HISTORY OF

SARATOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK.

by NATHANIEL BARTLETT SYLVESTER

1878

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HISTORY OF THE VILLAGES AND TOWNS OF SARATOGA COUNTY.

SARATOGA (Part 1).

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I. - GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION.

The town of Saratoga is nearly central upon the eastern border of the county. It is bounded north by Wilton and Northumberland, east by the county line, south by Still-water, and west by Saratoga Springs. It includes 10,341 acres of improved land, 4058 of unimproved, and of this last amount 2338 is woodland. The population in 1875 was 4509.

In the revised statutes of the State, this town is described and its boundary lines defined as follows:

"The town of Saratoga shall contain all that part of said county bounded northerly by Northumberland and Wilton, easterly by the east bounds of the county, southerly by Stillwater, and westerly by Saratoga Springs and Malta."

The territory of this town is a part of the ancient Saratoga patent. It is a curious fact that a copy of the original contract of division, with a map attached, executed June 1, 1752, was found, a few years since, in a bale of foreign rags opened at the Fort Miller paper-mill. The map is now in the possession of Henry Wagman, of Saratoga, in an excellent state of preservation. To this document belongs not only its historical interest, but the singular story of wandering as refuse paper back to the very territory of which it is an accurate map, - there rescued from oblivion and duly preserved. The survey was executed by John R. Bleecker, in September and October, 1751. The contract attached was witnessed by Pieter Winne and Jacob Ten Eyck. It was recorded July 23, 1762, by Mr. Gansevoort, clerk. The contracting parties were John Glen, on behalf of the heirs of Jan Janse Bleecker, deceased; Killian De Ridder, for the representatives of Cornelius Van Dyck; Gerardus Groesbeck, for the representatives of Dirck Wessel Ten Broeck; John Van Rensselaer, for the representatives of Peter Schuyler. They met at the house of Edward William Ventune, in the city of Albany, and signed this paper on the 1st of June, 1752. The Indian title to this territory was granted to Peter Schuyler and others, as early as 1684. It was confirmed by the colonial government in 1708, and the names of the patentees are then given as Peter Schuyler, Robert Livingston, Dirck Wessels, John Johnson Bleecker, Johannes Schuyler, and Cornelius Van Dyck. By comparing these names with those on the contract of division before given, it will be seen that prior to 1752 the original six proprietors had been reduced by the sale or inheritance of the property to four.

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II. - NATURAL FEATURES.

The Hudson river is upon the eastern border. A range of high rounded and sometimes terraced hills extends north and south through the central and western parts. These hills rise, some of them, to the height of four hundred and fifty feet, and slope in every direction. Narrow alluvial flats, bordered by high clay bluffs, extend along the Hudson.

Saratoga lake forms a portion of the west boundary. Fish creek, the outlet of the lake, flowing through the north part of the town, is the principal stream, and upon it are several fine mill-sites. The other streams are small brooks. Three mineral springs, known as Quaker springs, issue from the Hudson river slate, in a ravine a little southeast of the centre of the town.

They contain lime, magnesia, and iron, with carbonic gas and salts of soda.

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III. - EARLY SETTLEMENT.

Around the Sa-ragh-to-ga of the long colonial period, but now Schuylerville on the Upper Hudson, there lingers a wealth of strange and mystic story. It is at Sa-ragh-to-ga that the river hills begin to crowd down to the banks of the stream on either side, thus giving rise to the significance of the name, which means, in the Indian tongue, "the hill-side country of the great river." It was at Old Saratoga that there was a crossing and divergence of the old Indian war-trails, which led through the great northern valley. That is to say, in coming down the Hudson it was here that the lateral trails left the river, and the one on the west ran up the Fish creek and around Saratoga lake towards the Dutch settlement at Schenectady, and the other on the east ran up the Batten Kill and over the eastern mountains towards the English settlements in the valley of the Connecticut. It will quite readily be seen that this crossing of the war-trails at old Saratoga, making of it as it were a wilderness "four corners," is what gave the place its stragetical importance in forest warfare, and is the reason why forts should have been built there.

It was at Old Saratoga that, as early as the year 1687, Governor Dongan attempted to induce a band of Christian Iroquois, that the French missionaries had led to Cach-na-oua-ga, on the St. Lawrence, to return and settle under English protection, in order that they might form a barrier between the then frontier town of Albany and the hostile French and Indians of the ever-frowning north.

It was here, in the month of February, 1690, that Lieutenant Le Moyne de St. Helene with his band of snow-shoed savages left the Hudson, and taking the western trail up the Fish creek, over Lake Saratoga, and so on across the frozen wilderness, swept down upon the sleeping inhabitants of Schenectady with indiscriminate slaughter.

It was here, in the opening summer of the same year, 1690, that Major Peter Schuyler, then mayor of Albany, in command of some Dutch troops, being the advance corps of the first great army of Canadian invasion, halted to await the approach of General Fitz John Winthrop with the main body of the troops, and clearing a little spot in the mighty virgin forest, built a block-house for his military stores, and gave this spot the local name Saratoga, after the old hunting-ground and patent of which it formed a part.

It was here that nineteen years later, in 1709, Peter Schuyler, now a colonel in the service, and in command of the advance-guard of the second great army of northern invasion, again halted his troops and built a stockaded fort on the east side of the river. This old fort, of which slight remains now exist, was situate on the east side of the river on the high bluff a hundred rods below the mouth of the Batten Kill, now forest-crowned, upon which General Fellows planted his cannon before Burgoyne's surrender. This old fort at Saratoga stood for nearly forty years with the varying fortunes of the old wilderness warfare, until it was finally abandoned and burnt by the retiring English troops, in the autumn of 1747.

In attempting to write the story of pioneer settlement in the valley of the Upper Hudson, we are confronted at once with the necessity and the difficulty of going back in our investigations more than a hundred and fifty years to a period of which history has preserved few traces, as far as the minor incidents of early settlement are concerned. It is true that in entering this valley we stand face to face with some of the grandest facts of general history. It is the very spot where empires struggled for supremacy. Along this line, in part at least, French discovery, sustained by French soldiers and French diplomacy, won from the Indians a magnificent domain, embracing in its wide sweep the valley of the St. Lawrence, the basins of the Great Lakes, and the head-waters of the Mississippi. Over this same route from Albany to Montreal marched and countermarched the armies in the war of 1756, that transferred all this vast territory to the English crown. Nor even yet was the historic significance of this valley complete. Again, in the War of the Revolution, an empire was lost and won, not only in this valley and in this county, but, as to the crisis of the campaign, within the actual limits of the town of Saratoga. In such a town the importance of national history overshadows that of the local. It is easier to determine the man who commanded here in a great battle than it is the man who cleared an opening in the primeval forest and erected the first log house; easier to find the field of a fierce contest than the field first sowed with grain. And yet when general history seeks to settle the details of its own grand work, it is often involved in the same obscurity that overhangs pioneer settlement.

Bartel Vroman seems to have been the pioneer settler of Old Saratoga. He was there as early as the year 1689. At a convention held at the city of Albany on Sept. 4, 1689, among others, it was

"Resolved, That there be a fort made about the house of Bartel Vroman at Sarachtoge, and twelve men raised out of the two companies of the city and two companies of the county, to lie there upon pay, who are to have twelve-pence a day, besides provisions, and some Indians of Skachkook to be there with them, to go out as scouts in that part of the county."

Upon the Saratoga patent purchased in 1684 it is probable there were other settlements made soon after the year 1700. It is supposed that mills and other buildings were erected by the Schuylers on the south side of Fish creek, near the present house of George Strover, in 1709 or 1710. General Schuyler, of Revolutionary fame, was born in Albany in 1731, and it is inferred that the Schuyler family themselves were not living here before that date but came not long after. We have no information that at this early period there were any openings in the forest or any pioneers in the town back from the river, nor have we the names of any at the river. If mills were built in 1709 or 1710, somebody must have lived at that point, and there, beyond all question, was the place of the first settlement. The workmen that built the mills, the men that carried them on, whoever they were, were nearly or quite the first settlers.

Old Fort Saratoga was erected on the heights east of the river and south of the Batten Kill in 1709. Under its protection a few early settlers, no doubt, came about the time or soon after the mills were built. In 1745 the historians speak of a village of thirty families that were attacked, and killed, captured, or driven away. This settlement was called Saratoga, and it is believed that most of these thirty families were on the west side of the river, at the Schuyler mills, and such dwelling-houses as had gathered around them. This destruction of the village of Saratoga, Nov. 17, 1745, was one of the fearful scenes of border warfare. History gives us no details, but the imagination easily supplies them. The sudden attack; the struggle for life; the fierce fight; the burning buildings; the hasty retreat with the weary captives, were all here in this now peaceful and pleasant valley. A whole village destroyed; thirty dwellings burned; their very sites unknown, save that of the Schuyler house; and the names of the dead and the captured alike lost. Captain Peter Schuyler fought bravely, but was killed in his own house.

Whether the fort was garrisoned at this time, or whether the attack was too sudden and too soon over for relief from it, is somewhat uncertain. The history of border warfare gives a few subsequent items relating to this vicinity. May 13, 1746, William Norwood was killed by the Indians while fishing in the river near the fort; whether he was a settler or one of the garrison is not stated. December 15, the Indians attacked a small party near the Schuyler place, killed four and took four prisoners. October 12 of the same year a party of Americans guarding some wagons south of Fish creek were attacked and sixteen killed.

