Schoharie County NYGenWeb Site

History of Schoharie County by William E. Roscoe



We find that the "Schoharie County Directory" and "French's Gazetteer," two works often referred to, are in error in regard to the date of this town's formation. They both give the date, April 11, 1845. Isaac Mann, a practical surveyor, now living in the town, surveyed the line in February, 1849 and on the 11th of April following, an act was passed by the Legislature, making it a town, taking the whole from the town of Cobleskill, and giving it the name of the postoffice---Richmondville.

On the 21st of October, 1851, a portion of Seward was annexed, making the town's present territory.

First Settlement.---Warner Family.--- The first settlers were George Warner and John Zea, who came from Germany and settled near the hamlet now known as Warnerville. There were three of the Warner brothers that immigrated to this country, who were the progenitors of the family bearing that name throughout the country, especially in Albany and Schoharie counties. They were George, Stuffle and HonYost, or Joseph. Stuffle, or Christopher, settled in Berne, Albany county, of whom Dr. Philip I. Werner, of Barnerville, is a descendant. While those of the name living at Warner Hill east of Schoharieville are descendants of HonYost.

The original name is Werner and some branches of the family write it so, while others give the German e the sound of English a and write it Warner. Those living in this locality use the latter orthography. George Warner was born in 1720, and settled here in the spring of 1764, in a log house that stood near where James Warner now resides, and reared two sons, whose connection with him in the Revolutionary struggles, made the family name memorable upon Schoharie County history. Nicholas and George Jr., were staunch patriots, although young---and the only children that were old enough to take a part in the conflict.

Both have long since been laid by the ashes of their father, upon a knoll back of the present residence of James Warner, a grandson of George, Jr. Even the children have grown old and died, the last, Marcus, son of George Jr., passed away within the past year at the ripe old age of eighty-eight. We had the pleasure of meeting him a few months before he died and listened to his trembling voice as he recited many incidents connected with his father's life, and which often animated his feeble form, as if new life and vigor were given it, and enkindled a sparkle in his eye of a patriotic and courageous glow, which spoke plainly that the true and tried spirit of '76 yet lived. He was born, lived and died upon the same building site, which seems a remarkable case, since the modern Americans have become "ramblers" but it is only one of many, to be found in our staid Schoharie. The first house built by Warner, as we have mentioned, was a log hut, but some time previous to 1778, a frame one was built near the family burial ground, and a trace of its cellar may still be seen. This house, Author Simms says, was the first building burned in the Schoharie settlements by the enemy in the Revolution. It was in the burning of that house, that two, more than Spartans fell, whose valor gives lustre to the annals of history, and which we will shortly consider. The family built another frame building after peace was proclaimed, in which Marcus was born and which stood where James Warner's residence now stands.

John Zea and Family.--- As before stated, John Zea settled here at the same time---in 1764---and occupied the farm now owned by Alexander Larkin. The old house stood near the creed, upon the sough side of the road, and was the only one west of Warner's until after the Revolution.

Some time previous to 1778, Zea and his wife passed away, leaving his sons, John and Nicholas, and four daughters, in possession of the farm, that comprised a large tract at that time, but which has since been cut up into several farms. The family has become extinct, there not being one left bearing the name. John was killed in the battle of Cobleskill, and was unmarried, and his brother Nicholas proved to be a Tory, and fled to Canada, from whence he did not return, and leaving only a daughter as his issue.

Appearance of an Enemy.---As nothing occurred in this part of Cobleskill settlement, (with the exception of the addition of the Frimire family as settlers east of the Warner place soon after 1764), until the day before the battle of Cobleskill, we will now consider the facts relating to that event, which proved the most disastrous to the settlement, and which also proved the true political sentiments of the few citizens of the valley.

All Border settlements had been in a constant state of alarm, as the Tories had threatened an invasion, which gave rise to the organization of the militia company in the valley for protection. Lieutenant Jacob Borst and brother Joseph, accompanied by John Frimire, started early on the morning of May 30, 1778, upon a scouting expedition down the Schenevus creek. After traveling nearly to the head waters of that stream and the Cobleskill, Frimire expressed his fears of a safe return home, as he believed he had a presentiment of misfortune. His comrades allowed him to return, which led many that perhaps had less patriotism, to cast the epithet of "Tory" upon him. The Borst brothers continued on, and returned the next day, and overtook two Indians a short distance east of the present village. The accused the brothers of being in quest of Indians, and showed a disposition for and encounter by throwing the priming from one of the brother's guns, after a pretended salutation.

"Joseph," says Judge Brown in his brief history, "with ready presence of mind and good resolution, dropped his own gun and clinched the Indian's piece---took hold and twisted the flint out of the cock, and then replied in Mohawk, 'To zenery it sagat:' that is to say, 'It is good that this is just so.' At this, the Indian clinched Borst with lion-like fury. Borst, not in the least daunted, but with good resolution, also took a rash hold, gave a hearty Indian whoop, which took away half of the Indian's strength, and soon brought him down on his knees. AT this time a shot fell behind his back. The Indian, almost naked, strove to extricate himself from Borst's hands, now slipped loose and ran off leaving his gun in the lodge. Lieutenant Borst, who by this time had finished the best part of his business with the other Indian, ran up to his brother and picked up his gun, but Hanyerry escaped. * * * * * * *

"Lieutenant Borst now stood in every way exposed. The other Indian, Oness Taap, came up and demanded him to surrender prisoner; he made one step back, and replied, 'Taghte,' which is to say 'no!' then shot him through the body, and broke his backbone, so let him lay, and made off."

The Borst brothers returned to the militia rendezvous at Christian Brown's, and reported the facts, which no doubt led the small company to believe that the two Indians were not alone but were sent forward by a large force to reconnoitre. A messenger was sent to Schoharie for assistance, and Captain Patrick of the regular service, and forty continental soldiers were sent over and arrived early in the morning of June 1st, at Captain Brown's, where sixteen of the valley militia had assembled. Leaving the patriots to become better acquainted with each other, we will examine into the movements of the enemy. Captain Brant the dreaded Mohawk chief, had raised a force of Aquago Indians and a few loyalists, and marched to Cherry Valley for the purpose of destroying the place but believing a force of Tryon county militia was stationed there and not wishing to hazard an attack, he turned his steps towards Cobleskill to devastate the valley.

The force arrived at the Zea house early in the morning of June 1st, * and Brant had a friendly consultation with Nicholas, which his four sisters witnessed, and which gave them to understand for the first time that he was a loyalist or as more plainly expressed by them "a Tory." The girls fled from the house, and, undoubtedly, apprised the Warner family or some others, of the enemy's proximity, who communicated the fact to the force at Captain Brown's.

