Warren County, New York
Genealogy and History

A History of the Town of Queensbury, A. W. Holden, M.D.
Chapter II: Vocabulary of Indian Names

This transcription was produced through the use of Readiris Pro 11 OCR software. Contributed by Tim Varney.


PRELIMINARY REMARKS.

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The wilderness and lake region of Northern New York, was the common hunting ground for various tribes, where, during the unknown centuries preceding the discovery of the New World, divergent nationalities redressed their grievances and wrought out their forest feuds to their bitter end.

It therefore naturally followed that the more important and often visited localities, would be honored by two or more names, having varying significations according to the accidents and events, often of a transitory character, from which they were derived.

The corruptions and changes which the Indian terminology has undergone in its transitions through the not over grammatical speech of Dutch, French and Yankee traders and adventurers, have contributed largely to impede the labors of the ethnologist, and added difficulties in the way of reaching just conclusions as to the derivation and meaning of words.

To harmonize and systematize this nomenclature has been utterly impossible, and therefore in each case authorities and references have been given, leaving the reader to his own inferences, and devolving upon the originals the responsibility of errors and mistakes. Where two or more authorities have differed, I have usually taken those nearest the sources from which the names were derived.

Until within a comparatively recent period, there were two noted Indians of the St. Francis tribe, who had their homes and hunting grounds in the great Adirondack wilderness. Their names were Sabele and Sabattis, and over a quarter of a century ago, they were severally reputed to be upwards of a hundred years old, both hale, and with wonderful memories of the past. From them years ago were obtained a portion of the names included Page 24 in the following list, which with two exceptions are now given to the public for the first time. In the few instances where exact references are not given, the memoranda have been mislaid.


ABENAKIS, ABENAKIES. - A name according to Drake signifying "Men of the East," and originally or formerly applied to all the tribes on the coast of the continent, but afterwards restricted to the Aborigines inhabiting Nova Scotia, the territory embraced in the present state of Maine, and a part of Canada. - Early Jesuit Missions by Rt. Rev. Wm. I. Kip. According to Schoolcraft the name signifies "the east land, or place of light." The St. Francis Indians who occupied so conspicuous a place in our border annals during the old French war, were an offshoot or colony of this tribe. Sabele and Sabattis, some of whose descendants ate still living in the northern wilderness, were also of this clan or sub-tribe.

ADAGEGTINGE, ADAGUGHTINGAG. - A brook in Davenport, Delaware Co., N. Y., one of the tributaries of the Susquehanna. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, pp. 490, 497.

ADIQUITANGE. - A branch of the Susquehanna river in Kortright, Delaware County, N. Y. (probably the same stream named above). - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, p. 487.

ADIRONDACK. - Tree Eaters. A name given in derision to the Algonquins by the Iroquois. - See Colonial Hist. N. Y., vol. IV, p. 899.

ADIRONDACK. - A once powerful tribe of Indians of this name dwelt along the Canada shore of the St. Lawrence river. According to Schoolcraft the name signifies "Bark-Eaters." It was a detachment of this tribe, headed by two distinguished chiefs Yroquet and Ochasteguin, that accompanied, Samuel Champlain in his first voyage of discovery through the lake that bears his name, and fought a battle with a party of Iroquois on the headland at Ticonderoga.

AGANUSCHION. - "Black mountain range, as the Indians called this Adirondac group." - Lossing's Hudson, etc. Vide Aquanuschioni.

AGIOGOCHOOK. - The White mountains of New Hampshire, of which the English name is a literal translation.

ALLNAPOOKNAPUS. - Indian lake in the northern wilderness. - Sabele.

ANDIATOROCTE. - The place where the lake contracts. A name applied to Lake George. - Dr. O'Callaghan's New Netherland.

AONEO. - An island. Onondaga. A term applied by that clan to the whole western continent, which their traditions state was expanded from the shell of a tortoise. - Schoolcraft's Notes, p. 61.

