History of Warren County, H. P. Smith
Chapter XVIII: Warren County in the Rebellion
This transcription was produced through the use of Readiris Pro 11 OCR software. Contributed by Tim Varney.
Patriotic Action of the County - The First Recruiting Officers - Two Companies Raised - The Twenty-second Regiment - Company Officers - Rosters - The Ninety-sixth Regiment - Company I - Company K, One Hundred Fifty-third Regiment - The Ninety-third Regiment - Warren County Enlistments - The One Hundred Eighteenth Regiment - Second Veteran Cavalry - Statistics.
Page 223The news of the outburst of "the great Rebellion," in April, 1861, was borne through the rugged wilds and hills of Warren county with a celerity like that of the "fiery cross," which in past generations gathered the clans of Scotland to the call of their chieftains.
In less than three days after the fall of Sumter, applications were addressed to the adjutant-general's office, in Albany, for authority to procure enlistments.
On the morning of Thursday, the 18th of April, handbills were posted Page 224 throughout the village of Glens Falls, containing a call, signed by over forty of the leading citizens of the place, for "a meeting to sustain the government." At this meeting, which was held the same evening, and which was largely attended, several spirited addresses were made. The national flag was brought in and displayed amidst the wildest enthusiasm, and a series of patriotic resolutions adopted, from which the following extract is taken as a sample of their purport and spirit: -
"Resolved, That the village of Glens Falls will not be behind any of her sister villages in contributing the men and the means necessary to defend the government, and to maintain the permanency of our beloved institutions; and that, as our fathers who established the Union pledged 'their lives, their fortunes, and their sacred honors,' to gain our independence, so will we pledge all we possess to cherish and protect the work of the illustrious men of the past, and to transmit unimpaired to our descendants the noble institutions given to us.
"Resolved, That to the end we are for maintaining this Union undivided, and, whatever may be the consequences, sacrifice of property or life itself everything but loss of honor - we will stand by the stars and stripes until the last faint echo in the expiring gale wafts our dying prayer heavenward, in behalf of our country, its institutions, and humanity."
On the succeeding Saturday the first recruiting office was opened by Dr. A. W. Holden, and during the following week Captain George Clendon, jr., was similarly authorized to raise another company, both of which were designed to apply on the quota of New York to fill the first call for troops.
At this early period in the war, no other town in the county had as yet undertaken to raise a company. The hardy and adventurous youth and patriotic manhood of its northern towns were not, however, to be repressed. Day by day they poured in at the recruiting stations, and, in many instances, impatient of the tardy process of enlistment, pushed on to the cities and enlisted in companies and regiments already formed, and ready for departure to the scene of hostilities.
The two companies above mentioned were soon filled, and were accepted into the State service on the 6th and 7th of May following, and on the 9th were ordered into quarters - one into the barracks at Troy, the other at the Albany depot. The latter was at a later period sent to Troy, and the two afterwards joined together in the formation of the New York Twenty-second Volunteers, of which regiment a sketch is given in this chapter. Companies G and I of the same command also received considerable accessions from Warren county.
Contemporaneously with the organization of these companies a relief fund was raised by voluntary subscriptions, in the town of Queensbury alone, amounting to $11,243, for the aid and support of the families of such members of these companies as were needy or destitute. Another fund, the Page 225 amount of which is unknown, was applied to defray the expenses of subsistence during the progress of enlistment.
For the disbursement of the first named fund a committee was appointed, and assessments made from time to time, as occasion required. The total amount of collections from this source up to June, 1863, when these companies were finally mustered out of service, was $3,260.47, which was apportioned among twenty-nine different families.
The preceding paragraphs are the language used by Dr. Holden in introducing his sketch of the military work of the town of Queensbury, in his history of that town, and serves to properly introduce the following accounts of the various organizations to which companies from this county were contributed: -
The Twenty-second Regiment. (1) - This regiment was enlisted and mustered in 1861, under the call of the president for 75,000 men for two years' service, issued on the 15th of April. This proclamation was followed by an act of the Legislature, passed April 17th, authorizing the creation of a volunteer force sufficient to fill its quota. Thirty-eight regiments were raised under this act.
1. This sketch of the Twenty-second Regiment was largely made up from newspaper correspondence from the pen of Dr. A. W. Holden.
It was only cities and densely populated towns which were able to supply complete regiments to the service. In thinly settled regions and agricultural districts three, and sometimes more, counties combined to make up a battalion. More frequently still, the military board, to meet the exigencies of government, consolidated companies and formed regiments irrespective of personal interests and local prejudices.
