HISTORY OF

SARATOGA COUNTY, NEW YORK.

by NATHANIEL BARTLETT SYLVESTER

1878

--------------------

HISTORY OF THE VILLAGES AND TOWNS OF SARATOGA COUNTY.

WATERFORD (Part 1).

-------------------------

I. - GEOGRAPHICAL POSITION.

THE town of Waterford is in the southeastern corner of the county, at the junction of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers. The town is very small in territory, containing only about seven square miles. It is bounded north by Half-Moon, east, south, and west by the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, the county line. It includes 3204 acres of improved land and 315 of unimproved, and all of this last amount is woodland. The population in 1875 was 4386. This town is a portion of the Van Schaick patent.

This town is described in the revised statutes of the State, and the boundary-lines defined, as follows:

"The town of Waterford shall contain all that part of said county beginning in the bounds of the county in the Mohawk river, at the mouth of a certain creek or run of water which crosses the road leading from the village of Waterford to Ballston, at the foot of the hill a little to the northwestward of the dwelling-house now or late of Claudius Stannard, and running up the said creek to where it crosses the road as aforesaid; then south seventy-three degrees and thirty minutes east one hundred and sixty chains and thirty links to where a creek called the Mudder Kill intersects the public road leading from the village of Waterford to Stillwater; then down the said Mudder Kill to its entrance into Hudson river; then east to the bounds of the county; and then along the bounds of the county southerly and westerly to the place of beginning."

------------------------------

II. - NATURAL FEATURES.

Its surface is mostly an upland, fifty to one hundred feet above the river. Along the Mohawk is an almost perpendicular range of slate bluffs, and the valley of the Hudson is bordered by a range of clay hills. The soil is described as a sandy, clayey, and alluvial loam of great fertility. A valuable water-power is furnished by the falls in the Mohawk river. This water-power has been utilized by the construction, in 1828 and 1829, of a hydraulic canal, upon which a large number of manufactories in Cohoes are situated. The wide alluvial fiats north from the village are excellent land. In early times they were considered so valuable, and the hills in comparison so poor, that farms were described in deeds as bounded on the river and extending westward "as far as the land runs," implying that the hills were not worth calling land at all. The fine cultivated and productive farms now to be seen upon the uplands, indicate how slight was the real knowledge of the country in those times.

------------------------------

III. - EARLY SETTLEMENT.

The few scattering residents of the first century of Half-Moon Point cannot be very easily mentioned. We are compelled to come down a whole century at once to reach names and dates that can be given with some degree of accuracy. From the establishment of Fort Orange, at Albany, in 1623, or from 1630, when the fort began to enlarge into a village, it is probable there was never a time when at least a few traders and adventurers were not to be found at Half-Moon Point, - some temporarily, others more permanent. But through all the intervening period of one hundred and fifty years to the American Revolution, little is recorded for the historian to report.

In 1784 the site of the village was purchased by Colonel Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, Middlebrook, Ezra Hickok, Judge White, and several others, mostly from Connecticut. This fairly commences the era of modern settlement. This was while Half-Moon was yet a district, and four years before its town organization began.

The survey of the village immediately followed, trade with the settlers in the country adjacent sprang up. Merchants, produce-buyers, and business men generally came in, attracted by the confluence of the two rivers, certain that the place must become a great commercial point in the future. These hopes were not fully realized until after the opening of the Champlain canal and the Erie, and perhaps even then not to the extent anticipated when the War of the Revolution closed.

The records of Half-Moon for three years, given in the chapter upon that town, are relied upon mainly to show the early settlement of Waterford in 1788, '89, and '90. Town, village, and church records being so excessively lost in Waterford itself, it is fortunate that the old book of Half-Moon has survived the "wasting touch of time," and remains to furnish some evidence as to who the early pioneers of this town were. There is also on record the list of forty innkeepers for the year 1788 and four retailers, which must belong in part to the present town of Waterford. From these sources, aided by the recollection of A.C. Waldron, of Waterford, Shubael Taylor, of Clifton Park, and several others, we are able to mention a few of the early names.

Jacobus Van Schoonhoven seems to have been a man of great prominence immediately after the Revolution. In 1785 his name is attached to a bill of sale as justice of the peace. He was the first supervisor of Half-Moon, holding that position in 1788, 1789, 1790, while as yet all this territory was a part of Albany county. He was one of the purchasers of the village plat in 1784, and one of the first trustees. He was also a merchant and produce-buyer. In 1788 he held an innkeeper's license and also a retailer's. This may only mean, as in many other eases, that he kept liquors for sale, as nearly all merchants did, and, by holding an innkeeper's license, could not only retail by measure but could sell to be drunk on the premises. He left two sons, both of whom went to Troy. James Van Schoonhoven was supervisor of Waterford in 1817 and 1818.

The firm of Moses and Ira Scott was an early business establishment in Waterford. They were merchants and grain-dealers, and did an extensive business. In 1788 the firm is recorded among those having an innkeeper's license. William, a son of Ira Scott, is still living in Waterford.

Adam Edson was an innkeeper in Waterford.

The Levisie name is very old in connection with Waterford. It is mentioned in Albany annals as the place where the old fort stood. The name of Anthony Leversie appears in the innkeepers' list of 1788. His place was about two miles above Waterford. Just north of his house, where the track of the old Albany and Northern railroad was to cross the Hudson, was the ferry, - a very ancient one, so ancient that even the old fort of 1689 may have been there to guard the crossing.

The Van Schaick and Peebles islands are so called from two pioneers of those names, who came over in their own ships from Holland, and became the owners of large estates here under a direct grant, it is believed, from Queen Anne. The sons of Van Schaick were Anthony, Gerard, and Henry. Captain Pratt, in command of a tug at Waterford, is connected by marriage to the descendants of these families. He has the old Van Schaick cradle, one hundred and sixty years old, in which have been rocked successive generations of the various branches of the families. Captain Pratt's grandfather, John G. Pratt, was with Schuyler's army, and helped to build the works on Peebles island.

Daniel Van Alstyne was a lawyer of Waterford in 1788. His residence was where John F. Pruyn recently lived. He was supposed to know something else besides law, as he was elected pathmaster in 1788.

Aaron Comstock, mentioned among the town officers of 1788, was a farmer about two miles from the village, on the present McCoy place.

The Vandenburg name is found in connection with nearly all the towns in this valley. In 1788, the Vandenburg tavern was opposite that of Leversie, two miles up the river. It is not probable, however, that this is the "house of Cornelius Vandenburgh" at which the first town-meeting of Half-Moon is said to have been held; that was probably in some more central place for the three towns.

William Waldron was the grandfather of A.C. Waldron, now of Waterford. The old Waldron homestead was on the river-road, - a part of the present Gabriel Traverse farm, the house of old times was just north of the present one. Mr. Waldron left three sons, Cornelius, William, and Tunis. A great-grandson is the ex-surrogate of the county, having held that office twenty-one years.

