Schoharie County NYGenWeb Site

History of Schoharie County by William E. Roscoe



There are spots upon which we may stand and let our thoughts take freer scope and revert with greater ease and fondness back upon the scenes of other days, as history and tradition have painted them upon the retina of our minds. Here beneath the refreshing shade of these pines of the old Lutheran cemetery, we will dwell upon the scenes of many years ago, when giant oaks and pines covered nearly the whole view before us, and whose requiem the mourning evergreens have so long sang, came in their honest simplicity, to rear homes for themselves and children, free from regal authority and exactions. Year after year passed away ere their vigorous strokes conquered the mighty forest, and these broad flats and lefty hills yielded to them the virginity, and revealed a richness that vied with nature's best

Hendrick Schaeffer, Johannes Lawyer and two sons, Johannes Jr. and Jacob Frederick, Hendrick Conradt, Johannes Ingold, Hendrick Haynes, Germans, mostly of the Palatine order settled here near the ledge of rocks about the year 1718. Purchasing the land together, a division was not made until the year 1753.

In three of the original "dorfs" the settlers were in number seven. They first drew an article of agreement for their lands, and then received the deed, and after holding their possession, perhaps until it became necessary to divide with the children, a general division was made, each individual deed receiving the signatures of the whole.e. This settlement was distinguished from those above as "Brunnendorf" of " Fountain Town," which (both German and English) name was derived from the springs that issue from the ledge, and especially from the one near the parsonage, whose crystal fount still bubbles refreshing waters for our use, as it did for those hardy pioneers, one hundred and sixty years ago.

The dwelling lots were all to the west of the cemetery, extending as far as the present farm of Martin L. Schaeffer, that was settled by Hendrick Schaeffer. He was one of seven emigrants of the name from Germany in 1710. Two of the, Hendrick and Johannes, settled here and the remainder upon the Hudson and Mohawk. The name was originally written Schaeffer and Schaffer. At the present time, it is written in various ways, according to the fancy of the family.

Two families, whose children settled in Cobleskill many years after this settlement, from the Hudson, although cousins, varied in the orthoepy of the name, by writing it Shafer and Shaver, as will be seen by consulting the next chapter.

But a few years ago Martin L. Schaeffer was plowing a short distance back of his farm buildings and turned up a portion of a fireplace which was without doubt the spot upon which the first Schaeffer settler's residence stood. Not far from the fireplace was a small head stone, with the initials and date,

ano 1744 MEE

From this Schaeffer family sprang those of Breakabeen, Carlisle and Sharon.

By a map of " Fountain Town" bearing date 1753, now in possession of Henry Cady, we find that the most easterly building in this dorf was the Lutheran Church, a blue limestone structure, the corner stone of which was laid on the 10th of May, 1750, and on the 6th of May the following, was dedicated. It stood upon the ground now occupied as burial lots of Dr. George A Lintner and John Gebhard, the former having been a resident pastor of the organization for the term of thirty years, long after its founders had crumbled to dust. At what time the organization was effected , the records do not show, but undoubtedly soon after the settlement of the valley was made, and before this little "dorf" was begun. The first vestry meeting was held June 8, 1743, under the following officers: Abram Berg, elder; Henrick Schaeffer and Peter Lowenstien, deacons. It was resolved to erect a parsonage for the minister, and a place of worship for the congregation.

On the 3d of July, following, sacrament was administered to one hundred communicants, and on the 12th of September, following, services were held for the first time in the parsonage and continued to be until the erection of the church. The building still stands in the southwest corner of the cemetery, in good repair, and is the oldest on in the County.

Would that a reflection of the scene might again be witnessed that here presented itself one hundred and thirty eight years ago, as Peter N. Sommers and his uncouth yet sincere flock gathered and knelt for the fist time within those walls before the throned on Him whom they so anxiously desired to adore; but that passed on to the heart of their God to swell the effulgence of his love.

"Previous to the building of the parsonage," Dr. Linter says in the Lutheran Magazine of 1827, of which he was the editor, "the pioneers of these settlements p[performed services by one of their number reading approved sermons, and occasionally Dominie Berkemeier, of Loonenburgh (Athens-on-the Hudson) preached to them as they assembled in the most spacious dwellings."

The records of the church have been carefully preserved, and were written originally in High Dutch. The late Dr. Lintner translated them to English, and upon the first page we read:

" In the name of the Holy Trinity." "I, Peter Nicholas Sommers, from the City of Hamburgh, received on the 7th day of the month September, in the year 1742 the call as Ev. Luth Preacher in the congregation at Schoharie, authorized by the consistory at St. Tunitatis at London and ordained by Rev. Johann George Palm for taking charge of said congregation.

"I started from Hamburgh for London and under God's almighty protection I arrived at London on the 25th of Oct. Circumstances prevented my setting out for New York and the 27th I started for Albany where I remained until the 25th of May. Then I went to Schoharie where I on the first Sunday of Tunitatis preached my introductory sermon. The Lord our God be furthermore with me and my beloved congregation that the great end of my arduous office may be accomplished that the name of the Lord be glorified. Amen."

Sommers' field of labor was wide, as he preached in the Lutheran settlements of Stone Arabia, Little Falls, Canjoharie, New Rhinebeck, The Camps, Claverack, Loonenburgh, Hoosick, Albany, Helleburgh, and as the country became cleared and settlements made, in Cobleskill and Sharon. He was married to Maria Keyser, of Stone Arabia, on the 26th of May 1744, by Dominie Berkemeier, and the fruits of the marriage were ten children, among whom were tow pairs of twins. In the year 1768 he was taken suddenly blind and remained so to the close of 1789, when one morning as he awoke, his sight was restored. Upon calling his faithful wife to his bedside, he exclaimed, " I can see!" "What can you see ?" she asked. " I can see the trees, you and everything." And to the close of his life his sight was retained.

He died in the town of Sharon in the year 1795, aged eighty-five years, and after many years he was re-interred by St. Paul's Society but a few rods from the site of the original church. During the Revolutionary was the enemies of our country, of whom so much reverence was not expected, spared the church and parsonage, while nearly all other buildings fell by the British and maddened Mohawk torch.

As that struggle ceased and prosperity dawned upon the once desolated settlement contributions of money and material were made, for the building of a new edifice, and, as the ancient figures upon the belfry tell us, the present brick church was erected in 1796.

In The foundation lie many of the stones of the old church, and upon them are inscribed the names of several of the donors.

The pastors of the church and the date of locating are as follows:
                 Rev. P.N.  Sommers,            1743
                 Rev.  Anthony T. Braun,        1791
                 Rev. Frederick H. Quitman,     1795
                 Rev. Anthony  T. Braun,        1799
                 Rev. Augustus Wackenhagen,     1805
                 Rev. John Molther,             1816
                 Rev. George A. Lintner,        1819
                 Rev. J. R.  Keiser,            1850
                 Rev. E. Belfour,               1857
                 Rev. J. H. Heck (present pastor) 1868

We are pleased to find among the papers of the antiquarian, John Gebherd, Jr., a receipt given by Rev. Peter N Sommers for his yearly salary. The very affable article was written in German, and upon translating it reads:

"I gratefully acknowledge to have received for my yearly Salary from my church Elders and Deacons, Forty Pounds properly and duly paid. Schoharie the 29th of May 1945.

               Peter N Sommers, Pastor"

Perhaps it would be safe to say no minister of this or any other church in the County, endeared himself to the people and churches of all persuasions as did Dr. Lintner, whose pastorate, was will be observed, extended form 1819 to 1849. He was born in the town Minden, Montgomery county, N. Y., February 15, 1796, and spent his early childhood at the homestead, when at the age of ten years, he was sent to Cooperstown to attend school. He early entered Union College, and after graduating in that institution commenced the study of theology under their direction of Rev. Mr. Domeger, and was licensed to preach by the Evangelical Lutheran Ministerium of New York in September , 1818. In January, 1819, he accepted a call from this church, and was installed June 16th, of that year. Rev. Edward Belfour, in a memorial published soon after Dr. Lintner's death, says:

"He was the recognized leader of the young men of his Synod, including Rev. Frederick Schaeffer and H. N. Pohlman, in their manly opposition to what he was wont to call the Quitman Dynasty of Rationalism. But after a time he and others became so dissatisfied with the character of the old Synod, that he initiated measures for the organization of a new Synod. A convention was called at Schoharie in 1830, and the result was the formation of the Hartwick Synod, of which he was chosen the first president, and office which he often held and graced in after years.

"In 1837, certain members of this Synod withdrew and formed the Franckean Synod on the widest latitudinarian basis. The movement was thoroughly revolutionary, and led to vigorous controversies, and even to contest in the courts. Dr. Linter led the Hartwick Synod and successfully defended himself and associates.

"From the time of his resignation in 1849, he was engaged in the promoting the work of foreign missions, of the American Bible Society, and of any other good cause which afforded him an opportunity to do something for his Master. He was editor of the Lutheran Magazine from 1827 to 1`831, and contributed to various religious publications, in which he was especially earnest, and as in his sermons, almost bitter in his opposition to the use of all intoxicating liquors and wines.

"He was a man of strong and determined character; he seldom relinquished any purpose, but clung to it most tenaciously until it was accomplished, when that was possible. He closed his eyes for the last time on the scenes of this world, at two o'clock on the afternoon of December 21, 1871."

In the Lutheran Magazine of April, 1827 we find, up to that date, 3,691 baptisms had been performed, 778 marriages, and 722 confirmations in the church since its organization. In the year 1753, Rev. Gideon Hawley, the Indian missionary, passed through this place, and in his account of the journey, says:

"In regard to Schoharry, it is fine land, and settled by Palatines, brought over at the expense of the nation, in Queen Anne's reign. Here are three decent meeting houses and two Dominies, the one a Calvinean, and the other a Lutheran. The language of the people is German or High Dutch, they are husbandmen."

It has been supposed that the three meeting houses referred to, were the parsonage, (which had been used as such for eight years), the church built in 1750, and the Calvinian, of Weiser's dorf, or Middleburgh.

In speaking of Schoharie in those days, and even down through and after the Revolution, all the settlements in nearly the whole of the Country's present territory were included, as there was not a special hamlet bearing the name.

Carrying the idea that the Reformed church of Schoharie village was not built at that time, it might be easily conjectured that the Weiser church was included. But here lies a mistake; the Reformed church of this place stood at Fox's dorf and was built at a much earlier date. The first records were supposed to be lost or destroyed by the burning of the old parsonage volumes; the second was lost and the first and third are in existence.

We find upon the map of 1750, the church pictured upon it, and find it stood east of the Stone Fort, at the point of the second bend of the creek above the iron bridge, upon a knoll where two or three apple trees may now be seen. The organization was effected about 1728, and we believe the church was erected in 1736.

The general history of this church we have studied, and cannot give it in any better or more truthful light than the Rev. Sanford H. Cobb did in a communication published in the Schoharie Union, February 9, 1871. He says:

"...One thing which inquiry shows us will be looked on by most as a discovery , is the fact that the organization of the church as a society, antedates the building of the stone church nearly fifty years. That building was erected in 1772, as appears in numerous inscriptions on the walls of the church. The church as an organized body, with officers and members, was in existence in the year 1730. The last date is the earliest found in the records of the consistorial minutes. In that year, under date of December 3d, is recorded the appointment of Church officers, whose names may be here copied:

           Johannes Vedder
           Johannes Bekker
           Samuel Hagedoorn
           Pietre Ziele

" It would seem probable that the formation of the church was a few years previous to that date. In the first Treasurer's book an entry is found under date of 1728.

It would seem probable that the formation of the church was a dew years previous to that date. In the first Treasurer's book an entry is found under date of 1728.

" It is certain that, whether to a regularly organized congregation or not, the gospel was preached in the place and vicinity by ministers connected with the Classis of Amsterdam, the Holland Classis which had a special charge over the Dutch churches in America. Corwin's Manual mentions Hendrik Hager as preaching at East and West camp, and at Schoharie between 1711 and 1717. The same book also mentions a John Fredrich Hager who officiated in 1720."

"...The labors of Hager were evidently of a missionary character, and were succeeded by those of John Jacob Ehle, whose field embraced Schoharie and the valley of the Mohawk, from 1720 to 1750, and was subsequent to 1750, a missionary to the Mohawk Indians. It is improbable that either of the men mentioned above was actually a settled pastor over the Schoharie Church.