At an early period in the formation of the companies composing the Twenty-second Regiment conferences were held, at which it was resolved to organize a regiment representing the old congressional district of Essex, Warren and Washington counties. Applications to the executive and also to the military board, with the same intent, received a favoring response. A formal petition, signed by nearly if not quite all the line officers subsequently embraced in this command, desiring to be associated together as a regiment, being forwarded to the military board, was ordered to be held at Stanwix Hall, Albany, on the evening of the 14th of May, 1861. This meeting was presided over by Brigadier-General Rathbone, and resulted in the election (nearly unanimous) of the following field officers, viz.: -
Colonel, Walter Phelps, jr., of Glens Falls, Warren county; Lieutenant-colonel, Gorton T. Thomas, of Keeseville, Essex county; major, John M'Kie, of Cambridge, Washington county. It will be perceived that each section of the district was thus represented in the election.
These officers had all been military men connected with the old State militia organization, which, poor as it was (for there were none so abject as to Page 226 do it reverence), supplied a large proportion of the officers, and a goodly number of the men, who filled this first installment of the mighty armies of the North. By special favor from the military board the regiment was permitted to go into barracks at the fair grounds of the Rensselaer County Agricultural Society, near the city of Troy, although Albany had been officially designated as the military depot for that section of the State. Here commenced the first experiences of that rigid discipline so necessary to the formation of the thorough soldier. Here was first tasted that bitter cup to the volunteer soldier, the restriction of personal liberty by sentries and guard lines. Although accepted and mustered into the State service, some of the companies, through dissatisfaction with their officers and various other causes, became rapidly reduced by desertion. Prompt steps were taken to supply the unwelcome deficit at this critical moment, for it was still obligatory to come up to the prescribed standard of "seventy-five men," neither more nor less, before the companies could be mustered into the United States service. Recruiting officers from nearly every company were dispatched home for fresh volunteers, and the regiment was thus increased by over a hundred. About this time it became necessary to disband the Whitehall company, through an embittered state of feeling which had grown up between the men and its officers, and also, as was alleged, from the failure of the home committee to support the families of the enlisted men agreeably to the understanding had when they enlisted. There may have been still other causes, but these were the leading ones. Most of the men re-enlisted, some in one company, some in another. The commissioned officers being left without a command, of course resigned. Upon the feeble debris of the company left a new one was soon afterward organized, nearly all the companies in the barracks contributing their surplus men for the purpose, the new captain, Benjamin Mosher, soon after increasing the number by a fresh importation of recruits from Whitehall and vicinity.
About the 20th of May the staff appointments were made and announced, and for the first a complete roster was made.
Following is a roster of the officers of the Twenty-second Regiment on the 1st of June, 1861. The commissions are all dated May and June, 1861.
Field and Staff- Colonel, Walter Phelps, jr., Glens Falls.
Lieutenant-colonel, Gorton T. Thomas, Keeseville.
Major, John M'Kie, Cambridge.
Adjutant, Edward Pruyn.
Quartermaster, Henry Woodruff, Troy.
Surgeon, J. B. Atherly, Albany.
Assistant surgeon, W. F. Hutchinson, Sandy Hill.
Chaplain, Rev. H. H. Bates, Glens Falls.
Paymaster, Benjamin C. Butler, Luzerne.
Non-Commissioned Staff. - Sergcant-Major. John F. Towne, Sandy Hill.
Page 227 Quartermaster-sergeant, Jeremiah W. Fairbanks, Cohoes.
Commissary-sergeant, Charles Bellamy, Glens Falls.
Hospital steward, David H. King, Fort Edward.
Drum-major, John Scott, Hebron.
Fife-major, John Wright, Glens Falls.
Color-sergeant, James Johnson, Glens Falls.
Right general-guide, Malachi Weidman, Waterford.
Left general-guide, John J. Barker, Glens Falls.
Line Officers. - Company A. - Captain, J. L Yates, Cohoes; first lieutenant, Jas. H. Bratt, Waterford; second lieutenant, Hiram Clute, Cohoes.
Company B. - Captain, Robert McCoy, Fort Edward; first lieutenant, Duncan Lendrum, Fort Edward; second lieutenant, James W. McCoy, Fort Edward.
Company C. - Captain, O. D. Peabody, Keeseville; first lieutenant, C. D. Beaumont, Keeseville; second lieutenant. C. B. Piersons, Albany.
Company D. - Captain, H. S. Milliman, Cambridge; first lieutenant, T. B. Fisk, Cambridge; second lieutenant, R. A. Rice, Cambridge.
Company E. - Captain, Geo. Clendon, jr., Glens Falls; first lieutenant, John S. Fassett, Glens Falls; second lieutenant, G. H. Gayger, Glens Falls.
Company F. - Captain, A. W. Holden, Glens Falls; first lieutenant, Wm. H. Arlin, Glens Falls; second lieutenant, O. B. Smith, Glens Falls.
