Warren County, New York
Genealogy and History

History of Warren County, H. P. Smith
Chapter IX: Extinction of French Power in America

This transcription was produced through the use of Readiris Pro 11 OCR software. Contributed by Tim Varney.


Continuation of the Famine - Exigencies of the French - Montcalm's Prophecies - Pitt's Zeal and its Effect - The Proposed Campaign - Abercrombie's Recall and Amherst's Appointment - His Extensive Military Preparations - Assembling His Army - Montcalm Asks to be Recalled - Capture of Ticonderoga and Crown Point by Amherst - Fort Gage - Destruction of the Indian Village of St. Francis - Rogers's Wonderful Expedition - Amherst's Fleet and its Operations - Gen. Wolfe before Quebec - Fall of the City - Montcalm and Wolfe Killed - Strengthening of Crown Point and Ticonderoga - Campaign of 1760 - Extinction of French Power in the New World.

While Page 109 the events recorded in the preceding chapter would seem to indicate an early approaching triumph of the French cause in America, the reverse was the fact. Canada was suffering the actual horrors of famine and was almost depopulated of males who had reached maturity, to swell the ranks of the military. The ocean teemed with British ships, rendering it practically impossible for France to grant the appeal: "We want provisions; we want powder; and France should send ten thousand men to preserve the colony." For three years, against odds that would, in any other hands than those of the incompetent English commanders, have crushed him in a single campaign, the brave Montcalm had preserved the French possessions; but in the spring of 1759 he wrote the government minister: "If the war continues, Canada will belong to England, perhaps this campaign or the next." And then referring to the gross corruption, jealous wrangles and insolence of the French officials towards the Canadians, added in the same letter: "If there be peace the colony is lost unless the entire government is changed." Moreover, a feeling Page 110 of jealousy and ill-will had grown up between Montcalm and Vaudreuil and was fostered by the brilliant military exploits of the former; while the latter, from his position of authority, carried to the throne imputations against Montcalm of insubordination, neglect of instructions, lack of adaptation to the command in Canada, and a personal deportment that alienated the alliance of the Indians. This spirit was reflected upon and infused into the army, while the savages, although still professing fealty, failed to rally to the French cause as they had formerly done. A large body of warriors had been promised Montcalm at Ticonderoga, with the aid of which he felt that he could have successfully pursued and overwhelmed Abercrombie. The warriors did not appear until too late, when they were rebuked by Montcalm. (1) The chiefs complained to Vaudreuil and he promptly carried their complaints to Versailles.

1. When the chiefs proposed to take the war path toward Fort Edward, Montcalm told them to "go to the d_1."

While this untoward state of affairs with the French was growing worse, the zeal of Pitt was stirring the sluggish British to action. The proposed campaign involved, besides the conquest of Ticonderoga, the capture of Fort Niagara and the siege of Quebec. On the 27th of July General Prideaux, who was joined by Johnson at Oswego, appeared before Niagara, but the siege had scarcely begun when he was slain. Johnson then assumed command and the siege continued. On the 24th a large body of French and Indians attempted to raise the siege. A sharp conflict ensued and the effort was defeated. The garrison surrendered the next day.

With the fall of Louisburg, as already recorded, General Amherst embarked four or five regiments and hurried to Boston, whence he marched across the country for Lake George, reaching there in October (1758). Abercrombie had already been recalled (September) and Amherst given the command of all the forces in North America, which he assumed in November. (2)

2. Abercrombie returned to England; evaded censure; was gladdened by promotion, and lived to vote as a member of Parliament for the taxation of a country, which his imbecility might have lost, and which was always the object of his malignant aspersions. - Bancroft.

Amherst (3) began at once his preparations for an active campaign. He proved to be the right man for the emergency; and the colonies had need of all their confidence in him and his proposed measures, for he called for more than seventeen hundred recruits, a number that appalled them, coming as an addition to their already heavy sacrifices. But inspired by the enthusiasm of Pitt and relying on the genius of Amherst, the colonies yielded up their men and means.

3. Amherst, without any claim to brilliancy or genius, was calculated to command success by the excellence of his judgment, his prudent circumspection, and persevering firmness. His character and policy had secured to him the respect and confidence of the colonies. His measures were not stimulated by the arrogance of Braddock, nor trammeled by the feebleness and indecision of Abercrombie, nor dishonored by the pusillanimity of Webb. - Watson.