"The work of Hager commenced the year after the settlement of Schoharie, and the presence here of the two in a missionary capacity, may account for the early establishment of the Reformed Church in the Schoharie valley. The name of the church organized probably between 1720 and 1730, was the Protestant Reformed High Dutch Church of Schoharie.

"The first name which has a probable right to be placed on the pastoral record of the church, is that of Reinhardt Erickson. It is signed at the bottom of a consistorial minute as president of Consistory. His pastorate lasted only one year (1730 -1731). He was a man of considerable prominence in his day in the church, and very successful in his ministry at Schenectady....He was succeeded in the Schoharie pastorate by George Michael Weiss, or Weitzins, who was a native of the Palatinate. His diploma from the University of Heidelberg, and certificate of ordination are engrossed in Latin on the Records of the Schoharie Church together with the call made upon him by the church, which is written in German. He came to this country in 1725, and in 1731, came to Schoharie, after a visit of a year in Holland. He remained here until 1736, laboring also in adjoining counties, and afterwards returned to Pennsylvania, in which State he died in 1762.

"Weiss was followed at Schoharie in 1736 by Johannes Schuyler. Dominie Schuyler was the first Dutch minister ordained in this country. Previous to this date all ordinations had been performed in Holland, but by express permission of the Classis Amsterdam, Dominies Erickson and Haeghoort were appointed to ordain Schuyler. Schuyler immediately settled Schoharie, and continued in the pastorate until 1755. Under this pastorate the church formally ranged itself with the Dutch Reformed Church - Dominie Schuyler, with his elders, taking active part in those efforts to form an American Ecclesiastical Judicatory, which afterwards resulted in the formation of the General Synod. Schuyler was twice pastor of this church.

"The first pastorate of nineteen years was between the dates just mentioned. From 1755 to 1766 he was settled over the churches of Hackensack and Scraalenburgh and in 1766 returned to Schoharie, joining to his second pastorate here the ministry of Beaver Dam.

"This second pastorate lasted until his death in 1778. It was during the last settlement of Dominie Schuyler that the Old Stone Fort was built.

"Dominie Schuyler's name is cut in large letters on the east wall of the old church, together with the date 1772, and his body was buried beneath the pulpit. Thus, if tradition says correctly, the bones of Schoharie's best known pastor have lain for a century, and their resting place has, in these last years, been desecrated by most profane uses. As the remains at once of a pastor faithful and beloved, and of a patriot animating his brethren in the Revolutionary struggles, they have deserved a better treatment.

" The interval between the two pastorates of Dominie Schuyler was nearly filled by the ministry of two others. The first of these was Johannes Mauritinus Goetchius, who labored here from 1757 to 1760. His field here extended over thirty miles. He was educated as a physician and afterward prepared for the ministry. He left Schoharie for Shawangunk and New Paltz, and died in 1771.

"He was succeeded in Schoharie in 1760 by Abraham Rosenkrantz, about whom little can be learned, save the dates of his various pastorates. He remained here until 1765, when he settled at Canajoharie, at which place he probably died in 1794.

"The second pastorate of Dominie Schuyler ended in 1779 and the church, owing doubtless to the political disturbance and war, remained vacant until 1785. In that year the church called one William Scneyder, a student, to be their pastor. He appeared before the general Synod for examination and ordination, but failing to sustain a creditable examination, he was not ordained, and requested and obtained permission to study another year....., and be examined at the next meeting of Synod. Instead, however, of doing this he solicited and obtained ordination from the German Reformed Church in Pennsylvania, and settled in Schoharie. In the next meeting of the Synod of this irregular conduct was noticed, and the Synod instructed the Classis at Albany, to which the Schoharie church belonged, to call the church to account for settling a minister disapproved by the Synod.

"The answer of the church was exceedingly contumacious, in effect telling the Classis that the church at Schoharie was competent to take care of itself, did not desire any interference, and wanted to have nothing further to do with either Classis or Synod.

"From that date 91785) until 1820 the church maintained itself entirely independent unless indeed it may have had some quasi relation to the German Coetus. It is impossible to answer this and many other questions which spring up, because of the loss of the consistorial minutes between 1785 and 1820. The book which contained them was destroyed by fire in the kitchen of the second parsonage. The parish register, however, is preserved, and gives a complete record of marriages and births from 1731, together with many historical notes interspersed in the records. From this register most of the dates in this paper are obtained. The pages of the register covered by the pen of this Dominie Schneyder are truly elegant specimens of penman's skill. Schneyder remained but three years, leaving Schoharie in 1788. He was succeeded by J. L. Broeffle, who preached both in Schoharie and Canajoharie, terminating his ministry in the former charge about 1798. There is difficulty is ascertaining the exact dates of Broeffle's giving up the charge here and the instituting of his successor. The more probable solution is the date just given and the speedy installation of J. D. Schaeffer.

"It is possible that the church was ministered to by Rynier Van Ness for a while, though the labors of that man were mainly at Middleburgh. He may also have filled the vacancy from 1780 to 1785, though no mention is made of him in the Schoharie church books. Under date of 1799 there occurs in the register a rather amusing solitary note by a minister named J.J. Eyermann, whether settled or not does not appear. Beneath this entry is written in Latin, and evidently in the handwriting of Dominie Schaeffer,' A vagabond unworthy of the name of preacher or pastor.'

"Dominie Schaeffer's pastorate commenced about 1798 or 1800, and continued until 1820, within the memory of many now living among us. At the conclusion of his ministry the church was glad to give up itself with the Classis of Montgomery, from which and the Classis of Albany those churches were afterwards set off, which constituted the Classis of Schoharie.

"The ministry of Paul Weidman, commenced in 1820 and continued to 1836, followed by that of J.M. Scribner, 1836-1839; Samuel Robertson, 1839-1843; Ransford Wells, 1844-1857; E. Crispell, 1857-1863; S.H. Cobb, 1863-1871; Edwin Vedder, 1871-1873; William C Handy, present pastor.

"The eastern portion of the congregation was set apart in 1844 to form the church of Gallupville.

"In the same year the Schoharie church occupied the new brick building in the Court House village, and ceased to worship in the Old Stone Church."

The land upon which the church was built has been sold from the original "church lot",' which contained fifteen acres.

There have been three different buildings used as parsonages. The first stood near the creek above the first bend, and the second where the third was built and which is now occupied by William Vroman.

Johannes Ecerson, brother of Major Eckerson, of Weiser's dorf, purchased the land of Myndert Schuyler and conveyed it to the "high Dutch Reformed Church" in 1752. We find within the Old Fort the fact of his giving the land, as also by the deed, to be found in the hands of Henry Cady. Within the walls of the old church a daughter of Joseph Brant or Thayendanegea was christened "Gersina." In all probability the chief and his squaw were on a visit to the valley where the child was born, and falling in with the customs of the whites, the child was christened as soon as the mother could attend church.

In 1772 the old church was razed to the ground upon the completion of building the one now called the "Stone Fort." The control of the church was wafted to the hands of the Low Dutch soon after the Revolution, but at present the descendants of each unite as one around the altar reared so long ago by their forefathers, and we trust, with the same honest, earnest simplicity as characterized them in their worship of their God.

A new church was built in the year 1845, and the stone building was purchased by the State, and for a number of years used as an arsenal, but not being necessary for that purpose, through the efforts of Peter Couchman, at that time Member of Assembly, the State deeded the property to the County in 1872, and by a small appropriation by the board of supervisors yearly, it is kept in repair.

We would here say further upon the subject of the organization of the two churches here, that both, in their time, suddenly appeared here as a meteor in the heavens, full fledged, without the usual church formalities of organization, and it is not at all probable there were any. From vague sources we are led to think the Lutherans organized at Hartman's dorf before settling here, but he have not any proof that could be relied upon.

As hostilities between the Colonies and the mother country became more desperate, and the safety of the people in this section more uncertain, in the fall of 1777 small block houses were built in the southeast and northeast corners of the stone church, and the whole inclosed by pickets, and the house of God became a fortress. Beneath its roof the inhabitants of the surrounding country found safety from the invasions of the Indians and Tories. Many, many anxious nights were here passed by those worried yet determined patriots, expecting each moment to look abroad over these beautiful flats and see their homes fall by the Mohawk's torch, and hear the dying struggles of their kinsmen who dared to remain upon their own hearthstones.

As we approach the Old Fort we can but feel we are upon hallowed ground -- ground bathed by mothers tears, fathers sweat and privation, and the blood of noble sons, that bespeak grandeur and sublimity of character which will resound to succeeding generations. Even these rough walls display that beauty which polished marble fails to show, as the patriotic deeds here enacted are reflected upon each rough layer, making them emeralds in Freedom's structure. Near by to the east lived Dr. Budd, the delegate to the secret meeting in Albany in 1774, whose ashes lie in the Lutheran Cemetery, beneath a marble slab bearing the inscription: -- "In memory of Doct. Daniel Budd, who departed this life March 20th, A. D. 1815, aged 65 years, 2 months and 18 days." Dr. Budd was a native of New Jersey, and settled here about the year 1770, and was, we believe, the first American read physician in the County. He was a surgeon in the French war, and came to Schoharie with the Schoharie company, under Captain Hager, from Lake George. Some years previous to his death he built the house now occupied by Paul Dietz, where he died, respected by all who knew him as a skillful physician, enterprising inhabitant and true patriot.

Here within the yard in which the old fort stands, lie many patriots. A small red sand stone marks the spot that contains the ashes of Colonel Peter Vroman and exhibits the "ingratitude of Republics" in a manner too noticeable. The graves of such unflinching soldiers should be honored by more imposing looking monuments. And here lie also the remains of David Williams, one of the captors of Major Andre, beneath an appropriate monument erected by the State at an expense of two thousand dollars, in 1876.

The remains were brought from Rensselaerville, on the 19th of July, escorted by a large procession, and on the 23d of September, the 96th anniversary of Andre's capture, the corner stone of the monument was placed and an address delivered by Grenville Tremain, of Albany, before an audience of several thousand people.

Dr. Daniel Knower, whose energies were excited in the enterprise as a State Commissioner to erect the monument, conceived the inscriptions upon it which are on the east side, written on a shield:-


AUGUST 2D, 1831,


"He with his compatriots, John Paulding and Isaac Van Wart, on the 23d of September, 1780, arrested Major John Andre, and found on his person treasonable papers in the handwriting of Gen. Benedict Arnold, who sought by treachery to surrender the military post of West Point into the hands of the enemy. In resisting the great bribes of their prisoner for his liberty., they showed their incorruptible Patriotism, the American Army was saved, and our beloved Country became free."

Upon the marble base is "David Williams," upon the north side a monogram of David Williams; within a circle below is, "Vincit Amor Patriae," and beneath: --

"Gen. Washington's letter to the President of Congress, October, 1780: 'The party that took Major Andre acted in such a manner as does them the highest honor and proves them to be men of great virtue."'

On the south side upon a shield is "Fidelity," and below:--

"By authority of Congress, in 1780, a silver medal was voted to them, and presented to the captors by Gen. Washington, at a dinner to which he invited them while the army was encamped near Ver Planck's Point."

Upon the west side is engraved upon a plain shield:--

DIED AUGUST 5, 1844, AGED 87 YRS.,
6 MOS., 8 D'YS.

And beneath --

"This monument was erected by the State of New York from an appropriation made in the Centennial Year of 1876, by a bill introduced by Senator W. C. Lamont under the following State Commissioners:


The monument is of Massachusetts marble, having a granite base, upon which is placed a marble block, the base of a shaft thirteen feet in height -- the whole being twenty-three feet nine inches high.

Near by, to the northwest corner of the Fort, is a plain, yet neat monument, to the memory of Simon Hoosick Mix, who fell at the battle of Petersburgh, on the 15th of June, 1864. Mr. Mix was born in Johnstown, N. Y., February 25, 1825, and was the son of Peter Mix, long known as the editor and proprietor of the Schoharie Patriot. At the age of thirteen Mr. Mix published, in the office of his father, a small paper called The Star, and in after years he followed his parent in the publication of the Patriot, which was subsequently changed to the Schoharie Union. His natural taste was for literature, and the many productions from his pen were able and pleasing, exhibiting a finer expression of sentiment than is usually found in the columns of the majority of country periodicals. When the Rebellion commenced, Mr. Mix volunteered his services to raise a regiment of cavalry, but was opposed by the Secretary as being a useless appendage to the army, but through his plausible reasoning Mr. Mix was commissioned to organize the regiment which was called Van Allen's regiment, in honor of General Van Allen, a friend of Mr. Mix. Mr. Van Allen was commissioned Colonel, and Mr. Mix, Lieutenant-Colonel. The regiment afterwards was changed to the Third New York Cavalry, and was in reality the first volunteer regiment of Cavalry in service. Mix was promoted to Colonel, and was offered higher honors, but refused them.