Company G. - Captain, Benj. J. Mosher, Whitehall; first lieutenant, Duncan Cameron, Glens Falls; second lieutenant, Henry C. Hay, Glens Falls.
Company H. - Captain, T. J. Strong, Sandy Hill; first lieutenant, W. A. Pierson, Sandy Hill; second lieutenant, M. S. Teller, Sandy Hill.
Company I. - Captain, Lyman Ormsbee, Schroon; first lieutenant, J. R. Seaman, Schroon; second lieutenant, D. Burgey, Schroon.
Company K. - Captain, Miles P. S. Caldwell, Port Henry; first lieutenant, E. F. Edgerly, Moriah; second lieutenant, C. W. Huntly, Bridgeport, Vt.
On the 6th of June the band of the regiment was mustered into the service by Captain Frank Wheaton, of the regular army, much to the pleasure and satisfaction of the entire organization. It was under the leadership of Asa Patten.
While encamped at Troy the time was busily improved by the regiment in the daily drill which is necessary to efficiency in any military organization. On Monday, June 20, the regiment was ordered to Albany, where it occupied quarters at the Industrial barracks, quarters which were vastly inferior to those left. On the following day the men received their first pay as soldiers, covering the time passed in the service of the State. While in Albany the regiment received its first equipment of arms, the guns being the old pattern of smoothbore Springfield musket; this arm gave considerable dissatisfaction, and at a subsequent date, through the exertions of Colonel Phelps and Quartermaster Schenck, the Springfield rifle was substituted.Page 228
June 27th the regiment received marching orders, and on the following day, under escort of Captain Ainsworth's Albany Zouaves, marched through the principal streets to the steamer. The band played national airs and the troops were cheered and greeted by waving banners and handkerchiefs from many windows. Embarking in two barges and a steamer, the trip down the Hudson was made and the next day the Dey street dock was reached in New York city. The same evening the regiment was transferred to a steamer and taken to Elizabethport, N. J., where for the first time hard tack and raw meat were issued to the men. It was an unwelcome and radical change from the sumptuous Albany rations and gave a foretaste of what was to come. About midnight the regiment embarked on freight cars and the journey to Baltimore was safely made, with but one untoward incident: Joseph Pero and Frederick Minne, of Company C, were knocked from the car by coming in contact with a footbridge. They were severely injured, but finally recovered. Pero was killed in the Second Bull Run battle.
As the regiment approached Baltimore the men were deeply imbued with the expectation of an attack by the mobs that had but a few weeks previously so ruthlessly attacked the Massachusetts troops. The regiment left the cars about 8 o'clock P. M., and was drawn up in line. The following description of the passage through the city was written by Dr. Holden in 1862: "The men who had been previously furnished with six rounds of cartridges were now ordered to load. Although the dun clouds which shrouded the sun's golden setting had veiled the stars with a filmy haze, the evening was still calm, beautiful and serene. Just as the long rows of gas lights came flashing into existence, we were ordered to wheel into column by platoons, and then we commenced our march. Never did those glorious old national anthems speak more thrillingly to the heart than on the occasion now described. The proud patriotism which animated every heart in the line prepared each one then and there to become martyrs if need be for our country's welfare. It was Sunday night, an 'evening calm and cool,' when all were at leisure, and nothing prevented the gathering of a mob. The bold, martial strains of a military band, especially of a Sunday night, were a novelty to the citizens of Baltimore, for since the occurrence of the riot and massacre of the Massachusetts troops on the 17th of April, all of the national troops had been hurried through the city without ceremony, regardless of military display, and some of that dignity which should always attend a preponderating armed force. Our advent and transit was at first met with a dubious welcome, and as we occasionally turned a street corner, with a few faint-hearted cheers. In one or two instances bouquets were flung in our midst by true-hearted, loyal women who dared to be patriotic, against the pretensions of class and the exclusivness of caste, at a period when slave aristocracy was combining its fairest energies to rule or ruin. As we passed the heart of the city and approached the suburbs on the opposite Page 229 side, the gathering hostile elements became rapidly apparent, and cheers for 'Jeff Davis,' and groans, execrations, anathemas and maledictions for 'Abe Lincoln,' became painfully distinguishable above the noise of the music, and the steady tramp of our advancing column. As we drew near the Camden depot at the Washington extremity, the shouts and clamor increased in frequency and volume, while the walks and streets were thronged with the Populace eagerly hurrying along upon our flanks. Then came the order 'by the right flank, by file left, march,' and soon the head file of the column entered the depot. The band continued playing until it reached the opposite end of the building when the line was 'halted,' brought to the 'front face' and 'dressed.' Companies B and G, on the extreme left, were still outside the building. A sergeant was entering the building; he stumbled and fell, and his musket (being loaded and capped), as it struck heavily on the floor, exploded, the discharge wounding a citizen, standing near by, in the foot. This was followed by three or four scattering shots, apparently from the roof of the building, which was succeeded by a fusilade partly on the right and partly in the center of the regiment. At this juncture all the gas lights in the building were suddenly extinguished as though by a preconcerted signal. At the same