought it to Williamsburg, a third to Yorktown, another to Big Bethel, and a fifth to Hampton, where boats were waiting to transport the army to Alexandria. What a change! Five months before it had debarked on those very wharves: and stepped proudly out, the most splendid army in the world; now it was broken, dispirited, beaten, and humiliated. Look at the 77th. Then the ranks were full, officers and men healthy, proud, full of esprit de corps, firmly believing that nothing could oppose their onward march. Now, how changed! Not a field-officer present to command it, many of its bravest and best lying scattered from Hampton to Richmond in unmarked groves, many dying in rebel hospitals and prison pens, and many languishing on beds of sickness; the remainder bronzed and brown, hardened by war, saddened by defeat, drilled into veterans, ready for victory or for defeat.

The regiment arrived at Alexandria, with the 6th Corps, on the 23d of August. It was not engaged in the second Bull Run battle, but acted as part of the rear-guard of Pope's retreating army from Centreville to Washington. It participated in the Maryland campaign, and took part in the battles of Crampton Pass and Antietam.

Its share in the latter battle is thus described by Dr. Stevens:

"It was at this critical moment, when Sumner's troops, weary and almost out of ammunition, were for the third time repulsed, . . . that the Sixth Corps, our second division in advance, arrived upon the field. The scene before us was awful. On the left, as far as the eye could reach, the lines of the contending forces, stretching over hills and through valleys, stood face to face, in some places not more than thirty yards apart. The roar of the musketry rolled along the whole extent of the battle-field. The field upon which we had now entered, thrice hotly contested, was strewed with the bodies of friend and foe. Without waiting to take breath, each regiment, as soon as it arrives on the field, is ordered to charge independently of the others. . . . On the right of the 7th Maine come the glorious 49th and our own 77th, Capt. Babcock in command. On the right of all is the old 33d, within supporting distance. The men of the 77th rush forward and receive the fire nobly, and although far ahead of all the other regiments, it stands its ground and returns the fire with spirit, although it is but death to remain thus in the advance. The brave color-bearer, Joseph Murer, falls shot through the head; but the colors scarcely touch the ground when they are seized and again flaunted in the face of the enemy. Volley after volley crashes through our ranks; our comrades fall on every side; yet the little band stands firm as a rock, refusing to yield an inch. At this juncture Gen. Smith, riding along the line and discovering the advanced and unprotected position of the regiment, exclaims, 'There's a regiment gone,' and sends an aid to order it to retire. . . . It did so, and reformed again with a loss of thirty-three killed and wounded.

"The advent of the 6th Corps upon the field had decided the contest upon the right of the line, and after the first charge of the 3d Brigade the battle lulled. Of all the brilliant charges made in the army on that memorable day, none was more gallant or more important in its results than this noble charge of the 3d Brigade of Smith's Division."

Before the army left Harrison's Landing, Maj. French, Lieut. Caw, and others had been ordered to Saratoga Springs on recruiting duty, and through their exertions, aided by the patriotic efforts of the people of Saratoga County, large accessions were made to the regiment. Dr. Stevens thus describes some of the methods used and the prevailing excitement:

"In Saratoga a large concourse of people . . . gathered for a war-meeting. Stirring speeches were made. Ladies offered their diamond rings, their watch-chains, their watches, and other valuables to those who should come forward and enter the service. Under the influence of such enthusiasm many came forward and enrolled their names, and received the jewels from the fair hands of the patriotic donors."

In October, 1862, Col. French, with Lieut. Caw and a large number of recruits, joined the regiment, took command, and thoroughly reorganized it, Co.'s F and K being consolidated, and Co. K being replaced by the new company from Schuylerville, and other recruits were assigned to Co.'s D. and I. The regiment was held in reserve at the first battle of Fredericksburg, and met with no loss. It went into winter quarters at White Oak Church, shared in "Burnside's mud march," and all the festivities of the camp so pleasantly described by Dr. Stevens.

"We had our share of disease and desertions. We had our ball-players and our violinists, our singers and our storytellers, as every regiment had, and at regimental headquarters matters went on gayly."

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FREDERICKSBURG.

On May 1, 1863, the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rappahannock a second time, and the 6th Corps was ordered to carry by assault the "Heights of Fredericksburg." Storming columns were formed; the 3d Brigade of the 2d Division preceded by the 77th, under command of Col. French, as skirmishers, led the advance. Stevens writes:

"It was a moment of contending emotions of pride, hope, and sadness, as our gallant boys stood face to face with those heights, ready to charge upon them. At double-quick and in splendid style they crossed the plain. Our line was perfect. The men could not have made a more orderly appearance had they been on drill. Proud of their commands, Gens. Howe and Neill, and Col. Grant: cheered the men onward, while Lieut.-Col. French, in charge of the skirmish line, inspired by his own intrepid behavior the utmost confidence and bravery in his men. They took the matter as coolly as though on parade. . . . A more grand spectacle cannot be imagined. There were the hills, enough to fatigue any man to climb them without a load and with no one to oppose. At the foot of the hills were thousands of the enemy, pouring into them volleys of musketry, and on the heights were their lines of earthworks with their artillery, from which poured grape and canister in a frightful storm. But the boys pushed nobly, steadily on, the rebels steadily retreating, the division coming up in splendid style, Gens. Howe and Neill and Col. Grant directing the movements and cheering on the men as they pressed undauntedly against the murderous storm of iron and lead that met them from above; Our men were falling in every direction, but the lines were immediately closed and on they passed. With shouts and cheers that drowned the roar of artillery, the noble division with bayonets fixed mounted the heights, the rebels retreating in confusion. Of that noble column, the skirmishers of the 77th first reached the heights of Marye's Hill, the 33d New York in line of battle following, and then the 6th Vermont. . . .

"The 77th New York captured a stand of colors belonging to the 18th Mississippi regiment, two heavy guns, a large number of prisoners, among whom was Col. Luce, of the 18th Mississippi, and great numbers of small arms. As the regiment reached the heights and took possession of the guns, Gen. Howe rode up and, taking off his hat, exclaimed, 'Noble 77th! you have covered yourselves with glory!' The general's words were greeted with tumultuous cheers. . . . Thus the heights were won. It was a glorious day for the 6th Corps. Never was a charge more gallantly made. But it was a sad day, for many scores of our brave comrades lay stretched in death along the glacis and on the steep ascent, in the ravines and along the road. . . . The 77th New York was among the greatest losers. . . .

"Captain Luther M. Wheeler, of the 77th, was shot while we halted at the foot of Marye's Hill. It was a sad loss to this regiment and to the corps. Few more gifted young men could be found in the army. He was one of our bravest and most efficient officers. Gentle in his relations with his fellows, cool and daring in battle, his youthful face, beaming with fortitude, was a continual joy to his men in time of danger. He died as he had lived, a hero."

In the next day's fight, when the 6th Corps was pressed by Lee's whole army, the 77th held the left front of the line and bore the shock with the same intrepidity as before.

After the army had been withdrawn from this disastrous campaign it remained encamped near White Oak Church until called to follow Lee into Pennsylvania.