During 1862 and 1863, his regiment was the only cavalry regiment at Newbern, and was active in all skirmishes in that vicinity. He participated in the actions at Little Washington, Goldsborough, Kingston, and Blantz Mills, and drove the guerrillas from Hyde county, during which act fifteen of a squad of thirty-five men were slain in a swamp at the first fire.

In the fall of 1863 they were called to Fortress Monroe, and were in the siege of Suffolk by Longstreet, and as the Army of the James advanced in the spring of 1864, his regiment was sent to the front of Petersburgh, where they arrived on the 11th of May, under the command of General A. V. Kautz. The Army of the Potomac arrived, and the advance upon the rebel works was made on the 14th of June, and lasted during the 15th and 16th.

The rebels had three lines of defense, the first was taken, and upon the charge of the second, on the 15th, Mix fell mortally wounded, at the head of his regiment. The retirement of the regiment from the charge brought the dead and wounded in the hands of the rebels, among whom was Colonel Mix, whose body was not recovered, and this monument simply stands in the family plat to commemorate his name and deeds, and not to designate the spot which holds his remains.

Colonel Mix was held in high esteem by the men under his command, as an officer and comrade, and by all who knew him as a true, genial, whole-souled man, and in his death the government lost one of her best officers and bravest soldiers.

In honor of Colonel Mix, the veterans of the late Rebellion, from the vicinity, many of whom were in his regiment, organized Post Mix, under the rules and regulations of the Grand Army fraternity in 1868.

The charter members of the same were:--

T. J. Shannon,
P. S. Clark,
Cyrus Guffin,
E. Simmons,
C. C. Kromer,
R. W. Kinney,
W. Stocker,
S. W. Hollenbeck,
J. Maternagan,
C. Kniskern,
Edwin Shafer.

Peter Mix, the father of Colonel Mix, was a native of Johnstown, Fulton county, and early learned the printers' trade. He became the editor and proprietor of The Montgomery Republican in 1825, and continued the same until 1836, when the office was burned and the paper discontinued. He removed to Schoharie village and commenced the publication of The Schoharie Patriot in 1838, and there died.

Not far off lies the first Clerk of the County, Joachim G. Staats, who died in 1801, at the age of thirty years. He was a very good scholar, to judge of his writings, and passed away at an early age.

Beside him lies Dr. Origin Brigham, who died on the 2d of August, 1816, aged fifty-nine years. Doctors Budd and Brigham were here practicing at one time, but the former came many years before the latter. Schoharie Village has had a long list of physicians, and among them were several of unusual skill.

The first practicing physician located in the valley, we believe to have been James Lewis, who was here as early as 1730, and closed his career about 1750. One Thomas Yunk or Young soon followed and died in 1770. During Young's time, Dr. Johannes Werth, a German, settled and was succeeded by his son Johannes, Jr. A few of the old doctor's surgical instruments are now in the possession of Tobias Bouck, of Cobleskill, whose wife was a granddaughter of Johannes, Jr.

Following the above early physicians at Schoharie were Doctors Budd, Brigham, Cornelius VanDyck, Joshua Crounse, P. S. Swart, David Budd, Harman Van Dyck, Jacob Beakley, Lorenzo Hubbard, _______ Lathrop, Justin Rice, Joel Foster, James Crounse, Cornelius C. VanDyck, John I. Swart, John Pindar, and the present practicing physicians, Doctors Wm. S. Layman, Norwood, Kingsley and Kilmer.

Within a very costly vault lie the remains of Benjamin Pond, who came from some eastern State at an early day, and married the daughter of Abram Bergh. After many years of labor and economy, he became the wealthiest man in the County. But while riches guaranteed a life of ease and prominence, disease claimed its victim and death its own, and Pond passed away, leaving the accumulation of years behind, that could not be transported "beyond." His son, A. B. F. Pond, from 1861 to 1865, was editor and publisher of The Schoharie Republican, whose able columns exhibited ability that few country journals are fortunate to possess, and which many of the city periodicals would do well to obtain. This cemetery at present belongs to an association, and is being kept in commendable order. Within its limits lie heroes of the three wars that built, established and perpetuated one of the grandest governmental structures the world has ever known, and cemented each part to the other by their blood and privations.

The settlement made here at an early day, was known as Fox's dorf, and around it clustered many scenes that were peculiar to the Revolutionary struggle, of which we will make mention before going back to consider facts relating to Brunnen and Smith's dorfs.

Across the creek where Peter Vroman now resides, stood the house of Captain George Mann, who espoused the cause of the Crown after receiving a commission in the Provincial service. The old house was built with a stone basement, in which was the bar-room and kitchen, where whites, Indians and negroes assembled and mixed promiscuously and plotted, much to the detriment of the neighborhood's safety. The upper part of the building was brick to the eaves, and if memory serves us aright, they projected through over the basement, making what would be styled at the present time a piazza.

The day of McDonald's flight, Mann sought safety from the Provincials' grasp in the mountain across the creek, and after secreting for several months, he gave himself up to the Colonial authorities, by whom he was kept as a prisoner of war at Albany until the spring of 1778. His property was not confiscated, as his acts had not been such as to make him a very bitter enemy to the cause, and his allegiance to the new government in after years atoned in a measure for his rash conduct.

He was arrested in November, 1777, and after lying in prison until spring, he wrote a letter to Colonel Vroman and others praying for them to intercede in his behalf, to be released from confinement, promising to divulge everything he knew of the Tories' arrangements and become a patriot. He was accordingly released, and proved a true man in the Colonial cause. After the war closed he removed to the present hamlet of Warnerville, where he reared a large and influential family.

Where Jacob Dietz now resides, lived Captain Jacob Snyder, who was at the Stone Fort when Johnson and Brant passed by. Mrs. Snyder carried the rum around to the men, and when the ball struck the eaves of the church, some of the company cried fire! She coolly dropped the rum and ran in the tower to see where the fire was. Not seeing any cause for alarm, she resumed her task as if nothing had occurred. The ball which lodged in the plate, was presented to her in after years, but being often loaned, it was finally lost from the family's knowledge. At present no less than three balls in the possession of different ones, are said to be the "identical."

Captain Snyder weighed out the rations to the men in the fort with a pair of steelyards, which are now in the possession of Philip Snyder, a grandson of the Captain. The same balances were used in 1812 for the same purpose when the Schoharie Regiment rendezvoused here.

Captain Snyder died in 1786, and his widow married Philip Schuyler, who was boss workman upon building the Stone Fort in 1772. Peter M. Snyder, familiarly known as "Yankee Pete," succeeded his father in the old homestead, and commenced keeping tavern in 1802. In 18l7 he built the house in which Jacob Dietz now resides. When he was a boy his father kept tavern and the language spoken by the family and most everybody else that frequented the place, was High Dutch, and when business called a Yankee in these parts, as it occasionally did, in the form of peddlers and speculators, it became necessary to have some one to communicate with them. Peter M. was the chosen interpreter, and became as proficient in the Yankee language as it was possible for a High Dutch tongue, and there being three Peter Snyders, Peter M. was ever after called "Yankee Pete." His son, Philip, succeeded him and continued the business for several years. But the building of railroads destroyed the profits of "tavern-keeping" on all the turnpike roads, and this old stand was promoted to a private dwelling.

Alluding to taverns, we might here notice them entire as they were in "Ye olden time," and particularly in the early part of the present century.

Missionary Hawley, in his narrative of his visit here in 1753, says:--

"And at dusk we arrived at the nearest house between Fort Hunter and Schoharie (Kneiskern's Dorf), but did not put up until we came to what was accounted a public house, but very unfit for the entertainment of gentlemen strangers. It had only one room, and in that room was a slawbunk with a straw bed upon which we lodged.

This, however, was not the worst of it, for we had been contented with coarse fare and ill accommodations, in case we could have had quiet rest, but the unhappiness of our case was that it was at the end of the week, and to spend their wages three or four old countrymen came in and gamed and drank through the night, within a foot of our bed. We remonstrated and complained, but in vain. Having had broken rest through the week, we needed balmy sleep to refresh us, but of which we were denied."

Who was the keeper of the inn referred to we are unable to say, but believe it to have been one of the Lawyers. During the Revolution, John I. Lawyer kept near the parsonage; afterwards Johannes Ingold, who was followed by his son Johannes, Jr. So it will be seen during the Revolution, there were two inns, Lawyer's and Mann's. Previous to 1800, and a few years after, John Ingold remained in the old stand, while within the distance of two miles, no less than nine sprang up like mushrooms, and at one time were all doing a thriving business. We will here give their locations and the prominent keepers, but may not be correct as to the time. There were four in the village. Chester Lasell kept where the Parrott House now stands, and Andrew Loucks where the late Peter Osterhout resided. The original tavern where Wood's Hotel now stands, was a wood building, and kept by David Swart, afterwards by Abraham Keyser, and was burned while occupied by Alex. Vrooman, brother of Jacob. A brick structure was placed in its stead by him. Some time after the establishment of the taverns already mentioned, the residence of General Wm. Mann was purchased by Sheriff Peter Osterhout, and converted into a hotel, and after passing through several hands, it was bought by John Schoolcraft, and for several years known as the "Mansion House." In 1868 the building was burned, and upon its site stands "Union Block."

Further down, Christian Lawyer held forth where the late Wm. Winter resided, and Peter Vrooman could be found in the stone house still standing upon the "Gardiner" farm.

Having thus alluded to the early taverns and their numbers, we will copy from the town records the inn keepers and the amount each paid in 1805 for license. It must be remembered the territory of the town was much larger than. at present.

The record says :-- "the account of the money Collected the ensuing year, of the several Keepers of Inns and Taverns, the sums as are annexed to each person's name respectively, in conformity to the act entitled: An act to lay a duty of Excise on Strong & Spirituous Liquors, & to regulate Inns and Taverns:--

May 7,1805

Peter M. Snyder . . .  . . . . . .  $5.00
John Young . . .  . . . . . . . .    5.00
Jacob Lawyer, Jr . .  . . . . . . .  5.00
John Herrick, Jr. . .  . . . . . .   5.00
David Lawyer, Jr. . . . . . . . .    6.00
William Sloan, Jr. . . . . . . . .   7.00
Daniel Hare . . . . . . . . . . . .  5.00
David Swart . . . . . . . . . . . .  7.00
Bartholomew Swart . .  . . . . . .   6.00
Peter Kow . . . . . . .. . . . . .   5.00
Christian Lawyer . . .  . . . . . .  5.50
John Rosekrans . . . . . . . . . .   5.00
Peter Vroman, Jr. . . . . . . . . .  5.00
Christopher Wetsel . .  . . . . .    5.00
John Brown, Jr. . . . .. . . . . .   5.00
Jacob L. Lawyer . . . . . . . . .    5.00
John Dominick, Jr. . .  . . . . .    5.00
DeWalt Hilts . . . . .   . . . .     5.00
Jacob Snyder, Jr. . . .  . . . .     5.00
Judah Burton . . . . . . . . . .     5.00
Josias Hager . . . . . .. . . . .    6.00
Jacob W. Hilton . . . .  . . . .     4.50
Joseph Wright . . . . . . . . . .    1.67

Total                             $118.67

We have placed before us, by Henry Cady, a license bearing date 1811, given to Peter Vrooman, " to keep an inn as it was necessary." At the same time Cornelius Vrooman kept upon the old Mann place. Yankee Pete came next, while further on was Peter Mann; still beyond Jacob Snyder, cousin of Yankee Pete, held forth where Smith Couch now resides.

In place of those nine inns, we have but three whose spacious appearance exhibits the same progression in that branch of business as we find in everything else.

The first houses of entertainment were called inns; as they became more polished they were called taverns, but at the present time, in accordance with their elevation in space and appearance, they are recognized as hotels, and the three which are located here add much to the appearance of the village.

Wood's Hotel is fitted to accommodate over one hundred guests, while the Parrott House, not to be excelled, finds ample space for nearly double that number. The Taylor House is upon a smaller scale, but pleasant surroundings can be found within its walls.