Rogers, with an augmented force of rangers, under Stark and other Indian Page 111 veteran fighters, was constantly on the move, harassing the enemy's outposts, capturing prisoners, sometimes singly and often in considerable numbers, but always enduring the severest hardships and occasionally suffering defeat. The shores of Lake George and the upper end of Lake Champlain constituted the field of operations, and there was hardly a mile contiguous to the banks of either from Fort George to Crown Point that was not the scene of some thrilling incident connected with the war.

"General Gage, who was a prominent officer in Amherst's campaign, being assigned to leading and important duties, with a strong detachment was sent forward in advance of the main army, and taking position at the head of the lake, proceeded to the erection of some temporary defenses on a commanding eminence, spoken of as Element Hill in one of the soldier's journals, to the west of the old Fort William Henry, to which was given the name of Fort Gage. (1) in honor of its builder. Gage was soon after joined by Stark with three companies of rangers. Rogers, with the other three companies, remained at Fort Edward, engaged in frequent scouts and reconnaissances, under the immediate supervision of Amherst in person"

1. Holden in his History of Queensbury, from which the above extract is taken, says, in a foot-note, concerning this fort that he "has sought diligently for some account or description of this fortification, whose name and site, tradition has preserved for more than a century, but none has been found. It is on the authority of the late Hon. William Hay, of Saratoga Springs, that the period above named is given as the date of its construction. It was probably little more than a redoubt, and intended as a flank support to the main fortifications now known as the ruins of Fort George."

Continuing our extract from Dr. Holden: "The main body of the army was put in motion in the early part of June, and after three days' march General Amherst encamped with his entire force at Fort Edward. Here the troops were again placed under a rigid system of discipline, exercise, and drill to prepare them for their corning duties. The raw and inexperienced provincials who composed the greater portion of the army, unused to the irksome and rigid requirements of stern military rules, soon manifested a disposition to return to the homes from which they had been so unceremoniously torn. Wearied and heartsick of the monotonous camp duties assigned them, with a certain prospect of a dangerous march and a sanguinary battle-field before them, the spirit of insubordination (2) and desertion spread to an alarming extent; the provincials by twos, threes and even whole platoons stealing off to the woods, despite the most exacting vigilance, and animated appeals to their patriotism and courage. At length Amherst found it necessary to resort to the terrible death penalty to stay the progress of the alarming defection in his fast dwindling Page 112 army. Four deserters, Dunwood, Ward, Rogers and Harris by name, were apprehended, and after a trial by court martial, were shot in the sight of the whole army, which was drawn out in battle array to witness the execution. This stringent measure had the desired effect in stopping the progress of desertion." (1)

2. Thomas Burk, waggoner, tryed by a court martiall of the line for abusing and offering to strick his officer at Half-way brook, is found guilty of the crime laid to his charge, and sentenced to receive four hundred lashes. The general approves of the above sentence, and orders that the said Thomas Burk is marched to-morrow morning at 5 a 'clock by the provost guard, regiment to regiment and that he receives 30 lashes at each of the four regular regiments, beginning at Forbse's and so on to the right. That he also receives 30 lashes each at the head of 8 provincial regiments, and 40 at the head of Schuyler's. - Wilson's Orderly Book.

1. Of the severity of the discipline followed in this campaign, the following is an illustration.

"Ticonderoga, 3d August, 1759.
"George Edwards a deserter from the 17th regiment is to suffer death. The Piequits of the line to assemble immediately in front of Montgomerys. The commanding officer of Forbes will order that regiment to erect a gallows immediately on the battery in front of Montgomerys, where the prisoner, George Edwards is to be hanged in his French coat, with a libble on his breast, Hanged for deserting to the French. He is to be hanging all day and at the retreat beating he is to be buried very deep under the gallows, and his French coat with him. This to be put in execution instantly, and if the provost martiall does not find a hangman, the commanding officer of the Piequit will order that provost martiall does it himself. - Watson's Orderly Book, p. 113.

"Towards the close of June, the army, amounting to six thousand men, preceded by Rogers's rangers, advanced in two columns to the head of Lake George, where they erected their camp, very nearly on the ground occupied by Abecrombie the year before. On the following day Amherst traced a plan for a fortification near the camp ground, which was soon afterwards constructed, and whose ruins are now crumbling in massive piles upon the shrub-grown eminence to the east of the village of Caldwell. While the army remained posted at this position, several days elapsed in bringing up, from the various posts below, the artillery, heavy stores, boats and baggage, necessary for prosecuting the siege of Forts Carillon and St. Frederic.