The march from that encampment to Manchester, Pennsylvania, will ever be remembered by the regiment. It tested the strength and endurance of the men to the utmost. In four days they had marched over one hundred miles, and at midnight of the fourth the stern command, "Fall in!" rang out, and the wearied men roused themselves at once and started to relieve Reynolds at Gettysburg. All night and all day the men pressed on, on, on, only halting ten minutes for breakfast. The roads being occupied by the artillery and wagon-trains, the infantry picked their way through the fields. In fourteen hours the regiment marched thirty-six miles, with only such food and drink as the men could snatch during occasional five-minute halts. The field of battle was reached, however, in time, and the knowledge that the "fighting 6th Corps" was in reserve nerved the arms of their comrades in that most terrible of modern combats. It was not actually engaged, but stood a sure support at the post of greatest honor, - in reserve.

After Gettysburg the 3d Brigade followed Lee's army over the mountains to Waynesboro', and among the pleasantest incidents of army life were the encampment and picket duty on Antietam creek, the march again across the Potomac, along the Blue Ridge among the blackberries to Warrenton, the delightful camp at Hart's Mills, outpost duty on the banks of the Rapidan, with no enemy visible in front, and the three weeks at Stone House Mountain. It was at the latter place that occurred the pleasant incident of the presentation to Col. French of an elegant sword by the line-officers of the regiment, the festivities incident thereto, the torch-light procession of the 7th Maine Regiment, marching into camp to offer congratulations to the officers and men on the pleasant relations existing between them.

At length, on December 1, came the short and fruitless campaign of Mine Run, - those bitter cold nights of suffering, - and the return to camp at Brandy Station The regiment had the extreme right-front in the expected attack, and was rear-guard to the whole army on its withdrawal across the Rapidan.

After the winter's cantonment of 1863-64 at Brandy Station, came

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THE WILDERNESS CAMPAIGN.

On the 4th of May, 1864, the regiment broke camp and marched beyond the Rapidan, and on the next day took an active part in the first of that terrible series of engagements known as the battles of the Wilderness, in all of which it actively participated.

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SPOTTSYLVANIA.

On the 8th of May the 6th Corps arrived at Spottsylvania, and on the 10th was called upon to make one of the most remarkable charges on record, which is described by Dr. Stevens as follows:

At five o'clock the men of the corps were ordered to unsling knapsacks and divest themselves of every incumbrance, preparatory to a charge. Col. Upton, commanding the 2d Brigade of the 1st Division, was directed to take twelve picked regiments from the corps and lead them in a charge against the right centre of the rebel line. The 77th was chosen one of the twelve. "It was indeed an honor to be selected for this duty, but it was an honor to be paid for at the cost of fearful peril. . . .

"At six o'clock all things were ready, and the artillery, from the eminences in our rear, opened a terrific fire, sending the shells howling and shrieking over the heads of the charging column and plunging into the works of the enemy. This was the signal for the attack, and Col. Upton's clear voice rang out: 'Attention, battalions! Forward, double quick! Charge!' And in an instant every man was on his feet, and with tremendous cheers, which were answered by the wild yells of the rebels, the column rushed from the cover of the woods. Quick as lightning a sheet of flame burst from the rebel line, and the leaden hail swept the ground over which the column was advancing, while the canister from the artillery came crashing through our ranks at every step, and scores and hundreds of our brave fellows fell, literally covering the ground. But, nothing daunted, the noble fellows rushed upon the defenses, leaping over the ditch in front and mounting the breastworks. The rebels made a determined resistance, and a hand-to-hand fight ensued, until, with their bayonets, our men had filled the rifle-pits with bleeding rebels. About two thousand of the survivors of the struggle surrendered, and were immediately marched to the rear under guard. Without halting for breath, the impetuous column rushed towards the second line of works, which was equally as strong as the first. The resistance here was less strong than at the first line, yet the gray occupants of the rifle-pits refused to fly until forced back at the point of the bayonet. Our ranks were now fearfully thinned, yet the brave fellows passed on to the third line of the defenses, which was also captured. . . .

"Capt. Carpenter, of the 77th, one of its first and best officers, and Lieut. Lyon, a young officer of great bravery, were killed in the interior line of works, and many other noble fellows of that regiment were left on that fatal field."

On the next day occurred the struggle for the "Angle," when the regiment fought hand to hand with the enemy; after that a long night march, and on the 17th of May a charge, under a galling fire, across a field covered with abatis to the second line of the enemy's works, and a repulse therefrom with heavy loss. Then the marches by night and fights by day until Cold Harbor was reached, where the useless sacrifice of life was terrible; the 77th Regiment holding the front and most advanced line most of the time, and being constantly exposed to the enemy's fire, it not ceasing even during the night. On the 10th of June the army was moved to Petersburg, where the regiment again received the shock of battle. Here it was that the three James', - James Barnes, James Lawrence, and James Allen, - all belonging to Company A, each lost a leg and two others wounded by the explosion of a single shell fired from the enemy's guns in the midst of the regiment. On the 9th of July the 1st and 2d Divisions of the 6th Corps left the front at nine o'clock in the evening, and, marching all night, arrived at City Point on the James river at daylight, whence it was immediately transported to Washington, to defend the capital against the threatened attack by the rebels under Jubal Early.

Thus the regiment left the Army of the Potomac, with which it had fought so long and so well, and to which as a regiment it was never destined to return. The two divisions arrived at Washington on July 13, and marched through its crowded streets amid the shouts of the people, who came out to meet them, crying, "This is the old 6th Corps," "These are the men who took Marye's Heights," "We are safe now." The city, which a few hours before had been wild with fright, was now calm with the assurance that their homes were safe, and that the invaders would soon be driven from their soil by the boys who wore the Greek cross.

The President and large numbers of the city officials had gathered in Fort Stevens, before which Early was stationed, to witness the fight. Soon Col. French was ordered to take his own, the 7th Maine, and the 49th New York Regiments, and drive the enemy from its position in front of the fort; and to that end, to move his command under the brow of a hill to a point designated, and, when ready to advance, to signal the corps commander. The new flag of the 77th, not yet baptized in blood, waved the signal of readiness. The guns of the fort sent a few rounds of shell towards the enemy, doing no apparent damage, however, and Gen. Wright gave the signal for the charge, which is thus described by Dr. Stevens:

"In magnificent order and with light steps they ran forward up the ascent, through the orchard, through the little grove on the right, over the rail-fence, up to the road, making straight for the first objective point, - the frame house in front. The rebels at first stood their ground, then gave way before the impetuous charge. The President, the members of his cabinet, and the ladies, as well as the military officers in the fort, and the crowd of soldiers and citizens who had gathered about it to witness the fight, watched with breathless interest the gallant advance as our boys pushed forward, keeping their line of battle perfect, except when now and then some regiment, having the advantage of ground in its favor, in its eagerness got a little in advance of others, until they saw the rebels take to flight. Then the crowd at the fort rent the air with exultant cheers, and, as the boys reached the house, the people were wild with excitement, shouting and clapping their hands, leaping and dancing with joy. But the rebels did not yield without resistance. They met our men bravely, and, though forced to seek safety in fight, turned and poured their volleys into the ranks of their pursuers, which told fearfully on them, and many were killed and wounded.

. . . "Col. French, of the 77th, was injured, but not severely. The commanding officer of every regiment in the brigade was either killed or wounded."

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THE CAMPAIGN IN THE "VALLEY."