The next spring, April 7, a skirmish occurred near the Schuyler place between a company under Captain Trent and Lieutenant Proctor and about two hundred Indians; eight of the Americans were killed. June 15 of that year the fort itself was attacked by French and Indians, but resisted successfully until relief came from Albany. During this perilous period of eighteen years, from 1745 to 1763, existing settlements were broken up, and it is not probable that any new settlers attempted to face the privations, sickness, and hardships of a new country, and the dangers of war at the same time. The peace of 1763 between France and England removed, to a great extent, all fear of further trouble from the Indians, and left this town open for settlement. The true pioneer period of Saratoga commences at this point; at least that of which we can gain some tolerably accurate information. The Schuyler house and mills were rebuilt soon after peace was declared. The new grist-mill was erected on the north side of Fish creek, on the site of the present mill of D.A. Bullard & Sons. The old Schuyler mansion, which the French and Indians burned, stood east of the "old lilacs." In widening the canal a few years ago the cellar was opened, and many relics obtained. The new house erected at the close of the French war was placed about twelve rods west of the "old lilacs," and exactly south of the present Schuyler mansion, belonging to George Strover. The lilac-bushes themselves are venerable enough to be objects of curiosity. They were undoubtedly planted either in the time of the first or the second Schuyler hour, and must certainly be more than one hundred years old, perhaps one hundred and forty. They are evidently vigorous enough to last till the second centennial of the republic. During a period of twelve years, from 1763 to 1765, quite a number of settlers appear to have made their homes within the limits of the present town of Saratoga.

Abram Marshall came from Yorkshire, England, and settled on the place now owned by William H. Marshall, in the year 1763 or 1764. He was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. He died Nov. 30, 1811, aged eighty-one. Mr. Marshall and family, taking the stock owned by them, went to Albany for safety on the approach of Burgoyne. He has a large number of descendants living in this vicinity. William H. Marshall, a great-grandson, occupies the old homestead. Abram Marshall, a grandson, lives in Northumberland. The widow of another grandson, Mrs. William Marshall, owns the house, which is a famous relic of war times, north of the village of Schuylerville.

Thomas Jordan was a son-in-law of Abram Marshall. He was in the American bateau service. His place was the present farm of Frank Marshall. From Alonzo Welch, of Schuylerville, we learn that his grandfather, Joseph Welch, settled, between 1765 and 1770, on the place now owned by his grandson, Lorenzo D. Welch. He was a lieutenant in the American army, was taken prisoner, and detained three years in Canada.

Thomas Smith moved from Dutchess county to Saratoga about the year 1770, and bought the place now owned by Stephen Smith. He first built a log house, and afterwards a frame house. This last was below the present barn, halfway down the hill, near the road, and was used until 1808. Mr. Smith died in 1801. He left one son, William T. Smith, who built the present house, and was the father of seven sons and three daughters, eight of whom are still living.

Before or about 1770, John Strover purchased the farm now owned by James Bailey, Jr., but probably did not settle here till after the Revolutionary war, in which he did valuable service as a scout, going through great perils in that dangerous employment. He was an orderly sergeant. He died in 1836. His son, George Strover, about 1839 or 1840 bought the old Schuyler place, and is still living there at an advanced age. He had heard his father say that he was present at the execution of Lovelace the traitor. He was hung on the Gravel hill, near the Schuyler place, and was buried in a standing position by an oak-tree. George Strover himself saw the oak stump dug out when the Gravel hill was cut away, and the bones were found in accordance with the statement of his father. The skull is preserved as a relic at Mr. Strover's house.

Hezekiah Dunham also settled in this same period, just before the Revolutionary war, upon the hill where Hiram Cramer now lives. He was a man of nerve and daring, an active patriot during the war, and one of the captors of Lovelace.

James I. Brisbin was also an early pioneer upon the farm now owned by George W. Smith. Of Mr. Brisbin and another pioneer, George Davis, the story is related that they swapped horses on one occasion, and endeavored to be honest and fair in the transaction. But after returning home and thinking it over Mr. Brisbin concluded that he had the best of the bargain by about five dollars, and that he ought to pay over that sum. Mr. Davis, too, was going through the same process of conviction, and concluded he had the best of the bargain and ought to pay over five dollars to Mr. Brisbin. They each concluded to ride to the other's house and do this act of justice. They met about half-way, but just how they explained the matter and how they settled it history leaves no record. This transaction was not probably the model after which subsequent horse-trades have generally been made in this town. Another pioneer of nearly the same name, James Brisbin, settled upon the farm now the residence of his grandson, James C. Brisbin.

The founders of the Friends' monthly meeting are also among the first settlers before the Revolution. Gabriel Leggett and Isaac Leggett settled within the present limits of Stillwater, and were prominent men in the new settlement, as well as in the Society of Friends. Thomas Wilbur and Fones Wilbur settled in the vicinity of the Basin, since known by their name, within the limits of the present town of Stillwater. David Shepherd's pioneer home was upon this place, owned ever since by his descendants, now the property of his grandson, David Shepherd. John Walker also settled in the southern part of the town, near the line of Stillwater. On the authority of Joseph A. Sweet, of Moreau, it would seem that the Van Olindas were in this town before the Revolution, on the Bennett farm, and also the Davenports; but this is not verified by inquiry sufficient to state their location at the time of their settlement.

Tibbett Soule, from his connection with the society of Friends, as related by Andrew Dorland, must also be counted an early pioneer before the Revolution. George Davis is the one spoken of in the account of Mr. Brisbin, and his place is still known as the Davis farm. He was very likely the earliest blacksmith.

Albert Clemens, who came with his father from Dutchess county, in 1789, and was then eight years old, remembers Mr. Cross, Mr. Webster, and Daniel Guiles as old residents then; supposed they were here before the war. He heard Mrs. Webster relate stories of the war times; that the soldiers came and took meat from their smoke-house. Mr. Cross' place was near the present one of Mr. Shearer; and Mr. Guiles lived where Victory village is now situated.

Mr. Patterson, living south of Victory, states that his grandfather, Sherman Patterson, was here before the Revolution, and settled in the north part of what is now Schuylerville, on the place owned by Alonzo Welch. He gives a definite statement of the tradition which has always existed around Schuylerville, that the British army buried some property and even specie just before the surrender.

This report has never seemed to be sustained by any very decisive authority. But Mr. Patterson states it in this form: a trench was dug straight up the hill from the river on the Patterson farm and somewhat south of the present North cemetery; and after burying whatever they designed to, the British drew a rope the whole length, tied their horses to it, and fed them there, that the ground might be trampled and the burial of property concealed. Some of the stories of buried property have no doubt grown out of the fact that the British buried their dead in this place, and parties were seen digging, no doubt for that purpose, about the time of the surrender. This would be near the position held by the Germans, - the left wing of the British army, as stated by General Mattoon. This view is corroborated by the fact that Alonzo Welch, in opening a trench a few years ago, found the remains of six bodies. The "Hessian burying-ground," from which General Mattoon attempted to recover a gun after the surrender, was very likely at this point, though it may have been farther down the river, in the vicinity of the principal battle-fields.

Doubtless there are still other names belonging to this period between the French war and the Revolution. In 1777 a man named Swart is stated to have lived south of Coveville, near Van Buren's ferry. Colonel Van Veghten, the father of Herman and Cornelius Van Veghten, was an early settler at Coveville. His name is prominent in tradition as a pioneer before the Revolution, and he was extensively connected with public affairs in that part of the country.

Conrad Cramer also settled upon the farm now occupied by John Smith, about three miles southwest of Schuylerville, as early as 1763.

Conrad Cramer married Margaret Brisbin. Their children were Elizabeth, who married Thomas Whiteside; James, who married Sally Payne; George, who married Anna Anderson; Conrad, who married Laura Lawrence; John, who married Hannah Close. The children of James Cramer were Margaret, James P., Eunice, Payne, Thomas, Sarah Anne, and Hiram. The children of George Cramer were William, Philip, Conrad, James, Mary, John (2d), and Sarah. The children of Conrad Cramer were George C., James L., and John L. (twin brothers). The children of John Cramer were Mary, Eliphalet: George H., William, John C., Charles, and Harriet.

Henry Wagman, who has given much attention to the early history of this country, and is excellent authority, mentions three brothers by the name of Denney, who came to this town as early as 1770, and built three log houses on the present farm of John McBride. John Woeman was here, also, before 1765, and lived near Coveville. William Green settled about 1765. His sons were Samuel, John, and Henry.

At this point in the local history we cannot omit to state briefly something of the Schuyler families, whose names are so intimately associated with this town, who were identified with the pioneer openings in the forest, by their mills furnishing supplies to the garrisons of the fort, and to the very earliest settlers. They shared in the Indian wars, the French war, and the War of the Revolution. If any place was ever rightly named in all this broad land, it is Schuylerville.

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THE SCHUYLER FAMILY.

Philip Pieterson Schuyler came from Amsterdam, Holland, in 1650. According to Lossing he married the same year, December 12, Margaret Van Slechtenhorst, daughter of the agent or director in charge of the Rensselaer Manor. His sons were Guysebert, Pieter, Brant, Arent Philip, Johannes. The daughters were Gertrude, who married Stephanus Van Cortlandt; Alida, who married Rev. Nicholas Van Rensselaer: and after his death Philip Livingston. The pioneer ancestor, Philip Pieter, died March 9, 1684. The second son, Pieter, was, for many years, one of the most prominent men in the province. He was mayor of Albany from 1686 to 1694. John, the youngest of the original family, was the grandfather of General Philip Schuyler.