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AONTAGILBAN. - A creek which empties into Fish creek, Saratoga county. Taken from "map No. 221, of the late Fish creek reservation in 1706." - Sec. of State's office.

APALACHIAN. - Endless mountains. - O'Callaghan, Doc. Hist. N. Y., II, 702. This is the true Indian name of the great Alleghany range.

AQUANUSCHIONI. - The united people. A name by which the Iroquois designated themselves. - Drake's Book of the Indians, v. 4.

AREYUNA. - Green rocks. Tupper's lake. - C. F. Hoffman. Vigil of Faith.

ASTORENGA. - The name of the hills at Little Falls. - Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois, 78.

ATALAPOSE. - A sliding place. Roger's rock on Lake George. The Indians have a singular superstition, that the witches or evil spirits haunt this place, and seizing upon the spirits of bad Indians, on their way to the happy hunting grounds, slide down the precipitous cliff with them into the lake where they are drowned. - Sabattis.

ATATEA. - (See Cohatatea). A river. The upper Hudson. - Charles Fenno Hoffman.

ATTIGOUANTON. - Lake Huron. - Murray's British America, I, 150.

BONTOOKEESE. - Little Falls at Luzerne on the Hudson. - Sabele.

CAHOHATATEA. - Iroquois. The North or Hudson river. - Dr. Mitchill, quoted in Annals of Albany, II, 233.

CANADA. - From Kanata, a village. - Dr. F. B. Hough. Josselyn, an early colonial writer, derives this from Can, mouth, and Ada, country. - Drake's Book of the Indians, I, 23.

CANARAGE. - The St. Lawrence river. - Macauley's Hist. N .Y., I, 98.

CANASHAGALA. - An Indian name of a clearing on a south branch of Moose river near Moose lake in Hamilton Co., N. Y. - Simms's Trappers, 188.

CANIADERI GUARUNTE. - A name applied to Lake Champlain. The door or gate of the country. See Canada. - T. Pownal's Map and Topographical Description.

CANIADERI OIT. - The tail of the lake i. e., of Lake Champlain. - Ibid. Also Spafford's Gazetteer, p. 200.

CANKUSKEE. - North-West bay on Lake George. So named on a Map of the Middle British Provinces, London, 1776. See Ganaouske.

CANNEOGAHAKALONONITADE. - The Mohawk river. - Dr. Mitchill, Annals of Albany, II, 233.

CANNIUSKUTTY. - A creek. A tributary of the Delaware river. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, p. 501.

CATARAKOUI. - Iroquois. Great or big lake (vide Cataraqui). - Colonial Hist. of N. Y., vol. x, p. 503.

CATARAQUI. - The St. Lawrence river, signifying a fort in the water. Dr. Hough states that Cataroqui, is the ancient name of Kingston, a bank of clay rising out of the waters. - Hist. St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, 181.

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CAUGHNAWAGA. - Cook the kettle. - Doc. Hist. of N. Y., III, 1108. The name of one of the Mohawk villages, and afterwards applied to a colony or tribe of praying Indians, converts from the Iroquois. Gallatin in his synopsis supposes it to be derived from Coughnuhwoh her leh, a Mohawk word signifying rapids.

CAYWANOOT. - Isola Bella. The residence of the late Col. Ireland in Schroon lake. - Lossing's Hudson, 52.

CHATIEMAC. - The stately swan. One of the names of the Hudson. Schoolcraft, The Indian in his Wigwam, 122.

CHEONDEROGA. - Signifying three rivers, one of the many names of Ticonderoga. From a map by T. Pownal, M. P., Lond., 1176.

CHEPONTUC. - A difficult place to climb or get around. An Indian name of Glen's Falls. - Sabattis.

CHICOPEE. - A large spring. An Indian name of Saratoga Springs. - Sabattis.

CHOUENDABOWA. - Clifton Park, Saratoga Co., N. Y. - Catalogue of Maps in State Library, p. 205.

COHATATEAH. - Another Indian name of the Hudson. - A. B. Street.