"During this time the corvette, Halifax, which had been sunk at the head of the lake after Abecrombie's retreat the preceding year, was raised and refitted, together with several bateaux, and a large floating battery, in which labor Captain Loring of the English navy, lent his most efficient aid, In the mean time several skirmishes both by land and water occurred between the scouting parties of the opposing forces, in the majority of which the French were triumphant."

During the ensuing month Amherst's army was swelled to more than eleven thousand effective men, and on the 21st of July, 1759, the bosom of Lake George was again the scene of a gorgeous array of boats bearing this army towards their enemies. A landing was made on the eastern shore, nearly opposite Howe's Cove, whence he was prepared for his successful march against Ticonderoga.

The unhappy condition of the French had already impelled Montcalm to ask repeatedly for his own recall, a request that was as often endorsed by Vaudreuil; but the home government appreciated the genius of the general at its true value and sent him the following dispatch: "You must not expect to receive any military reinforcements; we will convey all the provisions and ammunition possible; the rest depends on your wisdom and courage and the Page 113 bravery of your troops." Our sympathy must go out to the gallant officer who was constrained to turn his thoughts from his family and his wasting estate and give up his life for a falling fabric. He wrote a friend in France: "There are situations where nothing remains for a general but to die with honor."

Amherst arranged his forces in four columns, the center ones consisting entirely of regulars, and led by himself, while the two flanking columns, composed mainly of provincial troops, were commanded by General Gage. His whole force numbered eleven thousand eight hundred and thirty-three men, with a section of the royal artillery and fifty-four guns of various caliber.

On the 21st of July the army landed and bivouacked at the same point where Abercrombie had camped the year before. The next day they reached the foot of the lake and disembarked. Rogers with his rangers pushed forward across the mountain ridge, and took possession of the bridge and sawmills at the lower falls. On what is now known as Mount Hope they were met by a squad of French and Indians and a skirmish followed. The latter were readily dispersed and retreated hastily to the fort. That night Amherst with his whole force occupied the heights around the fort, resting upon their arms.

The next morning the rangers were pushed forward to a point on the shore of the lake partly flanking the enemy's batteries, while a force attacked the works in front, carrying the first entrenchment and forcing the enemy inside the fort. While these preliminary operations were going on the provincials were engaged in hauling the artillery and ammunition over the "carrying-place" from Lake George. As soon as the artillery was in position and his lines formed Amherst moved forward to make the final assault. To his surprise he found the entrenchments almost unoccupied. The circumstances surrounding the abandonment of the post by the French, as narrated in Holden's History of Queensbury, were as follows: -

"The defense of the frontier of Lake St. Sacrament and fortress of Carillon was entrusted at this time to M. de Boulemarque, an officer of distinguished ability, who for two campaigns had served with great success in this vicinity. The garrison consisted of one battalion of the regiment of La Reine, two battalions of the regiments of Berry, one hundred and fifty soldiers detached from the other five battalions, an equal number of soldiers of the marine, and eight hundred provincial militia, making an aggregate of two thousand three hundred men. His instructions, based upon dispatches recently received from the court of France, were not to hazard an engagement but to fall back before the advance of the English army, and take position upon an island in the river St. John which was judged to be the post best adapted to protect the frontier. The main body of the French and Canadian forces were at this time drawn away by Montcalm to the north for the defense of the almost impregnable stronghold of Quebec, which was being threatened by the veteran brigades under the command of the daring Wolfe.

Page 114

"M. de Boulemarque, finding the English army too well prepared for an attack, and he being too circumspect to trust the event of a siege, prudently resolved to act in conformity with his instructions and abandon the fortress to its inevitable fate. Accordingly preparations were made for a retreat, and during the night of the 23d the main division of the army filed noiselessly out and retired to their boats. The final defense of the post was committed to the care of Captain d'Hebecourt and four hundred men. During the retreat of the main body the attention of the British army was diverted by the assault of this small force upon the entrenchments. This threw the English lines into such confusion that they fired upon each other, thus enabling the assaulting party to retire in safety to their defenses. In this affray the English lost sixteen men. During the next three days the fire from the French batteries was maintained with great activity and effect holding the English well in check. Among the killed in these discharges was Colonel Townsend, assistant adjutant-general, an officer of great ability and universally beloved throughout the army.