After the battle of Fort Stevens the 6t Corps joined the Army of the Shenandoah, to the command of which, after a long series of marches and countermarches, and much time spent in dancing attendance on Early, Gen. Philip H. Sheridan was assigned, and very soon attacked and routed the enemy at Winchester, in which battle the 77th participated, losing heavily. There it was that Sheridan, riding up to Gen. Bidwell, in the very front, shouted, in the presence of the 77th, "Press them, general, they'll run! G-d d--n them, I know they'll run! Press them." The result justified his spirited prophecy. After Winchester, Early retreated to Strasburg, where he occupied a position seemingly impregnable. Our leader, however, was not a man to be daunted, and at once made his arrangements to drive the rebels from their strong position. Here Col. French, who had charge of the corps picket line, was slightly wounded in a preliminary skirmish. The attack was soon made, and the rebels utterly discomfited.

On October 19 occurred the battle of Cedar Creek, that glorious struggle, where a reinforcement of one man - Sheridan, who was at the time absent at Winchester - changed defeat into victory. Early attacked at two o'clock in the morning, and completely surprised the 8th Corps, which became utterly demoralized and panic-stricken. The 19th Corps was vigorously attacked, and forced to retreat in confusion, and, to quote from Dr. Stevens, -

"It was at this critical moment that the warning was given to the 6th Corps. Gen. Wright being in command of the army, the corps was in charge of Gen. Ricketts. He at once faced the corps to the rear, and moved it over the plain in the face of the advancing hosts of the enemy. . . . The 2d Division held the left of the new line, the 1st the centre, and the 3d the right. . . .

"We now waited the onset of the victorious columns which were driving the shattered and disorganized fragments of the 8th and 19th Corps, beaten and discouraged, wildly through our well-formed ranks to the rear. The hope of the nation now rested with those heroes of many bloody fields. Now that peerless band of veterans, the wearers of the Greek cross, whose fame was already among the choicest treasures of American history, was to show to the country and the world an exhibition of valor which should tower above all the grand achievements of the war. The corps, numbering less than twelve thousand men, now confronted Early's whole army of more than thirty thousand men, who, flushed with victory, already bringing to bear against us the twenty-one guns which they had just captured from the two broken corps, rushed upon our lines with those wild, exultant yells, the terror of which can never be conceived by those who have not heard them on the field. With fearless impetuosity the rebel army moved up the gentle rise of ground in front of the 6th Corps, and the attack from one end of the line to the other was simultaneous. It was like the clash of steel to steel. The astonished columns were checked. They had found an immovable obstacle to their march of victory.

"The 2d Division, on the left nearest the pike, had received the most severe shock of the attack. Bidwell's Brigade held the extreme left, the key to the pike, and sustained the attack of the whole of Kershaw's rebel division, which came up in compact order to within very close range. The gallant brigade received the onset with full volleys, which caused the right, of the rebel line to stagger back, and the whole line was, almost at the same moment, repulsed by the corps. The cavalry on our flank - and never braver men than the cavalry of our little army mounted saddles - were doing their best to protect the pike leading to Winchester, and it was the great aim of both the cavalry and the single organized corps of infantry to hold this pike; for on this depended the safety of the whole army and, more, of our cause. Gen. Bidwell ordered his brigade to charge. Rising from their places in the little grave-yard and the grove, the brigade rushed forward, the rebels breaking and running in confusion down the declivity which they had but just ascended with such confidence, and across the little stream. But the rebel artillery sent our men back to their places, to the shelter of the roll of ground. The charge cost us dearly. . . . Capt. Lennon of the 77th was mortally wounded, Lieut. Tabor was killed, . . . and many other valuable lives were lost; but the most severe blow to the brigade and the corps was the loss of our gallant Gen. Bidwell. He fell, while bravely directing the charge, with a frightful shell wound.

. . . "The fall of Gen. Bidwell left. Col. French of the 77th in command of the brigade. The line was quickly reformed in the position from which the charge was made, and again the rebels came on with cheers and yells. They were as bravely met as before, and a second countercharge sent them again in disorder across the creek, leaving the ground covered with their dead and wounded. The greatest shock of the second charge of the rebels had fallen upon our 3d Brigade, and nobly had it been met. . . . At length a new line was formed just north of Middletown, which was about two miles in the rear of the position held by the 2d Division of our corps early in the morning. . . .

"The grand old 6th Corps, directed by our own loved Gen. Getty, had turned the fortune of the day. It was now ten o'clock; far away in the rear was heard cheer after cheer. What was the cause? Were reinforcements coming? Yes; Phil. Sheridan was coming, and he was a host. He had ridden from Winchester at amazing speed, and now, as he passed the long trains of ambulances in which were the hundreds of bleeding victims of the morning's work, the wounded men, whose shattered limbs or mangled bodies attested that they had not run away, raised themselves and cheered with wild enthusiasm the hero of the valley. . . .

"Dashing along the pike, he came upon the line of battle. 'What troops are those?' shouted Sheridan. 'The 6th Corps,' was the response from a hundred voices. 'We are all right!' said Sheridan, as he swung his old hat, and dashed along the line towards the right. 'Never mind, boys, we'll whip them yet! We shall sleep in our old quarters to-night!' . . .

"At three o'clock, Sheridan gave the order to move, wheeling from right to left, as a gate swings upon its hinges. The 3d Division, on the right of our corps, became for a moment embarrassed in passing through a strip of woods; the 1st Division moved slowly but firmly, gaining a strong position. The 2d Division also advanced, but were ordered to go very slowly, and this was far more difficult than to rush quickly over the ground. Yet the division obeyed the order, and forced the rebels to fall back. In front of the 1st and 2d Brigades was a stone wall. This they seized and were at once partially sheltered; but there was no such protection for the 3d Brigade. In its front was a meadow and a gradually inclined plane, and behind a wall, which skirted the crest, was the rebel line. Between that line and ours, in a hollow, stood a brick mill, from the windows of which the enemy's sharpshooters picked off our men. The galling fire from the line of battle, and the fatal shots of the sharpshooters in the mill, made it impossible to advance slowly, and the line fell back. Our best men were falling fast.

"The color-sergeant of the 77th fell dead; another sergeant seized the flag and fell. Adj. Gilbert Thomas, a youth of rare beauty and surpassing bravery, seized the fallen flag. He cried, 'Forward, men!' and fell dead with the staff grasped in his hands. 'I cannot take my brigade over that field slowly,' said Col. French. 'Then go quickly,' responded Gen. Getty. The word was given, and with a bound and a shout the noble brigade went across the field, quickly driving the Confederates from their strong position.

"By this time the right of the army had started the rebels, and their whole line was giving way. The three divisions of the 6th Corps bounded forward and commenced the wildest race that had ever been witnessed, even in that valley, so famous for the flight of beaten armies. The rebel lines were completely broken, and now in utmost confusion every man was going in greatest haste towards Cedar creek. Our men, with wild enthusiasm, with shouts and cheers, regardless of order or formation, joined in the hot pursuit. There was our mortal enemy, who had but a few hours since driven us unceremoniously from our camps, now beaten, routed, broken, bent on nothing but the most rapid flight.

". . . From the point where we broke the rebel ranks to the crossing of Cedar creek was three miles, an open plain. Over this plain and down the pike the panic-stricken army was flying, while our soldiers, without ever stopping to load their pieces, were charging tardy batteries with empty muskets, seizing prisoners by scores and hundreds. . . ."

So the battle ended, and the 6th Corps was ordered to occupy the same spot from which it so suddenly decamped to meet the enemy in the early morning.