COHETABA. Iroquois name of the Hudson.- Gordon's Gazetteer of N. Y:

COHOES. - From Cahoos, a canoe falling. - Brant. Spafford's Gazetteer of N. Y., p. 170. Morgan in his League of the Iroquois, has it Gahahoose.

CONGAMMUCK. - The lower Saranac lake. - Sabattis.

CONNESTIGUNE. - Hence Niskayuna. A field covered with corn. - Gordon's Gazetteer.

CONNUGHHARIEGUGHHARIE. - A great multitude gathered together, Mohawk name for Schenectady. - Stone's Life of Red Jacket, p. 5.

COOS or COWHASS. - The white pine. - Dr. Fitch. Applied to a region of country in the northern part of New Hampshire, sometimes named as the upper and lower Coos or pine regions.

CORLAR. - Lake Champlain was known to the Dutch by this name, and also as the lake of the Iroquois.

COSSAYUNA. - The lake at our pines. Indian name of a sheet of water in Argyle, N. Y. - Vide Dr. Fitch's Hist. Survey of Washington County, in Trans. N. Y. S. Agricultural Soc. For 1849.

COUCHSACHRAGA. - The great dismal wilderness. An Indian term applied to the still wild and unsettled region north of the Mohawk, and west of Lakes Champlain and George. - Pownal's Topographical Description.

COUXSACHRAGA. - "Their hunting grounds (i. e. the Iroquois), are first Coxsachraga, a triangle lying on the south-east side of Canada, or St. Lawrence river, bounded eastward by Saragtoga, and the drowned lands; northward by a line from Regiochue point (on Lake Champlain, or as the Indians call it; Caniaderiguarunte, the Page 27 lake that is the gate of the country), through the Cloven rock on the same lake to Oswegatchie or la Galette; south-westward by the dwelling land of the Mohawks, Oneidas and Tuscaroras." - Pownal on Colonies, vol. I, p. 267, Lond., 1774.

DIONONDEHOWA. - The lower falls on the Battenkill river near and above the devil's caldron, Galesville, N. Y. - Dr. Fitch's Hist. Survey of Washington County. Also see Calendar of Land Titles, p. 204.

ERIE. - "The Agoneaseah (Iroquois), anciently called this Lake Kan-ha-gwa-rah-ka, i. e., a cap, and latterly Erie, Erige, or Erike, which, according to Hennepin signifies Cats-eye." - Macauley's Hist. N. Y., vol. I, p. 119. Morse in his large Geography defines it as the lake of the Cats.

GAISHTINIC. - The Minci name for Albany. - H. R. Schoolcraft.

GANAOUSKE. - North West bay on Lake George. - Colonial Hist. N. Y., vol. x, p. 600. Judging from analogy, this should mean the battle place by the water side.

GA-NA-SA-DA-GA, T. - The St. Lawrence river. So named on Morgan's map of the Iroquois. - League of the Iroquois.

GANOONOO. - The territory comprised in the state of New York. Dr. Hough, in his History of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, has it Kanono. The word is Iroquois, and is defined elsewhere as meaning the whole state.

GITCH IGOMEE. - Big Sea Water. The Algonquin name for Lake Superior. - Schoolcraft's Indian in his Wigwam, p. 303.

GLEN'S FALLS. - Mentioned on a French map by M. de Levy published at Quebec, 1748, by the name of Chute de Quatrevignt, Pds. - Doc. Hist. N. Y., vol. I, p. 557.

HOCHELAGA. - This name was applied by the Algonquins to the site now occupied by Montreal, and also to the St. Lawrence river. Hough suggests its derivation from Oserake, a beaver dam. - Hist. St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, p. 181.

HOOSACK. - The place of stones, i. e., a rocky or stony region. - Ruttenber's Indian Tribes, p. 376. It has also been defined as a basin or kettle. Indian tradition states that the last naked bear was killed at this point.

HOUSATONIC. - A Mohegan compound, probably signifying the valley of the stream beyond the mountain. - H. R. Schoolcraft.