Fox's dorf proper was upon the south side of the creek, around the present "stone fort" and the settlement upon the north side was not made until a much later date. The lands lying between the creek and Garlock's dorf were not purchased by actual settlers until 1771, when Peter Mann, Johannes Ball, of Beaver Dam and Aker of Canajoharie, purchased of _____ Bleeker. Aker sold his interest to William and John Dietz, of Beaver Dam, sons of Johannes Dietz who was massacred by the Indians in 1782, at the latter place. William was a blacksmith, and a true patriot, and settled nearly opposite of William Dietz's present residence. He had four sons, Peter, Philip, Abram and William, who became prominent citizens and reared large families, that have of late years dwindled down to few in numbers, in comparison with other old families. Two daughters followed the custom of the day and married into the leading families-of Fountain Town and Kneiskern's dorf. Maria married John Sidney, whose ancestor was one of the seven of the latter settlement under the name of Sidnic, and Christina united with John Lawyer, and was perhaps considered the "fortunate one" in those days, by becoming connected with the land autocrats of the country. The latter removed to Jefferson county where their children still reside. Eva, the only daughter of John Dietz, also became interested in that family and married Abraham Lawyer, the son of Johannes, the large landholder.

Colonel William Dietz the youngest of the four brothers became the leading politician of the County. He was a self-made man, receiving only the meager advantages of the district school, but became a very good scholar for those days and superior in business affairs.

Working in unison with William C. Bouck under the "Albany Regency," a political clique formed by the leaders of the Democratic party, he made a successful career in which the charge of official corruption was not made by his opponents, with any foundation of truth. Colonel Dietz was early promoted from one office to another in the militia service, until he was appointed Colonel. He was elected supervisor of the town in 18l2, and to the Assembly in 1814 and 1815, with William C. Bouck, and again in 1823 with Peter W. Snyder. In 1825, 1826 and 1827 he was in Congress, and the honor of State Senator was conferred upon him successively in 1830, 1831, 1832 and 1833. It will be seen that Colonel Dietz was a prominent man and held responsible official positions. He did a vast amount of business in the settling of estates, and was an honest, careful man, in whom all had confidence. He was naturally quiet and sought the society of neighbors and the quiet of home to the publicity and extravagant customs with which an official life is apt to bring one in contact. After a useful life he died at his home on the 24th of August, 1848, at the age of eighty, leaving but one heir, David, who also has passed away.

David's children were William, Mrs. Merrill and Mrs. Boughton, of Schoharie and Mrs. Judge John Mann, of Milwaukee, Wis. who are the only heirs to perpetuate the name and virtues of one of Schoharie's gifted sons.

The founder of Fox's dorf was one William Fox, who for reasons unknown to the writer, removed to Stone Arabia, then a part of Palatine, with several others about the year 1755 or 1760, where his descendants may still be found. In the beginning of the century his grandson removed to the town of Sharon, where he died in 1816 leaving a family of four sons, two of whom are still living at advanced ages bearing the impress of the early settlers, in form, muscle and longevity. The Snyder family we believe to be the only one of the original settlers of this dorf still remaining. There were the Akers, Funks, Werths, Kobells, Stahls, (Stalls) Mancks, (Monks) Hogebooms and perhaps many others in this settlement, but about the time Fox, the leader removed, they scattered here and there and gave place to others. The Beckers of the High Dutch branch and Zimmers were of a later date, and settled farther up the creek, but a few years previous to and after the Revolution they were owners of property in and around the dorf.

In the early settlement of this place four dorfs were located within the distance of two and one half miles, -- Brunnen, Fox's, Smith's and Garlock's.

Having located the two former, the third was pleasantly situated where the railroad depot now stands.

By the divisions made upon the map before alluded to, there were but seven residents here in the first settlement. The map shows a space of land along the creek unoccupied. All of the lots in this dorf of value, were divided into seven parts, that each resident might stand equal with the others.

When the lands were bought, upon which the separate settlements were made, they were purchased by all together, and remained undivided many years; perhaps until the marriage of children requiring means to start in life, compelled the parents to know what belonged to them individually. The papers relating to Fox's and Smith's dorfs are not to be found, and without doubt are lost forever, leaving us in the dark as to their true history. But we are inclined to think the Fox settlement was made a short time prior to Brunnen dorf about the year 1715 or 1717.

The founder or List-master of Smith's dorf was Johannes George Smith, who was under John Peter Kneiskern while at the Camps, and upon the Canadian expedition in 1711. When excavations were made for the foundation of the engine house, several skulls and other bones were found, which leads us to believe it to have been the burial ground of the dorf.

Opposite of this settlement near the creek, was an Indian encampment, but of what tribe and numbers, appearance and customs, we are unable to tell.

Before the Court House was built, the road running through Fountain Town, ran from house to house near the ledge of rocks as it was made in the beginning of the settlement.

When the question of locating the Court House was agitated, the people of the settlement promised to give the lands to the County for a site, and when it was established and built (1800), the road was changed to its present position. When this County was formed in 1795, not having a Court House, all business was transacted at "the house of Johannes Ingold." With the exception of holding Courts and meetings of the Board of Supervisors, the busiest part of the town was at Fox's dorf, and at this place the aristocratic portion of the town settled.

After the close of the Revolution, Colonel Peter Vrooman, having his building burnt in Vroomansland by the Indians, purchased the old mill standing here (built about 1760) and built the dwelling now occupied by Samuel Stevens. Beside Dr. Budd, the Dietz family were to be -found near.

About 1790 George Tiffany, a native of New Hampshire, came and settled in the old High Dutch parsonage as a residence. His office was in one end of the piazza of George Mann's tavern. Here Gen. Thomas Lawyer studied the profession. He married Tiffany's sister after settling at Lawyersville. Tiffany represented this district in the State Senate in 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806, and was a well qualified lawyer, whom the Schoharie County bar may look back upon with pride. Tiffany was followed in 1794, by Jacob Gebhard, of Claverack, Columbia county. They were the only lawyers by profession in the place for a number of years.

Jacob's brother John came and studied with him, and these two are the progenitors of the present Gebhard family of Schoharie County. Prominent among them is John Gebhard, Jr., still living. He was born in Schoharie in 1802, and received a limited education in the schools of the place. Possessing an enquiring mind and being fond of reading, he has acquired much through his exertions that the schools he attended could not inculcate.

He was elected to the County Clerkship in 1828, and held the office two terms. In 1846 he was delegate to the Third Constitutional State Convention with ex-Governor William C. Bouck. The latter did not vote for its adoption in the Convention, while Mr. Gebhard voted in the affirmative. In 1849 he was appointed Curator of the State Cabinet, which position he held to the year 1856. Mr. Gebhard was for many years a justice of the peace, and has spent over sixty years in the study of geology. His cabinet was purchased by the State a few years ago, and placed in the Geological rooms at Albany, adding much to the attraction of the latter.

George Tiffany removed to Canada and died at Ancaster, province of Ontario, in 1842, aged seventy-six, leaving no heir to perpetuate his name.

Following Tiffany and Gebhard as lawyers, came Peter W. Quackenboss, Cornelius E. Yates, John Cuyler, John Gebhard, Isaac Hall Tiffany, Hermanus Bouck, Elias Halliday and Henry Hamilton before the year 1815. They were gentlemen of marked abilities, whose legal careers were such as would cope with any in the State -- especially that of Henry Hamilton. Mr. Hamilton came from Herkimer county as a school teacher, and studied law with Tiffany. In 1818 he was appointed District Attorney, being the first one ever holding that office in the County, and which he held creditably to himself and satisfactorily to the people until the year 1821. In the year 1832 he received the appointment of Surrogate which office he held two years. Mr. Hamilton married the daughter of David Lawyer, and once formed a partnership with Jacob Houck, Jr., and afterwards with Charles Goodyear. In the "Stone Fort" cemetery stands a plain marble shaft bearing the dreaded conclusion of every one's life

"DIED JUNE 1ST, 1846.
AGED 58."

General William Mann was the next who established an office here, and was soon followed by Jacob Houck, Jr., from Catskill (1827).

The same year Charles Goodyear, of Lawyersville, after graduating at Union College and studying with Henry Hamilton, was admitted to practice, and opened an office in that of Hamilton. Being a careful, earnest worker, he soon established a reputation that equalled any of his predecessors in his profession, and was called upon by the people to represent them in the Assembly in 1840, and in Congress in 1845 and 1847 -- also in 1865, 1867. In 1848 Governor Young appointed him Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. Upon the organization of the Schoharie Bank in 1852, Mr. Goodyear was elected President, which position he held to within a short time previous to his removal to the South in 1868. Mr. Goodyear was unfortunate in a financial point of view, during the insane speculations that followed the Civil war, and to sustain that honor which years of fair and honest dealing had obtained, his ample fortune was sacrificed, and he removed to Charlottesville, Va. There his legal qualifications were again appreciated, and he was placed in the Judicial chair, and tendered other positions which he felt compelled to refuse. On the 9th of April, 1876, he died at his Southern home, in the seventy second year of his age.

Next in order came Wm. H. Davis, Wm. A. Sternbergh, Ralph Brewster, Joseph Mackey, Robert C. Martin, Nathan P. Hinman, Almerin Gallup, Hobart Krum, Stephen L. Mayham, (see Blenheim), N. L. F. Bachman, Chauncey Hinman, John B. Grant, B. M. Handy, F. M. Mayham, C. L. Bailey, and Wilfred Thomas. The last ten, together with Mr. Brewster, are at present residents of the village, and form, as did their predecessors, a staff of lawyers, whose abilities have often been admired by different courts. Several of the gentlemen named, beside Tiffany, Hamilton and Goodyear, have held official honors, as will be seen by consulting the Civil List of the County.

We find upon the map of 1750, that two families by the name of Lawyer were residents here at that date, and the question that has puzzled the Lawyer family for years has been, "To what branch do I belong?" All hold direct relationship to Johannes, the great land-holder; but who was he? Was he the first Lawyer that settled in the valley, or was he a son of the first? We have the wills of the three Johannes Lawyers, that followed each other in succession, giving the names of the children, and in comparing them with other records, we find that we have the lineage correct. It is evident that the first and only man by that name in America, settled in the Schoharie valley. The family has become numerous, extending over the whole United States, and all trace their lineage to the Lawyer of Schoharie. The progenitor of the family was Johannes Lawyer, a merchant of New York City, who came here as an Indian trader, and was commissioned to survey and do business for the Germans. The first notice of him in the valley, was in 1720. He was a German, coming from some place along the Rhine, and emigrated about the year 1710. He settled two of his sons -- Johannes, Jr., near the old parsonage, and Jacob Frederick, upon the Beller place, about the year 1718. After a few years he settled with Jacob Frederick and kept store, and died sometime between 1760, the date of his will, and 1765, the proving of it. He was buried in the Lutheran cemetery. He was a practical surveyor.

His will states that he was a merchant, and had five children, namely: -- Johannes, Jacob Frederick, Lawrence, Elizabeth and Sophia. At the writing of the will Sophia was dead, and her children by her two husbands, "Jost Bellinger and Christian Ziele," were to share the mother's portion. Elizabeth married Marcus Rickert, and upon his decease, Hendrick Haynes, whom we find, by the old map, was settled between Johannes and Jacob Frederick. Haynes afterward settled in the present town of Seward. The will gave each one of his children "one fifth part of his estate, both real and personal," without stating any real estate in particular. His wife was then living and enjoyed the whole until death. Johannes received his surveyor's utensils. The will was witnessed by Peter N. Sommers, Johannes Schaeffer, and Frank Otto. Upon the death of this man, tradition says, the people of the surrounding country assembled and had a gala day. Casks of liquor and tobacco were freely rolled out for the occasion, as was the custom in those days at funerals. Johannes., the son, followed his father as surveyor, and became a large land-holder, owning at one time thirty-six thousand acres of land, principally in the present territory of the County. No doubt he received a good start from his father, and perhaps purchased considerably before his father's death. He was a very careful business man, and like his father before him, married twice. His first wife was a daughter of Adam Vroman, 2d, and Christina Sternbergh, and their children, were as follows:--

Catharine, (Mrs. Abram Strubach); Elizabeth, (Mrs. Adam Ziele); Maria, (Mrs. General Bartholomew Swart); Rebecca, (Mrs. Dr. Budd); Lambert, of Cobleskill, (married Catharine Lawyer); Jacob, (married Nancy Mann) Abraham, (married Eva Dietz); Johannes, the 3d, (married Angelica Swart); David, (married Christina Sternbergh); Christian, (married Catharine Snyder); Henry, (married Catharine Sternbergh); Peter, (married Nancy C. Bergh).