With this grand and wonderful battle the fighting experience of the 77th Regiment closed, and, its term of service having expired, it was ordered to Saratoga Springs to be mustered out, where it arrived on the 23d of November, 1864, just. three years after the day of its mustering in. The regiment was received with all the love and honor a patriotic people could bestow. A committee of the most prominent citizens had been appointed to make arrangements for its reception, and an immense crowd assembled at the depot to welcome the little (only fourteen officers and one hundred and five men) band of war-worn soldiers, - a mere remnant of the thirteen hundred and sixty-nine noble men who had gone from there three years before. They were escorted to the public hall, where they were welcomed by the president of the village on behalf of the people of Saratoga, and, after a prayer by D.E. Tully, the first chaplain, Col. James B. McKean delivered an address, which was responded to by Col. French, after which Dr. Luther F. Beecher read a poem of welcome, written by Mrs. M.C. Beecher. In the evening a splendid banquet was tendered them by the citizens of Saratoga Springs, at the American Hotel. Speeches were made by Hon. C.S. Lester, William A. Sackett, Hon. James M. Marvin, Hon. A. Pond, Dr. Beecher, Hon. James M. Cook, W.M. Potter, and others, and by many officers and soldiers of the regiment.

On the 13th day of December, 1864, the 77th Regiment was duly paid and mustered out of the service, having served faithfully for three years, the whole term of its enlistment. As has been previously stated, many of the men who enlisted during the winter of 1863-64 re-enlisted, and, together with the recruits added to the regiment in 1862 and later, were formed into a battalion, under the command of Capt. D.J. Caw, and assigned to the place vacated by the regiment, and remained in the service until the close of the war. The battalion, with the 6th Corps, on Dec. 9, 1864, returned to the vicinity of Petersburg.

On the 26th of March the 3d Brigade was ordered to take and hold the rebel picket line to the left of our army, which it did with some loss, Capt. Oakey, Lieut. Pierce, and many others being killed. In the charge of the 6th Corps, April 2, which broke the rebel lines, the 77th and 49th New York had the advance, the corps being formed en echelon, like a wedge. Dr. Stevens thus describes the charge:

"Axemen were ready to be sent forward to remove abatis, and Capt. Adams had twenty cannoneers ready to man captured guns. Every commanding officer of battalions was informed what he was expected to do, and thus all was in readiness. At half-past four in the morning of April 2 the signal-gun from Fort Fisher sounded the advance. Without wavering, through the darkness, the wedge which was to split the Confederacy was driven home. The abatis was passed, the breastworks mounted, the works were our own. Thousands of prisoners, many stands of colors, and many guns were our trophies, while many of our friends, dead or wounded, was the price of our glory."

This was the crowning act of the war. Lee's army was broken and put to rout; then came the fight at Sailor's creek, and then the surrender of the Army of Virginia, which for three years had stood before the Army of the Potomac like a wall of fire. The war over, the battalion returned to Albany, where it was mustered out June 27, 1865.

This is the history, in brief, of Saratoga County's pet regiment, the 77th, a record of noble deeds without a single blot. It never by any act on the field or in the camp, on the march or in the fight, disgraced the county from which it was sent. It never flinched or wavered from any duty, however perilous, which was assigned to it, nor, until properly ordered, did it ever turn its back upon the foe. From the beginning to the end of its service the regiment bore its colors untouched by the hands of the enemy. They were often shattered and torn by shot and shell, often leveled to the dust by the death or wounds of their bearers, but they were always kept sacred, and on the muster-out of the regiment were deposited in the Bureau of Military Statistics at Albany.

A beautiful Quincy granite monument, surmounted by a bronze statue of a soldier, erected to the memory of the dead of the regiment, stands in a public square in the village of Saratoga Springs. The plain Greek cross and the words "77th Regiment New York State Volunteers," cut upon its face, indicate that the soldiers whose deeds it commemorates belonged to the 77th Regiment New York State Volunteers, of the 2d Division of the 6th Corps, Army of the Potomac.

The following is a list of the officers of the Seventy-seventh Regiment, N. Y. Vols., with promotions, discharges, resignations, and deaths, from Nov. 23, 1861, to close of war:

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FIELD AND STAFF.

James B. McKean, col., resigned July 27, 1863.

Joseph C. Henderson, lieut.-col., resigned June 19, 1862.

Selden Hetzel, maj., dismissed by order of secretary of war, May 15, 1862.

Lucius Shurtliffe, q.m., resigned June 21, 1861.

John L. Perry, surg., resigned Feb. 1, 1862.

Augustus Campbell, surg., resigned Feb. 7,1863.

John M. Fay, asst. surg, dismissed March 2,1863.

David Tully, chap., resigned July 8, 1862.

Winsor B. French, adj., promoted maj. June 1, 1862; lieut.-col. July 18, 1862; col. Aug. 25, 1863 (not mustered out as col., regt. being reduced below minimum number of men; breveted brig.-gen. U.S. Vols., for gallant and meritorious conduct on the field; mustered out with regt.

Nathan S. Babcock, capt., promoted maj. Aug. 31, 1862; mustered out with regt.

William H. Fursman, 1st lieut., Co. K, promoted adj. May 3,1863; resigned Feb. 12, 1864.

Lawrence Van Demark, 2d lieut., Co. C, promoted 1st lieut. Feb. 13, 1864; adj. Feb. 23, 1864; resigned Sept. 30, 1864.

William W. Worden, sergt., Co. C, promoted 2d lieut. Nov. 23, 1863; adjt. Oct. 24, 1864; mustered out with regt.

Thomas M. White, private, Co. C, promoted Feb. 27, 1863; com. sergt. Feb. 10, 1865, 2d lieut.; March, 1865, 1st lieut., and adjt.; mustered out with battalion; breveted major for services rendered in battle, April 2, 1865.

Jacob F. Hayward, 1st lieut., Co. I, promoted quar.-mas. June 21, 1862; mustered out with regt.

George T. Stevens, asst. surg., promoted Feb. 27, 1863, surg.; mustered out with regt.

Justin G. Thompson, asst. surg., Nov. 17, 1862; transferred and mustered out with battalion.

Norman Fox, Jr., chaplain, appointed, from civil life Dec. 10, 1862; mustered out with regt.

Job S. Safford, promoted from sergt., Co. F, to sergt.-major.

Seymour Bunch, sergt.-major; discharged Feb. 1,1862.

Wendell Lansing, com. serg.; discharged.

Aaron B. Quivey, private, Co. C, promoted June 5, 1862, com. sergt.; discharged March 1, 1863; re-enlisted, and killed on picket May 18, 1864.

Luther F. Irish, prin. musician; discharged.

Isaac D. Clapp, corp., Co. C, promoted May 15 ,1862, sergt.-major; June 1, 1862, adjt.; June 6,1863, capt.; June 13, 1864, major (but not mustered); mustered out with regt.

Wm. A. De Long, asst. surg., appointed from civil life March 2,1853; mustered out with regt.

Chas. D. Thurber, private, Co. D, promoted q.-m. sergt.; afterwards 2d lieut., Co. E; then q.-m.; mustered out with battalion.

Andrew Van Wie, private, Co. C, promoted July l, 1864, prin. mus.

Alex. P. Waldron, private, Co. D, promoted Sept. 8,1862, hosp. stew.

Sidney O. Cromach, sergt. Co. B, promoted May 3, 1863, sergt.-maj.; June 5, 1861, 1st lieut.; discharged March 11, 1865.