HOUTKILL. - Dutch name of Wood creek. - Doc. Hist. of N. Y., vol. II, p.300.

HUNCKSOOCK. - The place where everybody fights. A name given by the nomadic Indians of the north to the upper falls on the outlet of Lake George. - Sabattis.

HURON. A French appellation bestowed upon the lake bearing this name and also to the tribe of Wyandots living on its banks - Schoolcraft.

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INCAPAHCHO. - Lindenmere or the lake of basswoods. The Indian name of Long lake. - The Vigil of Faith by C. F. Hoffman.

IROCOSIA. - The land of the Iroquois. Northern New York. This term frequently recurs on the older maps and charts of the state.

IRONDEQUOIT. - Derived from a Mohawk term signifying an opening into or from a lake. - Colonial History N. Y., vol. IX, p. 261.

KAHCHEBONCOOK. - The Big Falls on the Hudson, known as Jessup's falls. - Sobele.

KAHCHOQUAHNA. - The place where they dip fish. An Indian term applied to the head of Lake Champlain, the site of the present village of Whitehall. - Gordon's Gazetteer N. Y., p. 758.

KANIADAROSSERAS. - Hence Kayaderosseras, the lake country. - Colonial Hist. N. Y., vol. VII, p. 436.

KASKONGSHADI. - Broken water, a swift rapid on the Opalescent river. - Lossing's Hudson, p. 33.

KAYADEROGA. - A name of Saratoga lake. - Butler's Lake George, etc.

KAYADEROSSERAS. - A name applied to a large patent or land grant, a stream and a range of mountains in Saratoga county, N. Y. In the Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, it is variously written Caniaderosseros, Caneaderosseras, Kanyaderossaros, Cayaderosseras. In a letter to the author from the late Judge Hay, he says "Geo G. Scott informs me that his father always stated that Kayaderosseras being interpreted meant the crooked stream, which describes it."

KENNYETTO. - The Indian name of the little Sacandaga or Vlaie creek, a tributary of the Sacandaga. - Simms's Trappers of New York.

KILLOQUAH. - Rayed like the sun. Racket lake. From the Mohawk. Vigil of Faith by G. F. Hoffman.

KINGIAQUAHTONEC. - A portage of a stone's throw or two in length between Wood creek and Fort Edward creek, near Moss street in Kingsbury. - Evans's Analysis, p. 19.

KITCHIGAMMINK. - Great lake. - Gallatin's Synopsi. See Gitch-Igomee.

MAHAKANEGHTUC. - The Mohegan name of the Hudson. - Dr. Mitchill, quoted in Munsell's Annals of Albany, vol. II, p. 233. The name is given by numerous authorities with many varieties of spelling.

MAIS TCHUSEAG. - Massachusetts? "The country on this side of the hills." - T. Pownal's Top. Descrip. N America, Lond., 1776.

MAMMACOTTA. - Dividing the waters, hence Mamacating in Sullivan county. - Gordon's Gazetteer N. Y., p. 719.

MASSACHUSETT. - A hill in the form of an arrow-head. - John Cotton as quoted in Drake's Book of the Indians.

MASTAQUA. - The largest or longest river. A name applied to the Racket river . - Sabattis.

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MATTEAWAN. - Derived from Metai, a magician or medicine man, and wian, a skin, the region of charmed furs or peltries. A term applied to the highlands of the Hudson. - Brodhead's N. Y., p. 75.

MESSACHIBIE. - Mississippi? The father of rivers. - T. Pownal's Top. Descrip, N. America.

METTOWEE. - Indian name of the Pawlet river, Wash. Co., N. Y. - Fitch' s Hist. Survey.

MICONACOOK. - A name of the Hudson river. - Sabele.

MINI-SOTAH. - Turbid waters, hence Minnesota. - Drake's Book of the Indians.

MISSISSIPPI. - The whole river. - Gallatin's Synopsis.

MOHAWK. - From Mauqua or Mukwa, a bear. - Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois, p. 73.

MOHEGAN. - Mahegan, an Indian term signifying a wolf. - Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. IX, p. 38.