instant a flash as of thirty or forty pieces was seen from the side of the building towards which the line was faced, and similar flashes appeared as though from the roof, towards which a scattered and irregular fire was kept up through the line. At this stage of affairs the commanding voices of Colonel Phelps and Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas were heard through the line above the din and roar of musketry. Their self-possession, aided by the efforts of the line officers, soon restored order and quiet through the ranks. Major M'Kie, in consequence of an injury received while landing from the boat at Elizabethport, N. J., had been left behind and did not rejoin the regiment until the following day. During the tumult, one of the privates from Company F mounted the shoulders of a comrade and endeavored to light one of the gas burners with a match, but could not, thus showing conclusively that the gas had been turned off at the meter. Shots were also distinctly seen by those standing outside the building, fired towards the regiment from the windows of the adjacent houses. As soon as order was restored the employees of the building rekindled the lights, and the startling word was passed through the line that one of our brother soldiers was killed and another seriously wounded, with other vague conjectures and rumors that an organized attack was being made upon us by the notorious and infamous 'plug-uglies' of Baltimore. A portion of this intelligence was alas, too true, and as later acquired knowledge would seem to justify the opinion, probably all of it. Edward Burge, a private belonging to Company I, whose home was in Pottersville, Warren county, was found dead-shot through the head, by the testimony of the regimental surgeon in a subsequent investigation of the affair, -the ball entering the skull from above and passing out below Page 230 near the jaw-bone. The wounded man belonged to Company H, of Sandy Hill. His name was Lorenzo Palmer. Police officers were soon on the ground inquiring into the details of the affair, and seemed anxious to get rid of us as quickly as possible. In a short time the regiment was shipped aboard of a train of cars and was rattling on its way to Washington. Before we left assurances were received that all the forces in the adjacent fortifications, numbering eight regiments, were already on their way to our assistance. The following morning the arrest of Marshal Kane and other arch conspirators in that hot-bed of secession did something towards checking that rampant hostility towards the northern soldiery then pouring in daily by regiments to the national capitol. A new system was speedily inaugurated. The old police force was disbanded, many being placed under summary arrest, some of whom were no doubt participants in the April riots."
Whether or not this occurrence was the result of preconcerted plans for assaulting the regiment is even yet a question of dispute. A court of inquiry was held and the people of Baltimore exonerated, the cause of the whole affair being attributed to the first accidental discharge of one musket and the succeeding firing by the troops without orders; but there are others still living who were participants in the affair, and take a different view of the matter.
The regiment reached Washington about midnight, where the men saw the dead body of a picket brought in, one who had recently been shot while on duty. This incident - a trifle in the red annals of the war - and the sight of camp-fires in all directions, with other unmistakable indications, told the regiment in no uncertain tones that they had almost reached the theatre of their future struggles. A portion of the regiment was quartered in the Washington Assembly Rooms and the remainder in the Baptist Church on Fifth street. On the following day the lamented Burge was buried in one of the city burial grounds. The next day, July 1st, the regiment was marched up Seventh street to the neighborhood of the Soldiers' Retreat, about two and a half miles northeast of the city, to the grounds vacated by the Fourteenth (Brooklyn) New York State Militia, where it went into camp. Here, in the beautiful Virginia summer days, the regiment enjoyed a period of pleasant camp life, varied only by the part it took in the remarkable celebration of July 4th which took place in Washington. Again we quote from Dr. Holden his description of the occurrences of the next few weeks: "The fortnight following the review was a busy time in Washington, for preparations were being actively made for an attack upon the rebel force assembled at Manassas Plains. . . . The battle was fought; - fought bravely and well for comparatively raw troops. Its general results were soon known far and wide, and the whole affair has now become a part of the history of the war. The cannonading of the 17th (Thursday), as well as the 21st, was distinctly heard in our camp, and while speculation was rife as to its causes and results, we were in the interval momentarily expecting Page 231 to move over the river and participate in the action. We were happily spared both its dangers and glories. On Sunday morning, July 21st (the day of the famous First Bull Run fight), just as the regiment had been drawn up in line for religious services, a courier dashed up to headquarters on a gallop with a message which proved to be 'marching orders' for Harper's Ferry. The regiment was ordered to be in readiness to move at twelve o'clock M., at which hour the order was countermanded. The same evening at 'dress parade' orders were received to march immediately across the river. The line was dismissed and the boys with a cheer set hastily to work to make the necessary preparations, which included the distribution of cartridges and the preparation of two days' rations. Within an hour to the inspiriting rattle of the 'long roll,' the men were again in line in 'light marching order.' We were instructed to leave our tents standing and our baggage