George H. Gillis, sergt. Co. C, promoted Nov. 17, 1862, sergt.-maj.; Feb., 25,1863, 2d lieut.; mustered out with regiment.

Edward S. Armstrong, corporal Co. C, promoted Jan. 1, 1862, q.-m. sergt.; May 19, 1862, 1st lieut. Co. D; discharged Jan. 14, 1863.

Thomas S. Fowler, private, Co. D, promoted April 3, 1862, q.-m. sergt.; Oct. 2, 1863; 2d lieut.; discharged on account of wounds, Aug. 12, 1864.

Gilbert P. Thomas, corporal Co. C, promoted Jan. 6, 1863; 2d lieut., May 1, 1863; killed in action Oct. 19, 1864, Cedar Creek.

Chas. H. Davis, sergt. Co. D, Feb. 18, 1865, promoted adj. of battalion; April 22, 1865, captain; mustered out with battalion.

Obed H. Coleman, private, Co. C, promoted q.-m. sergt.

Edward H. Thorn, private Co. C, promoted com. sergt.

David J. Caw, promoted to 2d lieut., Co. H, May 21, 1862; 1st lieut. Sept. 23, 1862; capt. Dec. 10, 1862; maj. Dec. 20, 1864; lieut.-col. Dec. 24, 1864; col. July 6, 1865 (not mustered as colonel); mustered out with battalion.

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LINE OFFICERS.

Company A.

Capt. Ruel W. Arnold, resigned April 3, 1862.

1st Lieut. William Douglas, resigned April 21, 1862.

1st Lieut. Stephen S. Hastings, resigned Dec. 23, 1862.

2d Lieut. James H. Farnsworth, resigned Feb. 8, 1862.

Capt. George S. Orr, promoted from lieut. April 3,1862; lost right arm at Cedar Creek; mustered out with regt.

Capt. Charles E. Stevens, promoted March 21, 1862, 2d lieut.; Jan. 23,1863, 1st lieut.; Sept. 16, 1864, captain; commissioned but not mustered colonel; mustered out with battalion.

2d Lieut. Lewis T. Vanderwerker, promoted Jan. 27,1863, 2d lieut.; Nov. 10,1863, 1st lieut.; mustered out with regt.

2d Lieut. Sorell Fountain, promoted April 22, 1865, 2d lieut.; mustered out with regt.

1st Lieut. Adam Flansburgh, promoted 1st lieut. in battalion.

Company B.

Capt. C.C. Hill, resigned July 1,1862.

Capt. Stephen S. Horton, promoted from 2d lieut., to capt., July 25, 1862; discharged May 31, 1863, on account of wounds received at Antietam.

Capt. Fred. Smith, dismissed.

1st Lieut. Noble F. Hammond, resigned July 24, 1862.

2d Lieut. G.R. McGunnigle, dismissed.

2d Lieut. Sidney O. Cromack. (See Staff.)

2d Lieut. Wm. H. Quackenbush, promoted Feb. 16, 1865; mustered out with battalion.

Company C.

Capt. Benjamin F. Judson, resigned March 29, 1862.

Capt. Luther M. Wheeler, 1st lieut., promoted March 29, 1862; killed in action at Fredericksburg, Va., May 3, 1863.

1st Lieut. John Patterson, resigned Sept. 8, 1862.

Capt. E.W. Winne, 1st sergt., promoted March 29, 1862, 2d lieut.; Sept. 8, 1862, 1st lieut.; captain Co. F, May 9, 1863; discharged Sept. 9, 1864.

2d Lieut. Gilbert F. Thomas. (See Staff.)

2d Lieut. Stephen H. Pierce, transferred to battalion; promoted March 15, 1864, 1st lieut.; killed in action, March 25,1865.

2d Lieut. David Pangburn, promoted from sergt.

Company D.

Capt. John Caw, resigned, May 18, 1862, at White House, Va., on account of disability, and died before reaching home.

Capt. Seth W. Deyoe, promoted from 1st sergt. to 1st lieut., Nov. 23, 1861; Sept. 3, 1862, capt.; discharged July 26, 1864, on account of wounds received in action.

2d Lieut. Chester H. Fodow, resigned May 31, 1862.

2d Lieut. Robert H. Skinner, promoted June 4, 1862, 2d lieut.; discharged on account of wounds received in action, March 12, 1863.

1st Lieut. Joseph H. Loveland, promoted Nov. 2, 1863, capt.; mustered out with regt.

Capt. Sumner Oakley, sergt., promoted Sept. 16, 1864, 1st lieut.; transferred to battalion 77th, Jan. 20, 1865; killed in action March 25, 1865.

2d Lieut. Robert E. Nelson, sergt., promoted May 25, 1864, 2d lieut.; Aug. 20, 1864 ,1st lieut.; transferred to and mustered out with battalion.

Capt. Lewis Wood, discharged on account of disability, Oct. 4, 1862.

Capt. William B. Carpenter, 1st lieut.; promoted apt. Dec. 25, 1862; killed in action May 10, 1864.

2d Lieut. Halsey Bowe, accidentally shot in camp at Harrison's Landing, Va., and died of the wound at Philadelphia, Aug. 16, 1862.

1st Lieut. Henry C. Rowland, promoted from sergt. Jan. 23,1863; mustered out with regt.

2d Lieut. William F. Lyon, promoted March 17, 1863;.; missing; supposed to have been killed in action May 10, 1864.

2d Lieut. Chas. D. Thurber. (See Staff.)

2d Lieut. Thomas M. White. (See Staff.)

1st Lieut. James A. Monroe, promoted from 1st sergt. Nov. 15, 1864; mustered out with battalion.

Company F.

Capt. Judson B. Andrews, resigned July 16, 1862.

Capt. Jesse White, promoted from 1st lieut. Sept. 23, 1862; discharged Feb., 1863, for disability.

2d Lieut. Emmett J. Patterson, resigned Dec. 18, 1862.

2d Lieut. Thomas S. Fowler. (See Staff.)

2d Lieut. John J. Cameron, died. May 6,1862, on Peninsula, Va.

Company G.

Capt. Calvin A. Rice, dismissed Oct. 4, 1862, by order of secretary of war.

1st Lieut. Edward S. Armstrong. (See Staff.)

2d Lieut. Wm. K. Young, resigned April 15, 1862.

Capt. George Ross, sergt., promoted 2d lieut., Jan. 23 1863; to 1st lieut., March 17,1863; to capt., Dec. 28, 1865, and mustered out with battalion.

2d Lieut. George H. Gillis. (see Staff.)

Capt. Orin P. Rugg, promoted from sergt., April 28, 1862, 2d lieut.; Dec. 10, 1862, capt.; killed in action May 12, 1864.

Company H.

Capt. Alfred H. Beach, resigned Jan. 28, 1862, on account of physical disability.

Capt. N. Hollister Brown, promoted from 1st lieut., Jan. 30, 1862; resigned Dec. 26, 1862.

1st Lieut. George D. Storey, promoted from 2d lieut., Jan. 30, 1862; resigned May 31, 1862.

1st Lieut. Frank Thomas, promoted from 1st sergt., Co. C, Jan. 23, 1863, 2d lieut.; March 13, 1863 1st lieut.; discharged Aug. 10, 1864, on account of wounds received in action May 10, 1864.

Capt. David J. Caw. (See Field.)