MOOSPOTTENWACHO. - Thunder's nest. Indian name for Crane's mountain, in the western part of, and the highest peak in Warren county. - Sabele.

MUHHAAKUNNUK. - A great water or sea that is constantly in motion either ebbing or flowing. Hence the word Mohican, the name of the Stockbridge Indians. - Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches.

NACHASSICKQUAACK. - A point above the falls on the Hoosick river. - New York Cal. of Land Papers, p. 27.

NACHTENACK. - Waterford on the Hudson. - Ruttenber's Tribes, etc.,p. 399.

NIAGARA. - From Ohniagahra, a neck or strait. - Spafford's Gazetteer of N. Y., p. 219. Goldsmith in his Miscellaneous Works, vol. IV, p. 39, note, defines it as meaning thunder waters.

NISKAYUNA. - From Canestagione. The great corn country or place. - Ruttenber's Tribes of the Hudson's River, p. 398. See also vol. IV, p. 906, Col. Hist. N. Y., where it is spelled Canastagiowne and defined as the great maize land.

OHIO. The beautiful river. - Schoolcraft, the Indian in his Wigwam, p. 20. From Oyo the beautiful river. - Kip's Jesuit Missions. See also Col. Hist. N. Y., VIII, 117 and IX, 76, where Io is found to signify great or beautiful.

OIOGUE. - The Indian (Mohawk) name of the Hudson north of Albany. - Hist. of New Netherland, II, 300.

ONEADALOTE TECARNEODI. - The name of Lake Champlain on Morgan's map.

ONDAWA. - White creek, Washington county, N. Y.

ONDERIGUEGON. - The Indian name for the drowned lands on Wood creek near Fort Ann, Washington county, N. Y. It signifies conflux of waters. - From a Map of the Middle British Colonies by T. Pownal, .M. P., 1776.

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ONGWEHONWE. - A people surpassing all others. The name by which the Iroquois designated themselves.

ONIGARAWANTEL. - According to Schoolcraft the original name of Schenectady. According to Dr. Mitchill the rendering should be Ohnowalagantle. - Vide Annals of Albany, II, 233.

ONTARIO "or CATARAQUI. The beautiful lake." - T. Pownal's Top. Descrip. N. A., p. 31. See also Col. Hist., IX, 16, where it is translated beautiful lake, and IX, 76 where it is rendered Great lake. Hough makes it Onontario, which would change the meaning to Mountain lake.

ORONGUGHHARIE. - A great multitude collected together. The site of the city of Schenectady, originally a seat of the Mohawks. - Gordon's Gazetteer of New York.

OSSARAGAS. - Wood creek, emptying into the head of Lake Champlain. - Top. Descrip. of the Middle British Colonies, Map, T. Pownal, 1776.

OSWEGATCHIE, or OGHSWAGATCHIE with a dozen other different spellings. - "An Indian name," the historian James MacAuley, informed the author, "which signifies going or coming round a hill. The great bend in the Oswegatchie river (or the necessity of it), on the borders of Lewis county, originated its significant name. An Indian tribe bearing the name of the river, once lived upon its banks; but its fate, like that of many sister tribes, has been to melt away before the progression of the Anglo-Saxon."- Simms's Trappers of N. Y., p. 249, note. According to a writer in the Troy Times of July 7th, 1866, it is a Huron word signifying black water. Sabattis defined it as meaning slow and long.

OTSIKETA. - Lake St. Clair. - Pownal's Map of Middle British Provinces, 1776.

OUKORLAH. - Indian name of Mount Seward, signifying the big-eye. - C. F. Hoffman.

OUNOWARLAH. - Scalp mountain. Supposed to refer to that peak of the Adirondacks known as Whiteface mountain. - C. F. Hoffman in The Vigil of Faith.

OWERIHOWET. - Indian name applied to a creek, a branch of the Susquehanna. - Calendar N. Y. Land Papers, p. 501.

