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Notes: II. Coming of the Welsh to Oneida
1See chapter I passim of Pomroy Jones: Annals of Oneida County.
2Erasmus W. Jones: "Early Welsh Settlers of Oneida County", Vol. 5 Transactions of the Oneida Historical Society.
3Moses Bagg: Pioneers of Utica, p. 38 says that in 1794 a blacksmith, Thomas Jones, arrived in Utica from Carnarvonshire, Wales.
4See the Cofiant of William P. Jones in Y Cenhadwr 1846, p. 277. Ll. D. Howell says he went from New York to Albany with S. Rowland, from there with another man, probably Davies.
5Llewellyn D. Howell: Dechreuad a Chynydd y Cymry yn Utica a'i Hamgylchoedd, p. 6.
6Y Cyfaill, Vol. II, p. 44, Iago ab Owain in a letter says that these early settlers were from Leyn, Carnarvonshire. He says they reached Steuben Sept. 3rd, 2½ days from Utica.
7L. D. Howell gives a complete sketch of the journey from Griffith O. Griffith in Welsh. The Utica Morning Herald, April 29, 1879, gives a translation of the sketch.
8Moses Bagg, Pioneers of Utica, p. 301, and E. W. Jones, "Early Welsh Settlers of Oneida County." The family was in easy circumstances and defrayed the expenses of several of their neighbors coming in the same ship. They settled on Frankfort Hill.
9Ll. D. Howell, pp. 8-9. He gives the names of those he has been able to ascertain. These were the ministers, John Stephens and James Harries, two ministers with the Baptists, and the Messrs. Abraham Williams, John Reed and six sons, Joseph Harries, David Thomas, William Rees, Simon John, John Nicholas, John Rees, Nathaniel Davies, James Philips, James Jones, David Reed, Daniel Richards, Evan Owens, Rees Jones and Samuel George. Several of these had their families with them.
10A great many of the Welsh are artisans and from the beginning they are to be found at their trades in Utica and the smaller places outside. Many in the former place have developed large businesses. In 1802 there came to Utica by way of Baltimore a Welsh carpenter, Edward Baldwin from Monmouthshire. His reputation as a builder grew rapidly; he was entrusted with the building of the academy and the courthouse, and though he might have had it on much better terms than other mechanics, as a good Baptist and Welshman, he refused "for conscience sake" the contract for the erection of the Catholic church soon after built. See Bagg: Pioneers, p. 145.
11Centennial Address at Trenton by Seymour--a statement of W. C. Rowley, p. 144.
12Daniel Wager: Our County and its People, p. 508. He says that David Jones was the first Welshman to settler in Remsen; that he took up the so-called Billings lot on the Steuben road. Date of his coming unknown.
13P. Jones, p. 306.
14L. d. Howell, p. 18.
15See a sketch of the churches in these Welsh settlements by Rev. Lewis Williams in The Cambrian, 1905, p. 372.
16The Cambrian, 1880, p. 191.
17See Erasmus W. Jones: "Early Welsh Settlers", for many instances of short stays in Philadelphia. Obituary notices in Y Cenhadwr give us many more. A few follow: Y Cenhadwr, 1844, p. 125, John W. Roberts and his wife came to Philadelphia in 1800 from Carnarvon in the spring and in the fall of the same year they moved to Steuben. Id. 1846, p. 211, John R. Jones came to Philadelphia in 1801, and in 1804 moved to Remsen. p. 372, William R. Evans landed in Baltimore in 1800 or 1801; went to Philadelphia where he and Andrew Williams took care of the float bridge over the Schuylkill. Here he was a member of the Welsh church, of which the pastor, Daniel Morris, later moved to Utica. Mr. Evans moved to Steuben in 1805.
18Pomroy Jones: Annals, p. 706.
19It should be remembered that the Holland Purchase, that land owned by the Holland Land Company, was entirely distinct from the Holland Patent. The latter consisted of about 20,000 acres which lay in the southwest part of the town of Trenton, being a patent granted to Lord Holland by the British Crown and was in no way connected with the Holland Land Company's purchase in the same territory.
20From the records in the County Clerk's Office at Utica. Nov. 6, 1804 is recorded a deed to Rowland Griffiths from Adam G. Mappa, who succeeded Boon as agent of the Company. Oct. 13, 1809 another deed to Griffith R. Griffiths, et al. from Peter Van Eegen, et al, the chief members of the company. And in March 11, 1812, a deed from the same Richard Griffiths. Others appeared in later years and only a lack of time in the office prevented a complete list of sales made by the Holland Land Company to Welshmen.
21See Orsamus Turner: History of the Holland Purchase.
22Friedrich Kapp: Life of Steuben, pp. 577-8.
23Taken from the records of the county Clerk's office at Utica.
24Bagg: Pioneers of Utica. He says that some of the old Welsh residents thought Walker, appreciating the industry of the Welshmen, induced the first of them to come to Oneida.
25Ellis H. Roberts told me that his father who came to this country in 1816 worked as a stone mason for some time on the locks at Little Falls.
26Bowley: Wages, p. 32. Weekly wages in Glamorgan in 1821 were 9s 6d for agricultural workers or about $2.25 per week. The year 1821 represents a fair wage during the time of depression. The common laborer on the Erie Canal was getting 87¢ per day or $5.25 per week, the skilled laborers, like masons and carpenters, getting more. See Laws of the State of New York in relation to the Erie and Champlain Canals, vol. II, p. 200. It should be remembered, however, that in many parts of Wales during this period wages were habitually supplemented out of the poor rate to an extent sufficient to keep the laborer and his family alive.
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