* The date of the battle we accept of J. R. Simms' "Border Wars."

Ambuscade and Battle.--- The enemy lay quiet above Zea's, and the troops marched up to the Warner house and while being regaled by the host's good-cheer and joined by four more militia, a few redskins presented themselves to the westward of the house to intimidate the patriots. Captain Brown and his men, who were well acquainted with Indian strategy, divined their object, but Captain Patrick would not listen to their cautious warnings, and, being superior in rank, ordered the troops to follow the Indians. Obeying the command, the force, numbering but sixty, pursued them, and were led in an ambush upon the broad flat west of the Snyder brothers' present residence, which proved disastrous to the Patriots, and showed the truth of Brown's warnings. Captain Patrick, with many others fell upon the first fire, and the command was given by Brown to retreat, as he saw the enemy were strong in numbers, and were closing upon them. They fought desperately from tree to tree on their retreat towards the Warner house, but they were so pressed they were obliged to make a precipitate flight. Upon nearing the house, they saw that strategy must be used or all would be either killed or taken prisoners, and their families in the lower part of the valley also become objects of torture and death, as the barbarous clan would pour down upon them before they knew of their presence.

The house being reached, four noble braves entered to give battle to their pursuers and enabled the remainder to effect their escape and apprise their families of their danger. Soon the building was surrounded by the whole force, numbering in the neighborhood of three hundred, whose savage propensities were excited to unmerciful ends. Bravely, heroically they fought, but

"Alas ! 'twas but to die."

The torch was applied, and the eager, maddening flames, as if jubilant to finish the fiendish work, soon reduced the dwelling to ashes. During the burning, a Continental soldier tried to make his escape but was caught, and an act of cruelty practiced upon his helpless body that should make the prince of demons blush. His abdomen was opened and his entrails fastened to a tree, and he compelled to walk around it until he sank in untold agony. In derision of the government's financial distress, a roll of Continental bills were placed in his mouth and left. Another one tried to escape but was shot, and two, Martines Ferster and John Frimire, were burned with the building. Those men knew of they loitered here their doom would be sealed, yet they threw themselves as barricades before the foe to save others. They fell as the three hundred at the pass of Thermophylae, whose valor has brightened history's page for centuries. Poets have tuned their lyres to praise in song those heroic Spartans, and for ages, granite spires reared by a grateful and admiring nation have marked the spot as sacred ground upon which they so fearlessly fell. But her lie Ferster and Frimire, and their unknown comrades, at the gates of new born civilization, as it were, without a tablet to mark their resting place! Almost unknown, forgotten! Yet here they lie, true martyrs in a holy cause.

A small detachment a few days after the conflict, from Schoharie, laid them here in rude pits, without display---without a chant, except such as emanates from the very depths of loving hearts, by trembling sighs and flowing tears. *

* Simms

Beyond the stream, upon a distant bank, a marble shaft marks the spot where lies a martyr of a later date, after defending the gates of our country's harbor from a brother's reckless hatred. George W. Snyder, of Sumter memory, was a worthy son to lie beside the ashes of Ferster, Frimire and others that fell here in 1778.

The contemplation of such spirits can but animate lesser ones to deeper love of humanity, and firmer, stronger love of country.

After the enemy left the house they passed down the valley, laying houses and barns in ashes; but the women and children having timely notice, secreted themselves in the forest and escaped unharmed. The murderous clan retraced their steps to the battle-ground and buried about sixty of their comrades, that the patriots killed, in a morass to the west, a trace of which may still be seen. They encamped for several days on the flat below the village, to care for their wounded, and then passed over to the Charlotte trail to their wigwams.

The patriots were scattered throughout the woods, and several days elapsed before they all reached the fort and a knowledge of their loss was ascertained. From the little band of sixty, twenty-two were killed, and two made prisoners, (Continentals) and several wounded. It will be seen that every shot made by the little force, was to kill.

As we have mentioned, the engagement was upon the broad flat west of the Snyder brothers' residence. The Indians formed a half circle, their right lying against the rise of ground to the south of the road, and the left near the creek. The Patriots marched in the center of the opening, and gained nearly the center of he circle, before they were apprised of their critical situation, and upon learning it, fell back a short distance, which debarred the enemy from closing upon them and cutting off a retreat. Finding their numbers were great, it was useless to undertake to cope with them, and a retreat was made, although stubbornly.

As we before stated, there were four girls in the Zea family, Sophronia, (afterwards Mrs. John Karker,) of whom Adam, Philip, and Peter William, are grandchildren, Miss Catharine, Lana, (Mrs. Luther Snyder,) and Margaret, (Mrs. Christopher Warner,) of Albany county.

Sophronia was the eldest, and was about sixteen, and upon arriving where Cobleskill village now stands, upon their way to the Schoharie fort, having missed her pocket, (a necessary appendage in those days,) in which a few family valuables were placed, she resolved to return to the house and procure it, bidding her sisters to flee direct to the fort and not wait for her return. After traveling back to the homestead and obtaining the article, she started alone for the fort, and upon her arrival, found that Catharine had strayed away from the rest and was not to be found. Three days passed without any tidings of her fate, and she was given up as killed or taken prisoner. Towards night of the third day, a couple of men were on their way to fish near the "Lime Kilns," in Middleburgh, when they were startled by a moaning in a rock hole a short distance off. Upon approaching, they found Catharine nearly dead with fright and cold. She refused to leave her retreat, fearful of being massacred by her rescuers, and they were obliged to carry her to the fort. Her mental powers were so shocked that she never recovered, although she lived to the age of eighty-three.

Sophronia received a visit from her brother, Nicholas, after she married, it being the first time he returned from Canada, where he fled after the battle, but her patriotism overcame family affection, and she refused to extend even the courtesy of a chair for him to sit upon. She accused him of being in the battle and shooting his brother, John, which he did not deny. The brothers had made an agreement after the father's death to the effect that John should join the militia, and Nicholas remain at home and attend to the farm, and while thus engaged it was ascertained that he acted as a spy, and gave all the information he could obtain regarding the Patriots' movements to their enemy, without being suspected.

All of the buildings that stood within the present limits of the town were burned by the enemy, excepting the Zea buildings and the old log house first reared by George Warner, which it was thought was spared for the purpose of Warner to occupy, that they might return some future time and capture him. Warner was a "Committee man" and a bounty of twenty dollars was given by the British officers for any such officials as prisoners, and eight dollars for their scalp.