PAANPAACK. - The Indian name for the locality covered by the city of Troy. - O'Callaghan's New Netherland, I, 180.

PANGASKOLINK. - Glens Falls, N. Y. - Sabele.

PAPAQUANETUCK. - The river of Cranberries. One of the names of the Ausable river. - Sabattis.

PASKONGAMMUC. - Pleasant or beautiful lakes. A term applied to the three Saranac lakes. - Sabattis.

PATTOUGAMMUCK. - The middle Saranac lake. - Sabattis.

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PEELEEWEEMOWQUESEPO. - The Black river. The stream that separates the Mohawk from the St. Lawrence river. - Hough's Hist. St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties.

PEMPOTAWUTHUT. - The place of fire, or fire place of the nation. The present site of Albany, and once the chief seat of the Mohegan tribe. - Hoyt's Antiquarian Researches.

PETAONBOUGH. - "A double pond or lake branching out into two." An Indian name of Lake Champlain, which refers probably to its connection with Lake George. - R. W. Livingston, quoted in Watson's Hist. Essex Co., N. Y.

PETOWAHCO. - Lake Champlain. - Sabele.

PETAQUAPOEN. - Indian term applied to the site of Greenbush opposite Albany. - Ruttenber's Indian Tribes, p. 375.

PISECO. - An aboriginal name for a lake of considerable magnitude in Hamilton Co., N. Y. "The Indians speak it as though written Pe-sic-o; giving a hissing sound to the second syllable. It is derived from pisco a fish, and therefore signifies fish lake. - John Dunham. Piseco, says Spafford in his Gazetteer of New York, and which he spells Pezeeko, is so called after an old Indian hermit who dwelt upon its shores." - Simms's Trappers of New York, p. 163, note. Sabattis says that it was called after an Indian bearing that name.

PITTOWBAGONK. - Lake Champlain. The dividing waters between the east and west and north of the Hudson. - Sabattis.

POPQUASSIC. - Indian name of Lansingburgh. - Ruttenber's Indian Tribes, p.375.

QUEQUICKE. - The falls on the Hoosick river. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, p. 27.

QUONEHTIQUOT. - Long river. Corrupted to Connecticut. - Morse's Universal Geography.

RAQUETTE. - "The chief source of the Raquette is in the Raquette lake, towards the western part of Hamilton county. Around it, the Indians in the ancient days gathered on snow shoes in winter, to hunt the moose then found there in large droves, and from that circumstance they named it Raquet, the equivalent in French, for snow shoes in English. This is the account of the origin of its name given by the French Jesuits who first explored that region. Others say that its Indian name Ni-ha-na-wa-le, means a racket or noise, noisy river, and spell it Racket. But it is no more noisy than its near neighbor the Grass river which flows into the St. Lawrence from the bosom of the same wilderness." - Lossing's Hudson, p. 11.

ROTSIICHNI. - An Indian name of Lake Champlain signifying the coward spirit. An evil spirit, according to the legend, whose existence terminated on an island in Lake Champlain. The name was thence derived to the lake.

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SACANDAGA, Sagendage, Sackondaga, Sackondago, Sacondaga, Saeondago, Sachondage, Sachendaga (Vide Calendar of N. Y: Land Papers); "is an aboriginal word, which signifies," as the Indians assured Godfrey Shew, much water. Capt. Gill, an Indian hunter, said it meant sunken or drowned lands. - Simms's Trappers of New York, p. 42. In Spafford's Gazetteer of New York, p. 89, it is defined as a swamp, and asserted to be derived from the Oneida dialect.

SANAHAGOG. - The Indian name of Rensselaerswyck. - O'Callaghan's Hist. New Netherland, I, 122.

SANATATEA. - The Hudson river. - Schoolcraft's Notes on the Iroquois, p. 69.

SANDANONA. - A mountain near Lake Henderson in the Adirondacks. - The Vigil of Faith by C. F. Hoffman.