Hezekiah Ketchum, one of the first trustees, in 1794, was a grain merchant and general produce dealer. He was an early resident, as his name is in the town records in 1788. His place was on the site of Higgins' drug-store. Jacobus Ostrander was also a licensed innkeeper of 1788.

James Dugan, a constable and also collector of Half-Moon in 1788-90, was an early school-teacher of Waterford. Mr. A.C. Waldron and wife both attended his school, and they recollect him as a man of ability and an excellent teacher.

John Clark was an early resident of Waterford, before 1790. He had two sons, Stephen and Daniel. Stephen was a government contractor, furnishing shoes for the army in 1812, and employed a large number of men.

Aurie Banta, one of the pathmasters of 1788, was a resident of Waterford. He was a carpenter.

Richard Davis was a merchant. Richard Davis, Jr., supervisor of Half-Moon in 1792, was probably a son, and Richard D. Davis, so well known as an eloquent political speaker in 1840, a grandson. The Davis family owned at one time most of the original Van Schoonhoven tract of five hundred acres in the west part of Waterford, between the canal and the hills.

The name of Flores Bancker, the old surveyor of 1784, is familiar to business men as being found in so many deeds. He may have been a professional surveyor from abroad, not a resident of Waterford.

Isaac Keeler was a merchant on Second street. He was one of the first trustees.

John Pettit, another trustee of 1794, was a cabinetmaker. His business was on Main street, the present residence of Mrs. Holroyd.

Duncan Oliphant, still another trustee, was a tanner, and his place of business was at the north end of First street, now owned by Mrs. Powers.

John Van Dekar kept tavern just west of Waterford. Benjamin Mix, whose name appears among the town officers of Half-Moon in 1788, was probably an innkeeper on what used to be known as Quality Hill, between Middletown and Waterford.

James Scott is remembered by Shubael Taylor as having kept a public-house in Waterford where the Fox tavern now stands.

Samuel J. Hazard was a merchant and general produce dealer in Waterford.

John Pettit was an early settler at or about the time of the Revolution. His son, John Pettit, Jr., born in Waterford, only died a few years since, and his widow still survives.

A few additional items are added in respect to early settlement. On Havre island the Indians had in old times a stronghold. It was known as the Castle Moenominis. It appears that the distinguished chieftains of the aboriginal tribes entertained the same opinion of the strength of this point that General Schuyler did in the Revolution, when he selected it for his final stand in defense of Albany. The old Van Schaick, or Half-Moon, patent was originally granted to Captain Gorson Gerritse Van Schaick and Philip Pieterson Schuyler. This included Van Schaick and Havre islands, also the present site of Waterford, and a portion of the town of Half-Moon. The first settlement of Half-Moon Point, or Waterford, seems to have been soon after the year 1630. It consisted of several families who, among others, had been induced by Mr. Van Rensselaer to come over and settle on his lands. Those going farther north crossed the Mohawk, and settled on the present site of Waterford. Captain Van Schaick died in 1676, and his widow sold a portion of the estate, consisting of about four acres of land on Havre island, and also the "foreland of Half-Moon," to Jan Jacob Noorstrant. The price was stated at sixty-six whole beavers, to be paid, however, in wheat, oats, or other grain and labor; showing that beavers were used as the standard of the currency, all traffic estimated by the beaver value, as now all forms of currency are measured by their "gold value." Guert Hendricks Van Schoonhoven was a resident of Half-Moon in 1675. In 1681 he had a farm on the island. Harmon Lieversie and Roloff Gerritse Vandewerker were also at Half-Moon Point in 1680. Cohoes was settled to some extent before 1750, by families from Waterford, among them those of Clute, Fonda and Ouderkirk. The first bridge across the Mohawk was built in 1795. It was a great achievement for that early time, being nine hundred feet long, twenty-four feet wide, fifteen feet above the bed of the river, supported by thirteen stone piers, and its cost was $12,000. An excavation in the rock above Waterford still shows the place of the old bridge. Across this bridge went the great northern tide of travel from Albany to Ballston, and also up the valley of the Hudson to Stillwater and places north. The opening of the Union bridge over the Hudson, December 3, 1804, was celebrated with a public procession, military, civil, and Masonic. It formed in Lansingburg, marched over the bridge, and dined in Waterford, the governor of the State and other prominent persons being present.

The following names are taken from the census of the city and county of Albany, enrolled under an order of the court, June 11, 1720, by Gerrit Van Schaick, sheriff. Enrolled as residents of Half-Moon: Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, Evert Van Ness, Daniel Fort, Cornelius Van Buren, Cornelius Van Ness, Isaac Ouderkirk, Lavinus Harminse, Tunis Harminse, Winant Vandenburgh, Roolif Gerritse, Hendrick Roolifse, John De Voe, Daniel Van Olinda, Eldert Ouderkirk, Cornelius Vandenburgh. This no doubt shows the heads of all the families in Waterford and the country around it in 1720, - one hundred and fifty-eight years ago.

And further, it may be proper to add that the older authorities point to the northern curve of the Mohawk at Crescent as the real "Half-Moon" of olden times, while Waterford was "Half-Moon Point," and most of the very early families may have been at the former rather than the latter place.

The residence of Jacobus Van Schoonhoven was just west of the present canal bridge, on the north side of Main street.

There are not many very old buildings now in Waterford. The house of Mr. Geer, formerly owned by the Davis family, is over a hundred years old. On the corner of First and Main streets a very early tavern stood. The same building in part is still there, a private residence. The tavern kept by Mr. Fox was built before 1800. Brewster's tin-shop is a pretty old building, also the Waldron meat-market. The old Waterford Academy stood on the hill near the present Catholic church.

We add in this connection a few accounts taken from an old book of audits in the office of the clerk of the Albany board of supervisors, though many of them belong to other towns of the county than Waterford.

 

November, 1781.

 

 

s.

d.

Cornelius Waldron

By amount allowed as constable

-

CR.

-

1

-

7

-

0

Matthew Vischer,

One year's salary as clerk of sessions

-

"

-

15

-

0

-

0

Cornelius Van Veghten and others,

Holding an election at Saratoga

-

"

-

4

-

16

-

0

John McCrea and others,

For laying assessments in 1779 {original text has "1799".}

-

"

-

19

-

4

-

0

Cornelius Van Veghten,

Account as supervisor

Account as supervisor

Account as supervisor

-

"

"

"

-

0

6

5

-

16

14

0

-

0

0

0

James Gordon,

Account as supervisor

By bounty for 8 wolves

-

"

"

-

1

24

-

10

00

-

0

0

Beriah Palmer,

Account for laying assessments

-

"

-

27

-

00

-

0

Eliphalet Kellogg and others,

Laying assessments

-

"

-

5

-

5

-

0

John Vischer,

By amount allowed for keeping assessors

-

CR.