packed behind us. The men moved buoyantly forward down South street, to the exhilarating music of our band. As the head of our column wheeled into the avenue, dense crowds of anxious-looking people thronged the sidewalks, who hailed our advent with prolonged and repeated cheers. The bad news was just coming in from Bull Run. As we reached the eastern extremity of the Long Bridge, we were directed to 'halt,' 'stack arms,' and' rest.' While awaiting further orders at this point, scattering and fleet-footed fugitives from the scene of conflict came cantering hurriedly across the bridge. Among the number was the famous correspondent of the London Times, quite extensively known by the sobriquet of 'Bull Run Russell.' Of his interview with our regiments at that time, he makes the following mention in his published 'diary:' 'At the Washington end of the bridge I was challenged again by the men of a whole regiment, who, with piled arms, were halted on the chaussie, smoking, laughing, and singing. "Stranger have you been to the fight?" "I have been only a little beyond Centerville." But that was quite enough. Soldiers, civilians, and women who seemed to be out unusually late, crowded around the horse, and again I told my stereotyped story of the unsuccessful attempt to carry the Confederate position, and the retreat to Centerville to await better luck next time. The soldiers alongside me cheered, and those next them took it up, till it ran through the whole line, and must have awakened the night-owls. After remaining about two hours, orders came, and the men in a very despondent, dissatisfied sort of a way, resumed their arms, and we retraced our steps in silence and gloom, only broken by the monotonous tramp, tramp, of many feet. The next day was a gloomy one for the city and the government. It rained heavily, and stragglers wet, dispirited and demoralized, thronged the thoroughfares, while the wounded came in like the waves of a flood-tide, filling up all the temporary makeshifts dignified by the name of hospitals, which was the best that could be done at the time, no doubt. The Second New Hampshire Volunteers, whose camp adjoined ours, and whose tents had been left standing, suffered severely in the engagement, and all day Page 232 long their wounded and stragglers came droopingly along by ones, twos, and threes - a sorry but impressive sight, enabling us all to appreciate to some degree the terrors, the terrible realities of war. Fragments of regiments but lately exultant with swollen ranks and brave bearing, came creeping along to the slow tap of the drum, while knots and gangs of stragglers assailed every guard line and camp for food, shelter, and drink. The army, by general order was declared demoralized, and stringent orders were speedily promulgated, that all stragglers and soldiers without properly authenticated passes, should be arrested and sent to their respective commands. It was not permitted to harbor or refresh them under penalty, - seemingly a rash rule, but really just and proper; contributing largely to the restoration of discipline and good order among them. It will also be borne in mind that with the few exceptions of sick and lame, it is the poorest and most cowardly, and not the bravest and best soldiers, who straggle from their commands."
The remainder of our account of this regiment is gathered in disconnected details from portions of the annual reports of the Chief of the Bureau of Military Statistics and from the vivid recitals of passing events written home by soldiers at the time of their occurrences.
The next day the regiment went into camp on Arlington Heights, General McDowell commanded the division. On the route, after crossing to Alexandria, the march was conducted between almost unbroken lines of troops, among which were the New York Twenty-first, Twenty-third, Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Volunteers, and the Fourteenth Chasseurs from Brooklyn, who, in the engagement at Bull Run, had seven times attacked the enemy's batteries and were seven times repulsed with deadly loss, All along the lines were visible the pavilioned fields of the Union patriots, giving encouraging evidence that the government deemed it necessary to make this important post as nearly impregnable as possible; for from the heights rising just across the river from Washington, the city could be easily bombarded and destroyed. At this time the soldiers were in a general state of discouragement. The adverse turn which affairs had taken at Bull Run, the disheartening disparity in the numbers and equipment of the men from the South and the boys from the North, and the greater fatigue necessarily falling to the lot of the invading forces, united in augmenting the already thickening gloom of war, Notwithstanding this discouraging state of affairs the men of the Twenty-second bore up with praiseworthy stoicism. In a letter written by an officer of this regiment from Arlington Heights, July 29th, 186 I, is the following description of the march from Washington: -
"Our regiment received the order on Wednesday afternoon last to march across the Potomac; forty minutes after notice the men were moving in column towards the Long Bridge, which they crossed between seven and eight o'clock. They carried their muskets, cartridge-boxes and haversacks, with rations Page 233 for thirty-six hours. As the tents and other camp equipage were left in charge of a guard at the old encampment, of course the soldiers had to rough it a little. They slept on the ground in the open air, and on their arms, prepared to turn out at a moment's warning to receive the enemy, an attack from whom was not entirely unexpected. Indeed, the long roll was once sounded and the whole regiment turned out and marshaled for an attack, but the alarm was happily unfounded. Located as we now are, not far from the rebel outposts, a night onset on our sentinels, or even an attempted surprisal of our camp, might at any hour of darkness be looked for.