When the French and Indians destroyed Schenectady in 1690, be asked for a captain's commission, being then twenty-two years of age. With a force hastily recruited of twenty-nine whites and one hundred and twenty Indians, he penetrated Canada by way of Lake Champlain, and returned in seventeen days, having taken many prisoners and destroyed much property. This Captain John Schuyler married Elizabeth Staats, widow of John Wendell, in April, 1695. The captain died in 1747. His eldest son John, born in 1697, lived the quiet life of a gentleman of leisure, having married Cornelia Van Cortlandt. He left five children, dying in 1741, only forty-four years of age. He was buried at the "Flats," now Watervliet, in the family burying-ground of his cousin. His oldest son, Philip, was the general of Revolutionary fame. He was born in the family mansion at Albany, November 20, 1733.

The Schuyler who settled at the mouth of Fish creek, built the mills and the first Schuyler mansion, was an uncle of the general. He was killed at the destruction of the village of Saratoga, Nov. 28, 1745.

The time when General Philip Schuyler came into the possession of the estate at Fish creek, is not given by his historians, nor when he commenced residing there. In 1767 he erected a flax-mill there, the first in the American colonies. The mansion at Fish creek was his summer residence, the winters being mostly passed by the family in Albany.

William Smith, urging him to be a candidate for the Assembly in 1768, writes, "If you will serve one session more, I will promise to leave you in full possession of your wolves, foxes, snow, a small sailing-vessel with fish and lands at Saratogue, and give you no further disturbance while the remaining sands run out."

And this promise of rural quiet was just before the long and stormy Revolutionary career in which the name of Schuyler was to become illustrious for all time.

The story of the pioneer settlement is thus brought down to the time of the Revolution. The opening of the war no doubt put a stop to further emigration. To hold territory already settled became the necessity of the times rather than to secure more.

The years succeeding the surrender of Burgoyne were still troublous times. It was not till the peace of 1783 that the settlement of the town continued.

General Schuyler with characteristic energy had his new house raised in seventeen days after the declaration of peace. This was the one now known as the Schuyler mansion, the property and the residence of George Strover.

It is a venerable building, - interesting for its historic associations as well as for its antique and curious furniture, and the ancient relics carefully preserved and courteously shown to visitors by Mr. Strover and his family. During the period of seventeen years from the close of the war up to 1800, the number of new settlers increased rapidly.

They came to found for themselves and for their children homes in this beautiful valley, and on the fertile slopes of the hills that environ it. Remnants of the orchards they planted are seen here and there in the venerable trees still bearing fruit in the same fields with those of later years. The sites of many early log houses are still visible, - though in some cases concealed beneath the fine buildings of the present time.

Jesse Mott was an early settler south of Dean's Corners. Of himself he writes for his children in 1844: "I left Dutchess county March 14, 1783, sixty-one years ago. I was then twenty-four years of age. I first bought one hundred acres all new. I made a home the first year with a family who had got in the year before. I cleared some land, and in the fall I built a log cabin and caught a little wife. She was in the seventeenth year of her age.

"We lived together seventeen years. She was the mother of thirteen children, and we had collected a good property. When I first began I paid $250 towards my land. This was one-half of the purchase price. The debt of $250 cost me many a sleepless night after a hard day's labor. At that time I had no expectation of seeing the country appear as it now does. But my days are nearly spent, and I must leave others to manage. When I left Dutchess my friends thought it very doubtful whether I should make out to live, or starve, and return a beggar. The latter I felt to despise, and within twenty years would not have been willing to have exchanged with them."

Samuel Bushee came in from Connecticut soon after the Revolution, about 1785. He married the daughter of Abram Marshall, and bought the farm north of Schuylerville of the Lansings, who owned it at the time the house was occupied by Burgoyne's officers. He sold it to Samuel Marshall in 1817. Mr. Busbee was in the American army during the Revolution, and was at Monmouth in the New Jersey campaign.

Elihu Billings settled south of Dunham's, on the Cramer Hill, about the same time - their log house being built near the brow of the hill, and Daniel Morgan, father of Daniel Morgan, Jr., afterwards a town officer for so many years, was also a resident there as early as 1790.

Obadiah Knapp and Mr. Jeffords were also early pioneers southeast of the present site of Victory village - as appears from notices in another place.

John Thorn came from Dutchess county about 1785. He had been a soldier in the Revolutionary army. He settled on what is still known as the Thorn place. His first house was on the site of the present one. He had four sons and six daughters. Three of the latter are still living.

In the west part of the town, near Saratoga lake, settlements were made in 1784 or 1785. An interesting item of history is connected with them. On the 7th day of August, 1781, seven men, sent from Canada, came to Albany and in the evening made an attack upon the house of General Schuyler, where he had been residing after the destruction of his buildings at Schuylerville. Their object was to kill or capture the general, either through deadly hate at his past services against the English government, or perhaps with the design of holding the person of the general as a hostage to secure terms in the future exchange of prisoners. There were in the house with the general at the time John Ward and John Cokely, two of his lifeguards, and also John Tubbs, an army-courier in his service. These three men made a gallant fight with the seven assassins, who had effected an entrance into the hall. John Tubbs, as his children now relate it, had a personal struggle with one, and having pressed him down behind an old oaken chest, with his hand on his throat, tried to draw a knife to finish him, but the knife was gone, and Tubbs was obliged to let him up. Meanwhile General Schuyler had, from the windows above, aroused the town, and the seven men suddenly left, carrying off Tubbs and Cokely with them as prisoners, and as proof that they had actually penetrated to Schuyler's house and made an attempt to execute their appointed work. The prisoners were kept nineteen months on an island on the St. Lawrence. Returning home about the time peace was declared, General Schuyler presented the three men with a deed of two hundred and seventy acres of land. The deed is now in the possession of Simon Tubbs, son of John Tubbs, and recites that "In consideration of five shillings, and that John Cokely, John Ward, and John Tubbs, did gallantly defend the said Philip Schuyler when attacked in his own house, near the city of Albany, on the 7th day of August, 1781, by a party of the enemy in the late war, sent expressly to kill or make prisoner of the said Philip Schuyler," the party of the first part hath granted and sold to the said Ward, Cokely, and Tubbs all that tract and parcel of land "In the Saratoga patent, known and distinguished as the westernmost farm of the south half of lot No. 20 in the grand division of Saratoga patent, made by John B. Bleecker, surveyor, in 1750, containing about two hundred and seventy acres of land."

The land was first divided into three parts, and the men drew for their respective portions, and soon after made their homes in this section. John Tubbs' portion was a part of the present place of Simon Tubbs, his son; John Ward's, the farm occupied until recently by his son; and John Cokely's share is also now owned by Simon Tubbs.

Other early settlers in this section were as follows: Joseph Rogers came in during the war, or perhaps before, and settled on the Jonas Lasher place. On this farm is an old burial-ground having one stone marked "M.I., 1787," supposed to be for Martin Irish, drowned in Saratoga lake. Daniel Wood was an early pioneer, probably here before the Revolution, as he moved off of the place which Tubbs settled in 1784. Silas Deuel was in the same neighborhood before 1800. Oliver Perkins lived where Thomas Sweet now lives. Ephraim Annable lived on the Daniel Flinn place.

Johannes Viele, in the year 1789, settled on the place still owned by his descendants, east of Bryant's bridge. His brother, Stephen Viele, about the same time also penetrated this new country, and settled on the present farm of Henry Wagman. Another brother, Ludovicus Viele, is also spoken of as having accompanied them. Jesse Toll, a brother-in-law, also came to Saratoga about the year 1790. He owned at one time an entire grand division of the Saratoga patent, - a tract one mile wide, six miles long. It is understood that he built the mills at Grangerville soon after his arrival.

In the vicinity of Coveville, Walter Van Veghten and Herman Van Veghten were prominent citizens. Walter Knickerbocker, Refine Geer, and probably some others, were also settled there.

The farm now owned by Esquire Bailey was settled very early. The first deed is from Killian De Ridder to John Vroman, in 1783; consideration, 150. It was sold by Vroman to John, Henry, and Samuel Green in 1797. It may have been settled earlier than the deed indicates.

Stephen Olney was in the town at a very early date, - 1770, as stated by some, - and settled where Asa L. Shepherd now lives.

James Milligan and Robert Milligan were in town as early as 1785.

It is not probable that we have specially mentioned all, nor nearly all, the families that settled in Saratoga before 1800. The town had too large a population by that date to be sure of naming all. Many other names will be found in the history of Saratoga County in the church records, in the lists of town officers, and in other papers embodied in this history, giving a clear view of the early settlement.

The first tavern in Schuylerville was opened some time before the War of 1812, perhaps nearly as early as 1800. It was kept by Widow Taylor, and stood on the place now owned by Nancy Telfair. The next was built by Daniel Patterson, on the site of the present Schuylerville House. This was about 1812, and the tavern was called Patterson's Inn. Not more than a year later the Mansion House was built by Alpheus Bullard, as stated in another place. This building is still standing, occupied by Mrs. R.D. Lewis. In 1818, Oliver Cleveland built a tavern on the site of the present Goldsmith House, and named it the Schuylerville House. This was afterwards destroyed by fire.

In still earlier times there was a tavern at Coveville, and Madam Reidesel's letters speak of a tavern kept by Smith on the way down the river, evidently just below Schuylerville. Perhaps this was the same point where Samuel Bushee afterwards kept a tavern, now known as the Dillingham place.