Jacob Frederick's (the 1st) children were as follows:--

Johannes, (the third large landowner); Lawrence, of Cobleskill; Catharine, (Mrs. Lambert Lawyer, of Cobleskill); Jacob; Nicholas; David; Elizabeth, (Mrs. Lambert Sternbergh, Jr.).

Lawrence's (the 1st) children were as follows:--

Johannes Jacob, (father of Mrs. Governor Bouck); Jacob, (Little Jacob, so-called, whose widow is still living with her son, Elijah Lawyer); Lawrence and John L., the Ensign of the Revolution, (whose son, Samuel, of Crysler's Hook, was succeeded by the late John S. Lawyer); and Mrs. Lawrence Lawyer, of Cobleskill.

Having given the line of the first and second generation, we will follow Johannes the 3d, in a direct line, who settled upon the Lasell place, and was not a large landowner. His children were as follows:-

John I., (married Ruth Allen, of Catskill); Gertrude, (Mrs. Judge William Fletcher, of Detroit); Maria, (Mrs. Harmonus Bouck); Susan, (Mrs. Samuel Lawyer, of Crysler's Hook); Christina, (Mrs. John Armstrong, afterwards Mrs. Derick Van Vechten); Sarah, (Mrs. John Feek, afterwards Mrs. DeFrate).

Johannes' (the son of the first Jacob Frederick, and the third large landowner,) children were as follows:--

Adam, Jacob Frederick, John I. I., Thomas, of Lawyersville, Anna, Rebecca, Eva and Wilhelmina.

When Johannes, the 2d, received his rents and installments, it was the custom of the whole family to assemble and have a general time of feasting. A dividend was made, and each received their share, little caring for the splendor their income might grant them. We might here state, in part, to prove that the second Johannes was the large landholder; that nearly all of the purchases were made after the death of the first Johannes. The lot of land lying in Cobleskill, granted to Jacob Borst and Lawyer, and one in Seward, bearing the date of 1752 and 1761, were two exceptions. The large tract to the east of Schoharie was granted in 1768, also the one lying to the west of Morris and Coeymans, at Central Bridge, as the government did not allow any one person to "take up" more than one thousand acres. Lawyer formed a partnership with thirty-six different men, and after receiving the grants, he purchased their interest at a nominal sum. One Zimmer was interested in many of the grants with Lawyer, and sold out to him for one thousand acres, which lay upon and around the present elevation that bears the name of "Zimmer Hill."

In 1796 Jabez W. Throop came from Connecticut, and worked as a mechanic until the year 1800, when he commenced upon a very limited scale, to "keep store." By careful and honest dealing he established a trade that is still retained by his son, 0. B. Throop, after a lapse of seventy-nine years. It is an example of perseverance and stability in business that is very seldom witnessed or experienced. Through all the changes that have been brought about within that time -- financial reverses of less and more pretentious concerns, and brighter prospects of gain in other places -- this house has kept steadily on, outliving the long list of those we have mentioned, upon the same ground that the humble store of 1800 was built.

Another former merchant of the place deserves mention. Peter Osterhout, Sr., came to Schoharie about the year 1820, and commenced upon a limited capital. By strict attention to business and honest dealing he soon enlarged his stock and trade, and became, as did Mr. Throop, one of the leading merchants of the County. It was thought for many years, that an article that could not be found at either Osterhout's or Throop's, was not to be found anywhere. Mr. Osterhout died on the 8th of March, 1872, at the advanced age of eighty-two.

A correspondent of the Schoharie Republican and former resident of the village, communicated the following in addition to the foregoing. He says:--

"In all probability I have forgotten the names of some, but I call to mind the following:-- Nicholas Bouck, Rice Orcutt, John G. Gebhard, Jr., Almerin Gallup, Petherel Millspaugh, Peter Mesick, Simeon Deyo, James France; all the foregoing keeping what is known as a "general assortment." John I. Lawyer, (hardware); Warren S. Gates, (stoves and tinware); Abram A. Keyser, (stoves and tinware); George Lawrence, (groceries and liquors); Lewis A. Butler, (clocks and jewelry); Mr. Willard, from Catskill, (clocks, &c). The following firm names, from the single names just given were well known in their day: Bouck & Orcutt, Gebhard & Orcutt, Orcutt & France, Millspaugh, Mesick & Co.

I also called to mind the name of Charles Vogel, (hardware, tin, &c.) His father, Frederick Vogel, who was a watch and clock maker, may have kept a small jewelry store. It is but half a score of years when William 0. Root, kept clocks, jewelry, stationery, &c. Washington Throop, brother of Origin B. Throop was in copartnership with his father, Jabez W. Throop.

"I have an indefinite recollection as to having heard that a Mr. Peter Bunker was in trade way back to forty-five or fifty years ago; and that Mr. Bunker was a foundling brought up and raised by Harmanus Bouck, whose daughter he afterwards married. Rice Orcutt married another daughter of Harmanus Bouck. Nicholas Bouck, a son of Harmanus, and Rice Orcutt constituted the firm of Bouck & Orcutt, above named. Before the dissolution of the firm Nicholas Bouck, as one of the firm of Bouck & Barnes, engaged in the wholesale dry goods business in the city of New York. Nicholas Bouck's first marriage was with Ann Lintner, a sister of the late Rev. Dr. George A. Lintner, whom the writer remembers as a bright, cheerful young woman, always happy in making the little folks happy. After the death of his first wife Mr. Bouck married Sarah Worcester, a graduate of the Albany Female Academy and the first Preceptress of Schoharie Academy, a most accomplished and refined lady. She was a sister of Mr. Worcester, who has long been the Treasurer of the New York Central Railroad Company. Mr. Bouck having died, his widow married John C. Wright, for many years First Judge of the Court Of Common Pleas of Schoharie County; afterwards State Senator (four years) and subsequently (1851) elected Comptroller of the State.

"Among the head clerks whom I call to mind, and who were in reality the managers of superintendents for their principals, were Mr. Jeptha R. Simms, (Mr. Roscoe speaks of him as principal, and possibly he was,) a most affable and courteous gentleman, who must have controlled a large trade, Mr. Orrin Kibbe, (many years with Peter Osterhout, Sr.,) a Mr. Best, (with Millspaugh, Mesick & Co.,) a very reliable man and the father of Mr. Jacob H. Settle's wife, and Messrs. Elijah Lawyer and William Osterhout (with Almerin Gallup)."

Garlock's dorf. -- Some time after the settlement of Weiser's and Hartman's dorf, and perhaps the time Fox's settlement was made, another hamlet sprang up where Jacob Vrooman now resides, known as Garlock's dorf. It has been stated that Elias Garlock was the head man, and that he was a "List-master" at the Camps. The List- master at the Camps was John Christopher Garlock, and not Elias -- undoubtedly Elias was Christopher's son. The farm upon which Elias Garlock settled (Jacob Vrooman's) was purchased of him by Josias Swart in 1764, and other lands joining, by Barent Vrooman, the grandfather of the present Jacob, in 1765. We find the Garlocks were settled near Canajoharie in 1768, which confutes the statement of the Garlocks leaving the valley at the time Conrad Weiser did, on account of the land difficulties referred to in the second chapter of this work. John Christopher witnessed the conveyance, and we are led to believe he removed from the Camps at an earlier day to Canajoharie, and was the means of drawing Elias away from this valley. There is a map of Stone Arabia in the possession of John Gebhard, Jr., bearing date of 1758, which is a copy of one found by Johannes Lawyer while then surveying, and we find among the residents noted, Christopher and Elias Garlock. But these conveyances of 1764 and '65, to Swart and Vrooman, say: "I, Elias Garlock, of Schoharie, &c." Lawyer must have copied the map after Elias settled there, and instead of the former owner of the lots, placed that of Elias and John Christopher Garlock upon it. That they were the same men we have abundant proof. Barent Vrooman married the daughter of Josias Swart, and became the possessor of the greater share of the property.

This hamlet comprised almost if not more than forty families, and what became of them we are unable to tell. As Hartman's dorf, the largest of the settlements, vanished without leaving a mark of its once existence, so has this hamlet disappeared. Across the road from Jacob Vrooman's, the first hatter in the County, Nicholas Delavergne, settled in the year 1784, and remained until 1808, when he removed to Esperance, and was succeeded in this village by Chester Lasell.

Jacob Vrooman the present owner and occupant of the "Garlock farm," is a son of Barent A. Vrooman, in direct line from Adam Vrooman, and was born upon the farm on the 27th of November, 1808. His educational advantages were very limited, as the district schools of his boyhood were very inferior, but unlike many better situated he was energetic and studious, and aspired to practical knowledge. Through inheritance Mr. Vrooman is the possessor of a fine property, as many others of his age along the valley, to which he clings with ancestral pride, regardless of other extended business relations. Mr. Vrooman possesses undaunted energy, with a firmness of character that commands and elevates the business in which he is engaged to a successful status. Becoming interested in the Schoharie Valley Railroad he became its sole owner, and by careful, economical management the road has become a success. With the exception of A. T. Stewart's Florida road, this is believed to be the only one owned by a single individual in the United States.

Joining Garlock's on the north was "Kneiskern's Dorf," which lies mostly in the town of Esperance, and which we have noticed in the chapter upon that town. Upon the first settlements of these two most northern dorfs, the space of land between the little brook crossing the road north of Jacob Vroman's and William Hallenbeck's farm, was unoccupied, and remained so until about the year 1750, when Lambert Sternbergh's sons, of Kneiskern's dorf, settled upon the farm now occupied by John Lendrum.

In 1811, the "Schoharie and Duanesburgh Turnpike" was built by Thomas P. Danforth, through the farm, to intersect the Great Western Turnpike, "seventeen miles from Albany." Upon the forks of the two roads stands a mansion that was built nearly sixty years ago for a tavern, where the young people of the valley resorted for dancing. Passing down the valley we soon cross the "Central Bridge," which was built in 1823, as was the road leading over the hill east to intersect the Schoharie and Duanesburgh Turnpike, making a direct road from Cobleskill to Albany. In 1824, Samuel Smith built a hotel upon the ground now occupied by Charles Rich, and began a business that grew to paying proportions under his energetic and shrewd management. In 1830, fire swept his establishment away, but soon rebuilding, he continued the business until the year 1847, when Levi Totten purchased the stand, and "Uncle Sam" retired. Charles Rich followed in 1851. In 1825, O. H. Williams, a former clerk of Peter Osterhout, Sr., erected the brick store at present occupied by Jacob Slingerland, and for many years was engaged in the mercantile business.

Mr. Olaf K. Williams, was the son of Eben Williams, a Revolutionary patriot, who held a captain's commission through that war, and proved a useful and staunch soldier, participating in many of the most important battles fought during that eventful period.

Opposite, J. G. Caryl, son-in-law of Samuel Smith, also established a trade in the same line of goods. These two men, of energy and integrity, possessed the confidence of the farming community to an unparalleled extent. Williams passed away on the 13th of October, 1872, "white with the frost of years."

Near by stands an ancient mill that was erected by Hendrick Strubach, grand-son of the first settler bearing that name, nearly eighty years ago, and was the first mill on the stream that used bolting cloths.

Near the mill for several years the manufacturing of agricultural machinery, was carried on by G. Westinghouse, and at a later date by S. K. Campbell, who removed the works to the Central Bridge station, a small hamlet to which the railroad gave birth upon its completion to the place in 1864.

But very few manufacturing establishments have been erected in the town of Schoharie, considering the wealth of the people and great demand for every article that can be conceived.

The village at the depot, or "New Central Bridge," through the energy of its inhabitants, bids fair to compare favorably with any of its sister towns as a central mart and manufacturing point.

One of the pioneer business men was John J. Rowe, a merchant, who was followed by A. M. Becker, John M. Mead, and John Stever. A. L. Fisher followed Jacob Burbanks in the hardware business, and for many years has added materially to the business of the place, and convenience of the community.

A short time after the Revolution a mill was built upon Fox's creek, a few rods above the iron bridge, against the bank opposite the road leading to Central Bridge, where once stood the first grist-mill built in the County soon after the settlement of Fox's dorf. Henry Lawyer at a late date repaired the mill, but the dam of Colonel Vroman's mill flooded the waterwheel, and the mill proved a failure.