"Our regiment was to-day paid off from the first of June - the day on which they were mustered into the United States service - to the first of July. Hitherto the government has paid its soldiers only once in two months; but a bill is before Congress, which has already passed the House, to pay the men monthly. This bill will pass the Senate, as it ought, and under it our men will in a few days receive another month's pay now almost due."
Until September 28th the regiment remained at the Heights performing camp, guard and fatigue duties, and on that day was in the reconnaissance to Upton's Hill, and took up camp there for the winter.
About ten o'clock in the evening of March 10th, 1862, the troops were notified that orders had been issued for the advance, early on the following morning, of the entire army. The march was commenced as ordered, and a little after noon of the 11th took the Twenty-second to Fairfax Court House, Va., about three miles from Centerville. On the 13th they advanced to Centerville. On the 15th the regiment returned to Alexandria by a march of twenty-one miles through a drenching rain, and across streams almost destitute of bridges. On the next day it removed to its old camp on Upton's Hill.
The regiment entered upon the campaign of 1862 on the 4th of April, by breaking camp and marching to within four miles of Fairfax, where, near Annandale, it bivouacked. On the 5th camp was pitched four miles beyond Centerville. The next day it marched about four miles beyond Manassas Junction, near Bristow Station, camped, and remained through a severe storm of rain and snow until the 15th, when, between the hours of 6 and 10 P. M., it marched to near Catlett's Station on Cedar Run. At half-past six on the morning of the 17th the march was resumed, and continued, with occasional brief intermissions, until nine o'clock that evening; on the 18th, after a march was begun which occupied the energies of the regiment from two o'clock in the morning until nine, and Falmouth, opposite Fredericksburg, on the Rappahannock River, was reached. During the entire marching the retreating enemy was in the front engaging in occasional skirmishes with our cavalry advance, and finally receding to Fredericksburg and burning the bridge across the Rappahannock. At this encampment the regiment remained until the 25th of May, with varied camp and patrol duties. It participated in the grand Page 234 review by the president on the 23d. On the 25th it crossed the river, moved about six miles below Fredericksburg and bivouacked near the Massaponax. Between this time and the 15th of June the regiment was kept moving. At Massaponax, the order to advance being countermanded, the regiment, on the 29th of May, retraced its steps to within eight miles of Fredericksburg, reached Catlett's Station on the 31st (enroute for Manassas Gap), there took the cars and after riding all night reached Front Royal. Being unable to cross the Shenandoah, by reason of the destruction of the bridge, it returned to Haymarket, June 6th. On the 15th of June, it passed successively from bivouac to bivouac, through Warrenton, Warrenton Junction, to Elk Run Crossing. At this encampment the men were chiefly occupied with camp duties and details on the railroad bridge. Field duties were not resumed until the 5th of August. After returning from a reconnaissance south of Fredericksburg it left that place on the 10th and after repeated marches attended with all the ludicrous and tragical concomitants of an army in motion, reached the vicinity of the Cedar Mountain battle-field August 9th. Thence it passed to Cedar Mountain, to the neighborhood of Rappahannock Station on the Orange and Alexandria railroad, and, on the 20th, across the Rappahanock. Here the rear guard went through the initiatory experience of an engagement, being attacked by the enemy, and the regiment participated, on the three succeeding days, in a series of engagements, and repulsed the efforts of the enemy to cross the river. At 9 o'clock on the evening of August 23d the regiment reached Warrenton. On the 29th it was engaged at Manassas Plains (second Bull Run), and fell back to Centerville at night with only one captain and four lieutenants out of twenty-five officers who had accompanied the regiment to the battle-field, and two hundred and four enlisted men present for duty. The fight lasted two days. On both days the men, it is said, were sacrificed, led into an ambush and subjected to a terrible enfilading fire on the left, front and rear. The men stood under this fire until their ammunition was gone, and then threw stones at the enemy!