The first mills in town were of course at Schuylerville, as already shown in tracing the early history. The mills at Grangerville are also of very early date. They were built by Jesse Toll before 1800. At or near the same date there was a saw-mill at Victory.

The first store in town, aside from such supplies as may have been sold at Schuylerville, was probably kept by John Douglass, on the place now owned by Hiram Cramer, though it is possible there was one somewhat earlier at Coveville, kept by Herman Van Veghten. The Hill at Cramer's was once quite a business point before the opening of the canal and the subsequent growth of Schuylerville. Besides the store, there was an ashery, the old Baptist church, a school-house, and one or two mechanics' shops.

The first store in Schuylerville was probably kept by Abraham Van Deusen, opened soon after the War of 1812. His dwelling-house was the north end of the present Bullard block.

George Davis was an early blacksmith. Joseph T. Smith remembers being sent when a boy to his shop with the points of old wooden mould-board plows to be sharpened. It was on the present farm of Obadiah Davis.

Prominent physicians in town were Dr. Bull, Dr. Bryant, Dr. Dean, Dr. Smith, Dr. Brisbin, Dr. Pierce, Dr. Copp, Dr. Dimmick, and Dr. Billings. They have all been well known in the history of the town, and all are dead except Dr. Billings, who is still living at an advanced age in Northumberland.

The legal profession was represented in past years by Richard M. Livingston, living first at Coveville and after-wards at Schuylerville, Joseph Fullerton, and John Lewis, at Schuylerville; also E.L. Fursman, now of Troy.

------------------------------

PERSONAL REMINISCENCES OF ALBERT CLEMENTS, OF VICTORY.

His father, soon after the War of the Revolution, bought about 500 acres of land, comprising the present farms of Patterson, Clothier, and others. The family moved here in the winter of 1788-89, traveling up the Hudson river on the ice. Two of the older sons had settled here three years before. Albert remembers that the inauguration of Washington, as the first President of the new government, was talked about in his father's family that spring. Albert was then eight years old, and survives now at the age of ninety-six, able to relate clearly the memorable events of that year. He is an extraordinary instance of longevity, a venerable link connecting the present with the past, reaching beyond the long succession of Presidents, back of the very foundations of the Federal Constitution.

In his boyhood he went to school at a log school-house near what is now the Holmes place, - also at another near Mr. Finch's, - that he could only reach by a foot-path. Daniel Morgan, Jr., was one of his schoolmates. He remembers that there was on his father's farm an old log school-house, no longer used. He recalls the name of Mr. Tucker as his earliest teacher. He went to meeting in those days at the old Dutch church south of Fish creek. Mr. Smith was the earliest minister of his recollection. He married the daughter of Col. Van Veghten at Coveville, - and Mr. Clements thinks fashions "swing around the circle" with considerable exactness, as he used to see a negro boy carry the train of Mrs. Smith from the carriage to the church pew. The first burial he remembers was a child of Deacon Billings, also very early he was at the funeral of a Mrs. Cross buried in Schuylerville. In his youth shoemakers traveled from house to house and made up shoes for the families. Mr. St. John was the first who could make a pair of Suwarrow boots. Mr. Clements found the leather and paid four dollars and fifty cents to have a pair made for himself. Being reminded that that was as costly as boots are now, Mr. Clements replied, "Oh, those boots would last twenty years."

Mr. Clements, like other boys, used to go to town-meetings. They were held at Stafford's bridge, within the present town of Saratoga Springs. Fishing on the creek, too, was a favorite and successful sport. The boys used to get a canoe of Mr. Cross, living where Mr. Shearer does now. Hunting was also a good business in those times. While working in the field one day, having his gun with him as usual, he saw a flock of ducks gathered on a log in the swamp near Mr. Patterson's. He made three shots, bringing down ten the first time, nine the second, and eight the third, - twenty-seven in all. Sometimes having shot ducks, he thought nothing of swimming after them and bringing them out.

Mr. Clements was drafted in the War of 1812. He hired a substitute for sixty dollars, and found the equipments for him. His brother, Wm. Clements, went into the army, and served on Lake Champlain. Albert Clements helped plow down the intrenchments, on the heights where the new cemetery is. It was on the west slope of the hill, about parallel with the present road to Victory, on the west of the cemetery. Hi father was hired, with two yoke of cattle, for the work, and Albert went to drive the team. Mr. Clements states that the intrenchment still to be seen among the pines on the hill south of Victory village, was thrown up the American army while following the retreating army of Burgoyne. From that spot the Yankee boys fired on the British army while halting for dinner, and shot the mutton from the officers' table. Mr. Clements learned surveying and some knowledge of civil engineering from the early surveyor of Stillwater, - George Palmer, - with whom he worked at various times. Mr. Clements laid out the first streets in Schuylerville, and made a plot of the village. The chain was carried for him by Philip Schuyler, grandson of the general, and a Mr. Bedell. The latter had a store on the site of the present jewelry-store of Joseph T. Smith.

Mr. Clements relates that he has heard Abram Marshall say he saw Burgoyne deliver his sword to General Gates, - that the place was south of the Gravel hill, near the old Dutch church. He says the British troops marched down below the Gravel hill to pass Gates' headquarters, where the sword was surrendered. It is a tradition in the Clements family that his grandfather was of the royal family of Holland, - the queen's son, - that he came to America as a traveler or explorer, and returned after three years, having kept a full journal of his travels. He afterwards led over to this country a colony of three hundred and sixty families, some of the earliest settlers of Dutchess and other river counties.

We cannot well omit from the authentic annals of Schuylerville the following dark and supernatural tale of early times, as related by Mr. Clements, but not verified by his affidavit: Some years after the war a man appeared in the place, professing to know where Burgoyne had buried his treasure. Having disclosed his information to some extent, an early resident joined in his plans and the digging commenced, as all such diggings must, in the night. While lustily excavating, looking for Hessian bones or British gold, and just at the point of expected success, suddenly the devil appeared within the mystic circle as he should, according to the annals of money-diggers, - horns, hoofs, tail, flashing eyes, and sepulchral voice, all proved him the genuine Harry himself. The spades fell from the nerveless grasp of the frightened men, and the time they made in getting away from that particular spot cannot be stated, as stop-watches adapted to Saratoga races were then unknown. The next day the stranger from abroad said that it was necessary to secure some one of great courage and piety. Physical force and religious fervor must be united in the same man. So another citizen, one of the heroic old captors of the traitor Lovelace, it is said, was secured, as possessing the two qualifications required, and once more the digging began. The dark shades of night gathered low along the valley of the Hudson. It was a night when battle-fields are filled with the ghosts of long ago, and the battalions of the dead in phantom array sweep in airy lines along the hill-sides that once echoed to the thunder of their cannon. No voice was uttered as the digging went on. In solemn silence each shoveled as for his life. And now, with a fearful howl, the devil again sprang upon them, flinging shovels and iron bars in a style unusually reckless, even for the old Prince of Poker. Dodging these gentle weapons all the men fled, except the one secured for this special occasion. Standing his ground he managed in the confusion to tread on the devil's tail. It immediately came off, - the hoofs and horns, - the whole fearful suit fell away, and an ordinary mortal was seen running for the woods at the top of his speed. And so ended that search for .the buried sovereigns.

------------------------------

REMINISCENCES OF MRS. BULLARD.

Mrs. Bullard was born in the town of Greenfield, in 1787, the daughter of Mrs. Fitch, of Connecticut ancestry. With her father's family she came into Saratoga in 1799. They settled near Saratoga lake, on what is since known as the Edward Fitch farm. In childhood she went to meeting, horseback, at the old church south of Schuylerville. Remembers Rev. Mr. Duryea as the minister at that time. The country was nearly all woods. Wild animals were plenty. From her home by the lake, it was quite an undertaking to go through the woods alone, horseback, to Saratoga Springs, for trade, or to the river at Fort Miller Bridge. She also went to mill, horseback, at Grangerville, when a girl at home. In 1812 she was married to Alpheus Bullard, who had come from Augusta, Maine, the year before. They first kept house in the government barracks at Schuylerville, and soon afterwards they built the Mansion house. It stood on Broad street, on the site of John Cox's place. The buildings in the village at that time (1812) were the Schuyler house, the mills, the old Dutch church, a blacksmith-shop of Mr. Daggett on the street above the mill, a log house where Captain Welch's house now stands, occupied by Stephen Welch. Beyond Stephen Welch a Mr. Peacock lived, also Mr. Van Tassel, then the old parsonage, still standing, and finally the Bushee house, of military fame. This was about all there was of Schuylerville when Mrs. Bullard settled there. Mr. Patterson soon after built a house where the present Schuylerville Hotel stands. Mrs. Bullard relates many incidents of early times. The old log school-house in the Fitch neighborhood has long since passed away, but she remembers that one spelling-book had to answer for several families, that Pike's Arithmetic was in use, and the English Reader. She has six children living, twenty-three grandchildren, and eight great-grandchildren. She has lived to a good old age, - lived to see the forests melt away, the wilderness of early times give way to the cultivated farms and pleasant homesteads of the present day. She has seen prophecy change to history, the desert blossom as the rose, and the wilderness become a fruitful field.

------------------------------

REMINISCENCES OF MRS. ST. JOHN.

She was born in Wilton in 1797; came with her father, John Latimer, to the present site of Victory village in 1800. Mr. Latimer had charge of the mills at that place. Mr. Marshall, Mr. Jordan, and Mr. Bree were their neighbors.