1st Lieut. Alonzo Howland, appointed 2d lieut., from civil life, Aug. 10, 1862; promoted, Nov. 15, 1864, 1st lieut.; mustered out with battalion.

2d Lieut. Wm. Caw, promoted from sergt., Jan. 20,1865; mustered out with battalion.

Company I.

Capt. Franklin Norton, resigned Aug., 1862; appointed lieut.-col. 123d N.Y. Vols.

2d Lieut. Carlos Rowe, promoted June 1, 1862, from sergt.; May l, 1863, mustered out with regt.

1st Lieut. Jacob F. Hayward. (see Staff.)

1st Lieut. William E. Merrill, promoted Nov. 15, 1864, 2d lieut.; April 22, 1865, 1st lieut.; mustered out with battalion.

Capt. Martin Lennon, promoted from 2d lieut. Dec. 10,1862; died Nov. 1, 1864, of wounds received at Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864.

1st lieut. John W. Belding, promoted March 19, 1863, 1st lieut; killed at Cedar Creek, Oct. 19, 1864.

Company K.

Capt. N.S. Babcock. (See Field.)

1st Lieut. Ansil Dennison, promoted from sergt., Feb. 6, 1862, to 2d lieut.; March 11, 1862, 1st lieut.; died Feb. 28, 1863,, of wounds received in action at Antietam, Md.

1st Lieut. William Fursman. (See Staff.)

Capt. John R. Rockwell, discharged for disability, Oct. 2,1863.

1st Lieut. John W. McGregor, discharged Feb. 10, 1862.

1st Lieut. Philander A. Cobb, discharged May 11, 1862.

2d Lieut. Cyrus F. Rich, resigned on account of physical disability, Nov. 30, '62.

2d Lieut. Stephen Redshaw, dismissed Oct. 31, 1863.

1st Lieut. William J. Taber, promoted from sergt., May 3,1863; killed in action, Oct. 19, 1864.

2d Lieut. Jeremiah Stebbins, promoted from sergt., May 9, 1863; mustered out with battalion.

 

The thirteen hundred and sixty-nine enlisted men who joined the regiment, as before stated, were accounted for as follows on the 13th day of December, 1864, when the regiment was mustered out:

 

Mustered out with regiment

105

Transferred to battalion and left in the field - veterans

151

Transferred to battalion and left in the field - recruits

364

Killed in action

83

Died of wounds received in action

40

Died of disease

140

Missing in action, most of whom are supposed to be dead

25

Died in rebel prisons

20

Deserted

61

Discharged on account of disability

300

Discharged on account of wounds received in action

56

Promoted to commissioned officers

24

Total

1369

 

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II. - THE 77TH REGIMENT NEW YORK STATE VOLUNTEERS.

ANOTHER ACCOUNT.

At last the long controversy growing out of slavery had culminated. Lincoln had been elected President. State after State, following the lead of South Carolina, had seceded from the Union. The southern senators and representatives had withdrawn from Washington. The Confederate government had been organized. Fort Sumter had fallen. The Federal army had been beaten at Bull Run. The nation was stunned, bewildered, and, for the moment, paralyzed. Gen. Marcy, chief of staff to Gen. McClellan, had written to that commander, advising that he call upon the government to order a draft of troops, saying, "Volunteering is at an end." In this supreme crisis of our history as a nation, The Daily Saratogian contained, and from it was copied into other newspapers far and wide, a call to arms.

More than fourteen years afterwards, the Saratogian contained an interesting account of the unveiling, at that place, of a monument erected to the memory of the dead of the 77th Regiment, New York Volunteers, otherwise called "The Bemus Heights Battalion." The principal speech on the occasion was made by Gen. W.B. French, who commenced as follows:

"COMRADES AND FELLOW. CITIZENS, - On the 21st day of August, 1861, Hon. James B. McKean, then our representative in Congress, issued a circular letter to the citizens of the then Fifteenth Congressional district appealing to the patriots of his constituency to rally in defense of their country. It was published in the Daily Saratogian of the 22d of August, and immediately thereafter by all the papers of this Confessional district."

Gen. French here read the circular, and then added:

"This call to arms rang out 'from northern lake to southern strand,' like the 'thunder stroke' of the Bell Roland that hung in the city tower at Ghent.

'It was the warning call

That freedom stood in peril of a foe.'

"The whole north was smarting under the disaster and defeat at Bull Run, the severing of all connection with the national capital, and the arrogance and treachery of the rebels. The patriotic pride of the loyal people had been greatly humbled by our country's misfortunes, and the young men along the shores of that historic lake, Champlain, about Fort Ticonderoga, at Johnstown, Saratoga, Stillwater, and Bemus Heights, were impatiently waiting for a leader whom they could follow to the front. This was the opportunity, and the response to the call was instantaneous and beyond the expectation of the most sanguine."

The author of this "call" at once took the field in a campaign of war-meetings; and along the Hudson, the Mohawk, the Sacandaga, on the shores of Lakes George and Champlain, at Ticonderoga, Fort Miller, Fort Anne, Fort Edward, Saratoga, everywhere, farmers' sons, mechanics, clerks, pupils, teachers, students of law, of medicine, of divinity, came to hear him. They said to him, "Judge McKean, are you going to the war?" His answer invariably was, "Yes, I will not ask you to do what I will not do myself." They said, "Then we will go with you;" and enlisted. He sent them at once into camp on the fair-ground, at Saratoga Springs. Thus in a short time was raised a regiment composed, not of "city roughs" or "bounty-jumpers," but of the best blood, morals, and intellects of the rural regions and beautiful villages of the most classical and historic portions of the State.

When, after the fall of Sumter, the Baltimore bridges were burned: and Washington was cut off from communication with the north, although Congress was not in session, several senators and representatives were in the city. Not a few of them hired private conveyances, left the supposed-to-be-doomed capital, traversed the State of Maryland, and escaped into Pennsylvania. McKean remained. {For a biographical sketch of Judge M'Kean, see history of Saratoga Springs.} Detectives discovered that secret Confederate military organizations existed there, and were drilling in halls in the night-time, with closed doors and windows. The President and cabinet were in imminent peril of being kidnapped and carried off to Richmond. The government had not a single company of troops in or near the city. The permanent residents of the city were almost wholly disloyal. History has not yet given sufficient prominence to the awful peril of that moment. A movement was set on foot to organize, if possible, the non-resident friends of the government then hemmed in there into an armed force. McKean threw himself zealously into this movement; and after inviting and urging everybody he knew to co-operate, he enlisted as a private soldier in Cassius M. Clay's battalion. Another battalion was organized under Gen. J.H. Lane, of Kansas.

These two battalions, consisting of several hundred men, were regularly enrolled in the War Department, and armed by the government. Clay's battalion headquarters were in Willard's Hotel assembly-room, opening on "F" street. There, by day and by night, a reserve of the force was on duty; while the rest were patroling the city and guarding the departments and the executive mansion. Armed with a breech-loading carbine, with fixed ammunition in his pockets, Judge McKean frequently paced to and fro as a sentinel before the front door of the "White House" in the night-time, while President Lincoln slept. Soon after these demonstrations were commenced, the most active leaders of the secret Confederate organizations slipped over the Potomac into Virginia and disappeared. At the end of about two weeks troops arrived from Massachusetts and New York. They were hailed as deliverers by the few beleagured loyalists in Washington.