Twice this settlement was visited by the enemy for the purpose of taking George Warner, Sr., prisoner. Upon the 8th of July, 1782, Adam Crysler at the head of a small squad of Indians appeared at the log house, and not being fortunate in finding the father at home, took the son, George, Jr., prisoner, and held him as such at Niagara until peace was proclaimed, when with several others he ran away and returned home. His captivity was attended with less severity than many others, yet as often was the case, snakes, horseflesh and many other unpalatable eatables were resorted to, to sustain life while upon the march. The day before the taking of George, Jr., the same party appeared upon Fox's creek and committed murder, as will be seen by consulting the chapter on the town of Wright.

In December (18th,) following the capture of George, Jr., the renowned murderer, Seths Henry with a party of eight fellow savages appeared suddenly at the log house and took the father and son prisoners and left the neighborhood without being noticed. They staid the night previous with a Tory in the Rhinebeck settlement, expecting to capture John Philip Karker, but he being away from home they passed over to Warner's. The party directed their steps towards the Charlotte trail, through a new fallen snow and encamped for the night near Summit village.

Nicholas watched his opportunity late at night and made his escape, traveling the greater part of the distance with bare feet. The old gentleman was taken to Canada and received very good treatment considering the nature of his host. He was exchanged after an absence of eleven months and returned to his family.

We see at one time three of this family were held as prisoners by the unmerciful foe. Drear must have been the fireside the night following the capture of the husband and son. The fate of George, Jr. was unknown. The thousand phantoms which the imagination leads the terrified mind to view must have made the wife and mother's heart quiver in terror and dismay. We cannot wonder at the bitter hatred that filled the breasts of the patriotic women of the Revolution towards the Tories and Indians. The former were feared throughout the border settlements more than the latter, as their hearts seemed to be callused, many time in torturing, where the uncivilized Indians were merciful. It is a fact, that the most inhuman, more than brutish, acts that were committed during the war were by, or at, the instigation of those who were called civilized. The most wanton acts of cruelty were committed by them upon friends and even kinsmen, such as put the "untutored savage" to blush.

Nicholas Warner.--- Undoubtedly there did not exist a man that bore a greater enmity to the Indians and Tories than Nicholas Warner. He was an inveterate enemy to them. While upon a scouting expedition he encountered an Indian in the woods, and both "took to trees." Warner peered out one side of the tree to see his "game," but drew back with his eyes' full of chips, from the bark which the Indian's bullet caused to fly as it whizzed past. After clearing his eyes, he ventured once more, and supposed he had a fair chance at the head of the redskin, and fired. Instead of the head, it was the Indian's hat placed upon the end of the ramrod to deceive Warner, and as soon as he fired, the Indian jumped with tomahawk uplifted to dispatch his unarmed neighbor. Before he reached him, Nicholas had reloaded, and with equal dexterity unloaded his trusty rifle in the head of the wily warrior. At another time, while hunting, he espied an Indian some distance up the creek, quietly fishing, and being a good marksman and fond of game, his rifle, he said, was pointed that way and it went off, but he never went to see if he hit him.

At the time Warner settled here in 1764, he built a "barrack," near the house, in which he stored hay and grain, as was the custom among the first settlers, they being too poor to build barns. They were constructed by placing four posts in the ground forming a square, and running high enough to admit a good sized stack. Upon the top of the posts was placed a roof made of boards, or, in their absence poles, and thatched with straw or evergreen boughs. Many built the roof so as to be raised or lowered, at will, to give better protection to the products. This "barrack" was burned the day of the battle, and the unburned posts were left by the owner and his sons who followed him, as memorials of that disastrous day. After a lapse of one hundred and ten years, Mr. Isaac Mann, a great-grandson, cut a piece from one of those posts, which he now uses as a ruler. It is sound and lithe as a lately cut stick. Mr. Mann has also the Warner High Dutch Bible which George, Sr., brought over with him from Germany. The cover is of board and very heavy leather. It is well bound, neatly printed, and profusely illustrated. In comparing them with the fine steel cuts that embellish the Bibles of today, or of this work, one is struck with the advancement art has made. While the family were scattered hither and thither---now homeless---terror-stricken and despondent, so many time through their life-struggles---they clung to the old Bible and brought it through all calamities unhurt. As we turned its yellow, clumsy leaves, this thought struck us---of all the family relics, the "Old Bible" stands preeminent! "It was grandfather's," or my "great-grandfather's," or, perhaps, it was "mother's, and she gave it to me!" Holy instructor---always bound to us by holy associations! A brutish spirit indeed it must be, that would refuse to cling to it with deep reverence!

Capt. George W. Snyder.--- Crossing over the valley we come to the grave of one to whom honor is due. Beneath a plain, yet substantial monument, lies the soldier, and upon it we read upon the west side:---

JULY 30, 1833
NOV. 17, 1861.

And upon the east:---


Upon the north:---


And on the south:---


George W. Snyder was the son of William Snyder, and great-grandson of the old patriot, Nicholas Warner.

He commenced attending the district school at Cobleskill village at the age of four years, and was so diligent in his studies and apt in learning, that within one week he learned his letters. The same characteristics were noticeable through his whole life, and placed him at the head of everything in which he enlisted his energies.

We scarce meet with one whose onward course was a progressive as George W. Snyder's, or with one whose demise draws upon our sympathies more, as in him we could but see a still greater and nobler career drawing towards him through his energetic, studious and amiable life. At the age of ten he was sent to the Schoharie Academy, and from there to Franklin, Deleware county, and Cherry Valley successively, and returned to Schoharie to prepare for Union College, which he entered in the year 1850, at the age of seventeen.

Remaining there but two years, he received his diplomas as "Majistre'" and "Baccalaurie," in July, 1852, and entered the military school at West Point a few month after, where he redoubled his energies and received his first recommendation from the officers of the school to the President, from whom he was honored by promotion as Brevet Second Lieutenant of the Corps of Engineers, on the 1st of July, 1856, signed by Franklin Pierce, and his secretary, Jefferson Davis. On the 21st of August following, he was raised in his class by the same to Second Lieutenant, and promoted by President James Buchanan, to First Lieutenant, on the 1st of July, 1860. His commission from President Lincoln, as Captain, was given on the 14th of April, 1861, and on the 21st of July following, he was honored by another certificate, signed by President Abraham Lincoln and his secretary, Simon Cameron, promoting him to the rank of Major, "For gallant and meritorious services in the Manassas campaign." A few days before he died he was honored by the appointment of Colonel, by President Lincoln. While acting as First Lieutenant under Major Anderson, he was with the gallant company that held Fort Sumter against the misguided Carolinians, and it was through exposure and the use of unwholesome food and water, that he was attacked with a diarrhea which became chronic, and closed his life upon the 17th of November, 1861.