She first went to school at Grangerville about 1805. The teacher's name was Stephens. Birch, Dennison, and Spaulding were other early teachers. The school-house was a frame one. Remembers Sherman Collins as an early physician. Her father was a teamster in the American army, and she supposes he was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. She says her father often went with her to the elm-tree, spoken of by others, on Broad street, told her that there was where Burgoyne surrendered, and she says there was a spring at that place then, now lost or changed in its course by the buildings and the working on the road.

Other personal reminiscences of Simon Tubbs and George Strover might be given in this form, but the valuable material for which we are indebted to them and others is already entered in the general account of the town.

------------------------------

IV. - ORGANIZATION.

The present town of Saratoga retains the old name applied in early times to a large tract of country on both sides of the Hudson. It is explained by some authorities as signifying "swift water," and originally designated the rapids on the Hudson river above Schuylerville; while "still-water" naturally applied to the deep, steady, and quiet stream for some miles below. For a full explanation of this name, however, see chapter v. of this work.

The town was organized by act of the Legislature, March 7, 1788, as one of the towns of Albany county. It had had a district organization from 1772, but the records are not supposed to be in existence. From an old book of audits at Albany, it appears Cornelius Van Veghten was supervisor of the district in 1780 and 1781. There is no record of a town-meeting of 1788, and that of 1789 is partially lost from the first page of the venerable old town-book, - the upper part of the leaf being torn away. In 1789 it appears that Sidney Berry, William Scott, and Hezekiah Dunham were road commissioners; Elihu Billings, Asaph Putnam, and William Thomas, constables; Nelson Winner and Hezekiah Willis, poundmasters.

There were twenty road districts. The following names of overseers appear upon the fragment of the leaf: Benjamin Jenkins, No. 1; Jonathan Pettit, No. 2; James McCreedy, No. 3; Jubal Tyler and S. Chapman, No. 4; Joseph Rogers, No. 5; William Binner, No. 6; Grover Buel, No. 7; Michael Inman, No. 8; Philip G. Viele, No. 9; Edward Wheeler, No. 10; Thomas Rodgers, No. 11. Marks for cattle are recorded in 1789 by Grover Buell, Thomas Thompson, John Craig, Sidney Berry, John Berry, Asaph Putnam, Silas Duell, Oliver Perkins.

The town-meeting of 1790 was held at the house of Archibald McNiel April 6, and the following town officers chosen: Sidney Berry, town clerk; John B. Schuyler, supervisor; Jesse Toll, Solomon Wheeler, William Scott, John Graham, Hezekiah Dunham, assessors; Darius Hand and Elihu Billings, collectors; James Brisbin, Archibald McNiel, and William Scott, road commissioners; Daniel Morgan, Solomon Wheeler, overseers of the poor; Asaph Putnam, Daniel Hand, Elihu Billings, Malcolm Crowfoot, constables; Nelson Winner and John Bitely, fence-viewers. The pathmasters were: No. 1, Jesse Toll and Thomas Bennett; No. 2, Thomas Clemons and Abram Low; No. 3, Moses Low; No. 4, Gilbert Low and Aaron Hill; No. 5, Benjamin Irish; No. 6, Hugh McAdam; No. 7, Grover Buel; No. 8, Benjamin Guile; No. 9, William Harris; No. 10, John Berry; No. 11, John Vandewerker; No. 12, Joseph Smith; No. 13, John Lang; No. 14, Joseph Egglestone; No. 15, Joseph Duel; No. 16, Reuben Stiles; No. 17, Ebenezer Fitch; No. 18, Henderson Crawford; No. 19, John Green; No. 20, Benjamin Risley.

Other names appearing among estray notices and cattle-mark records are John Clements, Joseph Clements, Cornelius Clements, James Reynolds, Benjamin Clements, David Carr, Benjamin Phillips, Jonathan Carr, Michael Washburn, Aaron Martin, Daniel Prendle, Isaac Vandewerker, John McDowell, Tobias Clements, John M. Berry, - his entry dated at Snoek Kill Falls, - Richmond Carr, George Lewis, Ebenezer Marks, Nehemiah Dunbar, Joseph Knapp, Israel Phillips, Eli Mead, Ithamas Clothier, Solomon Phillips, Dr. Phillips, John Davis, John Brisbin, John Serill, Jonathan Newberry, Stafford Carr, Samuel Perry, Isaac Perry, Samuel Adkins. These names are from 1790 to 1795.

Town-meeting of 1791 was held at the house of Archibald McNiel. Officers chosen: John B. Schuyler, supervisor; Archibald McNiel, town clerk; Archibald McNiel, Hezekiah Durham, John Lang, Solomon Wheeler, Jesse Toll, Thomas Thompson, Adam Comstock, assessors; John Mahawney, John B. Schuyler, Ebenezer King, commissioners of highways; James Brisbin, Peter Waldron, overseers of the poor; Elihu Billings, William Angle, Malcolm Crowfoot, Asaph Putnam, Samuel Finch, constables and collectors. Next town-meeting to be held at Mr. Slocum's. Ebenezer King, Grover Buell, Daniel Weeks, John Bitely, fence-viewers. The pathmasters were: No. 1, Aaron Snow, Jonathan Griffin; No. 2, John Calvert and Jesse Billings; No. 3, John Thorn; No. 4, John Grippin; No. 5, Silas Duel; No. 6, Darius Hand; No. 7, Grover Buel; No. 8, Joseph Palmer; No. 9, Nicholas Vandenberg; No. 10, Sidney Berry; No. 11, Thomas Rogers; No. 12, Joseph Smith; No. 13, Josiah Perry; No. 14, Daniel Hickok; No. 15, Solomon Phillips; No. 16, Thomas Titus; No. 17, John Taylor; No. 18, Joel Reynolds; No. 19, Thomas Barber; No. 20, Benjamin Risley; No. 21, James Benjamin; No. 22, Abraham Ludlow; No. 23, Matthew Ketchum. 2 voted for each wolf killed in town, and they calculated for six by voting the sum of 12. Hogs to be yoked; and any person driving cattle into this town to feed, to be fined 10, provided the cattle amount to 5.

Among the town officers and records of 1792 the following new names appear: Daniel Boardman, Amos Stafford, Samuel Chalmers, Ezra Abbott: Abraham Marshall, Jacob Deyoe, John Miers, Ebenezer Dakin, Martin Vandewerker, Elijah Reynolds, Thomas Barnum, Joseph Herrington, Stephen King, Ralph Cox, James Johnson, Isaac Brewster, John Blood, Dan. Conkrite, Jotham Holmes, David Mosier, Daniel Ketcham, Samuel Bailey, Jesse Irish, Thomas D. Chandler, Israel Stiles, Joseph Wright. In 1793 we find others, William Force, Thomas Burnham, Giles Fitch, David Kau, Jesse Mott, Samuel Chapman, Thomas Williams, Asa Newell, Thomas Gurdon, William Force, Preston Denton, John Ward, Captain Gile, William Harris, Samuel Scovil, Daniel Parks, Joseph Herton, Stephen King, Ezra Abbot, Abijah Peck, Wolcott Adsit, Walter E. Patchen, John Deming, Richard Somes, Isaac Ostrom, Nathaniel Saxton, David Chapman, Charles Kyle, Andrew McCutcheon, George Allen, Preserved Gardner, Kilson Winney. In 1793 Adam Comstock, Sidney Berry, Jesse Toll, Daniel Bull, and Jonathan Laurence, were appointed a committee to settle with town officers for moneys from 1789 to 1792, and "to settle with Easttown and Stillwater concerning the poor in the division of the town." Other names at this time (1793-94), Jacob Deyoe, Joshua Macomber, Joseph Cole, Thomas Salisbury, Samuel Boyan, James Brigley, Aaron Hill, Justus Knapp, Henry Knapp, Richard Bullock, Asaph Brown, Benjamin Tripp, William Orton, Daniel Boardman.

Town-meeting of 1794. - Other new names appear: Robert Getty, Ebenezer Darkney, John Davison, James O. Bail, Jonah Fish, Nathan Shearfield, Abijah Lee, Jacob Miller, Asel Norghton, Parks Putnam, Cleman Blaikley, Jotham Beams, Robert Grey, David Mather, John Scribner, Joel Parks, Benjamin French, Reuben Clark, Elisha Shearman, Ithamar Clothier, Dalton Crampton, Caleb Burch, Peter Johnson.

Town-meeting of 1795. - Other names are Joseph Palmer, Thomas Thompson, Warren Cady, Isaac B. Payne, John Beamas, Eber Lewis, Silas Howland, Stephen Olney, Christopher Abeel, Thomas Smith, Cornelius Isman, David Shepherd, Nathan Sheffield, William Barker, Peter Dumont, John Aldridge, Richard Burt, John Hamilton, Cummin Salisbury, Gideon Putnam, Gad Merrils, William Kingsford, John Filkins, Gabriel Veil, William Brosbry, Jeremiah Cady, David Adams, Ebenezer Newell, Reuben Cross, Sylvanus Madison. The next town-meeting was voted to meet at Giles Slocum's. Jacob Hicks was appointed as a proper person to take the census.

Among cattle-mark records, 1795, we find Enoch Phillips, David Ackerman, Augustus Green, Matthew Van Amburgh, Jonathan Foster, William Smith, Christopher Perkins.