That peculiar phase of "the times that tried men's souls" having passed away, Clay's and Lane's battalions now petitioned to be mustered out of the service. The petition was granted, and they were honorably discharged, with the written thanks of Secretary Cameron and President Lincoln. Some day some competent historian will write the history of those two battalions. It will make an interesting chapter in our national annals.

Events crowded fast upon each other in those days. Soon the Federal and Confederate armies were to meet. Obtaining a pass from Gen. McDowell, Judge McKean was present at the battle of Bull Run. A month thereafter he issued his call for troops, and soon had a regiment.

The battle of Bemus Heights was fought in the year 1777, and in the numbering of the regiments raised in this State during the war the number 77 fell to the Bemus Heights Battalion. It is known in the records as the "77th Regiment New York State Volunteers." The officers and men of the regiment unanimously elected Judge McKean to be colonel. He was commissioned by Gov. Morgan, and accepted the position.

The ladies of Dr. Luther Beecher's Female Seminary at Saratoga Springs presented the regiment with a beautiful silk stand of national colors; and a new organization, called "Sons of Saratoga Resident in New York City," wrote to Colonel McKean, apprising him that it was their intention to present to him, for his regiment, a State regimental flag, and asking him to suggest some device to be painted upon the flag by a competent artist. Col. McKean answered, calling their attention to the historic facts that the first flag ordered by the Continental Congress was a flag of union, but not a flag of independence, consisting of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white, but retaining the field of the British flag, indicating the union of the colonies, but loyalty to the home government; while the second flag, ordered about the time of the "Declaration," was indicative both of union and independence, and consisted of the thirteen stripes, red and white, and thirteen argent stars arranged in a circle on a blue field. He called attention to the further fact that the battle at Bemus Heights was fought under the first of these flags, while, when Burgoyne's army marched out to surrender, the second was thrown to the breeze. He therefore suggested that two devices be painted on the regimental flag, one representing American troops, in Continental uniform, in action under the first flag, and the other representing a commander and troops in British uniform surrendering to the Americans under the second flag. About this time, Samuel B. Eddy, Esq., of Stillwater, presented to Col. McKean a pike-head or halberd, which had been captured from the British at Bemus Heights.

On Thanksgiving Day, Nov. 29, 1861, amid the huzzas and adieux of thousands of people of the village and surrounding country, Col. McKean and his regiment marched from their barracks to the railroad depot, and embarked for the seat of war. In New York city the "Sons of Saratoga" entertained the regiment with refreshments, and presented the gorgeous banner bearing the devices suggested by the colonel, with the pike-head presented by Mr. Eddy crowning the tip of the staff.

(The battered and tattered remains of this beautiful banner are now - 1878 - preserved among the archives of the State at Albany, while the pike-head is retained by the first colonel of the regiment as one of his mementos.)

The "Old Cooper Shop" of Philadelphia, where men made barrels by day, and the ladies fed the marching troops by night, has become famous. While many chivalrous and knightly soldiers were entertained there, some were very coarse and rude. One night a regiment, largely composed of New York city "roughs," had behaved very badly there, and the lights had to be turned down before the profane and boisterous boors could be got rid of. The next regiment marched in in perfect order, fled round the tables, came to an "order arms," "rest," and stood as if on dress parade. With the utmost civility they partook of what was offered them, and the "Old Cooper Shop" was as quiet as the dining-room of a first-class hotel. The ladies and their few male companions could be overheard saying, "Did you ever see such a contrast? What gentlemanly fellows they are!" An officer of the regiment was asked a question by a lady, and, saluting in true military style, he answered, "The 77th New York, Col. McKean commanding.'' The lunch ended, the colonel called "Attention!'' and then proposed the sentiment: "The loyal ladies of the City of Brotherly Love!" The men gave three rousing hurrahs, passed quietly out, and resumed their march.

At Washington, the regiment was put into the provisional division of Gen. Silas Casey, and went into camp on the grounds of the Porter mansion, on Fourteenth Street, near the north suburbs of the city. The daily sessions of Congress commenced at noon. Col. McKean slept in camp every night, drilled his men, and attended to regimental duties during the forenoon of each day, and at half-past eleven o'clock rode to the capitol, gave his horse into the care of a livery-man near by, took his seat in the House, sat through the session, and in the evening rode back to camp. This busy routine lasted several months. In the spring following the regiment crossed the Potomac into Virginia, and the colonel was excused from attending upon the sessions of the House. When the army was organized into corps the 77th became a part of the 4th Corps, Gen. Keyes commanding. Gen. William F. Smith ("Baldy Smith") was division and Gen. John W. Davidson brigade commander. Col. McKean was present in command of his regiment in the second advance upon Manassas, in the descent of the Potomac, in the Peninsular campaign, at the battle of Lee's Mills, in the siege of Yorktown and operations in that vicinity, and at the battle of Williamsburg. While the army was lying on the Pamunky river the 6th Army Corps was organized, and Gen. Smith's division, to which the 77th belonged, became the second division of this new corps, - a corps destined never to be routed, almost always to be victorious, and when compelled to retreat to do so in order and in obedience to command; a corps whose achievements alone would make glorious the military annals of the nation.

A few days before the battle of Hanover Court-House a Confederate force was thrown into Mechanicsville, a hamlet five miles from Richmond, and on the most direct road by which reinforcements could be sent from that city to Hanover. A Federal force was sent forward to take that key to the position, and, after a sharp artillery duel, Col. McKean and the 77th, in double-quick, charged into, took, and held Mechanicsville, the Confederate artillery galloping away, their infantry throwing off their knapsacks and flying across the fields. Before this charge was made several men of the 77th had been struck by the enemy's shot, but during the charge not a man was hit. This singular result was probably owing to the fact that when they started on the double-quick the Bemus Heights men uttered as terrible a shout as was ever heard on any field. The Confederates, no doubt thinking a whole corps d'armée was coming, turned and fled.

In honor of this event, the well-known musical composer, Mr. J.W. ALFRED CLUETT, of Troy, wrote a spirited march, entitled "COL. McKEAN'S QUICKSTEP," several editions of which have been sold. The colonel preserves among his mementos a rebel flag, the "Stars and Bars," captured in this charge.

The battle of Fair Oaks was fought under the following circumstances: Gen. Casey's Division had been thrown over to the right, the Richmond side, of the Chickahominy river. All the rest of the Federal army was for some reason, or without reason, still lying on the left bank. A great storm came on, the little river rose rapidly, overflowed its banks, and spread over the valley. There were no bridges for many miles. And now a Confederate force, greatly superior in numbers, was hurled upon Casey. For hours and hours Casey and his men fought like Spartans, while the rest of the Federal army, almost within speaking distance, were powerless to aid them. But many of the troops on the left bank made herculean efforts to get over the river. Col. McKean and the 77th, and thousands of others, arming themselves with all the axes that could be obtained, went down into the submerged fiats, some of them wading waist-deep, and commenced felling the forest-trees, to make, if possible, some sort of bridge by which to go to Casey's relief. For many hours, this work went on, and several rods of a rude bridge were made; but when the work approached the centre of the stream the rushing waters were too powerful, and the timbers were swept away. But the tireless workers would not give up, and still tried again and again until night put a stop to their efforts. The next day, the battle being over, the general commanding the army ordered the 6th Corps, and other troops, to join Casey by making a long march down the river, crossing a bridge, and marching up on the other side. Who can tell why this was not done before the battle?