On the second of September the remnant of the regiment reached their old encampment at Upton's Hill, and on the sixth entered upon the Maryland campaign. It took an active part in the battles of South Mountain and Sharpsburg (Antietam). At the former engagement the advance was made under hot fire, to close quarters. The enemy were found posted behind a fence and were charged and routed with a heavy loss on both sides, and the position held for half an hour. A regiment of Patrick's Brigade then relieved the Twenty-second, which, however, remained on the field during the night. About twenty-five per cent of this regiment were lost in this battle. A description of the battle of Antietam, contained in a report of an officer present at the scene, is substantially as follows: On Tuesday night (the 16th) the men slept on their arms. At half-past five in the morning of the 17th the Twenty-second was ordered Page 235 to the support of Gibbon's Brigade which had advanced to attack the enemy. It moved by the flank through an open field in which Campbell's battery had taken position, and passed into a cornfield in line of battle to support Gibbon's Brigade. The direct and cross artillery fire from the enemy's batteries playing on this field was very heavy, but the brigade containing the Twenty-second Regiment was moved without loss to a position some ninety paces in advance of Campbell's battery, where a column was deployed, and in line of battle moved steadily forward to about fifty paces in the rear of Gibbon's infantry, who at this time had not engaged the enemy, but were cautiously advancing through the cornfield. At length the engagement began, the enemy being posted in the road behind a line of fence and sheltered by woods. The Twenty-second, in company with the other regiments in the same brigade, moved "forward, halted about twenty-five paces in rear of Gibbon's line, and lay down in preparation for the support. After severe fighting and considerable loss this brigade fell back to the rear of the cornfield. When they again faced the front they had scarcely enough men to bear the colors. In the engagement Lieutenant Charles Cushing, of Glens Falls, was killed. The total loss was a fraction over forty-three per cent. of those engaged.
The regiment marched on the 19th to within a mile and a half of the Potomac, where it remained encamped until October 20th, Between that time and the 11th of November it passed through Bakersville, South Mountain, Birketsville, Petersville, camped near Harper's Ferry, after crossing into Virginia on a pontoon bridge, marched in and through Purcellsville, Bloomfield, Rectortown, Warrenton, Fayetteville, and thence on the last named date to Falmouth. In the battle of Fredericksburg, which occurred on the 13th of December, 1862, it was on the extreme left of Franklin's Corps; remained under fire for three days, and lost seven wounded. It returned to its old camping-ground on the 15th; participated in the well-named "mud march" of January, 1863, and then took up winter quarters at Belle Plain. The regiment crossed the Rappahannock on boats (April 28th, 1863), soon after the enemy had been driven from their rifle-pits. On the following day it was joined by the rest of the division, and was marched to the bank of the river to protect the detail engaged in launching the boats, where it was exposed to a galling fire of musketry, which, during that day, wounded eleven of the men. It maneuvered about here until the 4th of June, when it returned to this State. Two days afterward it was received with appropriate ceremonies at Fort Edward, Sandy Hill and Glens Falls, and on the 19th was mustered out of service at Albany.
Roster with Dates and Appointments of the Field, Staff and Line Officers of the Twenty-second N. Y Volunteers to March 20th, 1863. - Walter Phelps, jr., colonel, May 16th, 1861, on detached service in command of brigade. Gorton T. Thomas, lieutenant colonel, May 16th, 1861, died of wounds received Page 236 August 30th, 1862. John M'Kie, major, May 16th, 1861, promoted vice Thomas, died of wounds, September 3d, 1862. John M'Kie, lieutenant colonel, August 30th, 1862, resigned from wounds and ill-health, February 13th, 1863. George Clendon, jr., major, August 30th, 1862, promoted from captain (Co. E) vice M'Kie promoted. Edward Pruyn, adjutant, May 16th, 1861, resigned January 18th, 1862. John S. Fassett, adjutant, January 18th, 1862, transferred from Company E, vice Pruyn resigned. Henry D. Woodruff, quartermaster, May 16th, 1861, resigned from ill-health March 1st 1863. James W. Schenck, jr., quartermaster, September 5th, 1861, vice Woodruff promoted on detached service, brigade quartermaster. Joseph B. Atherly, surgeon, May 16th, 1861, died of typhoid fever at Falmouth, Va., August 12th, 1862. William F. Hutchinson, assistant surgeon, May 16th, 1861, promoted vice Atherly deceased. William F. Hutchinson. surgeon, August 12th, 1862, dismissed the service November 20th, 1862. Austin W. Holden, assistant surgeon, August 24th, 1862, transferred from company F, vice Hutchinson promoted. Miles Goodyear, second assistant surgeon, September 22d, 1862, resigned from physical disability January 24th, 1863. Elias S. Bissell, surgeon, November 20th. 1862, vice Hutchinson dismissed. Henry H. Bates, chaplain, May 16th, 1861.
Non-commissioned Staff: - John F. Towne, sergeant-major, May 16th, 1861, transferred and promoted to first lieutenant Company G, March 1st, 1862. Jeremiah Fairbanks, quartermaster-sergeant, May 16th. 1861, discharged. Charles B. Bellamy, commissary-sergeant, May 16th, 1861. David H. King, hospital steward, May 16th, 1861. John Scott, drum major, May 16th, 1861, discharged by general order. John Wright, fife-major, May 16th, 1861, transferred to band. Malachi Weidman, sergeant-major, March 1st, 1862, vice Towne promoted. Daniel Thomson, quartermaster-sergeant, March 1st, 1862, vice Fairbanks discharged. Levi J. Groom, fife-major, vice Wright transferred, resigned, ill-health. George Crandell, fife-major, vice Groom discharged by general order. Malachi Weidman, adjutant, February 27th, 1863, vice Fassett resigned. Henry Barton, sergeant-major, March 22d, 1863, from sergeant Company A, vice Bellamy promoted. George Torrey, commissary, sergeant, March 22d, 1863, from sergeant Company B, vice Weidman, promoted.