About the year 1806, two Yankees by the name of Chase and Davis, came and put a machine in the old mill for carding wool. We believe it to have been the first one in the County, and although it worked slow, it was considered a great improvement upon the old mode of "hand-carding." They carded two hundred pounds of wool in twenty-four hours, and were obliged to work night and day to do the business. Being a successful and paying machine, in a few years many were built which produced a competition and caused small profits. One was erected upon the Waterbury place in 1811 or 1812, by Stephen Lawrence, but was changed to an oil mill, and did a thriving business for a few years.

A distillery was in operation by Smith Young in 1827, on the Peter Mann farm, and after burning was again started on the Waterbury road. According to the ratio of inhabitants it is thought that there was more liquor consumed in the County sixty and seventy-five years ago than now.

Peter Mann erected a building for a tannery, which was used as such for several years, but was purchased by a firm from New York -- Korn & Barre -- who established a silk factory within it. The old building was burned and the present stone building erected in its stead, and for reasons best known to the firm the factory ceased operations. Ephraim Mann finally purchased the property and placed a provender and planing-mill within the wall, whose humble rumblings and clatterings seem to laugh at former pretentious enterprises.

In 1859 a stock company was formed, with a capital of $200,000, to manufacture wagon hubs and felloes, and in the fall of that year a building was erected near the cemetery for that purpose, and equipped with an engine and all necessary machinery.

It was run successfully until the 16th of October, 1865, when the establishment burned at a total loss of sixty thousand dollars. It was rebuilt by the company, but soon purchased by ex-Sheriff Durand. It was again burned in 1877, entailing a loss of fifteen thousand dollars upon the owner. The vast amount of hubs sent to all parts of the United States and Canada, and the increasing demand for them, was beyond the expectation of the owners. The timber used was mostly elm, in which the County abounds, and it being nearly worthless for other purposes, the factory proved a grand enterprise to the farmers.

An agricultural and machine shop was built near the railroad station, soon after the completion of the road, which employed many laborers for several years. but at present the building stands idle, waiting for some enterprising capitalist to bid the hammer make its stroke.

The wagon and carriage factories of this place have proved successful. The present one of R. N. Stafford & Settle was long occupied by William Winter, whose reputation for reliable work was known far and wide, and many vehicles of his manufacture, of thirty years' usage, still defy our rough roads, and we imagine make merry over the struggling weak-kneed apologies for wagons of the present day, that are made like Hodge's razors, "to sell."

Mr. Winter came to Schoharie as a mechanic in 1842, and formed a partnership with Van Camp for the manufacture of wagons and sleighs. He commenced business where the fire engine house now stands, and afterward occupied the present "carriage building." John Feeck carried on the business prior to Winter's advent for several years, but who preceded him we are unable to learn. Winter and R. N. Stafford carried on the business together for the last years of Mr. Winter's interest in the trade. While engaged by the State upon the canal, he died suddenly at Yatesville, on the 26th of August, 1876, aged fifty-nine.

After the publication of the foregoing in the Schoharie Republican, an anonymous writer communicated the following in regard to "Schoharie wagon makers:"-

"Peter L. Feeck, a brother of John Feeck and also a brother of Jacob J. Feeck who recently died in the town of Fulton, carried on the manufacture of carriages with a partner. Peter L. Feeck married a daughter of Jabez Throop.

"Austin Knowles preceded all the carriage makers of Schoharie who have done business within the recollection of the writer. About the year 1835 or 1836 he closed up his affairs in Schoharie and engaged in the same business in Philadelphia with his brother Lyman Knowles. He took with him a large number of unsold and unfinished carriages, which were sent to Catskill and shipped thence by water to Philadelphia.

"Zeb Smith was another wagon maker. His son, Amos, succeeded him, though this is not positively stated. Their shop, afterwards occupied by Peter Lemoge, a Canadian Frenchman and cabinet maker, was long ago demolished. It stood in the vicinity of the Gardiner barns.

"The two Wilbers made fine carriages for some years in the shops adjoining those of Winter & Stafford. One Champion and a Mr. Pearl engaged in wagon making opposite the Lutheran church. They were there before and after 1857.

"And who, if he knew him, can forget Peter A. Rickard at the junction of the old Waterbury lane with the main road not far from the Old Stone Fort. Peter could make a wagon or a wheel-barrow, a hay rigging or a coffin, but if he heard of a fish lying in Fox's creek waiting for a net or the torch and spear, the customers would also need to wait outside of Peter's closed doors."

We cannot pass another firm that has been perhaps more successful than any firm at the place, and in passing the many cemeteries through the County whose marble shafts so boldly admonish us of our uncertainty of life, our minds cannot but be riveted to the old established firm of H. R. & Z. J. Brown. They came to Schoharie County from Catskill, Greene county, and settled in Punchkill in the fall of 1845. After fourteen months' residence there they removed to Schoharie village, and have continued the business since, which has assumed greater proportions than any other of the character in this portion of the State.

In the True American of 1810, we find Thomas Penfield advertises "saddles, harness cap and holster making"; also Nicholas Feeck that he had commenced the business of "Tayloring," and wishes all to patronize him, and Benjamin Miles comes out with a short notice that he keeps "leather and groceries." Jabez W. Throop gives a list of goods for which cash and barter will be taken in exchange. "Ashes are wanted."

These were the only "business men" of the place at that time, as we find no others advertise. Without doubt the village contained but few houses directly around the Court House, but they were scattered along the line of road from Martin L. Schaeffer's to the Stone Church. Near the latter gentleman's dwelling stands the old family residence of Revolutionary times, that was spared from the torch by the pretensions to loyalty of a negress slave.

At the invasion of Johnson and Brant the people of this neighborhood had ample time to remove to the lower fort for safety, as the alarm gun from the upper and middle forts had been heard, besides scouts were going and coming, giving the location of the enemy at all times through the day. Mr. Hendricus Schaeffer was at the lower fort, and when the invaders divided their forces to approach the fort from the east and west sides, Mr. Schaeffer and two others, William Enders and John Kneiskern wheeled a small field-piece from the southeast block-house to the knoll where Smith Young's residence stands, and fired upon the force that was coming in that direction. They fired but once however, when Schaeffer's companions fled from the fort, leaving him to haul the gun alone or leave it. They were ordered to return, which they did, but through a shower of bullets which passed them without harm. When the force passed the Schaeffer residence the main portion was near the river, and small squads entered the houses and did the mischief.

The owner of the Schaeffer house was Christian, the son of the original settler -- Hendrick. He had been a cripple for several years and refused to leave home and seek the fort for safety. When the squad of Indians and Tories entered the building, a negress slave assumed a loyal air, and verified it by strong language, and placed a goodly supply of pies and other eatables within sight, which tempted their appetites and they left the house without doing any damage. It was supposed the members of this clan were strangers to the family, and finding them at home, while true patriots were in the fort, beside through sympathy to Mr. Schaeffer in his infirmities, were the reasons the house was spared. It still stands in a good state of preservation, and is something of a curiosity. The beams are hewn smooth, and the braces are cased in a curve, with oak. A groove is cut in the posts in which split slats are placed to plaster upon, which saved the expense of nails and sawing lumber for lathing.

Mr. Schaeffer not having any heirs, adopted his only brother's (Jacob) son, Hendricus, who was at this time at the fort as before mentioned. In the possession of Mr. Martin L. Schaeffer are several relics, among which is an oil painting of Hendricus and his wife; also the weathercock that was perched upon the steeple of the old stone Lutheran church of 1750. It is made of beaten iron, of the thickness of very heavy sheet, and displays good workmanship. Undoubtedly Johannes Lawyer, the first deacon of the church, suggested the idea of placing a "Rooster" upon the spire, as we find he was very partial to those bipeds, requiring each of his tenants to give him a pair of chickens yearly, beside the stipulated rents. These interesting relics lure us back to olden times, and awaken a lively curiosity to seek further through such interstices in the hazy past, for more mementoes, more facts.

Near the time that Hendrick settled here, his brother, Johannes, also built a house, near the present location of the brick house upon the opposite side of the road. We cannot say why Johannes was not mentioned when the lands were first mapped, but he was, without doubt, as early a settler as his brother. During the war the house was burned, while the family was absent, supposed by the enemy to be in the fort, where they really were.

Before leaving these two families to follow the footsteps of the invaders, we will open the records, and trace their genealogy down to the present time, fearful that those yellow leaves may lose the impress that dimly marks their names, and those that wish to learn of them will search in vain. Hendrick had two sons and eight daughters. The sons were Jacob, who settled at Breakabeen, and Christian the cripple. Jacob had but two sons, that we know of -- Marcus and Hendricus. Hendricus settled, as has been seen, with Christian, and had but one son, Christian H., the father of the present Gideon, Martin, Luther and Jacob H. His only daughter married the late Nicholas Russell, of Cobleskill. Christian H. married the daughter of Peter Schaeffer, of Cobleskill, who passed his last days at this place. Johannes, the brother, was succeeded by his son, Martinus, whose son Marcus occupied the old homestead when burned, and was at the fort. David was the son of Marcus and the father of the present Marcus and Henry living near. Thus we find the last ones mentioned in line of the two families are the fifth generation.

The invaders passing down, laid the houses in ashes, with the exception of the stone house of Johannes Lawyer, who had removed to a building near the fort for safety, and a wooden structure occupied by John I. Lawyer as an inn, also the old parsonage and Lutheran Church, which, tradition says,. were spared by order of Johnson and Brant. Simms was informed that the house of John I. Lawyer was burned the night following. We do not believe that the enemy returned, as it would have been too hazardous to have done so. The night was passed by the patriots at the lower fort, in conjunction with the forts above, in making preparation to follow and skirmish with the rear of the army the next day, beside keeping a vigilant eye upon the enemy's encampment. If a scout had been sent out to finish the work of destruction, they could not have gone far before meeting their doom, as Christian Strubach with his trusty followers were on their watch. The building might have been burned by a flying spark from the ruins of Ingold's dwelling, but more likely by the brands of the Colonists, whose opinion of Lawyer's loyalty was not very complimentary. There were several houses near the fort which escaped the Mohawk's torch, as they were too near the muzzle of the patriots' unerring rifles and the little six-pounder that was wheeled out to salute their coming. Captain Mann's mansion across Fox's creek was also spared, beside one occupied by a man named William Dietz, down the valley near where the late Peter Snyder's residence stands. Mrs. Dietz had just finished milking and was entering the door when she saw a few Indians approaching. Setting the pail down in the door-way she sought safety back of the house, while the savages' thirst for blood and plunder was pacified by the pail of milk, and they passed on to "Kneiskern's dorf."

The old grist-mill that was built by Johannes Eckerson about 1760, stood between the old house and the creek, and was set on fire, but making little progress before the enemy disappeared, it was soon extinguished, and stood for many years after, and was owned by Colonel Peter Vroman, who settled here at the close of the war. Thomas Eckerson, son of Johannes, was the miller at that time, and he with his wife had just returned on foot from Schenectady as the enemy set fire to the mill. Upon his entering the building, an Indian raised his rifle and fired upon him, when a Tory of the neighborhood standing near, threw up the muzzle of the gun, and the charge went over him. As he struck the gun, he exclaimed, "If you shoot him we can't get any more flour!" The old mill stood for many long years, and was replaced by the present one, by Jacob Fisher, and long owned by John Griggs, who was followed by the present owner, Samuel Stevens.

Within the hamlet of Brunnen dorf lived John Ingold, who first settled near Weiser's dorf, and removed to this place about the year 1740. His house was burned by Johnson's forces in 1780, but he rebuilt after the war closed, and those buildings were used for holding the first courts in the County. The records say, "at the house of John Ingold," while tradition says, "in the wagon-house of John Ingold," which building is still standing, and in which the legal talent of such men as Tiffany, Gebhard, Van Veghten, Cady, and a host of others was displayed, and which were noble examples of industrious workers, deep and active abilities and honorable aspirations.

Johannes Ingold, Jr., succeeded his father, and was the first Coroner in the County. He represented the County in the Legislature in 1808, 1809 and 1810, with John Rice of Sharon. He was also Supervisor of the town ten terms, 1797 to 1800 and in 1803, 1807, 1808, 1809, 1810 and 1811, besides holding several other local offices, in which he displayed that honesty for which he was noted. He was much respected by all who knew him, and passed away at an advanced age.

The family name we believe to be extinct in the valley, except upon the tombstones that bear "The name, the year, the day."

After the invasion, buildings were slowly erected for the security of crops, but no residences were built until after peace was proclaimed in 1783, and then only upon the sites of the burned houses.