Upon the evacuation of Fort Sumter, Snyder reported at Washington, and immediately commenced actual field services. He had charge of the landing of the first troops at Annapolis, and was in General Heintzelman's staff at the battle of Bull Run, and brought off the last of our troops from the field in good order.

The New York Times, in its issue of November 22, said of him:---

"Zealous and unflinching in the discharge of his duties--- no matter how disagreeable they might be---he over tasked his body and fell on easy prey to the fever which ended his career. His former comrades in arms, mourn in him the loss of one of the brightest ornaments of their profession, and his country has lost he services of an upright, fearless and devoted officer."

The progenitor of this Snyder family was William Snyder, who came from the Helleberg before the Revolution, and during that struggle acted as a militia man and home guard.

He married a daughter of George Warner, Sr., and settled upon the farm now owned and occupied by Sylvester McDonald, where he began in 1800 to "keep tavern," the main road to Schenevus running upon that side of the creek. Their children were Peter W., and Maria, the latter a wife of Henry Mann.

Peter W., married a daughter of Nicholas Warner, to whom one child was born, William, the father of Captain George W. Snyder.


This little hamlet was formerly and for many years known as "Manns Valley," after the family of Captain George Mann, of Schoharie, who removed to this place in 1786. The Captain had five sons and four daughters, who at one time lived near with families, and made quite a settlement of their own.

Their names were:---

           Betsy, (Mrs. Colyer.)
           Christina, (Mrs. Jacob Kromer,)
           Lana, (Mrs. Adam A Shaver.)
Peter's children were:---
           Ex-Sheriff Henry Mann,
           Mrs. Calkins.

Henry's children were:---

           William H.,
           George L.,
           Mrs. Henry Mann,
           Mrs. Ephraim Warner,

Philip's children were:---

           Mrs. Jeremiah Richtmyer.

Abram's children were:---

           Mrs. Peter Hilts,
           David S.,
           Mrs. Fuller,
           Miss Etta.

Peter was the oldest son and kept the first tavern west of Cobleskill, which stood nearly opposite of Alexander Larkin's residence. Her he catered to the wants of the community and traveling public for many years, and after closing up his business, his brother Henry opened quite an extensive establishment between Segar and Mann's store and the blacksmith shop, south, and followed the business a long time. But the whole has been cleared away and not a trace of the old familiar haunt remains. The name of the place was afterwards changed to Cobleskill Centre, and still later to its present name of Warnerville. When the plank road was in operation and for some time before, the little hamlet presented a lively appearance as a farmer's business centre, but the railroad drew a veil over its prosperity and wafted the attractions, all down to the village of Cobleskill, leaving Warnerville quiet. The postoffice was established in 1831 as "Manns Valley" and Abram Mann received the appointment as postmaster, and kept the office in Henry Mann's Inn.

The tannery that is now owned by Jarvis Peak was built about the year 1834, by Joseph W. Courter, and afterwards purchased by Henry Webb. It was quite an extensive concern for several years and added much to the business interest of the place.

There were for many years two hotels found here, but fire laid them in ashes, and at present a former private house is occupied as such, but the custom that for years made the business paying, ceased with the life of road travel.

Churches.--- The present Methodist church was organized in 1840, and the edifice built in 1848. Its pastorate is connected with that of Cobleskill.

The Christian Church was organized in 1846 by the veteran John Ross, of Charlestown, with a membership of eleven. The house of worship was built the same year and repaired in 1870. The pulpit has been supplied by other churches, until the organization of the Richmondville Christian Society, where one regular pastor officiates in both.

Seminary.---During the "Seminary epidemic" of 1850 and 1854 that swept over the country and excited the usual steady minds of the people, and made sad havoc with the accumulation of years of economy and industry, the citizens of this place erected a fine edifice for the accommodation of two hundred boarding pupils.

It is very pleasantly situated and has all the conveniences necessary for a fist-class institution.

It was erected in 1853 at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, and was opened in the fall of that year with ---- Douglass as principal, and a corps of twelve assistants. Not proving successful the institution was closed and remained so until November, 1861, when a school was commenced with Chester C. Thorne as principal, under the title of Union Literary Institute. The course of instruction embraced the essential branches of a through and accomplished English and classical education. The school continued one year and one-half and closed.

The building remained vacant until the year 1870, when Prof. Dean Smith refurnished it, and commenced the school as "Dean's College" but after a trial of eighteen months, Prof. Smith's efforts proved futile to make it a self-sustaining enterprise, and the building was one more abandoned for school purposes, and it has stood idle sine. It is but a from monument to inexperience and people's folly.

The first grist-mill in the town was built back of George M. Warner's residence, by David Lawyer, immediately after the Revolution. His son Lambert occupied the farm in after years, but was not the Lambert Lawyer of Cobleskill, as supposed by many. The latter was an uncle of the former Lambert.


In drawing near Richmondville one is struck with the location of the village for manufacturing purposes. Perhaps the steady rumbling of mills and earnest hammer strokes awaken our mechanical genius, and lure the mind down to the massive reservoirs that obstruct the streams of lesser flow, throughout Connecticut and Massachusetts and hold back the water to enable the largest mills to run incessantly the year round and give employment to thousands of laborers. There is not a more attractive spot in the County for such enterprises than is found here. There are at present one flour and two provender mills, two saw, one paper and two cider mills, as sash and blind factory, one woolen mill, a machine shop and foundry, one grain cradle and two cloth drier manufactures, each and all doing a good business. There are also harness, blacksmith, cooper and shoe shops in abundance driven by the sinewy arms of the industrious people.

The Richmondville paper-mill was established in 1865 by Westover & Foster and is capable of running three tons of coarse straw paper per day.

The first grist-mill was built upon the site of John Weller's present mill, by Asa Bailey in 1807. The present one has three run of stone and is capable of grinding five hundred bushels per day.

Nearly eighty years ago, some one unknown to our informant, Mr. M. N. Bradley, built a small mill for fulling cloth upon the site of the present one. A few years after a carding machine was attached. The cloth was fulled only, it being taken to a small log house near and sheared by hand. In 1837 it became the property of Milo Bradley, of Barnerville, and under his and sons' management it became an important enterprise of the place. In 1872 Mr. M. N. Bradley put in a full set of machinery for manufacturing all kinds of domestic goods, which has added still more to the value of the property as well as convenience for the rural surroundings. From eight thousand to ten thousand pounds of wool are carded yearly and nearly and equal number of yards of cloth manufactured.