-

88

-

16

-

0

George Palmer,

By account as supervisor

-

CR.

-

12

-

10

-

0

Saratoga district,

To amount of the county charge

To amount of the district charge

-

DR.

"

-

206

10

-

10

17

-

0

1

Ballstown district,

To amount of the county charge

To amount of the district charge

-

DR.

"

-

11

10

-

13

0

-

4

0

Half-Moon district,

To amount of the county charge

To amount of the district charge

-

DR.

"

-

64

59

-

3

10

-

4

0

Half-Moon district,

By cash of Jacob Groot, in part of the county tax laid in 1781

-

CR.

-

3

-

00

-

0

Half-Moon district,

By cash of Evert Waldron, county tax, Nov. 10, 1781

-

CR.

-

6

-

10

-

4

June 20, 1782.

Ephraim Woodworth,

By account allowed

-

CR.

-

7

-

5

-

0

Half-Moon district,

By cash, - excise fees of Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, 1782

-

CR.

-

10

-

10

-

0

 

It will be noticed that James Gordon must have added to his distinguished civil and military qualifications that of "a mighty hunter," for he drew a bounty of 24 for eight wolves killed in one year.

Ephraim Woodworth was the citizen of Stillwater whose house a few years earlier had been General Gates' headquarters.

The following, still further showing early settlements, are of great interest:

The purchase of Jan Jacobus Van Noorstrant from the widow of Goosen Gerritse Van Schaick, already mentioned, dated June 6, 1677, was a tract "bounded south by the fourth sprout of the Mohawk, west by Roelef Gerritse Vandewerker's land, north by the little creek close by Roelef Gerritse Vandewerker's house, and east by the river, containing about seven morgens of land."

How much does this differ from the present corporate limits of the village of Waterford? A good question for the geography class number 1 in the high school.

Roelef Gerritse Vandewerker had five sons, Johannes, Jacob, Gerrit, Hendrick, and Albert. In the above sale the widow retained the right to have a free passage for her cattle through the land she sold "up to Half-Moon for pasturage." This confirms the other many indications that "Half-Moon" was at Crescent, and what is now Waterford was "Half-Moon Point," or "the foreland of Half-Moon."

Captain Goosen Gerritse Van Schoonhoven had permission, with Philip Preterse Schuyler, to buy what is now Waterford of the Indians "to prevent those from Connecticut from buying it." This is no doubt the first purchase of Waterford, and the Schoonhoven mentioned the first of a long succession of that name north of the Mohawk extending down to the present time.

Nov. 23, 1669, Goosen Gerritse (not certain whether Van Schaick or Schoonhoven, for their first names were the same, and the old records sometimes omitted surnames) sells land in Half-Moon to Philip Pieter Schuyler.

Captain Goosen Gerritse Van Schoonhoven's first wife was Gertie, daughter of Brandt Peelen Van Nieukerke, and his second wife was Annatie Lievens, whom he married July 2, 1657. He had three sons, Gerrit, Anthony, and Sybrant; also three daughters, Goertruy, Gerritie, and Margaret.

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IV. - ORGANIZATION.

This town is named from the ancient ford over the Mohawk. It crossed a little above the present railroad bridge from the mainland to Havre island. It is a very old crossing, famous in Indian history, and in the early exploration of French and English adventurers. The place where a ford existed in the water of either the Mohawk or the Hudson was a mooted point, because, even above the junction, both rivers were of sufficient breadth to render a fording-place eagerly sought for. A village rapidly grew up at the junction of the two rivers, and though at first, and to some extent for many years, it was known as Half-Moon Point, yet it also acquired the name of Waterford. By this name the village was incorporated many years before the town was organized. When, therefore, the business interests of this extreme point rendered it desirable that there should be a new town organized, the name of the village was deemed the appropriate one for the town. There was also a ford over the Hudson just above the Union bridge. Teams have been driven over there within the memory of many now living in Waterford.

Very early the village became a place of so much importance that its citizens were naturally unwilling to have their town business done at such remote points as the immense extent of Half-Moon then required. Waterford had risen to the dignity of an incorporated village in 1801. The inconvenience of distance was, however, endured until 1816, when the town of Waterford was organized, with a territory so small that its citizens have never since had to travel far to share in town affairs. Town offices, town business, and town-meetings have ever since been where they could easily attend to them.

No rival villages have ever contended for the honor of having the town-meetings held with them. Unanimously for sixty-one years the annual meetings have been adjourned from Waterford to Waterford. The records of the town were rescued from the burning office by the clerk, M.C. Powell, in the great fire; but the older books are since lost. The records now in possession of the town clerk only go back to 1848. The list of supervisors is obtained from the county clerk's office; but the catalogue of town clerks and collectors is not full.

 

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TOWN OFFICERS.

 

 

Supervisors.

Town Clerks.

Collectors.

1816.

John Cramer.

 

 

1817.

J. Van Schoonhoven.

 

 

1818.

"

 

 

1819.

Daniel Van Alstyne.

 

 

1820.

Wm. Given.

 

 

1821.

"

 

 

1822.

"

 

 

1823.

"

 

 

1824.

"

 

 

1825.

"

 

 

1826.

Joshua Mandeville.

 

 

1827.

"

 

 

1828.

"

 

 

1829.

Nathan Bailey.

 

Frank. Livingston.

1830.

Joshua Bloore.

 

Abram C. Waldron.

1831.

Eli M. Todd.

 

Tunis Vanderwerker.

1832.

"

John Cramer (2d).

"

1833.

"

"

"

1834.

John Stewart.

"

"

1835.

John Vernam.

M.C. Powell.

Thompson Fisher.

1836.

Charles Scott.

"

Fred W. Waterman.

1837.

Joshua Bloore.

"

Alex. McElwee.

1838.

Robert Blake.

"

Heinus Van Orden.

1839.

Jos. H. Cudworth.

"

Horace Fisk.

1840.

James I. Scott.

"

John Smith.

1841.

Geo. W. Kirtland.

"

Henry G. Waldron.

1842.

"

 

Daniel Clark.

1843.

Wm. Scott.

 

"

1844.

Wm. T. Seymour.

 

Isaac Bailey.

1845.

David Brewster.

 

Samuel Barker.

1846.

"

 

Daniel A. Stone.

1847.

"

 

A.H. Vanderwerker.

1848.

David T. Lamb.

Wm. A. Waldron.

Charles Ball.

1849.

Abm. L. Brewster.

"

Stephen Underhill.

1850.

David T. Lamb.

Courtland Brewster.

Henry G. Waldron.

1851.

Daniel G. Smith.

"

Isaac Bailey.

1852.

"

"

Henry B. Scott.

1853.

John Fulton.

John Smith.

Daniel Clark.

1854.