SARATOGA. - Vide General Index to documents relating to the history of the state of New York for seventeen different spellings of this word. See also Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, where it is found spelled Saragtoga, Saraghtoga, Saraghtogue, etc. Morgan renders it on his map in the League of the Iroquois Sharlatoga. Hough, in the Hist. of St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, has it Saratake, while Ruttenber, in his Indian tribes of the Hudson, on what authority is not stated, derives it from Saragh, salt, and Oga a place, though he adds that "the name was originally applied, to the site of Schuylerville, and meant swift water," an assertion which greatly impairs the value of the preceding statement. Gordon, in his Gazetteer of New York, p. 671, derives the word from Sah-ra-kah, meaning the great hill side, and states that it was applied to the country between the lake and the Hudson river. An anonymous writer in the Troy Times of July 7, 1866, defines it as a place where the track of the heel may be seen.

SCHAGHTICOKE. - In Spafford's Gazetteer, p. 293, this is derived from Scaughwank and defined as a sand slide, with the statement that the final syllable cook was added by the Dutch. O'Callaghan in his works, quotes about twenty-five different spellings of the word. Ruttenber derives it from Pisbgachticook a Mohican appelative meaning the confluence of two streams, and applied to the Indian village at the mouth of the Hoosick, and also to a settlement on the Housatonic. - Indian Tribes of the Hudson, p. 195. Gordon derives it from Scacoghwank and gives it the same signification as Spafford. - Gazetteer, p. 645.

SCHENECHTADY. - Various spellings. The aboriginal name of Albany, "which signifies the place the natives of the Iroquois arrived at by traveling through the pine trees." - Dr. Mitchill, quoted in Munsell's Annals of Albany, II, 333. Hough, ut supra, makes it Skanatati, Page 33 "on the other side of the pines." Stone, in his Life of Red Jacket, p. 5, writes it Scaghnacktada, beyond the pine plains. Spafford translates it, "over the pines." - Gazetteer, p. 100.

SCHENEGHTADE. - Beyond (or at the other side of) the door. - Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. 2, p. 594.

SCHODACK. - "A derivation from the Mohegan word ischoda," a meadow, or fire plain. This was anciently the seat of the council fire of the Mohegans upon the Hudson. They extended their villages along the eastern bank of the stream as high as Lansingburgh, and their hunting grounds occupied the entire counties of Columbia and Rensselaer. - Lossing's Hudson, p. 102.

SCHROON from Skaghnetaghrowahna, or "the largest lake." - Gordon's Gazetteer, p. 453. Written "Scaroon" on some of the earlier maps, and it has been alleged, on what seems a very, slender foundation, that the name was conferred in the latter part of the 17th century by a wandering party of Frenchmen in honor of Madame de Maintenon the wife of the poet Scarron.

SCOWAROCKA. - The Indian name of the northern termination of "Maxonhill," Greenfield, N. Y. - Simms's Trappers of New York.

SENHAHLONE. - The village of Plattsburgh. - Sabattis.

SENONGEWOK. - A, hill like an inverted kettle, familiarly known as "the Potash," on the east side of the Hudson river about four miles north of Luzerne village, Warren Co., N. Y. - Vigil of Faith by C. F. Hoffman.

SHANANDHOI. - Indian name of Clifton park. - Laws of New York, 1795.

SHATEMUCK. - The Mohegan name of the Hudson river. - Washington Irving. Believed to be derived from a word meaning pelican. The name was applied to the Hudson below Dutchess county. - H. R. Schoolcraft.

SHEEPSHAAK. - An Indian name of Lansingburgh. - Ruttenber's Indian Tribes, p. 375.

SHEGWIENDAWKWE. - A cascade on the Opalescent river, signifying "the hanging spear." - Lossing's Hudson, p. 32.

SHENONDEHOWA. - Ranging in a north line from Schenectady river, and adjoining the easternmost bounds of Nastigiuna Patent (Clifton Park, Sar. Co., N. Y.). - N. Y. Calendar of Land Papers, p. 82.

SINHALONEINNEPUS. - Large and beautiful lake. A term applied to the upper Saranac lake. - Sabattis.