Richmondville Iron Works.--- The foundry was first built by William Wood and for many years owned and managed by his son Henry Wood in the manufacture of plows and fixtures, stoves, scrapers, engine fixtures and all other articles common to a country foundry. It is at present under the management of A. B. Stevens and bids fair to reach a high standard among the shops of the valley.

The present business of the works will average at least from twenty to twenty-five tons of castings yearly, employing from six to eight workmen.

The first hotel to accommodate the traveling public in the village was kept by George Dox, where the Westover house now stands, about the year 1795. Dox was a son of George Dox who came from Germany before the Revolution, and settled below the Hellebergh, and after the war closed, at Richmondville. His sons were George, Michael, John and Jacob. The family living at Beard's Hollow are those of Michael, who settled there in 1802. Following Dox in the inn was Ezra Ackley in 1804, upon the ground now occupied by the residence of Mrs. Felton. The third keeper of the house was John Warner, son of George Warner, Jr., who was appointed the first postmaster upon the establishment of the office at this place in 1825. Nearly one year ago we visited Mrs. John Warner, * at the residence of her son-in-law, James Harrowy, and although eighty-seven long and eventful years had passed over her head, we found her still active and communicative.

*She has since died.

She was a daughter of the late John Spraker, of Palatine-on-Mohawk. We find the "boys" of those days would "a wooing go" away from home, as now, and to judge by the outlines of Mrs. Warner's face, her husband had an eye to beauty as well as intelligence. We love to sit by such aged ones, whose lives have been busy and eventful, and listen to them, when their minds are as clear and strong as hers. We find many as old, but their memories are but slender threads uniting the past with the present, and much worn by Time's vibrations and too weak to tell any but wandering tales.

First Justice of the Peace.---Mr.-----Norcutt was the first justice of the peace in the old town of Cobleskill, and received his appointment in 1805. He was succeeded by Asa Bailey in 1809. Norcutt and Bailey both died in that year, and Johan Westover, who removed from Berkshire county, Mass., in 1808, was appointed to the office, and held it until the year 1829, when he was succeeded by his son, Hon. John Westover, who held the office to the year 1863. In 1834 he was honored by the appointment of Judge of the Court of Common Pleas, which office he held thirteen years. He was associated with John C. Wright and Charles Goodyear. In 1835 he represented the town of Cobleskill in the Board of Supervisors, and in 1853 was elected to the Assembly, where his exertions were enlisted in giving birth to the Albany & Susquehanna Railroad project, in which he took a deep interest, and became on of the leaders of the enterprise. He has repeatedly been chosen one of its directors, and in that position as elsewhere, has exhibited that strict business characteristic which has been prominent throughout his life, and made him one of the County's foremost men.

Mr. Westover was born in Berkshire county, Mass., in 1797, and still exhibits an unusually sagacious mind, and the same extraordinary vim for business as in younger years. We find very few, comparatively, that make life a success. We do not mean in accumulating wealth, but in making themselves useful and exemplary, doing much for the public good, and trustworthy. In every position, both public and private, Mr. Westover has shown the same indomitable energy to act wisely, and the present firm and substantial business of the place are the fruits of his spirit.

First Mail Carrier.--- A man by the name of Webb living at West Richmondville was the first mail carrier to this place over ten years previous to the establishment of the postoffice. He brought the newspapers from Cobleskill on horseback, and at a late date carried the mail as far as Unadilla, and was known as Deacon Webb. Whether his strict religious life gave him the appellation, or it was "honorary," for his ease in calling so often upon his Maker, when behind time, as mail carriers usually do, we are unable to say. Poor horse-ridden Webb little thought as he sat perched upon his trusty charger with a small mail bag strapped "on behind" that before he was forgotten, a screeching, puffing monster would wind along the sides of these hills, with a long snake-like train

"Singing through the forest
Rattling over ridges,
Shooting under arches
Rumbling over bridges,

appearing and disappearing in less time than he could seat himself in the saddle and chirp "gee up."

However, Webb caught the spirit of improvement and carried the mail in a one-horse wagon. He continued the business about twenty-five years, and gave up the reins to Oliver Bass, who put a coach upon the route through to Albany. Many who are now living, well remember as the old yellow and red "Rocking coach" drove up to the door, how perfect every arrangement seemed to be, and with what ease and comfort a trip to Albany or Binghamton could be made in the short space of ten or twelve hours.

Physicians.--- In 1812 Dr. John Nichols settled in the village and was the first regular practicing physician. He died in 1819 and his remains lie in the Methodist cemetery. A vacancy being made upon his death, the people made a call on the Medical School of New York for a physician in March, 1820.

Dr. Thomas B. Van Alstyne, a native of Kinderhook, N. Y., and a student of the noted Dr. White, of Hudson, N. Y., was sent in answer to the above request, who continued to practice to the year 1856, and reared a family of six children, each of whom have made themselves worthy of a worthy father, and become prominent and useful citizens.

Thomas J., is a resident of Albany, and has occupied the county judicial bench for two terms, highly satisfactory as a gentleman and an able jurist. He was elected at the late election to the United States Congress, and takes his seat in December, 1883.

Sylvester M. Van Alstyne followed his father in the practice of medicine, and stood at the head of the medical fraternity in the County. He represented the town in the Board of Supervisors in the years 1862, 1863, 1864, 1875, 1876, where he displayed the ability of a legislator, that very few possess. He died October 28, 1882. We give space to the following article from the Richmondville Democrat, of October 28, 1882:---

"In the death of Dr. S. M. Van Alstyne, Richmondville loses one of its most worthy citizens. Dr. Van Alstyne was born on the 28th day of February, 1833. He had the full advantages of a complete education, and was always regarded as one of the most learned in our community. At the early age of seventeen he received an appointment to the military academy of West Point. During his stay at that institution his peculiar brilliancy and education placed him at the head of his class, which exalted position he maintained until, submitting to the very urgent solicitations of his parents, he resigned his position at West Point and chose the study of medicine as his profession, graduating with high honors at the Albany Medical College, December 2, 1854. He was a member of the Schoharie County Medical Society also of the New York State Medical Society. As a physician he occupied a position which can only be obtained by a thorough study, and application to one's chosen profession. He was selected by his townsmen for five years, discharging the duties pertaining to this office to their utmost satisfaction.