W.C. Vandenburgh.

Lyman U. Davis.

Cor. Vandewerker.

1855.

Joshua Mors.

Chas. E. Pickett.

Henry G. Waldron.

1856.

John Titcomb.

Millen Bedell.

Daniel Stevens.

1857.

"

"

Eli Bootman.

1858.

"

Geo. S. Waterman.

Roger C. Evans.

1859.

David T. Lamb.

"

Henry B. Scott.

1860.

"

"

Chas. E. Tickett.

{Pickett ?}

1861.

"

"

Henry B. Scott.

1862.

"

"

Daniel Stevens.

1863.

"

Sam'l A. Northrop.

James I. Scott.

1864.

"

"

Patrick Glavin.

1865.

"

"

"

1866.

"

"

Ira G. Van Arman.

1867.

Courtland Brewster.

"

Patrick McAran.

1868.

"

"

Darius Barnes.

1869.

"

"

Patrick Gidney.

1870.

"

"

Chas. H. Stewart.

1871.

Thomas Breslin.

George E. Pickett.

Wm. Porter.

1872.

"

"

James B. Neary.

1873.

David T. Lamb.

"

Sam'l A. Northrop.

1874.

"

"

Wm. Dunnigan.

1875.

"

{No choice for supervisor in 1875, - a tie, - and David T. Lamb held over.

"

Matt. H. Martratt.

1876.

James H. Brewster.

Benj. Singleton.

Dennis Curtin.

1877.

H.C. Vandenburgh

Major B. Winchell.

{The vote in 1877 on town clerk was a tie, and Winchell was appointed.}

Wm. H. Van Norden.

1878.

"

George E. Pickett.

Matt. H. Martratt.

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JUSTICES OF THE PEACE ELECTED BY THE PEOPLE UNDER THE LAW TAKING EFFECT IN 1828.

1848.

Joseph H. Cudworth.

1864.

Joseph H. Cudworth.

1849.

Wm. T. Seymour.

1865.

Chauncey Sherman.

Gad H. Lee.

1850.

Charles Johnson.

1866.

Gad H. Lee.

John F. Pruyn.

1851.

John Cramer (2d).

1867.

John Cramer (2d).

1852.

Robert Moe.

Joshua M. Todd.

1868.

Pearl Spafford.

1853.

Joseph H. Cudworth.

Cornelius A. Waldron.

1869.

John F. Pruyn.

1854.

John Wood.

1870.

Peter Quackenbush.

1855.

John Cramer (2d).

1871.

John Cramer (2d).

1856.

Lewis G. Hoffman.

1872.

John A. Waldron.

1857.

Chauncey Sherman.

1873.

Henry Foley.

Wm. Shepherd.

1858.

James McKaller.

1874.

Chauncey Sherman.

1859.

John Cramer (2d).

1875.

Peter Quackenbush.

1860.

Joseph H. Cudworth.

1876.

Geo. S. Waterman.

1861.

Chauncey Sherman.

1877.

C.W. Barringer.

1862.

Anthony J. Brease.

1878.

Henry Foley.

1863.

John Cramer (2d).

 

 

 

Besides the local prominence of Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, so fully shown in the records of Half-Moon, it should be added that he was a senator twelve years, from 1794 to 1805, inclusive, a member of Assembly in 1786, and also in 1791; and also a judge of the court of common pleas in 1791. His son, Guert Van Schoonhoven, was a senator in 1815, and judge in 1823, and James, judge in 1820. Other public men were John Cramer, a representative to Congress from 1833 to 1837; Chesselden Ellis, from 1843 to 1845; Hugh White, from 1845 to 1851. John Cramer was a member of the Constitutional Convention of 1821, and John K. Porter, of the Convention of 1846. John Cramer was also a senator in 1823-25, and was followed in the same office by John L. Viele, during 1826-29.

In 1821, John House was a member of Assembly; 1825, Nicholas B. Doe; 1828, Eli M. Todd; 1829, Joshua Mandeville; 1830, Samuel Stewart; 1834, Eli M. Todd; 1839-40, John Stewart; 1842, John Cramer; 1847, Thomas C. Morgan; 1860-62, John Fulton.

In 1846, Joshua Mandeville was judge. Among the old masters in chancery were John Cramer, in 1805; Joshua Mandeville, in 1813; John K. Porter, in 1840; examiners in chancery, John K. Porter and Edward F. Bullard.

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V. - VILLAGES.

WATERFORD.

The village organization is much older than that of the town, and it would be interesting to give very fully its records. The village was surveyed as early as 1784 by Flores Bancker, and divided into lots. In 1801 it was incorporated, and the first trustees were Hezekiah Ketchum, Jacobus Van Schoonhoven, Matthew Gregory, Isaac Keeler, John Pettitt, Duncan Oliphant, and Thomas Smith. These seem to have been trustees, from one statement, as early as 1794, though the date of incorporation is given as 1801.

The village records were destroyed in the great fire of 1841, and it is difficult to give the names of early trustees or the successive presidents and clerks.

In 1841, John House was president; M.C. Powell, clerk. The trustees were John Stewart, John Haswell, N.B. Doe, Alexander Stewart, Elisha Morss, and William Smith.

The present year, 1877, David T. Lamb is president, and D.M. Van Hovenburgh, clerk.

Business Development. - The hydraulic canal, utilizing the great water-power in convenient form for general use, led to the establishment of a large number of manufactories, in which the place has excelled for many years. Here are two stock-and die-factories, a machine-shop, an axe-factory, a twine-factory, an ink- and lampblack-factory, a soap- and candle-factory, a flouring-mill, and a pearling-mill. On the Champlain canal, too, there are large opportunities for water-power, and there have been in existence for many years the flouring-mills, a foundry and machine-shop, an auger-factory, and a distillery. The manufacture of fire-engines was started in 1831, and they have done an extensive business, turning out some of the time $60,000 worth of work a year. A more complete statement of these enterprises will be found under the head of industrial pursuits.

A bridge across the Hudson was built at this place in 1804, at the cost of a large expenditure for those times. The present structure, known as the Union bridge, was built in 1812-14, at an expense of $20,000.

The limits of the village of Waterford are not very extensive, - a compact territory, bounded mostly by the Champlain canal and the rivers, only being comprised in the corporation. Outside the bounds of the corporation is West Waterford, a station upon that branch of the Rensselaer and Saratoga railroad, which passes through Cohoes. Opposite Cohoes, during the past few years, quite a village has grown up under the name of North-Side. It is very largely the residence of operators in the various mills and factories below the State dam, and also in the city of Cohoes. Though the town is so small in territory, yet a separate election district has been established at North-Side.