SKANEHTADE, G. - The west branch of the Hudson river and the river generally. - Morgan's map in the League of the Iroquois.

SKANADARIO. - Lake Ontario. A very pretty lake. - Frontenac, a Poem by Alfred B. Street.

SKMOWAHCO. - Schroon river. - Sabele.

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SKNOONAPUS. - Schroon lake. - Sabele.

SQUINANTON. - Cumberland head on Lake Champlain. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, p. 474.

TAESCAMEASICK. - Indian name for the site of Lansingburgh. - Ruttenber's Indian Tribes, p. 375.

TAHAWAS. - Mount Marcy, Essex Co., N. Y. The highest peak in the state. "He splits the sky." - The Vigil of Faith by G. F. Hoffman.

TAKUNDEWIDE. - Indian name of Harris's bay on Lake George. So called on a map of the Middle British Provinces by T. Pownal, M. P., Lond., 1776.

TAWALSONTHA. - The Norman's kill, a little below Albany - O'Callaghan's New Netherland, vol. I, p. 78. Otherwise called Towasentha which is "an abbreviation of Toowasentha, the Mohawk word for falls." - Gallatin's Synopsis.

TAWASSAGUNSHEE. - The Lookout hill. An elevation within two miles of Albany, where the Dutch erected a trading post before Fort Orange was built. - Barber's Hist. Coll., p. 46.

TECKYADOUGH NIGARIGE. - The Indian name for the narrows between Ticonderoga and Crown Point, forming the entrance to the lake proper. - T. Pownal's Top. Descrip, of N. A., Lond., 1776. On a map in the same work it is defined as "two points opposite to each other," and applied to Fort St. Frederick, now Crown Point. It is quite probable that the much discussed word Ticonderoga is derived from this term.

TENONANATCHIE. - A river flowing through a mountain. A name applied to the Mohawk river by the western tribes. - H. R. Schoolcraft.

TEOHOKEN. - The pass where the Schroon finds its confluence with the Hudson river. - The Vigil of Faith by C. F. Hoffman. See also Col. Hist. N. Y., vol. VII, p. 10, where it is defined as the forks of a river.

TICONDEROGA. - There are about twenty renderings of the orthography of this word, and wide differences of meaning assigned to it. Those most worthy of acceptance are given herewith. Tienderoga. "The proper name of the fort between Lake George and Lake Champlain signifies the place where two rivers meet," - Colden's Account of N. Y., Col. Hist. N. Y., VII, 795. "Tiaontoroken, a fork or point between two lakes." - Hough's Hist. St. Lawrence and Franklin Counties, p. 181. Morgan, on his map, frequently referred to herein, spells it "Je hone ta lo ga," Teahtontaloga and Teondeloga are both defined as "two streams coming together." The sound and structure of the three words are similar. The definition given by Colden is doubtless correct.

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TIGHTILLIGAGHTIKOOK. - The south branch of the Batten kill. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, 303.

TIOSARONDA. - The meeting of the waters. The confluence of the Saeandaga with the Hudson. - The Vigil of Faith by C. F. Hoffman.

TOMHENACK. - A creek in the town of Cambridge, Washington county, N. Y. - Calendar of N. Y. Land Papers, p. 290.

TOOWARLOONDAH. - The Hill of Storms, Mt. Emmons. - The Vigil of Faith, C. F. Hoffman.

TUSCAMEATIC. - Indian name for Greenbush, opposite Albany, N. Y. - O'Callaghan's Hist. New Netherland, vol. I, p. 330.

WAHCOLOOSENCOOCHALEVA. - Fort Edward. - Sobele.

WAHOPARTENIE. - Whiteface mountain. - C. F. Hoffman.

WAHPOLE SINEGAHU. - The portage from the Upper Saranac lake to the Racket river. - Sabattis.

WAWKWAONK. - The head of Lake George, Caldwell. - Sabele.

WOMPACHOOKGLENOSUCK. - Whitehall, Wash. Co., N. Y. - Sabele.

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