"He was married on the 9th of July, 1855, to Cynthia E. Whitney, daughter of Colonel Whitney, of Milford, N. Y. He leaves a wife, one son---Dr. T. B. Van Alstyne, of Richmondville, and two daughters--- Mrs. Dr. Voorhees, of Auburn, N. Y., and Miss Adah Van Alstyne, of Richmondville.

"Dr. Van Alstyne was a conscientious Christian, a true gentleman, a kind husband, and loving father. His death will be a great loss to this community, and his genial presence and kindly recognition's will be missed by all. We can pay no higher tribute to the memory of our distinguished friend, neighbor and physician than to say that a great, grand and noble Christian man has gone to his rest."

Fayette E., became a mechanic and settled at Binghamton where he now resides.

John studied medicine and commenced to practice in 1865, and remained till the year 1873, when re removed to Binghamton, where he still resides, and stands at the head of his profession. He received, very shortly after graduating in 1862, a commission as assistant-surgeon of the 3d N. Y. V. C., was soon promoted to surgeon of the regiment, and toward close of the war was made brigade surgeon.

Mrs. Joseph K. Barry, [deceased,] of Chicago, and Mrs. J. L. Multer, of the Independent Calistogian, of California, are the daughters that complete the family of six, whose early training in the principles of right and usefulness have made them an honor to the place of their birth.

Dr. Thomas Skinner located here in 1833, and after removed to Hartwick and died near Syracuse in 1879. J. B. Rossman came in 1840 and remained till 1850 when he located at Albany.

Dr. Henry Barnes was in practice here some years. Dr. Valentine Cornell came in 1865 and removed to Cobleskill village in 1874, where he died in 1877.

Dr. Atkins came in 1874 and the year following located at Saratoga village, and thence to Essex, N. Y., where he enjoys a lucrative practice.

Dr. George H. Leonard, of East Worcester located here in 1858 and entered the Union army in 1863 as assistant surgeon and died of consumption soon after.

Dr. Thomas B. Van Alstyne, grandson of the first Thomas B., opened an office in June, 1881, and at present is the only physician practicing in the village. He is the only make representative of the Van Alstyne family now residing in the county, and bids fair to maintain the enviable reputation acquired by his ancestors.

Dr. Rowley settled at Warnerville about 1832 and died there in 1846 and was succeeded by Dr. Jared Chase in 1850 and Dr. Eli Bois & Son in 1854. The elder Bois died in 1857 and Willard succeeded him and still remains. Dr. H. S. Gale removed from West Fulton in the spring of 1881, who together with Doctors Chase and Bois attend to the "ills" of their friends.

Churches.---Here we find four churches whose appearance bespeak the enterprise of the people as well as their pride in their houses of worship.

The Methodist Church is the pioneer, it being organized in 1820 by John Bangs.

Their meeting were held in the school house until the year 1836 when an edifice was erected. The present one was built in 1866 and will seat nearly seven hundred. A prosperous Sabbath School and large Bible class are sustained by the society and a deep interest in the religious cause is manifested by the church as a whole.

The Lutheran Church was organized in 1830 and the first edifice erected in 1833. The present one was built in 1857, being repaired and enlarged in 1876, and will seat over six hundred. The records have not been preserved in such order as to enable us to glean the desired information but we find John Selemer was the first pastor and after a few years was recalled and died in 1876, at the age of sixty-nine.

He was followed by Ira Parker, P. Ludden, S. Curtis, Charles L. Barringer and Jacob Paul, the latter at present officiating.

There is also connected with this church a large Sabbath School and Bible class in whose behalf the society takes a lively interest.

The Baptist Church was next in organization and was formed in 1838 by twenty-six members. The records say, "At a council held in Richmondville on the 13th of June 1838 by the delegates from the Baptist churches in Summit, Jefferson, Worcester, Westford, Cobleskill, Fulton and Harpersfield, it was thought proper to constitute a Baptist church in the above mentioned place to be called the 'Richmondville Baptist Church'. A constitution was drawn up embracing articles of confession, Faith and practice and entered upon the church-book, which tersely exhibits the sincerity, stability and character of professors of that day.

"At a covenant meeting held September 11, 1841, Elder Walter Covey was appointed a committee to prepare an article on Temperance which he did and attached it to the church articles of Practice. It being the first move by the body in the cause we her copy the same. "We believe that intemperance is a great evil and therefore we will not use intoxicating liquors as a beverage, nor traffic in them or for persons in our employment and that we will discountenance their use throughout the community."

The following Elders have officiated:---

            1838---David B. Collins.
            1839---James Ingles.
            1840---Walter Covey.
            1841---Walter Covey.
            1842---L. C. Bates.
            1843---L. C. Bates.
            1844---L. C. Bates.
            1845---L. C. Bates.
            1846---L. C. Bates.
            1847---L. C. Bates.
            1849---W. Covey.
            1850---L. E. Spafford.
            1851---L. E. Spafford.
            1852---L. E. Spafford.
            1853---A. S. Davis.
            1854---A. S. Davis.
            1855---A. S. Davis.
            1856---George Evans.
            1857---George Evans.
            1858---George Evans.
            1859---C. C. Boorne.
            1860---C. C. Boorne.
            1861---C. C. Boorne.
            1862---C. C. Boorne.
            1863---C. C. Boorne.
            1866---W. M. Halleck.
            1867---W. M. Halleck.
            1868---W. M. Halleck.
            1869---W. M. Halleck.
            1871---P. C. Bently.
            1872---P. C. Bently.
            1873---G. W. Remington.
            1874---G. W. Remington.
            1875---G. W. Remington.
            1876---G. W. Remington.
            1877---G. W. Remington.
            1878---D. B. Collins.
            1879---D. B. Collins.
            1880---O. W. Cook.
            1881---R. Lehman and present.

The first church edifice was built in 1843.

Richmondville Bank.--- Mr. Westover, for many years, feeling the inconvenience of having no bank to transact business in a systematic manner, with his ample means established a banking house which was opened for the convenience of the business public on the first day of April 1881.

J. M. Foster long interested in the business of the place, was associated in the enterprise, making the firm Westover & Foster, Bankers. The business men of the village and surrounding country fully appreciate the convenience, and assure their confidence, in a flattering patronage.

Christian Church.--- The Christian church was built in 1875 at a cost of twenty-five hundred dollars and dedicated on the 4th of January 1876 under the pastorate of A. J. Welton, who was followed by T. N. Davis and D. M. Tuller, the present incumbent. This church, as before mentioned is connected in pastorate with the "Christian church of Warnerville."