When the Court House was built in 1800 more order in the location of the buildings was observed, and one of the first marks of improvement that accompanied the Court House, was the building erected by John Bouck, and long occupied by John Gebhard, Jr. It was a first-class country residence of that day. Within it was a tile fireplace, that now graces the Frey mansion near Canajoharie, and which was purchased in Albany at a great cost, and was the only one of the kind in this part of the country.

Within the walls of this old house assembled the refined of the place, to enjoy the hospitality of the highly respected host.

The observing can plainly note by the different style of buildings, at what period they were erected, and mark the improvement in architecture as well as convenience and comfort in their construction. The one alluded to was considered a fine residence in its day. But in strolling up the street, observing the modern additions placed upon some of the buildings of equal age, and especially in viewing the spacious residence of James O. Williams, we can but be struck with the development of architectural art.

The appearance the present Court House presents, no doubt is in as great contrast to the one built in 1800, as the buildings we have mentioned. It was a three story stone building, covering less ground than the present one, with a belfry rising from the center of the roof, with but little ornamental work upon it. The jail was in the third story, in which some time in the year 1845, a man by the name of Burton was confined for grand larceny. He made an attempt to escape by burning the lock from the wooden door. The wood being very dry, the fire was soon beyond the control of the prisoner, and ascended to the attic and cupola. The incendiary gave an alarm and was with difficulty rescued. Another building was erected the same and following year, of more pretentious appearance. It was built of stone and consisted of the Court, Supervisors' and Sheriff's rooms and office. The jail which is still standing, was built in the rear, and though a small structure it is sufficient for the purpose for which it was intended, and is frequently destitute of occupants.

The village was very fortunate in having no conflagrations up to the year 1868, when a most destructive fire occurred, which threatened annihilation of the ancient "dorf." Our esteemed friend Squire John Gebhard thus alludes to the burning:--

"On the 18th of July, 1868, the largest and most destructive fire the village ever witnessed occurred. It was of an incendiary origin. The hay in the barn belonging to Francisco Wood & Son's hotel, about the middle of the night, had been set on fire, and when first discovered the flames were bursting out of the roof. The brick hotel of Mr. Wood was greatly injured, a portion of the roof being burnt off. From the hotel the fire extended north, to Badgley's brick store, which was also materially damaged. From thence the fire extended to the large three story frame building adjoining, occupied by several tenants. The third story of the building was occupied by A. A. Hunt, editor and. proprietor of The Schoharie Republican, and all the type, presses, plates, etc., belonging to the office. and the bound files of the paper since 1819, together with the building, were totally destroyed. The next building, the 'Arcade,' a wooden structure, was also burned, and the adjoining one occupied by Alexander Rickard. The progress of the fire in this direction was finally arrested at O. B. Throop's fire-proof drug store. To the south of the hotel. the flames burned the roof of the "Schoharie County Bank," then entered the brick store and dwelling of Hiram Benedict, which were destroyed. Next the roof of the fire-proof store now occupied by Jacob T Miers was burned. From thence, the flames extended to the store now occupied by Henry A. Brown, which was also materially injured. The fire in this direction was stopped at the brick residence of the late Peter Osterhout, Sr., but his storehouse and barns were consumed. All the out-houses, barns and sheds in the rear of the burnt buildings were destroyed. A man by the name of Jacob Lagrange was suspected as the incendiary. He was arrested during the fire and made a full confession of his guilt, and was tried for the offence and convicted on his confession and sentenced to the States Prison for the term of eight years."

Squire Gebhard also adds:--

"A destructive fire occurred in the village on the 17th day of January, 1870. At mid-day the hay in the barn belonging to the 'Eagle Hotel' (kept by William Parrott, Jr.,) now the Parrott House, was discovered to be on fire. The barn and carriage house attached were one hundred feet in length, and the quantity of hay in the barn and the advanced state of the flames when first discovered, rendered any attempt to extinguish them wholly futile. The 'Eagle' fronted on Main street and the south side of the hotel faced and adjoined the Court House lot. It was a frame building, extending one hundred feet on Main street and was but a short distance west of the barns in the rear. The wind blowing from the east, at once drove the flames from the barn to the house, and in a short time it was completely consumed. The flames reached the Court House, and soon laid the wood work in ashes. To the north of the hotel, the tin and hardware store and residence of Warren S. Gates, both frame buildings, were destroyed. The cause of the fire has not been ascertained."

The County being again destitute of a Court House, steps were at once taken for rebuilding. The citizens of Cobleskill village petitioned to the Board of Supervisors to erect it at that place, and as an inducement offered to give the location and at last, to bear the expense of building without cost to the County. Schoharie, awakened, made a like offer to retain the county-seat, to which the Board acquiesced. But through some technicality, the County contributed to its erection, which occurred in 1870. It is a blue limestone structure, three stories in height and considered fire-proof, the cornices, dome and pinnacles being galvanized iron. The first story comprises the Surrogate's and County Clerk's offices, and a large kitchen where cooking is done for the prisoners; while upon the second floor large apartments for the sheriff's family, together with a Supervisor's room and Sheriff's office are conveniently arranged. The third floor comprises a spacious Court Room with gallery and petit-jury room. The former clerk's office was a low stone building, and stood upon the north line of the Court House lot. The fire of 1868 seriously damaged the walls, but the records and other papers were uninjured, although they were but a few feet from the burning buildings that caused an intense heat.

Whether the people of the progressive "Fountain town" had a school before the school here was built, near the old parsonage, or not, we are unable to tell. A few, very few, of the present residents first began to solve the mysteries of "Daboll" and worry over "Webster's Speller and Definer" in the old building.

When its walls began to crumble, another was built near the present Lutheran church, but like its predecessor, time and truants accomplished the work of destruction, and it yielded upon the appearance of a more commodious one that still stands but a short distance off.

Schoharie Academy. -- By an act of the Legislature, passed upon the 28th of April, 1837, Jacob Gebhard, William Mann, Charles Goodyear, Peter Osterhout, Sr., Benjamin Pond, Peter S. Swart, William Dietz, Henry Shafer, Jacob Vrooman, and such other persons as may associate with them, were constituted a body corporate by the name of The Schoharie Academy, for the purpose of establishing, maintaining and conducting a Seminary of learning for the education of youths of both sexes. It was incorporated by the Regents, February 5, 1839, and has been a superior school from the commencement.

The course of study is as extensive at present as any similar institution in the State. The present faculty consists of: --

     Solomon Sias, Principal.
     Robert B. Handy, French, German and English branches.
     Miss Emma K. Cramer, Intermediate or English branches,
     Miss Hattie Morrison, Common English.
     Miss Ida Mayham, Primary or Preparatory.

It is under the management of the following able "Board of Education:"

     Hon. S. L. Mayham, President.
     M. N. DeNoyelles, Secretary.
     J. O. Williams, Wm. S. Layman, M. D., Jacob T. Miers, J. W. Marsh.

The first "Regents Higher Academic Diploma" ever presented in the County was given on the 13th of June, 1881, to E. E. DeNoyelles, and the ninety-fourth in the entire State. The only three Regents Certificates ever awarded in the County were given also to scholars of this school, which bespeaks well for the faculty.

Methodist Episcopal Church. -- Within the shadow of the spire of the ancient brick church stands another substantial structure dedicated to the worship of the same "Master" according to the theory of Wesley. Although the organization of this body is young in years, in comparison to the Reformed and Lutheran, yet its records show but few superior workers in the "vineyard." It was organized in 1840 under Rev. David Poor, preacher in charge, with twelve members. Rev. _____ VanAuken, then living here, became deeply interested in the organization, and under his labors the present house of worship was erected in 1842. The ministers in charge from that date up to 1852 we are unable to give, but from that date to the present time, they were as follows:--

     William R. Brown, 1857-1854.
     A. W. Garvin, 1854-1856.
     Joseph Cape, 1856-1858.
     A. Heath, 1858-1860.
     I. C. Fenton, 1860-1863.
     A. D. Heck, 1863-1867.
     E. Taylor, 1867-1869.
     E. Mott, 1869-1872.
     Milton Tator, 1872.
     A. Champlin, 1873.
     W. B. Bedell, 1874.
     A. W. Powers, 1874-1876.
     L. A. Bigelow, 1876-1880.
     J. G. Gooding, 1880 and present.

Barton Hill and Central Bridge are connected with this church in pastorate. The membership is one hundred and seventy-seven.

The following are the present officers:--

Stewards: --

     M. N. DeNoyelles,
     P. S. Clark,
     G. D. Warner,
     S. R. Wright,
     Abram Becker,
     John Stever,
     George Terpenning,
     Ira Blanchford,
     G. Shank.


     M. N. DeNoyelles,
     P. S. Clark,
     S. W. Zeh,
     W. M. Preston,
     John Morrison,
     George D. Warner,
     T. D. Young.

Recording Steward: --

    P. S. Clark.

African M. E. Church. -- Of more humble pretensions, the small "African Methodist Episcopal Church" organized in 1856 by R. T. Eaton, closes the list of religious organizations in the village. The pastors who have officiated are as follows:--

Reverends Benjie, Bessler, Ray, Wales, Hammond, Tyler, Ely, Sanford, and the present Reverend Mr. Gibbs.

Referring to, the Barton Hill Methodist Society, we are led to remark it was formed in 1824, and one of the leading men at its organization still continues one of its main supporters.

Theodore Barton, now at the age of eighty-five, was one of the pioneers of the elevation known as Barton Hill, and still possesses the activity of mind and body found in most men of fifty. He is the only one left of four brothers who came from Duchess county in 1818 and purchased lands of the Keysers, who were preceded a few years by Gideon Wilber and the Simmons family. By strict economy and industry Mr. Barton has accumulated a competency which, together with his religious character, ranks him with the foremost men of the town. He is the oldest Mason in the County.

But a short distance from the Barton neighborhood is found the celebrated Gebhard's cavern, first explored by our venerable friend John Gebhard, Jr., Dr. Joel Foster and Mr. John S. Bonney in the fall of 1831. Among the many rich specimens obtained in this cave is one resembling alabaster. While we are led to think it is but carbonate of lime and not sulphate, yet its beauty and close resemblance to the genuine, make it nearly as valuable and worthy of obtaining. The ingress to this cave is precipitous and somewhat hazardous, which but few visitors feel disposed to incur, yet the beautiful threadlike crystals, stalactites and stalagmites, aragonite and satin spar, found down in its depths, well repay the student for his venture.

Schoharie Bridge. -- On the 26th of March, 1803, an act was passed by the Legislature to establish a lottery and appoint managers of the same, to raise $41,500 "for opening and improving certain great roads in this State," and the sum of six hundred dollars was included for the building of the bridge over the Schoharie creek, opposite of Schoharie village. The money was "to be paid to the Commissioners of Highways of the town of Schoharie for that purpose." By an act passed March 8, 1805, John Dominick, Jr., John Becker, John Ingold, Jr., Peter Shafer, David Swart, Peter Swart, Jr., Jacob Lawyer, Jr., and Peter I. Shafer were created a body corporate to build the bridge and were called the "Schoharie and Cobleskill Bridge Company." The structure was finished in 1813. Near this bridge upon the farm of John Gebhard, during the Revolution, the patriots manufactured sulphur for making powder, and it was thought that other minerals, such as silver and copper existed there in great quantities, but little effort was made to unearth them.

We have already mentioned the village was first called "Brunnen dorf" and afterwards "Fountain Town." At a later date it was frequently called "Sommersville," in honor of the first Lutheran pastor. It received its present appellation upon the building of the Court House.

The town was formed in 1788, as a part of Albany county, and comprised nearly the whole of the present territory of Schoharie County. In 1797, Middleburgh, Blenheim, Broome and Cobleskill were taken from it, and in 1846 Wright and Esperance. The first general election of town officers of which we have any record was held "upon the first Tuesday in April, 1797," and lasted three days. The voting was done by dropping the ballot in a hat and each official voted for separately. The following ticket was elected:--

    Supervisor -- John Ingold, Jr.
    Clerk -- Henry Becker.
    Assessors -- Jacob Becker, Jacob Kneiskern, Peter Swart, Casper Crounse, Hendricus Schaeffer.
    Commissioners of Highways -- David Sternbergh, Peter Swart, John Enders.
    Collector -- William Mann.
    Commissioners of Schools -- George Tiffany, Jacob Gebhard and James Brown.
    Overseers of Poor -- Hendricus Schaeffer, Henry Weaver.
    Poundmaster -- Johannes I. Lawyer.
    Constables -- Richard Green, Jacob Smith, William Schoolcraft.
    Fence Viewers -- Marcus Shafer, Jacob Sidnick (Sidney), Peter Ball, Peter Enders.