Town-meeting of 1796, we find the names of Thomas Jeffords, Ebenezer Cheever, Tunis Swart, John Tubbs, Walsingham Collins, David Linsey, Ebenezer Burley, Richard Holmes, Zebulon Aulger, John Weed, Cornelius McLean, William Steel, Gershom Saxton, Samuel Page, William King, Robert Washburn, Charles Riley, Joseph Harrington, Stephen King, sixteen pounds bounty for each wolf killed voted. Other names, Hubbard Pendleton, Thomas Maginnis, Jacob Dennis, Jonathan Pendell, Nellie Swart, Jared Reynolds, Thomas Jordan, Ebenezer Curton, Ebenezer Wallin.

Town-meeting of 1797. - New names: Ames Hawley, William Dudley, Gamaliel Vail. As this is the last year that the town of Saratoga included so large a territory, we add the pathmasters in full, though some of the names may have already been mentioned: No. 1, Jacob Toll; No. 2, Thomas Bennett; No. 3, John Dillingham; No. 4, John Brisbin and David Reynolds; No. 5, Ebenezer Smith; No. 6, Samuel Bushee; No. 7, Jethro Bennett; No. 8, Jacob Ferguson and Zopher Scidmore; No. 9, Jesse Mott; No. 10, Lemuel Shepherd; No. 11, John Fish; No. 12, Robert Parks; No. 13, Grover Buel and John Shadow; No. 14, Daniel Lindsey; No. 15, George McCutcheon; No. 16, Asaph Putnam; No. 17, John M. Berry; No. 18, George R. Lewis and James Beard; No. 19, Richard Searing; No. 20, Elijah Powers; No. 21, Parks Putnam; No. 22, Peter Johnson; No. 23, Seth Perry; No. 24, Enoch Kellogg and Richard Holmes; No. 25, William Waterbury; No. 26, Ebenezer Andrews; No. 27, Nathaniel Wallis and Abraham Havens; No. 28, Caleb Fish; No. 29, John Scribner; No. 30, Benjamin Tripp; No. 31, Isaac Vandewerker; No. 32, Edy Baker; No. 33, Thomas Ostrander; No. 34, Benjamin French; No. 35, Andrew McCutcheon; No. 36, Caleb Burrows; No. 37, Henry Shaft and John Whitford; No. 38, Malachi Cox; No. 39, Stafford Carr; No. 40, Levi Lamphir; No. 41, George Cramer; No. 42, Robert Ellis; No. 43, William Thomas; No. 44, William King; No. 45, Robert Washman; No. 46, William Toll; No. 47, Giles Slocum; No. 48, John Perry; No. 49, Joseph Smith; No. 50, Jacob Halley; No. 51, Charles Granger; No. 52, Ira Stafford.

The names thus given show a very large number of the actual residents, from 1788 to 1798, upon the territory now comprised in the towns of Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, Northumberland, Moreau, and Wilton. Here are found the Parks from Baker's Falls, the Perrys from Wilton, the Putnams from Saratoga Springs, and names from all the intervening territory between them and the line of the Hudson. The town officers of Saratoga were not in possession of these records, and they were only discovered by accident, just as the manuscripts were being revised for the press. Neither time nor space remained to state the homesteads of the additional families here discovered. Our volume is already so complete in early family history, and the location of as many others now given can be determined by the numbering of the road districts and the general knowledge of citizens at the present time; we have hastily transcribed these most interesting pages, and leave them without further note or comment:

------------------------------

TOWN OFFICERS.

 

Supervisor.

Town Clerk.

Collector.

1788.

 

 

 

1789.

John B. Schuyler.

{probably.}

Sidney Berry.

Elihu Billings.

1790.

"

"

Darius Hand.

1791.

"

Archibald McNeil.

Malcomb Crowfoot.

1792.

Alexander Bryan.

Benjamin Phillips.

James Creamer.

1793.

"

Jonathan Lawrence.

Josiah St. John.

1794.

"

Benjamin Phillips.

Jacob Hicks.

1795.

John B. Schuyler.

Daniel Bull.

Wm. Thomas.

1796.

Daniel Bull.

Herm. Van Veghten.

James Brisbin, Jr.

1797.

"

James Brisbin, Jr.

Ebenezer Bacon.

1798.

"

Wm. Wait.

Jacob Hicks.

1799.

"

Elisha Miles.

"

1800.

"

James Brisbin, Jr.

Jacob S. Viele.

1801.

Jesse Mott.

Wm. Wait.

"

1802.

"

Jacob Dennis.

"

1803.

"

Wm. Wait.

"

1804.

"

James Brisbin, Jr.

"

1805.

James Brisbin, Jr.

Wm. Wait.

"

1806.

Thomas Ostrander.

Jacob Dennis.

Henry Greene.

1807.

George Cramer.

Wm. Wait.

"

1808.

"

Reuben Perry.

Richard Esmond.

1809.

"

Wm. Wait.

Silas Finch.

1810.

Wm. Wait.

John R. Mott.

Reuben Scidmore.

1811.

"

David Everts.

Nathan Hill.

1812.

"

Hezekiah Dunham.

Robert Bryan.

1813.

"

E.W. Abbott.

Samuel Green.

1814.

George Cramer.

James Green, Jr.

"

1815.

Jonas Olmstead.

John R. Mott.

"

1816.

Wm. Wait.

"

"

1817.

"

"

"

1818.

Jesse Mott.

"

"

1819.

"

Wm. L.F. Warren.

"

1820.

Harvey Granger.

Philip Cramer.

Wm. Bennett (2d).

1821.

George Cramer.

Wm. C. Brisbin.

Amos Freeman.

1822.

Philip Schuyler.

"

Wm. Bennett (2d).

1823.

Daniel Morgan, Jr.

Edward Fitch.

Abner Smith.

1824.

George Cramer.

Henry Wagman.

Thomas Milligan.

1825.

Daniel Morgan, Jr.

David Brisbin.

Daniel Williams.

1826.

"

Ste. H. Dillingham.

"

1827.

"

"

Thomas Milligan.

1828.

"

"

"

1829.

"

Orville B. Dibble.

"

1830.

"

James Strang.

Benjamin Leggett.

1831.

Walter Van Veghten.

Wm. R. Slocum.

Thomas Milligan.

1832.

"

"

John B. Holmes.

1833.

James Mott.

Alfred Scofield.

Thomas Milligan.

1834.

Henry D. Chapman.

Herm. Van Veghten.

John C. Jeffords.

1835.

Daniel Morgan, Jr.

"

Stephen E. Duel.

1836.

"

"

John Taylor.

1837.

Wm. Wilcox.

Darius Peck.

Anthony L. Maxwell.

1838.

John B. Wright.

Joseph T. Smith.

Thomas V. Losee.

1839.

Daniel Morgan.

"

John L. Robertson.

1840.

Samuel J. Mott.

Abram Cox.

Clark Perkins.

1841.

Henry D. Chapman.

Rich'd S. Sheldon.

Chauncey Bennett.

1842.

Wm. Wilcox.

Joseph T. Smith.

Walter Barker.

1843.

"

Daniel W. Belding.

Samuel Travis.

1844.

Mayo Pond.

Rich'd S. Sheldon.

Samuel N. Pettis.

1845.

Daniel Morgan.

"

Daniel H. Porter.

1846.

Phineas Richardson.

Wm. Cox.

Killian F. Winney.

1847.

Geo. W. Lester.

"

Jarvis Cooper.

1848.

Henry Holmes.

Rich'd S. Sheldon.

Gabriel L. Leggett.

1849.

"

Jacob Osborne.

Robert Schinner.

1850.

Ste. H. Dillingham.

"

Abner Howland.

1851.

"

"

James Davis.

1852.

Henry Holmes.

"

"

1853.

Samuel J. Mott.

Cyrus F. Rich.

Stephen H. Winney.

1854.

Phineas Richardson.

"

Ira D. Esmond.

1855.

John Lewis.

George L. Ames.

Thomas Losee.

1856.

Peter J. Cook.

Chauncey Curtis.

"

1857.

Ralph Brisbin.

"

Jerem'h McKinstry.

1858.

Peter J. Cook.

"

Thomas V. Losee.

1859.

"

Jonathan Howland.

"

1860.

Geo. W. Wilcox.

Joseph W. Hill.

Dunham St. John.

1861.

Samuel J. Mott.

Albert H. Ferguson.

Nich. T. Howland.

1862.

Wm. P. Ostrander.

Martin B. Perkins.

Sheldon B. Gates.

1863.

"

R.M. Carrington.

Jonathan Howland.

1864.

"

Robert Hermance.

"

1865.

"

"

Robert Hermance.

1866.

"

"

Philip Reynolds.

1867.

Thomas Sweet.

Benj. J. Potter.

C.H. McNaughton.

1868.

Edmond Raymond.

Chauncey Curtis.

"

1869.

"

"

Barney McMahon.

1870.

Geo. F. Watson.

Seth R. Lawrence.

"

1871.

Henry C. Holmes.

"

Emery Doolittle.

1872.

"

"

Daniel Meader.

1873.

Douw F. Winney.

"

Myron J. Clements.

1874.

"

"

Ralph Russell.

1875.

"

"

Chas. A. Baker.

1876.

John H. De Rider.

"

John Denton.

1877.

Wm. H. Smith.

"

James Barker.

1878.

Daniel A. Bullard.

J.O. Hannum.

Thos. Hannahan.

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JUSTICES OF THE PEACE ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE.

The law authorizing such election took effect in 1828; but the town records do not show any election until 1830. Probably there were enough still holding office under the appointment of the governor.

1830.

Daniel Morgan, Jr.

1855.

Benjamin Taber.

1831.