Seminary.--- In the spring of 1852 the citizens of this place concluded to make a permanent investment of a few thousand dollars in one of those palatial seminaries to which many communities, suddenly become partial. During the summer that year a building was erected upon the lot, now occupied by James N. Burnison and school commenced in the fall under very faltering circumstances.

One night in December of the same year an incendiary laid the whole in ashes, which was a heavy stroke to the stockholders.

But believing in the wisdom of the investment a similar building was built the season following and opened for patronage in the fall of 1853. The success of this institution was considered certain, but in 1854 the second structure was burned and after an expenditure of nearly sixty thousand dollars, further efforts to rebuild were abandoned.

Newspapers.--- The first paper published was the Schoharie County Democrat, by the proprietors of the Schenevus Monitor, J.J. & J. L. Multer. The issue bears date November 5, 1870. The paper was purchased in 1876 by J. B. Olmstead and its title changed to the Richmondville Democrat. Mr. Olmstead has steadily improved the paper and made of it a neat, readable and newsy sheet that fully deserves its success.

District Schools.--- At what time the first schoolhouse was built we have not been able to learn, but it is supposed about the year 1807.

The present school building was erected in 1865. It is a graded school, having become such under the charge of George Ostrander. Three teachers are employed with an average of over one-hundred pupils. The studies are the higher English branches, and no pains or expense are spared to make it a first-class school. J. E. Mann is the present principal.

The road leading to the west follows the course of the Cobleskill and winds around the lofty hills, that the waters have broken through, presenting to the traveler a varied and pleasing picture. The broad fields lying upon the hillsides are productive of both winter grain and grasses, and well adapted for dairying purposes, being well watered. Snugly located a short distance above the village is William Rockerfellow, grandson of Captain Rockerfellow, of Revolutionary fame.

Mr. Rockerfellow's father moved from Columbia county upon "Dutch Hill" in 1812. The family bearing that name, of the Schoharie valley, originally belong to the same descendants of brothers who emigrated from Germany at an early day. Mr. Rockerfellow's success in the accumulation of property is an example of what the will can perform if aggravated to work under unfavorable circumstances, and is worthy to be here recorded. During his boyhood days, he was both uncouth in appearance and dissipated in habits, having allowed himself to be drifted along without care, by the universal custom of the valley in fighting, horse racing, gambling and dancing. Peter Foland was the keeper of the "Inn" that is now Kennedy's wagon-shop in Cobleskill village, and he had a daughter Elizabeth, who awakened Rockerfellow's inward soul, and which the father forbade the daughter, to countenance. But their sympathies were mutual, and after being driven away several times, with the idea of the old gentleman's opinion of him firmly impressed, the young lover firmly decided to change his course in life and show the family that he was neither lazy or intemperate. Changing his whole course of conduct he began in earnest, with eyes and ears opened to every opportunity, to gain a livelihood independent of his family or persecutors. Gaining here and there, with care and industry, we now find him upon the verge of seventy with a large property, and by his side is found one happy in her choice and surroundings, knowing that their combined efforts have brought William's prophesy true, that "they could see the day they could buy the whole of them out."


West Richmondville is a small hamlet near the county line, and comprises a small Methodist church which was built in 1865, a blacksmith shop and a few dwellings. It was originally known as Caryleville, but upon the postoffice being established it was changed to its present name.

The first settlers of this neighborhood were Cornelius Ten Eyck and his son Bornt, John, Moses and Isaac Caryle, John Lampson, Madison Skinner, Joel Bates, Isaac White, John Houck, George Jones and Robert Smith, (the latter from Duchess county,) whose son Solomon still lives upon the old place, at the age of seventy-five, in the vigor of early life. Asa Foster settled about the year 1816; Isaac Caryle built a distillery about the year 1810, and run the same to 1820, also a store. The lands not then occupied, around this place were purchased in 1815, by Stephen Jumel, the husband of the renowned Madame Jumel. Owing to the fact of Jumel's property causing a long litigation, we will here state the circumstances and five a sketch of Mr. Jumel's life, as written by Mr. J. G. Caryle, of Brooklyn, N.Y., who lived with Mr. Jumel and was well acquainted with the family affairs. A settlement of the litigation, we believe was due to Mr. Caryle's testimony in the case. Mr. Caryle was born near West Richmondville, in 1813. He says:---

"I first became acquainted with Madame Jumel of New York city in the town of Sharon, Schoharie county in 1826. My father then lived upon lands owned by Stephen Jumel, a Frenchman of the Kingdom of France, City of Paris. He had been a resident of New York city from the year 1795 until the year 1815 when he returned to France. Mr. Jumel left France when a young man and took up his residence in the Island of St. Domingo that being at the time a French province. He then engaged in trade and run a coffee plantation up to 1793 when at the uprising of the Blacks, and extermination of the Whites, Mr. Jumel made his escape in the following manner. He had an old colored man living with him who was very much attached to Mr. Jumel, who told him of the approaching insurrection which Jumel did not credit at the time, but from observation he finally concluded to make the best shift possible and wait the result. He gathered in all the coffee and spices he could and loaded a brig and consigned the cargo to a firm in New York. When the time came, the black man took Jumel in the mountains and secreted him in the rocks, stating that if the blacks did not rise as represented and the town not burned then Jumel could return, but if the blacks rebelled, then he must look our for himself. The result was the Whites were massacred and the place burned.

"Jumel remained in the mountains for several days, and the black not making his appearance and being a good swimmer, swam across the bay to a small island where he subsisted for several days on such barks and grapes as he could collect. After many days a sail made for the port and finding the place burned, did make a landing, supposing there was something wrong. Mr. Jumel with his garments signaled the vessel and a boat was sent and took him in. Learning the state of affairs from him they put to sea for St. Helena where Jumel shipped for France, and arrived in New York the year following. With what money he left in New York and the proceeds of his cargo of coffee etc. he commenced trade and became a heavy shipping merchant, and during the time of the embargo, made, through the importation of French brandy and wines a fortune, amounting to two hundred and fifty thousand dollars, which was, in that day considered ample.

"It was during that success he became acquainted with Eliza Browne a beautiful young woman from Providence, R. I. whom he married and who became the noted Madame Jumel. In 1809 or '10 Mr. Jumel retired from business in part and bought a fine property at Washington Heights and moved to it, from Whitehall street. All things not running smoothly---or to Mr. Jumel's liking, in 1815 he left for France taking with him an adopted daughter--- a niece of Madame Jumel. He kept the girl in France seven years and educated her in the French schools, when Madame went over and returned with the niece to New York in 1826. She had a power of attorney from Mr. Jumel to take charge of affairs in New York for the benefit of her husband.