"During this period the English engineers were busily engaged in planting siege batteries, while a portion of the army was employed in preparing fascines. At the same time a portion of the rangers was dispatched on a scout to Crown Point. To Major Rogers was entrusted the important duty of cutting away a large boom which the French had built across the narrow part of the lake, opposite the fort, to obstruct the navigation.

"On the evening of the 26th some deserters brought to the English camp intelligence that the French had abandoned the fort, and that, in expectation of an assault from the besieging army, a slow match had been left burning which connected with the magazine and battery, every gun of which was loaded to the muzzle with grape, canister and chain shot. In addition to this, several mines charged with the most destructive missiles were sprung beneath the fortifications. This timely notice saved the English forces. At ten o'clock at night, in the sight of the whole British army, which was drawn out in anticipation of the spectacle, the most terrific explosion took place. Running along the cleft chasms in the rocky ground the yellow fire rushed, greedily lapping with the forked tongues of its lambent flame the gaping crevices in the massive masonry, that trembled, reeled and fell, while the solid earth for many rods shook as with the throes of an earthquake. One after another the guns of the fortress flashed out from the sulphurous glow that invested the ruined pile, and their sharp reports were slowly answered by long, dull echoes from the deep caverns beneath. Bombs, grenades and rockets, booming and whirring through the heavy night air, exploded in every direction, trailing earthward long and glittering lines of various colored light. Soon, through the dim haze of smoke and vapor the glaring red light of the barracks and woodwork of the fortress burst forth, revealing through the veil of surrounding gloom, the ruined wrecks Page 115 hurled in unsightly piles along the line of fortification, while here and there a long gaping fissure in the smoking earth exhibited the direction of the mines, and the tremendous agencies which had toppled down the massive ramparts and towering bastions from their rocky bases." (1)

1. Holden's History of Queensbury.

General Amherst, mistaking the then inevitable current of events and consequently magnifying the importance of Ticonderoga and Crown Point after their capture, began the work of erecting a new fortress near the site of St. Frederic but of vastly greater strength and magnitude. The conquest of Canada left the fortification useless and unfinished after an expenditure of more than ten million dollars. He also began the vigorous construction of a naval flotilla for Lake Champlain which should permanently secure its conquest. While this work was progressing two measures of considerable importance were ordered by Amherst. The first was the construction of a military road from Crown Point to Charlestown on the Connecticut River. This was an improvement of great value at that time and opened up a large territory to settlement earlier than would have been the case without it. It is said that the remains of this work may still be traced. The other measure contemplated the destruction of the Indian village of St. Francis on the river of that name about midway between Montreal and Quebec. Rogers was selected for the undertaking and given command of one hundred and forty-two men. He descended the lake with caution and on the tenth day concealed his boats at the foot of Missisqui Bay, leaving two Indians to watch them. Two days later he was overtaken by the Indians with the information that he was followed by the French, who had captured his boats and were in ambush awaiting his return. In this emergency he conceived the bold and hazardous design of prosecuting his original purpose, after which he would march through the wilderness to the "Cohase Intervales," a point sixty miles north of Charlestown on the Connecticut River, and the northernmost English post on that stream. He immediately dispatched eight of his men under Lieutenant McMullin through the wilderness to Crown Point with a request to Amherst to send the necessary supplies to meet him at the designated point on the Connecticut. On the evening of the twenty-second day of their march the little band reached the vicinity of the Indian village, which was carefully reconnoitered. At dawn the next morning they fell upon the unsuspecting savages, of whom few escaped; about two hundred were killed. Daylight revealed to the victors the sight of more than six hundred English scalps of both sexes and all ages floating from the lodge poles of the Indians. If this massacre of the village seems a cold and blood-thirsty deed, the finding of these dread trophies of savage atrocities against helpless Europeans must modify our deprecation of it. Rogers loaded his men with what plunder they could carry and started fur the Connecticut. He was pursued by a body of Indians who hung upon his rear, repeatedly attacking Page 116 him. He was finally forced to divide his party in order to more readily procure subsistence, which policy left him still more exposed to the assaults of the Indians, who killed many and captured a number of prisoners. Rogers and the remainder of his men reached the appointed place on the Connecticut after much hardship, only to find it deserted by the men who had been sent by Amherst with supplies. Rogers then took with him one ranger and an Indian youth and started to descend the river on a raft; the journey was at last accomplished after the most perplexing trials and inflexible determination, and supplies were forwarded to the waiting rangers. Rogers returned to Crown Point on the 1st of December, and when the scattered parties were reassembled he reported a loss of three officers and forty-six privates.