Wm. B. Van Benthuysen.

1856.

Amos M. Greene.

1832.

Gilbert Purdy.

1857.

M. McNaughton.

1833.

Harvey Granger.

1858.

G.H. Jones.

Thomas Sweet.

1834.

Daniel Morgan, Jr.

1859.

Phineas Richardson

1835.

Samuel J. Mott.

1860.

Charles Shearer.

1836.

Walter Van Veghten.

1861.

Hervey Losee.

1837.

Francis K. Winney.

1862.

Malcom McNaughton.

1838.

Henry Holmes.

1863.

Wm. C. Brisbin.

1839.

Wm. B. Caldwell.

Daniel W. Belding.

1864.

Charles Shearer.

1840.

Stephen H. Dillingham.

1865.

Samuel Wells.

1841.

Francis K. Winney.

1866.

George F. Watson.

1842.

Henry Holmes.

1867.

Nicholas T. Howland.

Hervey Losee.

1843.

John B. Wright.

1868.

Moses H. Colby.

1844.

Malcom McNaughton.

1869.

Samuel Wells.

1845.

John R. Mott.

1870.

Hervey Losee.

1846.

Embree Maxwell.

1871.

Nicholas T. Howland.

1847.

Isaac Freeman.

1872.

James B. Bailey.

1848.

Gilbert Purdy.

1873.

Joseph T. Smith.

1849.

Daniel W. Belding.

Henry W. Dennis.

1874.

Darwin Deane.

1850.

Cornelius A. Russell.

David R. Oakley.

1875.

Nicholas T. Howland.

1851.

Gilbert Purdy.

1876.

James B. Bailey.

1852.

Cornelius A. Russell.

1877.

Edward G. Cochrane.

S. Fort Brott.

1853.

Chas. H. Van Benthuysen.

1878.

Darwin Dean.

1854.

E.H. Wilbur.

 

 

 

The following document is really a fragment of district records preceding town organization, and covering what is now Saratoga, Saratoga Springs, Stillwater, Milton, Northumberland, Moreau, Wilton, and part of Greenfield:

"A DESCRIPTION OF THE PUBLIC HIGHWAYS LAID OUT FOR THE DISTRICT OF SARATOGA BY THE COMMISSIONERS OF ROADS, 1784.

"Road No. 1. - Begins by the house of Widow Fuller; thence westerly to a maple stump marked No. J.C.; thence a west course between the farms of Robert Ripley and William Ross, and between the farms of the Widow Gamble and William Manson, where he now lives; thence to a large oak-tree marked J.C.; thence southwest to the place where John W. Dole now lives; thence in the most convenient place near where the road now goes to the place where Peter Johnson lives; thence in the most convenient place to the house where Reuben Perry now lives; thence northwesterly over the mountain in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to the place where Joseph Egleston lives; thence northerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to the North river, at the place commonly called Jessup's Landing; thence northerly along the west bank of the river to the place where Mills now lives; also, from a large white-pine tree, marked H, standing on the highway aforesaid, about a quarter of a mile from Reuben Perry's aforesaid; thence running south along the east line of Reuben Perry's farm to a white-pine tree marked H, near a small creek, or brook; thence southerly in the most convenient place to a division line between Treebout's and Lefferts' lands, continuing said line to the south side of a stony hill near John Stiles'; thence westerly in the most convenient place to Goodwin's mill; also, easterly from the aforesaid hill till it intersects the north line of John Stiles' farm; thence continuing said line to the northeast corner of Stiles' farm; thence easterly in the most convenient place until it intersects the road leading from the Widow Fuller's to Reuben Perry's; the above-mentioned road to be three rods wide, and where lines of lots are mentioned they are to be the centre of the road.

"Road No. 2. - Begins on the south side the bridge by Colonel Van Veghten's mill; thence westerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to where the path parts, the one to go to John Davis, Jr.'s, and the others to Jesse Billings'; thence northwesterly in the most convenient place until it passes a bridge and causeway about a quarter of a mile southeasterly from Jesse Billings' to an oak-tree on the west side of the old path marked H; thence bearing away to the left in the most convenient place to a white-oak tree marked H; thence continuing much the same direction up the hill to a pitch pine tree marked H; thence by a straight line to the east side of a gate now used by Jesse Billings west of his barn (the above-mentioned trees are to bound the right-hand side of the road); thence northerly to a white-oak tree on the side of the hill marked H; thence northerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to the line between lots Nos. 26 and 25; thence westerly along said line about three-quarters of a mile to a tree marked H; thence northerly to James Brisbin's house; thence westerly near where the path now goes to Stephen ------; thence northwesterly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes until it intersects a line between lots Nos. 25 and 26; thence northwesterly in the most convenient place across lot No. 26 on to lot No. 27; thence westerly on said lot until it comes near where the Hemlock creek intersects the line between lots Nos. 26 and 27; thence crossing said line and creek on to Lot No. 26; thence westerly on said lot to the most convenient place near ----- -----; thence southerly in the most convenient place to W. Velie's; thence in the most convenient place to Michael Mead's; from thence in the most convenient place to the place where Jonathan Fish now lives; thence in the most convenient direction to the house of John Irish; thence southwesterly up the hill, leaving the house of John Irish on the right hand; thence continuing in much the same direction in the most convenient place to the northeast corner of Zopher Scidmore's field, where he has corn this summer; thence quartering across the said field by consent of the said Scidmore in the most convenient direction to Abner Scidmore's house; thence southwesterly up the hill in Abner Scidmore's field by his consent until it intersects what is commonly called the old six-mile line -------- Saratoga patent; thence southerly in the most convenient place near said line to the easternmost corner of Samuel Conklin's house; thence nearly in the same direction until it intersects the road that leads by James Ackerman's to Saratoga lake from near the corner of Christopher Sheffield's field; thence southerly as near straight as the nature of the ground will admit to Francis Wait's; thence southerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes until it intersects the path that goes by Samuel Cooper's; thence easterly along said path a little east of Samuel Cooper's house; thence southerly across the field of said Cooper to the house of Mordecai Sayles; thence southerly by Philip Rogers'; thence southerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to Alexander McCreas' old place.

"Road No. 3. - Begins at the great road near General Schuyler's grist-mill; thence westerly round the field of General Schuyler in the most convenient place near where the path now goes round the breastworks; thence southerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes across the Fish creek at the old bridge by Joseph Plumer's; thence westerly to the school-house; thence in the most convenient place to Elihu Webster's; thence southerly to Captain Dunham's; thence southerly in the most convenient place until it intersects road No. 2 between Captain Dunham's and Jesse Billings', on the line between lots Nos. 24 and 25.

"Road No. 4. - Begins on the north side of the road that leads by James Ackerman's towards Saratoga lake opposite James Ackerman's house; thence northerly as straight as the nature of the ground will admit to Shubael Tyler's; thence northerly on the side of the hill by the house of Wm. Wicks, until it leads on the ridge north of Wicks'; thence northerly on said ridge until it comes into the old road leading from John Vroman's; thence bearing a little easterly near where the old path now goes until it intersects the line between lots Nos. 24 and 25; thence easterly in the most convenient place near said line until it comes to the line near William Potter's and James Young's farm; thence northerly along said line as near as the nature of the ground will admit until it intersects road No. 2.

"Road No. 5. - Begins at a red-oak tree marked H on road No. 2, near to Wm. Viele's; thence running southwesterly as near straight as the nature of the ground will admit to a large oak-tree marked H, a little over the first hollow; thence nearly the same course to a white-oak tree marked H; thence westerly straight to a white-oak tree marked H, near to Jonathan Lawrence's; thence southerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes to Pardon Fish's; thence in the same direction, near the foot of the hill, in the most convenient place, and through the field of John Grippen, by his consent; thence across the farm now in possession of Samuel Chapman, considerably west of his house, in the most convenient plane, to the bars on the north side the farm of William Gifford; thence southerly in a straight course to the top of the hill by the old house; thence west to the lake side, a little north of the house where William Gifford now lives; thence southerly along the bank of the lake in the most convenient place to the south side of Augustus Green's improvement.

"Road No. 6. - Begins at the corner of the field a little west of the house where Israel Taylor now lives; thence northerly in the most convenient place, as straight as the nature of the ground will admit, to the Baptist meeting-house where Mr. Kelly preaches.

"Road No. 7. - Begins at the bend of the road a little northerly from the house of Jonas Titus; thence northerly as straight as the nature of the ground will admit to Joel Ketchum's; thence northerly as straight as the situation of the ground will admit to Benjamin Irish's; thence taking the line between Joseph Potter's and David Irish's farms; thence northerly along said line to a chestnut stump marked H, a little west of the same; thence northwesterly across the swamp straight to an elm-tree marked H, said stump and tree to bound the left-hand side of the road; thence northeasterly straight to a white-oak tree marked H; thence northerly straight to a red-oak tree marked H; thence northerly to a chestnut-tree marked H; thence to a white-oak tree marked H at the corner of Wilbur's fallow; thence northerly in the most convenient place to Henry Parsons'; thence northerly in the most convenient place near where the path now goes across lot No. 22 to the Hemlock creek; thence northwesterly until it intersects road No. 2 at a tree marked H on two sides; thence continuing nearly the same direction as straight as the nature of the ground will admit through the farm of Jonathan Fisk, Jr., to a large white-oak tree marked H, near the line between the farms of Jonathan Fisk, Jr., and Jacob Ferguson; thence westerly until it intersects road No. 5 at a tree marked H near the northwest corner of Jacob Ferguson's field.