We obtain the following memorandum of Alexander Stewart, who came to Waterford in 1814. He had three brothers, also in Waterford, now dead. Among them was General Samuel Stewart, for so many years the well-known chorister of the old Reformed church. He was also a man of military taste, though he declined a colonel's commission in the regular army in the War of 1812. It is said that had he taken it, he would have outranked Colonel Winfield Scott, afterwards the noted general. The father of these brothers was a Connecticut man, a soldier of the Revolution, and was in this county at the surrender of Burgoyne.

Alexander Stewart mentions the following business men of Waterford in 1814: House, Myers & Co., Wynant Vandenburgh, Foster & Vandenburgh, Stewart & Knickerbocker, King & Foster, Davis & Thorn, Close & Vandecar, Moses Scott, Scott & Fowler, John Vibbard, Henry Ten Broeck, - all these were merchants, doing a general business. To these he adds Horace Hudson, hardware; Samuel Drake, druggist; James Oliphant, tannery; George Edson, leather-store; Mr. Grant, flouring-mill; John Robinson, shoemaker (Mr. Stewart remembers that the boys covered Robinson's chimney one "St. Patrick's day in the morning" and smoked him out); Roger Evans, jeweler; James Fowler, tailor; James Hale, blacksmith; Mr. Grant, hatter; John Cramer, lawyer; James Van Schoonhoven, lawyer; William Given, lawyer; Samuel Huntington, lawyer. Mr. Shaw and another man kept two meat-markets under one roof. The building stood exactly opposite the present Waldron market, in the centre of the street, a drive-way each side of it.

Dr. Whitmore was the principal, and about the only physician in 1814. Dr. Porter, though, began practice soon after, perhaps 1815. From 1814 to 1820 there were other merchants established: Todd & Comstock, D.K. Lighthall, and Isaac Bailey. N.B. Doe, lawyer, was in Waterford soon after 1814. Samuel Demarest was keeping tavern in 1814, on the site of the present Morgan House. Still earlier Gerardus Van Schoonhoven kept the Eagle Hotel, now the private residence of Mrs. Brown; soon after, William Gates kept it. Mr. Haight, in 1814, kept the tavern on the corner of First and Broad streets. At the same time Mr. Smith was keeping tavern on the corner of Fourth and Broad streets. The Stewart store is on the site of the old John Vibbard store of 1814.

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VI. - SCHOOLS.

Of the earliest schools in Waterford we have little account. The name of one teacher is mentioned in another place. The town now consists of two school districts. No. 1 comprises the village and considerable surrounding territory. The organization is a union free high school, with an academic department. The main building is of brick, three stories in height, with eight separate school-rooms, also recitation-rooms and convenient halls. A separate building is located at "Doyle City," so called, south of the canal, and another at North-Side. These schools are, however, graded into uniformity with the union school, and are really a part of it. The main building is valued at $15,000; the other two at $5000. There is a valuable library of fifteen hundred volumes. This free-school system dates from about 1854. The school-house of district No. 2 is located up the river, in the Traverse neighborhood.

Waterford quite early provided means for higher education by establishing an academy. This furnished ample facilities, and many of the present citizens in the professional and business classes received their training in the old institution. The academy was on the present site of the Catholic church. Waterford, too, was the place where Mrs. Emma Willard taught for some years before she entered upon her long and distinguished career as principal of Troy Female Seminary. Her Seminary here was on Second street, now changed into a block of three dwellings, south of the railroad depot.

 

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COMMISSIONERS' APPORTIONMENT, MARCH, 1878.

District

Number of Children between five and twenty-one.

Equal Quota of the Public Money.

Public Money according to the number of Children.

Public Money according to average attendance.

Library Money.

Total Public Money.

No. 1

1383

$729.96

$951.20

$929.10

$46.14

$2656.40

" 2

48

52.14

33.01

29.82

1.60

116.57

 

1431

$782.10

$984.21

$958.92

$47.74

$2772.97

 

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VII. - CHURCHES.

THE REFORMED (DUTCH) CHURCH.

This society, now extinct, was the old pioneer church of Waterford; emphatically, the church of old times. The house of worship stood a mile and a half north, near the residence of Gradus Clute, now the Devitt place. This was taken down and removed to the corner of Middle and Third streets, the work being finished in 1799. This remained until the spring of 1876, when the society having ceased to exist, the property was sold, the venerable old building removed, and a handsome private residence is now erected upon its site. The corner-stone bore the date 1799, but careful search failed to discover any box of valuables deposited there. The year when the old house of worship up the river was built seems to be unknown, nor is it certain that it was the first. The recent manual of the Presbyterian church states the building "as just before the close of the Revolution," and this is doubtless correct. The church organization may very likely have been much older than that. The brief hints of ancient settlement, still extant, show sturdy defenders of the old Reformed faith as residents of Half-Moon Point for a hundred years before the Revolution. The records of this ancient society do not seem to have been preserved, and the names of its founders are not easily obtained.

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GRACE CHURCH (EPISCOPAL).

The following is the record of this organization from the parish book:

Sept. 17, 1810. - The inhabitants of the village of Waterford, in common of the Protestant Episcopal church, wishing to establish a church in this village, did, after being duly notified as the law directs, meet for the purpose of electing proper persons to carry the same into execution, and did, by a majority of voices, elect the following persons for that purpose: Richard Davis, Jr., and John Vibbard, church-wardens, Guert Van Schoonhoven, Henry Davis, Hezekiah Ketchum, James Meeker, Benjamin Chamberlain, William McDonald, Joseph Ketchum, and Ward Rice, vestrymen. And having proceeded as the law directs, said church did cause a certificate to be made, acknowledged, and recorded, in due form, in which the said church was denominated Grace church.

The vestry being thus organized, appointed a lay deputy to represent them in the convention of the Protestant Episcopal church, to meet in the city of New York, on the first Tuesday of October next. Richard Davis, Jr., the deputy elect, presented the certificate of organization, and he was duly admitted to a seat in the convention.

At a meeting of the vestry, Dee. 10, 1810, John Davis was chosen clerk, Wm. M. McDonald, collector, and John Davis, treasurer. Richard Davis, Jr., John Davis, and John Vibbard were appointed a committee to purchase a site, and they bought a lot for $176.75, "on the outskirts of the village." Some delay and difficulty as to securing title occurred, and that site was abandoned. July 1, 1811, they bought the Methodist meeting-house, and after repairing and refitting it, the building was consecrated by Bishop Hobart, Aug. 30, 1813. That year John Vibbard was sent as delegate to the general convention, and allowed $17 for his services, the record says, but it probably means his expenses.

May 20, 1814, Rev. Parker Adams was called as rector, at a salary of $350 per year. At the sale of pews in 1814, the following names appear besides those already mentioned: John Knickerbocker, J. Mandeville, Thomas Titcomb, Horace Hudson, Sylvester Haight: T. Davis, J. Cramer, James Thorn, Henry Fanning, John House, Todd & Doe, William and James Fowler, Benjamin Shaw, E. Porter, I. Grant, James Oliphant, William Griffith, John Hall, Joseph H. Douglas, Nathaniel Foster, James Van Schoonhoven, Samuel Drake, Samuel G. Huntington, J. Pettit, and Patrick Murray.