"Under the power of attorney, Madame Jumel sold in 1827, the entire estate of Jumel, embracing several hundred acres in the town of Sharon, (now Richmondville and Seward,) Decatur and Worcester, Otsego county."

The town of Richmondville consists of 19,844 acres of land, with an assessed valuation in 1880, of $442,700. and a population of 2,119 inhabitants. Bonds were issued to aid in the construction of the railroad to the amount of $50,000 upon which there remained due $14,552. This amount was raised by special tax in 1881, and the debt liquidated. Total amount of town expenses in 1879, was $824.50. Total amount of tax, including interest on bonds, $5,844.04.


            1849---Peter H. Warner.
            1850---Peter H. Warner.
            1851---Thomas B. Van Alstyne.
            1852---David Mann.
            1853---David Mann.
            1854---William Snyder.
            1855---William Snyder.
            1856---Tobias Mann.
            1857---Tobias Mann.
            1858---Tobias Mann.
            1859---Tobias Mann.
            1860---Dr. Jared Chase.
            1861---Dr. Jared Chase.
            1862---Dr. S. M. Van Alstyne.
            1863---Dr. S. M. Van Alstyne.
            1864---Dr. Sylvester M. Van Alstyne.
            1865---Dr. Jared Chase.
            1866---William T. LaMont
            1867---William T. LaMont.
            1868---James A. Warner.
            1869---James A. Warner.
            1870---John Westover.
            1871---James Harroway.
            1872---James Harroway.
            1873---James Harroway.
            1874---James Harroway.
            1875---Dr. S. M. Van Alstyne.
            1876---Dr. S. M. Van Alstyne.
            1877---Fred Moot.
            1878---Fred Moot.
            1879---Samuel Butler.
            1880---Thomas W. Zeh, Jr.
            1881---Dr. Jared Chase.
            1882---Samuel Butler.


The following items were furnished through the kindness of J.B. Olmstead, Esq.:---

The village of Richmondville was incorporated in 1881, and is now officered by a Board of three trustees, police justice, constable, collector, etc.

There was organized in this town, in 1882, a Board of Health in accordance with the law. Dr. H. S. Gale, of Warnerville, is the present Health officer, and H. S. Lewis, Town clerk, is Registrar of Vital Statistics.

Cemeteries.--- Situated near the village are two cemeteries, the "Sunnyside" and "Rural" They are both organized and incorporated. Both have fine grounds, being laid out very tastily, and many of the lots are adorned with handsome monuments.

Water Power Company.--- Lying upon the hills sough of the village are two large reservoirs. These are now owned and controlled by an incorporated company, the stock being owned by the various manufacturers. This is one of the most important institutions in town, and the company will doubtless soon build another reservoir, and then the supply of water will be unfailing and sufficient to run any manufacturing enterprise that desires water-power.

School.---The village school is now in a very flourishing condition. There are three teachers employed, and it has two departments. The teachers are:---Prof. C. Northrup, principal; Misses E. Evans and Ella LaMont, assistants. The Board of Education consists of three members, viz:---Freeman Loveland, William T. LaMont and E. L Snyder.

The following is a list of the various persons engaged in business in the town:---


Bank of Richmondville, John Westover, president, James M. Foster, cashier; organized in 1880. H. Frasier & Son, general merchants. Wm. T. LaMont, groceries and feed. Robinson & Fox, general merchants. Holmes & Drew, general merchants. Nathan Hogeboom, dry-goods and notions. J. C. Smith, groceries, boots and shoes, flour and feed. Mary Babcock, millinery store. Thomas L. Shafer, jewelry store. David H. Smith, hardware, stoves and tinware. R. F. Royal, hardware, stoves and tinware. G. W. Ostrander, drugs and hardware. M. W. Harroway, flour, feed and coal. H. S. Lewis, furniture and undertaking. Thomas W. Zeh, meat market. H. M. Sheldon, oysters, fish and vegetables. T. B. Warner, photographer and general insurance agent. D. B. Van Dusen, hay dealer. John M. Campbell, dealer in horses, wagons, and revolving horse-rakes, etc. Ed. Fox, poultry dealer. Richmondville Manufacturing Co., Hiram Couchman, proprietor, grain cradles, forks, etc. Milo H. Bradley, manufacturer of domestic woolen goods, cloth, yarns, fulled mittens, etc. Richmondville Iron Works, A. B. Stevens, prop., hop-drying furnaces, plows, water-wheels etc. C. E. Dickinson, manufacturer of straw paper. Mosher Brothers, flouring mill. Westover & Olendorf, sash, blinds and doors. S.P. Canfield, clothes dryers and box blueing. Samuel Hannis, manufacturer of hop-presses. Henry Brazee, wagon and carriage maker. John Neer, wagon and carriage maker. Decker & Co., manufacturers and refiners of cider. D. G. Mann & Co., fruit evaporators. James L. Munn, harness maker. Charles B. Brown, harness maker, robes, whips, etc. William Hilsinger, horse-shoeing and general black-smithing. John C. Biret, horse-shoeing and blacksmithing. James H. Leggett, horse-shoeing and blacksmithing. Wm. Ockempaugh, horse-shoeing and blacksmithing. J. Skidmore, cooper. Alex, Rury, boot and shoe maker. Rockefellow & Richtmyer, dealers in eggs and hides. Matthew O'Roark, bread and cake baker. Menzo Walforf, barber. Isaac Mann, surveyor. E. L. Snyder, lawyer, surveyor, and insurance agent. P. Wheaton Sheldon, fire insurance agent. Westover House, (a fine three-story brick building,) L. & L.D. Mattice, proprietors. Empire House, (billiard-room and restaurant attached,) Alvin Wharton, proprietor. Cottage Hotel, Peter Snyder, proprietor. Burneson's House, James N. Burneson, proprietor; livery in connection; is proprietor of stage route running between here and Jefferson, Schoharie county, N. Y., and also carries the United States mail to same place. Railroad House, H. J. Heiseradt, proprietor.

     David H. Zeh, groceries.
     Gerves F. Peck, tanner.
     John Frederick, wooden ware manufacturer, miller, etc. (steam power.)
     David Snyder, flouring mill.

West Richmondville.
     David F. Richtmyer, wagon maker.
     ----- Baldwin, groceries.
     ----- Robinson, horse-shoeing, etc.
     Charles Isham, saw-mill.

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