"Road No. 8. - Was laid by the commissioners of Ballston and Saratoga districts jointly, and begins at the southeasternmost corner of the district of Ballston; thence northerly along the line between the districts of Saratoga and Ballston to the southeasternmost corner of lot No. 9, in the Grand Division of Ballston, the line between the districts to be the centre of the road, which is three rods wide.

"Road No. 9. - Begins on the south side of Anthony's Kill, at what is commonly called Ellsworth's; thence northwesterly across the kill to a beech-tree marked H; thence westerly along the kill to a white-oak tree marked H; thence in an oblique direction to the foot of the hill; thence along the foot of the hill to an elm-tree marked II; thence ascending the side of the hill and along upon the side of the hill to a red-oak tree marked H; thence obliquely down the hill to a white-oak tree marked H; thence along the foot of the hill to a red-oak tree marked H; thence up on the side of the hill along the east side of John Ostrander's field to a white-oak tree marked H, near the northeast corner of said field; thence northwesterly in an oblique direction down the hill to a white-oak tree marked H; thence northwesterly as straight as the nature of the ground will admit to a tree marked H, near Robert Williams' improvements; thence con-tinning along the same course across the field by consent to a red-oak tree marked H; thence northwesterly in the most convenient place to a white-oak tree marked H, near the house where Jerry Peck lives; thence continuing near the same direction in the most convenient place to a white-pine tree marked H, near George Hunter's; thence southwesterly to Schoonhoven's grist-mill; thence across the milldam; thence northwesterly in the most convenient place to a pitch-pine tree marked H, at the top of the hill, northwesterly from the house where Ephraim Stewart lives; thence by a straight line to a pitch-pine tree marked H, near the road that leads from Stillwater to Ballston, about forty rods east of Captain Michael Dunning's field; thence northerly by a straight line to a pitch-pine tree marked H, a little east of Wm. Dunning's house; thence to a pitch-pine tree marked H, by the bridge a little east of Michael Dunning. Jr.'s; thence northerly as near straight as circumstances will admit to what is called the dug-way on the north side the plain; thence northerly in the most convenient place along by the east side of the house where Wm. Rhodes lives, until it intersects the old path leading from the south end of Saratoga lake to Merrick's mills; thence westerly in the most convenient course near where the old path now goes towards Merrick's mills until it intersects the line between the districts of Saratoga and Ballston.

"Road No. 10. - Begins at the north line of lot No. 9, near Eddy Millard's house, at a maple stump; thence southwesterly down the hill the east side of the brook; thence across the brook to the old bridge crossing the outlet of the lake in Ballston; thence up the hill to the corner of Mr. Middlebrook's field, a little west of his house; thence southerly as near straight as the nature of the ground will admit until it intersects the north line of Samuel Clark's land, a little west of the corners of lots Nos. 2 and 3 of said Clark's land; thence southeasterly until it intersects the line between the aforesaid lots No. 2 and No. 3; thence continuing said line to the south side of said lots; thence southerly in the most convenient place across the land in possession of John White and Samuel Ingliss to the north line of Stephen Benedict's farm; thence southerly across said farm; thence continuing the same direction to the northwest corner of Stephen Hooper's farm.

"Road No. 11. - Begins where road No. 11 {?} intersects the south line of Stephen Benedict's farm; thence due west to road No. 8.

"Road No. 12. - Begins on road No. 9, where the same intersects a line through the middle of lot No. 11, between the farm of Michael Dunning, Jr., and William Dunning; thence easterly along the said line to a pitch-pine tree marked H, continuing much the same direction to a pitch-pine on the top of the hill marked H; thence down the hill to a pitch-pine tree marked H; continuing much the same direction to a pitch-pine tree marked H; thence northeasterly to a dry pitch-pine marked H; thence easterly across the swamp to a red-oak tree marked H; thence to a white-oak tree marked H; thence up the hill to a pitch-pine tree marked H; thence continuing much the same direction to a pitch-pine tree marked H on the edge of the hill; thence down the hill in the most convenient direction to a pitch-pine tree marked H; thence ascending the hill to a pitch-pine tree marked H; thence northeasterly to a pitch-pine tree near the edge of the hill marked H; thence obliquely down the hill in the most convenient direction to a tree marked H; thence easterly across the swamp to a red-oak tree marked H; thence along the foot of the hill, between the wet land and the dry, in the most convenient place, through the field of Randall Hewitt, to a little swamp that comes in between the hills; thence across said swamp to the foot of the opposite hill; thence up the hill as the path now goes to a white-pine tree marked H; thence southerly to a pitch-pine tree marked H; thence to a pitch-pine tree marked H at the head of a little hollow; thence straight as the ground will admit to a chestnut-tree marked H; thence to a pitch-pine marked H, near the foot of the hill; thence easterly as near the foot of the hill as the nature of the ground will admit to a pitch-pine marked H, near the old path; then as the path now goes till it joins road No. 2 at Alexander McCrea's old place.

"Road No. 13. - Begins on road No. 8, opposite the house of Samuel Wood; thence easterly where the path now goes straight to the east line of Samuel Evans' farm; thence northerly along the line between said Evans' and Samuel Finch's farm to the northwest corner of said Finch's farm; thence to the southwest corner of Stephen Hooper's farm; thence along the west line of said Hooper's farm to the northwest corner thereof; thence easterly in the most convenient place near the north line of Stephen Hooper's farm down the hill, and continuing the most convenient direction to the southeast corner of Stephen Benedict's farm; thence east to the line of Saratoga Patent.

"Roads Nos. 14, 15, and 16 were east of the river, now in Washington county.

"Road No. 17. - Begins on what is called the Lake road, opposite to Captain Woodworth's; thence northerly as the road now goes within two feet of the southwest corner of John Neilson's house; thence northeasterly to a stump marked H; thence northerly straight to a white-oak tree marked H, the road to be the width of it westerly of the aforesaid boundaries; thence northerly and westerly as the old path now goes to a tree marked H, about ten rods northerly of the lane that turns to Joshua Barber's; thence northeasterly through the field on the most convenient ground, passing the house where Timothy Shipman now lives, about ten rods south thereof, continuing much the same direction until it comes into the old path at a tree marked H; thence continuing much the same direction on or near as the old path goes to a tree marked H, near to Captain Mead's field; thence northerly to a tree marked H, near the line between the farms of Captain Mead and that which Timothy Shipman now occupies; thence northeasterly in the most convenient place to a tree marked H, on the old road that goes from John Carthy's westward.

"Road No. 18. - Begins at a white-oak tree marked H, on the Lake road a little west of Captain Taylor's; thence obliquely up the hill into the old path; thence as straight as the ground will admit between the house and barn of Samuel Stevens; thence along the west side of Joseph Stevens' house; thence southwesterly to a white-oak tree on the northeast corner of Samuel Bushee's farm; thence along the east side of said Bushee's house to the northeast corner of Joseph Williams' farm; thence along the east line of said farm to the southeast corner thereof; thence straight to the northeast corner of the farm that Stephen Toms has taken up; thence along the east line of said farm to the southeast corner thereof; thence as near straight as the ground will admit a little west of the house where Jacob Patrick now lives; thence straight to the road that leads from Stillwater to Ballston, a few rods west of the house where Daniel Campbell now lives.

"Road No. 19. - East side of the river, now Washington county.

"Road No. 20. - Begins at the river west side of lot No. 10, at the south line of Charles Mone's farm (perhaps Mann, perhaps not); thence westerly in the most convenient place on the south half of said lot until it comes out to the main road."

Under date of Monday, March 28, 1785, the commissioners divided the territory of Saratoga into twenty-two road districts. They met at Mr. Ensign's and first made an imaginary division for the purpose of more easily describing the districts, - this was as follows: "A supposed division-line shall be drawn from Anthony's Kill, at the place where the brook that David Bidwell's mill stands upon falls into said kill; thence northerly along said brook, upon the easterly side thereof, to the public road leading from Stillwater to Ballston; thence northerly to the southwest corner of the farm that Samuel Stevens now occupies, still northerly to the beginning of road No. 18; thence easterly to the beginning of road No. 6; thence northerly upon said road, along the east side thereof, as far as said road continues; thence northerly by a straight line to the place where road No. 4 begins, on the Lake road, near James Ackerman's; thence northerly along said road No. 4, upon the east side thereof, as far as said road extends; then by a straight line to James Milligan's on Fish creek. Also another imaginary line, beginning at the west six-mile line of Saratoga patent, where the same strikes Fish creek; thence northerly by a straight line to the North river, at a place called Wing's Falls." Then beginning at the south, they took the districts off in sections each side of the said division-lines, fifteen in number. The document is signed by the road commissioners, - Joseph Row, Stanton Tefft, Philip Rogers, and John Mahawney, - and it was received for record by Samuel Bacon, clerk.

Two years later - 1787 - some additional districts were made, and the commissioners were Joseph Row, Wm. Coffin, Thomas Smith, George Hunter, Jonathan Lawrence.

These descriptions we have copied at considerable length, because of the light they throw upon the early settlement in 1784, - the year next after the close of the Revolutionary war, - the year when General Schuyler cut the road from Schuylerville to Saratoga Springs. It brings out clearly so many family names and their exact location in 1784, that the old document is worthy of a place in history.

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Transcribed from the original text and html prepared by Bill Carr, last updated 2/7/00.

Please provide me with any feedback you may have concerning errors in the transcription or any supplementary information concerning the contents. wcarr1@nycap.rr.com


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