The expense of purchase and repairs was 734 16s. 9d. The whole amount was not raised, and the property was mortgaged for about $600 to Guert Van Schoonhoven, John Vibbard, John Knickerbocker, Richard Davis, Jr., and Hezekiah Ketchum. Twelve years later, in 1826, these gentlemen generously donated the entire amount, discharged the property from encumbrance, and Guert Van Schoonhoven still further, as an expression of his liberality and love for the church, purchased and donated the title in fee, extinguishing thereby the ground rent, and leaving them in full possession.

The second pastor was George Uphold, the Rev. Parker Adams having resigned Oct. 12, 1818. The remaining pastors have been Henry Stebbins, George B. Eastman, Joshua Morss, Joseph J. Nicholson, Edward Edwards, Richard S. Adams, William Walsh, Joseph Carey, George F. Ferguson, Charles H. Lancaster, F.A. Shoup, and the present incumbent, Walter Thompson.

Among the incidents of the church history may be mentioned the gift of a Bible by P.S. Van Rensselaer, March 27, 1815.

This old Methodist chapel, remodeled into Grace church, continued until the great fire of 1841, when it was burned. Indeed, the fire originated just in the rear of it, and it was the first to be destroyed. The society, rallying with energy, built of brick, not long after, at an expense of $6000. In 1865 this was enlarged, remodeled, thoroughly refitted, and furnished with a new organ, - the whole costing nearly $10,000. In these later efforts, Richard D. Davis was a noted benefactor. There have been several cases of very long official service in the church. John Higgins has served as vestryman or warden about forty years, and to him we are indebted for the facts given in this sketch. The present officers are James Holroyd and John Higgins, wardens; J.B. Enos, John Lawrence, F.S. Waldron, Thomas Breslin, Wm. Holroyd, Joseph Harraman, Emanuel Mead, and Wm. McDonald. The latter is also clerk.

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PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH.

The history of this society is taken from their "Manual," issued in 1876. The earliest Presbyterian congregations in this vicinity were organized in 1792, in the villages of Lansingburg and Troy. Neither congregation being strong enough in itself to support a minister, the two united in calling Rev. Jonas Coe, of New York. He came to Lansingburg to reside in 1793, and ministered in each village on alternate Sabbaths. Before the close of the last century a Presbyterian organization was formed in the village of Waterford. It was the germ of the present church, but was too weak, numerically and financially, to carry out its plans, and the organization was dormant for several years. The Reformed Dutch church, the venerable organization of earlier times, in 1799 erected their house of worship at the southwest corner of Middle and Third streets, the society paying for the lot $500. The Presbyterians then united with this church, and co-operated with it in all of its interests.

In the year 1803 the union was dissolved between the church of Troy and that of Lansingburg. Dr. Coe removed to Troy, and the church there became his solo charge. Just at this time the pastorate of the Dutch church in Waterford became vacant, through the failing health of the Rev. John Close, who had been pastor since 1797. Accordingly the Presbyterian church of Lansingburg invited the Presbyterians of Waterford, who had united with the Dutch church, to join with them in calling and supporting Rev. Samuel Blatchford, of Bridgeport, Conn., as pastor of the congregations in the two villages. This invitation was cordially accepted. The Presbyterian church of Waterford was again organized and formally established on a separate basis, - ecclesiastically distinct from the Lansingburg church, and also from the Waterford Dutch church. Mr. Blatchford accepted the united call on an annual salary of $1250 and forty loads of wood. He was installed pastor of the two churches by the presbytery of Columbia on July 18, 1804. Residing in Lansingburg, it was his habit during the first part of his ministry to spend each alternate Sabbath in Waterford, preaching in the morning and afternoon. Afterwards he gave a part of every Sabbath in both villages. On Tuesday evening in each week he lectured in Waterford, and on Thursday evening in Lansingburg. In addition to his church work, Mr. Blatchford was preceptor of the Lansingburg Academy; and under his charge it became a large, flourishing, and famous school.

In 1804 the Dutch church of Waterford placed its house of worship at the service of the Presbyterians; and having no pastor, united with them in Mr. Blatchford's support, and in attendance on his ministry. This union continued most harmoniously until the year 1825, when discussions arose regarding the title and use of the edifice. As the Dutch wished to revive their church organization, Dr. Blatchford relinquished his claim upon their pulpit, and on the second Sabbath in January, 1826, led the Presbyterians to Classic, now Knickerbocker hall, on First street, where services were held on that day, and continued to be held on the Sabbath for several months following. The lot on the corner of Third and Division streets was at once purchased, and the erection of the present church building immediately began. General Stewart, the architect of the town in those days, drew the plans, and personally supervised the work. It was completed in 1826, at a cost of $4000, and was opened with dedicatory services in September of that year. A half-century has elapsed, and the old walls yet stand within which the fathers worshiped, and where their children still count it their highest privilege to assemble. Dr. Blatchford continued to be pastor until the time of his death, March 17, 1828. His pastorate was nearly a quarter of a century in its duration. His labors were abundant, untiring, and successful, and he is regarded as the founder of Presbyterian institutions in Waterford.

Dr. Blatchford's successor was Rev. Ebenezer Cheever, who was installed April 9, 1828, and continued to serve the church as pastor until March, 1830, when he resigned. The pulpit was then supplied by Rev. Lawrence L. Van-Dyke for a short time. He was followed by Rev. George Bush, the well-known commentator, who was stated supply until May, 1831, when Rev. Reuben Smith was formally installed as pastor. During Mr. Smith's ministry the church was largely increased, two memorable revivals occurring. On the occasion of the March communion in 1843, fifty-six persons were received into membership, the largest number added to the church at any time until the March communion of the present year. Mr. Smith was pastor nearly seventeen years, resigning the office on April 1, 1848.

On the 14th of September, 1848, Rev. Alexander B. Bullions was installed pastor, and ministered here until the year 1853. It was at his suggestion, and with his aid, that the ladies of the church undertook the purchase of the parsonage property at the head of First street. This was done in 1852. Purchased through their exertions, the parsonage has since been under their charge. In 1869, at an expense of $2000, they enlarged the house, and added generally to its convenience. In 1874, they expended $1000 in other improvements.

Mr. Bullions having resigned early in 1853, Rev. David King, of Stillwater, was called to succeed him. But ere the time came for him to enter upon his pastorate here, the Lord called for his services in the Upper Temple, and he departed this life June 1, 1853.