At the town meeting in May, 1804, it was

Resolved, That every crow killed, six cents if Braught to the town Clark and the Town Clark cuts off the head and gives a certificate.

The earliest records of the town that are accessible, bear the date of 1789, when nearly the whole of the present County of Schoharie was in one district or town, belonging to Albany county. We find Marcus Bellinger was supervisor, and Johannes Dietz acting town clerk. A book was kept according to the statutes, in which was registered the births of illegitimate children, and the marks that each farmer placed upon their cattle, sheep and hogs, which was necessary. as they were turned in the forest during the summer months, and enabled each owner to identify his property without trouble. The illegitimate children were principally those of slaves, and in registering, both cattle and infants were mixed up promiscuously, as follows: --

"The mark of John Jost Werner is as follows to his neat cattle, sheep and swine towit -- A hole through the right ear & the left ear cropt JOHN JOST WERNER.

Recorded the 28th day of March 1799
HENRY BECKER, Town Clark."

"SCHOHARIE, Nov. 9th, 1799. This is to certify that there is a child born on the Twenty-fourth day of September Last of A Negroe woman, a slave, her name is Felora & the child is a Male Child & named Jack or John, the woman now belonging to the subscriber MARCUS BELLINGER or his wife CHRISTINA." SCHOHARIE, March 12, 1796.

"The following is the mark of Tobias Swart of his horn cattle. -- The ends of both ears Cut off and then slits cut in both ears allso. "Recorded the 12th day of March as above written, TOBIAS SWART."

Following the above is: -- "Broke into my inclosure the first day of June 1800 a large Read ox with a white face and a white spot on his left fore sholder and also his left ear cut of and a slit in the left ear. JACOB BECKER, JR."

In another book we find the following in regard to the school money:--

"We the subscribers forming a board of Supervisors for the city and county of Albany held by adjournment at the City hall of the said city Do hereby certify, pursuant to an act of the legislature of the State of New York, entitled an act for the encouragement of Schools passed the 9th day of April 1795 -- that there is alloted by the said board the sum of one hundred and thirty pounds -- eleven shillings and eight pence -- farthing to the town of Schohary For the uses and purposes expressed in said act.

Given under our hands and Seals this Seventh Day of July in the year of our Lord One Thousand seven hundred and ninety-five.

   T. DUANE,

The above sum was the last drawn from Albany county for the support of Schoharie schools.

Much to the discredit of the several towns, the records of this town have been kept in much better taste and care than any other, and enable us to present the officials to date.


    1767 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1768 - Marcus Bellinger.
    1769 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1770 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1771 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1772 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1773 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1774 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1775 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1776 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1777 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1778 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1779 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1780 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1781 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1782 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1783 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1784 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1785 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1786 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1787 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1788 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1789 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1790 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1791 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1792 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1793 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1794 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1795 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1796 -- Marcus Bellinger.
    1797 -- John Ingold, Jr.
    1798 -- John Ingold, Jr.
    1799 -- John Ingold, Jr.
    1800 -- John Ingold, Jr.
    1801 -- Peter Swart.
    1802 -- Henry Becker.
    1803 -- John Ingold.
    1804 -- Henry Becker.
    1805 -- Henry Becker.
    1806 -- Silas Tompson.
    1807 -- John Ingold.
    1808 -- Peter Swart.
    1809 -- Peter Swart.
    1810 -- Peter Swart.
    1811 -- Peter Swart.
    1812 -- William Dietz.
    1813 -- Peter Swart.
    18l4 -- Henry Becker.
    18l5 -- Gideon Wilber.
    1816 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1817 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1818 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1819 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1820 -- Henry W. Starin.
    1821 -- Joseph Hunting.
    1822 -- Joseph Hunting.
    1823 -- Jacob W. Mann.
    1824 -- Jacob W. Mann.
    1825 -- Jacob W. Mann.
    1826 -- John Swart.
    1827 -- John Swart.
    1828 -- John Swart.
    1829 -- John Swart.
    1830 -- Henry Hamilton.
    1831 -- Henry Hamilton.
    1832 -- Henry Hamilton.
    1833 -- Henry Hamilton.
    1834 -- Charles Goodyear.
    1835 -- Charles Goodyear.
    1836 -- Charles Goodyear.
    1837 -- John C. Wright.
    1838 -- Henry Hamilton.
    1839 -- John S. Brown.
    1840 -- John S. Brown.
    1841 -- John S. Brown.
    1842 -- Hiram Walden.
    1843 -- Hiram Walden.
    1844 -- Daniel Larkin.
    1845 -- Charles Knox.
    1846 -- John Griggs.
    1847 -- David Dietz.
    1848 -- Jacob Vroman.
    1849 -- Jacob Vroman.
    1850 -- Jacob Vroman.
    1851 -- Albiness Hess.
    1852 -- Albiness Hess.
    1853 -- Albiness Hess.
    1854 -- Albiness Hess.
    1855 -- Jonas Kilmer.
    1856 -- David Dietz.
    1857 -- Gideon Schaeffer.
    1858 -- Treat Durand.
    1859 -- Ralph Brewster.
    1860 -- Elijah Lawyer.
    1861 -- Elijah Lawyer.
    1862 -- William Winter.
    1863 -- William Winter.
    1864 -- William Winter.
    1865 -- Peter S. Swart.
    1866 -- William Winter.
    1867 -- Elijah Lawyer.
    1868 -- James O. Williams.
    1869 -- James O. Williams.
    1870 -- Francisco Wood.
    1871 -- John W. Larkin.
    1872 -- John G. Caryl.
    1873 -- John G. Caryl.
    1874 -- John W. Larkin.
    1875 -- John W. Larkin.
    1876 -- William B. Murphy.
    1877 -- Ralph Brewster.
    1878 -- Ralph Brewster.
    1879 -- John W. Larkin.
    1880 -- Hiram Schoolcraft.
    1881 -- Jacob Rickard.
    1882 -- Hiram Schoolcraft.


    1789 -- Johannes Dietz.
    1790 -- Johannes Dietz.
    1791 -- Johannes Dietz.
    1792 -- Abram A. Becker.
    1793 -- Storm A. Becker.
    1794 -- Josias Swart.
    1795 -- Josias Swart.
    1796 -- Peter Borst.
    1797 -- Henry Becker.
    1798 -- Henry Becker.
    1799 -- Henry Becker.
    1800 -- Henry Lawyer.
    1801 -- Henry Lawyer.
    1802 -- Peter Vroman.
    1803 -- Peter Vroman.
    1804 -- William Dietz.
    1805 -- William Dietz.
    1806 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1807 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1808 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1809 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1810 -- Peter Vroman.
    1811 -- Philip Sternbergh.
    1812 -- W.  W. Enders.
    1813 -- Philip Dietz.
    1814 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1815 -- Peter W. Mann.
    1816 -- John Lawyer.
    18l7 -- John Lawyer.
    1818 -- John Lawyer.
    1819 -- William Mann.
    1820 -- John Budd.
    1821 -- John W. Mann.
    1822 -- John W. Mann.
    1823 -- John Budd.
    1824 -- John Budd.
    1825 -- John Budd.
    1826 -- Peter S. Swart.
    1827 -- Peter S. Swart.
    1828 -- Peter S. Swart.
    1829 -- Peter S. Swart.
    1830 -- David Dietz.
    1831 -- David Dietz.
    1832 -- David Dietz.
    1833 -- David Dietz.
    1834 -- David Dietz.
    1835 -- Jeptha R. Simms.
    1836 -- Jeptha R. Simms.
    1837 -- Jeptha R. Simms.
    1838 -- Jacob G. Mann.
    1839 -- Jacob H. Smith.
    1840 -- Gideon W. Eaton.
    1841 -- Moses Young.
    1842 -- Moses Young.
    1843 -- James France.
    1844 -- Albiness Hess.
    1845 -- Amasa Gibbs.
    1846 -- Cornelius VanDyck.
    1847 -- S. P. Swart.
    1848 -- S. P. Swart.
    1849 -- S. P. Swart.
    1850 -- S. P. Swart.
    1851 -- S. P. Swart.
    1852 -- S. P. Swart.
    1853 -- S. P. Swart.
    1854 -- S. P. Swart.
    1855 -- Philip Deyo.
    1856 -- Sylvanus Sweet.
    1857 -- Loring Andrew.
    1858 -- S. P. Sweet.
    1859 -- S. P. Sweet.
    1860 -- James A. Bouck.
    1861 -- James A. Bouck.
    1862 -- Julius Rowley.
    1863 -- Julius Rowley.
    1864 -- Julius Rowley.
    1865 -- Cornelius Bailey.
    1866 -- Cornelius Bailey.
    1867 -- William O. Root.
    1868 -- William O. Root.
    1869 -- John Sweet.
    1870 -- Philip Deyo,
    1871 -- John Sweet.
    1872 -- John Sweet.
    1873 -- Philip Deyo.
    1874 -- John Sweet.
    1875 -- Philip Deyo.
    1876 -- Philip Deyo.
    1877 -- Jacob E. Mann.
    1878 -- Jacob F. Mann.
    1879 -- Jacob E. Mann.
    1880 -- Jacob E. Mann.
    1881 -- Jacob E. Mann.
    1882 -- H. R. Brown.


Marcus Bellinger, 1794.
Lawrence Schoolcraft, 1797.
William Monger, 1797.
Cornelius Seabury, 1797.
Peter Swart, 1797.
Ralph R. Phelps, 1799.
Jacob Schoolcraft, 1800.
Henry Becker, 1802.
Silas Tompson, 1803.
Abraham Sternbergh, 1804.
David Ball, 1805.
Harmonus Bouck, 1809.
John G. Watson, 1809.
Jabez W. Throop, 1811.
Isaac Barber, 18l5.
Olney Briggs, 1817.
Daniel Larkins, 18l7 to 1828.
Jeremiah D. Tompson, 1821.
John I. Dominick, 1821 to 1825.
John Lawyer, 1822 to 1827.
Alexander Crookshanks, 1822.
W. L. Candee, 1824.
John Swart, 1828.
Ezra Gallup, (The first elected on regular ticket) 1828 to 1831.
James Burnet, 1828 to 1831.
Daniel Larkin, 1833.
Olaff H. Williams, 1837.
David Miles, 1838.
John I. Dominick, 1839.
Asahel Billings, 1840.
Ezra Gallup, 1841.
John Gebhard, Jr., 1842.
Charles R. Gorden, 1843.
James B. McMasters, 1846.
Ralph Brewster, 1847.
Ezra Nethaway, 1847.
George Westonhouse, 1848.
Elijah Dickinson, 1849.
Jacob A. Crounse, 1850.
Peter Mann, 1850.
A. B. F. Pond, 1851.
Peter Mix, (to fill vacancy) 1852 to 1853
Christopher Wetsel, 1852.
Henry Wilsey, 1854.
Joseph Williams, 1855.
Ralph Brewster, (to fill vacancy) 1855.
Daniel Larkin, (to fill vacancy) 1856.
John Gebhard, 1857.
Ralph Brewster, 1858.
J. O. Williams, 1859 to 1863.
Peter Nethaway, 1860 to 1864.
John F. Shafer, 1861 to 1865.
Ralph Brewster, 1862 to 1866.
William B. Murphy, 1865 to 1869.
Smith W. Haskins, (to fill vacancy) 1865.
John D. Wilsey, 1866.
Peter A. Loucks, (short term) 1866.
Smith W. Haskins, 1867.
G. G. Mann, 1868.
John F. Shafer, 1870.
Jacob Enders, 1871 to 1874.
William H. Barton, 1872 to 1880.
M. L. F. Bachman, 1876 to 1880.
Otis Guffin, 1879.
Jesse W. Smith, 1880.


The original bounds only, are on file, and from them Esperance and Wright have been taken.

A final act passed April 12, 18l3, for the division "of the counties of this State into towns," thus defines the town then formed:--

" And all that part of the County of Schoharie, beginning at a point in the west bounds of the county of Albany, two miles southerly of the place where Fox's creek intersects said west bounds, thence westerly to the place where Weaver's Stony creek originally emptied itself into the Schoharie creek, and thence westerly to the place where the Cobleskill road crosses the Punch Kill, thence with a straight line to a point in the north bounds of the county five miles westerly of Schoharie creek, thence along the bounds of the county easterly and southerly, to the place of beginning, shall be and continue a town by the name of Schoharie."

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