On the slow march up the Virginia Peninsula more of our men died of disease than were killed in battle. "Josh Billings" thus defines: "Military strategy - that means tryin' to reduce a swamp by ketchin' the billious fever out of it."

Col. McKean was now prostrated with typhoid fever. He remained in camp, however, until the surgeons decided that, situated as they were, they could do no more for him, and that he most go to the rear or die. He was then taken back to the Hygeia hospital at Hampton. On arriving there Dr. Cuyler, medical director, and Mr. Tucker, Assistant Secretary of War, who happened to be present, decided that he must be sent to his home, and he was accordingly taken back to Saratoga Springs. About two months afterwards, against the advice and repeated pretests of his family physician, he returned to the front. Going up the James river to Harrison's Landing, he found that the army had started on its march down the Peninsula. Returning to Hampton Roads, he there rejoined his command and with the army came up the Potomac, and with the 6th Corps went into camp in rear of Alexandria. Gen. Smith said to him, "Col. McKean, your health is not sufficiently restored to justify you in remaining in camp. We shall probably lie here some time. Go up to Washington and take care of your health." The colonel went to Washington, and was there joined by Surgeon Stearns of his regiment, who had also been down with typhoid fever. In a short time the Confederate forces again made their appearance in the vicinity of Bull Run, and another battle was imminent.

One day, about sunset, McKean and Stearns learned that during the day the 6th Corps had moved on towards Bull Run. As the transport bringing their horses up the Potomac had not yet arrived: the colonel and surgeon went at once to a livery establishment and got homes to take them to the front, but the government seized the horses for other purposes. They then secured other and still other livery horses, which, however, were in every instance seized by the government. They then reported at the headquarters of Gen. Wadsworth, military governor of the city. A staff-officer gave them seats in a vehicle loaded with bread; they traveled thus all night, and on the morrow overtook their command near Bull Run. But it was all in vain. The second battle of Bull Run was lost. Not a single regiment of the 6th Corps was ordered into the fight. The army retreated upon Washington. Col. McKean has always said that retreat was the gloomiest experience of his life. For the 6th Corps to retreat without being beaten, or to be beaten by not being permitted to strike a blow, was well-nigh unbearable.

Soon after these events, Col. McKean was attacked with ulceration of the bowels, and was admonished by physicians that his life was in imminent peril, and that he must leave the army. He thereupon tendered his resignation of his commission, but Secretary Stanton, instead of accepting it, sett him a long leave of absence, and advised that he go to his home in Saratoga, and try to regain his health. He went home, but health did not soon return. Indeed, for six years he was not able to practice his profession, much less to serve in the field. In July, 1863, while confined to his bed, he again tendered his resignation, and it was accepted.

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III. - THE 30TH REGIMENT NEW YORK STATE VOLUNTEERS.

Three companies of the 30th Regiment New York Volunteers were raised in the towns of Saratoga Springs and Greenfield.

Company D was organized by the election of Miles T. Bliven captain, Mervin G. Putnam first lieutenant, and John H. Marston second lieutenant.

Company F, Albert J. Perry captain, Andrew M. Franklin first, and James M. Andrews, Jr., second lieutenant.

Company G, Morgan H. Chrysler captain, William T. Conkling first, and Asa L. Gurney second lieutenant.

The 30th Regiment was organized by the election of Edward Frisby, of Albany, colonel: Charles E. Brintnall, of Troy, lieutenant-colonel, and William M. Searing, of Saratoga Springs, major, and was mustered into the service of the United States on the 1st day of June, 1861. {original text has "1863".} After some two weeks' delay, the regiment was armed with old flint-lock muskets altered to cap-lock, and was sent to Washington, and was sent to the front, making its first camp at Bright Wood, near where Fort Stephens was built. From thence it was marched to Arlington, and there brigaded with the 22d and 24th New York and the Brooklyn 14th, afterwards the 84th New York Volunteers, making the 1st Brigade in the 1st Division and 1st Corps in the organization of the army. This brigade formed camps near Upton's Hill, and passed the balance of the year 1861, up to April, 1862, in building forts, and picketing on the front. In April, 1862, Gen. McClellan, after nine months of preparation, prepared to obey the call of "On to Richmond!" that had been ringing in our ears from the north all winter, moved forward with bands playing, drums beating, and colors flying, following our brave leader, "Little Mac," who announced that hereafter his headquarters would be in the saddle, - all joyful that active service had come at last, and confident that the Rebellion would be squelched in about six months, late in the afternoon of that or the next day were drawn up in battle array in front of those impregnable rebel works at Centre Hill and Manassas. The skirmish line was moved forward, and, being anxious to cover themselves with glory, charged on the works and carried them without giving the rest of the army a chance to participate in the glorious work, captured seven colored persons, eight wooden cannon, and a lot of old shanties, vacated five day's before by the rebels. The order was given to bivouac for the night. The next day was spent in inspecting the works and adjacent country, and the next day after this grand army retreated back to our old camp, through a regular Virginia rain-storm, caused, probably, by the dust of battle! This brigade went in to make up the Army of Virginia, under the command of McDowell, and the 1st Division, 1st Brigade ahead, moved for Fredericksburg, Va., by the way of Catlett and Bristoe Station, on the Orange and Alexandria railroad, and arrived there some three or four days before the balance of the division. In this march the brigade earned the name by which it was afterwards known, - "The Iron Brigade."

Gen. Augur commanded the brigade and Gen. King the division. This regiment served at Fredericksburg, engaged in picket duty and making reconnaissance, until in August, 1862, when the division joined Gen. Pope's army, and while under him were engaged in battles as follows: Cedar Mountain, Rappahannock Station, three days, White Sulphur Spring, Gaines' Corners, Grafton, and Bull Run (2d). Then, under McClellan, were engaged in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam. In the battle of 2d Bull Run, out of four hundred and sixty-three men, there were killed, wounded, and missing, two hundred and fourteen, and from twenty-three officers, seventeen were killed and disabled. Col. Frisby, the brave and noble commander, was killed, and Lieut.-Col. Searing was promoted on the field to its command. At the battle of South Mountain the regiment could muster only one hundred and ten men fit for service. At the battle of Antietam the brigade was put on the skirmish line, and withdrawn as soon as the battle was fairly commenced. The army, then under the command of Gen. Meade, followed the enemy up by the way of Warrenton to Fredericksburg, and on the 12th and 13th of December were engaged in the battle of Fredericksburg, and on the 20th of January, 1863, the army, under the command of Burnside, participated in what was generally called Burnside's mud march. The army then went into winter-quarters, the 1st Brigade and 1st Division, commanded by that brave and good man, Gen. Wadsworth, encamped at Belle Plain near Aquia Creek, Va. The regiment remained there, performing the ordinary camp and picket duty, until the latter days in April or first in May, when the 1st Corps moved to the Rappahannock river, crossed over, and took position in front of the enemy. Gen. Hooker, in command, remained there for two days, when the corps was withdrawn and sent to take the place of the 11th Corps in the battle of Chancellorsville, under Gen. Hooker's immediate command; arrived there and took part in the battle for two days. The regiment then encamped before Fredericksburg, and soon after were ordered home, and mustered out and discharged at Albany, N. Y., June 18, 1863. A large portion of the officers and men of the 30th Regiment, under Lieut.-Col. Chrysler, organized the 2d Veteran Cavalry Regiment, N.Y. Vols., and re-entered the service in October, 1863, and served until November, 1865, the close of the war.

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