Rev. Lewis H. Lee was the next pastor. He pronounced the oration at the grave of Colonel Ellsworth, and the effort will long live in the minds of those who heard it as a masterpiece of oratory. His brilliant career was suddenly closed by his death in 1863. It was during his pastorate that the old session-house was torn down and in its place the present one erected. The new building was the gift of John House, now deceased, and father of Dr. Samuel R. House, for thirty years engaged in mission work in Siam, but now returned to his native village.

Rev. Arthur T. Pierson was installed pastor Oct. 6, 1863. In 1865 it was determined to enlarge and remodel the church building. The closing services in the old house were held Sept. 17 of that year, Mr. Pierson preaching in the morning, and Rev. Clarence Eddy in the evening. The work of enlargement began on the following day. Some $20,000 were expended in the reconstruction and adornment of the building. It was carried on under the immediate supervision of the pastor and Mr. Geo. H. Stewart, whose uncle, General Stewart, had supervised the building of the house forty years before. The costly organ was the gift of the venerable John Cramer, and the elegant pulpit furniture and communion-table were the offering of the Sabbath-school. On Thursday evening, May 10, 1866, the spacious and beautiful house was reopened with dedicatory services, in which many clergymen of the presbytery took part.

Early in the year 1869, Dr. Pierson accepted a call to the Fort Street Presbyterian church, of Detroit, Mich., where he now ministers. In June of the same year, R.H.P. Vail, a licentiate of the presbytery of Troy, was called to the vacant pastorate, and was installed on the 14th of September following. At the communion in March, 1876, seventy-two persons united with the church. The service will be long remembered by all who were privileged to attend.

Mr. Vail closed his ministry in Waterford on the last day of March, 1876. being released by the presbytery to take charge of the Presbyterian church of Stamford, Conn. Rev. A. B. Riggs, the present pastor, succeeded him.

The following is a list of all who have held the offices of elder and deacon from the first, with the date of their installation:

Ruling Elders. - Joseph Haswell,* 1805; Moses Scott,* 1811; John House,* 1811; John Hazard,* 1814; Adam Edso,* 1814; John Haswell,* 1820; Nathan D. Sherwood,* 1833; Henry James,* 1833; Xenophon Haywood,* 1833; Lysander Button, 1842; Horace Fisk,* 1844; John V.S. Hazard, 1844; John C. House, 1858; James R. Blake, 1858; D.M. Van Hovenburg, 1865; Stephen Viele,* 1872; John H. Dennis,* 1872; M.D. Schoonmaker, 1875; Milton C. Jones, 1875; Theodore E. Button, 1875.

Deacons. - William H. Scott, 1831; Xenophon Haywood,* 1831; Elias Dummer, 1833; John W. Stewart, 1872.

 

* Deceased.

Removed.

 

The following are the present officers:

Ruling Elders. - Lysander Button, John C. House, clerk; D.M. Van Hovenburg, M.D. Schoonmaker, Milton C. Jones, Theo. E. Button.

Deacons. - W.H. Scott, Elias Dummer, John W. Stewart.

Trustees. - Wm. T. Seymour, president; J.C. House, secretary and treasurer; Geo. W. Eddy, Geo. H. Stewart, William Gordon, Milton C. Jones, Isaac C. Ormsby, Jos. C. Platt, Jr., Edward H. Powell.

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THE BAPTIST CHURCH OF WATERFORD.

This society was organized in 1821, united with the Shaftsbury Association in 1822, and left to join the Saratoga Association in 1834. The ministers of this church have been Elders Willey, Lamb, Green, Andrews, Duncan, Brand, Rouse, Eastwood, Carr, Baker, Cannon, Burroughs, Garfield, Harvey, Lucas, Corwin, Cheshire, Lloyd, Judson, Ashton, Chivers, Dunsford, and Jones.

The first Baptist gatherings in Waterford were held at the house of Deacon Whitney. This was from 1812 to 1815. These services became the foundation of the church. The society worshiped in the old school-house, dividing the time with other denominations.

It was not until 1842 that a meeting-house was erected, a brick structure, due principally to the energy of Deacon George Hurd, T.J. Eddy, and Merritt Potter. This house was remodeled twice, the last time in 1867, when the present beautiful church was completed, at a cost of nearly $20,000. The first Sunday-school was opened in the old school-house, under Deacon Hurd, about the year 1835. The present officers of the church are: Pastor, Rev. Arthur Jones; Deacons, T.J. Eddy and J. Husted; Trustees, Dr. C. Boughton, Jr., R.D. Palmateer; Clerk, B.F. Flandreau.

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THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH.

The general view of Methodist work in this county, given in the chapter upon the town of Malta, shows that the appointment of Methodist ministers to Waterford does not appear under that name until 1830; but it was a point of Methodist work thirty years earlier than that. A chapel was erected soon after 1800, for they gave up the use of it and sold it to the Episcopalians in 1810.

In later years the church has had a vigorous and prosperous existence. The congregation is large, and they have a spacious and convenient house of worship, and the church work is well sustained.

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THE CATHOLIC CHURCH.

This is understood to be a flourishing congregation under the charge of the Catholic pastors of Cohoes. They have a convenient church, located upon a fine site.

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VIII. - BURIAL-GROUNDS.

The principal burying-ground in old times was on land donated by the Vandewerker family. This was superseded by the new cemetery. As in other towns, there are some private burial-places. The Decker and Clute families are buried on the present Sanders farm; the families of Vandekar and Frye on the present Anderson place.

In the old village burial-place there are some graves with the common rough stones, showing them to be very old, but there are only a few dates earlier than 1800.

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IX. - SOCIETIES, BANKS, AND THE PRESS.

Thirty years ago, 1848, a band of brother Masons, having applied for and obtained a dispensation from the Grand Master of the State of New York, proceeded to organize a lodge of Master Masons in this village. Of that number, seven were members of Phnix Lodge, No. 58, Lansingburg, and two were brethren from Old Orange Lodge, No. 43, which was in existence long before the great anti-Masonic excitement of nearly half a century ago. James M. Austin was the first Master of the newly organized lodge, under dispensation. His great ability and untiring zeal for the welfare of the new lodge singularly qualified him for the position, which he held during four consecutive years. Brother Austin is the present Grand High Priest of the United States, and Grand Secretary of the State of New York. The other officers on the foundation were Brother John Hinde, S.W.; John Fulton, J.W.; F.W. Allen, Sec.; John Higgins, Treas.; Joseph H. Cudworth, S.D.; John Milliken, J.D.; Samuel Landsborough, S.M.C.; Joseph M. King, J.M.C.; John Roe, Tyler. The charter members, besides the officers above mentioned, were G.C. Schoonmaker, William H. Scott, and Oliver L. Shepard, U.S.A. The following, among others, are Past Masters of the lodge: R.L. Schoonmaker, Edward Lansing, John Fulton, John Higgins, D.M. Van Hovenburg, Russell Porter, Thomas Breslin, Samuel A. Northrup.