Meanwhile the construction of Amherst's navy was progressing under direction of Captain Loring, arid by the 11th of October there were finished a sloop carrying sixteen guns, a brigantine and radeau mounting six cannon of large caliber. Under escort of these vessels, Amherst embarked his army on bateaux and sailed down the lake on his long deferred expedition towards Quebec. On the following day twelve of his boats were foundered in a gale and the remainder of the fleet sought shelter in lee of the western shores. (1) Loring took the brigantine and sloop, continued on down the lake and forced the French to destroy two of their vessels in a bay on the northeast of Valcour Island; a third was sunk, and one schooner only was saved by seeking shelter under the guns of Isle aux Noix. It is believed that Amherst's extreme caution more than the exigencies of the situation, caused him to return to Crown Point after an absence of ten days, instead of pressing on to the relief of Wolfe.

1. Mr. Watson in his History of Essex County concludes that Amherst probably advanced under his adverse circumstances to the vicinity of Valcour Island and there on the mainland formed an encampment. In support of this conclusion he quotes as follows from the writings of Alvin Colvin, esq.: "I adopt this conclusion from the language of an English writer of the period, and from the popular traditions of the region. Those are still living who recollect an opening on the pine bluffs, south of the Ausable River and directly upon the boundary line between Clinton and Essex counties, which, in the early part of the century, was known as Amherst's encampment. It exhibited vestiges of extensive field-works, the habitual caution of Amherst would have led him to erect, and also the remains of tar manufactories, formed in the primitive manner of the pioneers. It is a singular coincidence that the tar and pitch used in the equipment of Macdonough's fleet more than fifty years afterwards, were made on the same ground by a similar process."

This brave but fated officer found himself before Quebec in June, with eight thousand men in transports under convoy of twenty-two line-of-battle ships. He landed his men on the Isle of Orleans, three miles below the town, and on the 30th seized Point Levi, opposite the city, on which he erected batteries. Several unsuccessful efforts were made to cut out and destroy the French shipping, and two months passed during which little progress had been made towards the capture of the city. Neither had any intelligence been received from Amherst other than report by the enemy that he had retreated. General Wolfe was prostrated by sickness and the future looked gloomy, but Page 117 a council of officers called at his bedside decided to scale the heights of Abraham from the St. Lawrence and assault the town. Feeble as Wolfe was, he resolved to lead the attack. The camp below the Montmorency was broken up on the 8th of September and Montcalm's attention was diverted from the real movement by seeming preparations to attack his lines. On the 12th the vessels bearing the army moved up the stream above the intended landing place. At midnight the troops left the ships and proceeded in flat boats and with muffled oars to the landing, where a ravine led up to the plains. In early morning the entire English force had reached the destination and were ready to attack the works.

Meanwhile Montcalm saw the coming doom and on the 24th of August wrote with realistic forecast: "The capture of Quebec must be the work of a coup de main. The English are masters of the river. They have but to effect a descent on the bank on which this city, without fortification and without defense, is situated, and they are at once in condition to offer me battle which I cannot refuse and which I ought not to be permitted to gain. In fine, Mr. Wolfe, if he understands his business, has but to receive my first fire, to rush rapidly upon my army, to discharge his volley at close quarters, and my Canadians, without discipline, deaf to the call of the drum and trumpet, and thrown into disorder by this assault, will be unable to recover their ranks. They have no bayonets to meet those of their enemy; nothing remains for them but flight, and I am routed irretrievably."

"Mr. Wolfe" understood his business. This plan of assault, so clearly practicable to the experienced eye of the French general, was substantially carried out, and after a sanguinary battle (the details of which are beyond the province of this work) the victory was won, with a thousand prisoners and five hundred French killed, among whom was the brave Montcalm. The English loss was six hundred killed and wounded, among the former being the gallant Wolfe, who received three wounds early in the attack, the third one being mortal. General Townsend now prepared to besiege the city itself. "Threatened famine within aided him," and five days after the death of Wolfe (September 18, 1759), Quebec with its fortifications, shipping, stores and people was surrendered to the English. General Murray, with five thousand troops, took possession, and the fleet with the sick and prisoners sailed for Halifax.