Waterford Lodge of Good Templars, No. 231, was instituted and its officers installed by Deputy P.J. McCord, April 2, 1867. The officers were George T. Enos, W.C.T.; Mrs. J. Carey, W.R.H.S.; Mrs. H. McDowell, W.L.H.S.; Miss Kate Carey, W.V.T.; Dr. P.T. Heartt (2d), P.W.C.T.; George C. Gage, W.R.S.; Miss Libbie McDowell, W.A.R.S.; John Proper, W. Treas.; T.E. Quackenbush, W.F.S.; D.M. Van Hovenburg, W.C.; Thomas Kelly, W.M.; Miss Eliza Holroyd, W.D.M.; Miss Clara G. House, W.I.G.; Dr. C. Boughton, W.O.G. The latter was also appointed lodge deputy. Other charter members were J.C. House, George H. Stewart, Levi Dodge, Erastus L. Clark, J.C. Ormsby, Thos. Kelly, Mrs. J. Carey, F.A. Heartt, Sarah Scott. Those acting as W.C.T. through the eleven years have been Major B. Winchell, thirteen terms; Samuel Johnson, eight; Levi Dodge, five; George T. Enos, four; John C. House, two; Peter Quackenbush, two; Dr. C. Boughton, two; George L. Clickner, two; Louis Plamp, two; Dr. P.T. Heartt (2d), two; and the following one term each: George C. Gage, A. Hepburn, A. Wager, T.D. Davis, and G.B. Lawrence.

The lodge has always been in a vigorous condition, though its membership has in some years numbered considerably less than in others. The lodge meets in a neatly-furnished hall, is out of debt, and has $800 in the treasury.

The following are the officers: Major B. Winchell, W.C.T.; Mrs. F.A. Lawrence, W.R.H.S.; Miss Ida Slocum, W.L.H.S.; Mrs. John S. Kelso, W.V.T.; Edwin Porter, W.S.; John S. Kelso, W.F.S.; Mrs. P.T. Heartt (2d), W.T.; Joel W. Smith, W.C.; Wm. Humphrey, Jr., W.M.; Miss Edna Kelso, W.D.M.; Mrs. C. Shepard, W.I.G.; Louis Plamp, W.O.G.; Fredie Winchell, W.A.S.; Dr. C. Boughton, W.P.C.T.; John C. House, L. Deputy.

Maple Valley Lodge, No. 427, I. O. O. F., was instituted May 19, 1875. The following were the charter members: Dr. P.T. Heartt, William Porter, Samuel Lee, Isaac Whitwell, Major B. Winchell, Henry Griffith, F.A. Lawrence, Robert Tunnard, Peter Vosburgh. The first officers were Samuel Lee, N.G.; Isaac Whitwell, V.G.; F.A. Lawrence, Sec.; Henry Griffith, Treas.; R. Tunnard, Warden; P. Vosburgh, Con.; H.B. Winchell, O.G.; Dr. P.T. Heartt, P.G.; John Hopper, R.S.N.G.; N. Peters, L.S.N.G.; William G. German, I.G. Isaac Whitwell was the second Noble Grand; the third, John Hopper; fourth, Newtown Peters; fifth, Major B. Winchell; and the present incumbent of the chair is Charles P. Bachelor. The lodge meets in Knickerbocker hall, and is in excellent condition. It is out of debt, and has money in the treasury.

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SARATOGA COUNTY BANK.

The act incorporating this institution was passed May 29, 1830. The capital stock was fixed at $100,000, or four thousand shares of $25 each. The commissioners to receive subscriptions and call the first meeting for the election of directors were John Knickerbocker, James Thompson, John Cramer, Miles Beach, and John W. Kirtland. The first board of directors chosen were John Knickerbocker, John Cramer, John Vibbard, Eli M. Todd, Moses Scott, Samuel Thompson, Matthew Bailey, Samuel Cook, and Miles Beach.

At the first meeting of the board, held July 14, 1830, John Knickerbocker was chosen president; Jonathan H. Douglas, cashier; and John Cramer, attorney. John Vibbard, Eli M. Todd, and John House were appointed a committee to inquire respecting a building to accommodate the company. The president, cashier, and attorney were appointed a committee to procure books and stationery, and also to draft by-laws.

In December, 1856, the capital was increased $50,000. In May, 1865, it was reorganized as a National bank; but in 1871 became again a State hank, with its old name, Saratoga County Bank, which it still retains.

The following is a list of presidents and vice-presidents from the organization to the present time:

Presidents. - John Knickerbocker, June, 1830; died Oct. 1862. John Cramer, June 9, 1863; died June 2, 1870. Hugh White, June 14, 1870; died Oct. 7, 1870. Wm. Scott, Jan. 10, 1871; resigned Sept. 14, 1876. C. Boughton, Sept. 14, 1876.

Vice-Presidents. - John Cramer, June, 1830. John Stewart, June 9, 1863; died Feb. 2, 1864. Hugh White, June 14, 1864. Wm. Scott, June 14, 1870. C. Boughton, Jan. 10, 1871. D.T. Lamb, Sept. 14, 1876.

The present board of directors, besides the officers given above, are Hugh Connaughty, John Lawrence, J.B. Enos, John W. Thompson, C.A. Waldron, W.M. Eddy, J.C. Ormsby, Garnsey Kennedy, Stephen Emigh, David Brewster. The present cashier is D.M. Van Hovenburg; teller, Perry Emigh.

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X. - PLACES OF HISTORIC INTEREST.

The whole town may be mentioned as a historic spot, but in attempting to descend to particulars, this feature of our town histories becomes more difficult and perhaps less important in proportion as we depart from the towns of Saratoga and Stillwater, where were located the battles and strategic points of the great campaign of 1777.

The following quotation from old records at Albany points to a place here of military importance long before 1700:

"In 1689 it was resolved by the authorities at Albany to remove the fort about the house and barn of Harmon Lievese at Half-Moon to a more convenient place," from which it is inferred that quite a settlement existed there. The site of this fort is not certainly known at the present time. The family name mentioned might imply that it was up the Hudson river a mile or two. Indeed, it may have guarded the very ancient ferry up there.

Van Schaick's island is noted as the place to which General Schuyler had withdrawn the American army in retiring before the advance of Burgoyne, and the point at which General Gates took command, and led the army back to Stillwater and to Bemus Heights. The islands at the mouth of the Mohawk were really three, - Green island, Van Schaick's, and Peebles'. Besides, the term Havre was applied to a portion of the latter, Havre island, - meaning the "island of oats." Schuyler's army was encamped on both Van Schaick's and Peebles' islands, and intrenchments are still plainly visible on the latter, as seen from Waterford.

The old fort of 1689 is said to have stood on the bank of the Hudson, just above the junction and a little below the present Union bridge.

It may be difficult to reconcile this statement with a preceding one.

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