For the fall of Quebec Montcalm was largely held responsible and was even charged with deliberately sacrificing it to gratify his jealousy of Vaudreuil; but a calm view of the situation in the brilliant light of his previous heroic services will hardly substantiate such charges. Vaudreuil returned to France after the capitulation, and he also became an object of persecution and unjust censure.

A period of quiet followed these events, during which Amherst devoted Page 118 his energies to the extension of the works at Ticonderoga, the erection of the great fortress at Crown Point, and began the building of Fort George. (1)

1. Concerning the erection of this fort Dr. Holden, in his History of Queensbury, says: "The plan of Fort George was marked out by Colonel James Montressor, chief engineer on General Amherst's staff, on the 22d of June, 1759. It was laid out on an elevation situated about six hundred yards south from the head of the lake, and about the same distance easterly from the site of old Fort William Henry. It was known in colloquial parlance as 'Montressor's Folly.' The only portion of the fort ever completed was the southwest bastion. A temporary stockaded post was built within its protection; also officers' barracks, soldiers' barracks, guard-room, kitchen and store-houses. A saw-mill in the swamp, southwest from the fort, furnished a great portion of the material for these buildings. An irregular wall to the northeast, whose ruins are still partly visible, enclosed a space devoted to gardening purposes. In 1776 there were erected for hospital use two buildings, one on the flat below the fort, and the other, of considerable dimensions, near the former site of Fort William Henry, which were used for the accommodation of General Schuyler's army, then lying at Fort Edward. To these were probably added others, for in the army correspondence of those days we learn that over three thousand troops were invalided here with the small. pox. . . . At the time it was taken possession of by Burgoyne's advance there were fourteen pieces of artillery here, only two of which were mounted."

A comparative brief campaign in 1760 completed the conquest of the French in the New World. De Levis made a heroic effort to recapture Quebec in the battle of Sillery, in which Murray suffered a disastrous defeat; but it carne too late to permanently re-establish the fortunes of France. Amherst's plans for the year 1760 embraced his own advance upon Montreal by way of Oswego and the St. Lawrence, for which purpose he reserved for himself by far the strongest column of the army, numbering about ten thousand men. With this invincible force he moved with his accustomed deliberation and caution and appeared before Montreal on the 6th of September. Haviland was left in command of the fortresses on Lake Champlain, from which locality several successful incursions were made against Canadian settlements under command of Rogers, while awaiting the deliberate movements of Amherst. On the 16th of August the last military pageant of this war left Crown Point and sailed down the lake. It comprised about three thousand regulars and provincials under Haviland, who were embarked in bateaux under convoy of four war vessels, with an equal number of radeaux bearing heavy armaments. Bougainville occupied the Isle aux Noix, which he had strengthened by anchoring a fleet of small vessels on his flank. He had sixteen hundred men. Haviland reached the main land opposite the island without opposition, where he erected batteries. The vessels of the French were dispersed or captured and on the night of the 20th they abandoned the position. The fortifications at St. Johns and Chambly were evacuated at the same time, the garrisons falling back towards Montreal. Meanwhile Murray had ascended the river from Quebec and joined Amherst before Montreal, where Haviland formed a junction on the 7th of September. Here was gathered all that remained of the chivalry of France in the New World, with their allies, to oppose the last attack, the success of which would drive them from the country forever. However honorable to the French arms, the struggle was hopelessly unequal and Page 119 on the 8th of September Vaudreuil capitulated and New France, with all of its dependencies, fell into the hands of the British. Amherst made terms of generous magnanimity and the details were soon agreed upon, while England sent up a national shout of exultation. Although hostilities between the two nations ceased, a formal peace was not established until 1763, when, on the 10th of February, the treaty of Paris was signed, by which France ceded to Great Britain all her possessions in Canada.

On the 30th of July, 1760, Governor De Lancey, of New York, suddenly died and the government passed into the hands of Cadwallader Colden, who was commissioned lieutenant-governor in August, 1761. In October of that year General Robert Monkton was appointed governor of New York.

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