Line Officers. - Company A. - Jacob L. Yates, captain, May 8th, 1861, resigned, ill-health, March 1st, 1863. James H. Bratt, first lieutenant, May 8th, 1861, resigned December 21st, 1861. Hiram Clute, second lieutenant, May 8th, 1861, promoted vice Bratt resigned. Hiram Clute, first lieutenant, December 21st, 1861, died September 28th, 1862, of wounds received August 30th, 1862. Addison L. Estabrook, second lieutenant, December 21st, 1861, from first sergeant vice Hiram Clute promoted. Addison Estabrook, first lieutenant, September 28th, 1862, vice Hiram Clute deceased. Amos T. Calkins, Page 237 second lieutenant, September 18th, 1862, vice Estabrook promoted from first sergeant.
Company B. - Robert E. M'Coy, captain, May 10th, 1861, killed in action August 29th, 1862. Duncan Lendrum, first lieutenant, May 10th, 1861, missing, probably killed in action August 30th, 1862. James W. M'Coy, second lieutenant, May 10th, 1861, promoted. James W. M'Coy, captain, August 29th, 1862, vice Robert E. M'Coy, killed in action. William H. Hoysradt, first lieutenant, August 30th, 1862, vice Lendrum, missing, from first sergeant. Charles H. Doubleday, second lieutenant, November 16th, 1862, promoted and transferred from Company H, vice M'Coy, promoted.
Company C. - Oliver D. Peabody, captain, June 1st, 1861. Carlisle D. Beaumont, first lieutenant, June 1st, 1861, killed in action August 29th, 1862. Charles B. Piersons, second lieutenant, June 1st, 1861, died September 7th of wounds received in action, August 30th. Gorton T. Thomas, second lieutenant, September 7th, 1862, vice Piersons, died of wound. Gorton T. Thomas, first lieutenant, February 1st, 1863, vice Beaumont, killed in action. James Valleau, second lieutenant, February 1st, 1863, from first sergeant vice Thomas promoted.
Company D. - Henry S. Milliman, captain, June 1st, 1861, died September 10th, 1862, of wounds received in action August 30th. Thomas B. Fish, first lieutenant, June 1st, 1861, discharged on surgeon's certificate October 22d, 1862. Robert A. Rice, second lieutenant, June 1st, 1861, resigned December 14th, 1861. William T. Beattie, second lieutenant, December 14th, 1861, from first sergeant vice Rice resigned, killed in action August 30th, 1862. Lucius E. Wilson, captain, September 10th, 1862, transferred from company G, vice Milliman, died of wounds. Henry B. Cook, first lieutenant, October 23d, 1862, from first sergeant vice Fish, discharged. Charles H. Aiken, second lieutenant, August 30th, 1862, from second sergeant vice William T. Beattie, killed in action.
Company E. - George Clendon, jr., captain, May 7th, 1861, promoted to major August 30th, 1862. John Fassett, first lieutenant, May 7th, 1861, transferred to regimental staff January 8th, 1862. G. Horton Gayger, second lieutenant, May 7th, 1861, resigned October 3d, 1861. William T. Norris, second lieutenant, October 3d, 1861, vice Gayger resigned. William T. Norris, first lieutenant, January 8th, 1862, vice Fassett transferred, missing and probably killed in action August 30th, 1862. Charles Cushing, second lieutenant, January 8th, 1862, vice Norris killed, fell in action September 7th, 1862. Warren Allen, second lieutenant, September 18th, 1862, vice Charles Cushing killed in action, from first sergeant. Daniel Burgey, captain, February 25th, 1862, transferred and promoted from Company I, vice Clendon, promoted.
Company F. - Austin W. Holden, captain, May 8th, 1861, transferred to medical staff August 16th, 1862. William H. Arlin, first lieutenant, May 8th, Page 238 1861, resigned January 8th, 1862. Orville B. Smith, second lieutenant, May 8th, 1861, promoted to first lieutenant, vice Arlin, resigned. Orville B. Smith, first lieutenant, January 8th, 1862, promoted to captain, vice Holden transferred, Fred E. Ranger, second lieutenant, January 8th, 1862, vice Smith, promoted. Orville B. Smith, captain, August 24th, 1862, vice Holden, transferred, resigned November 5th, 1862. Fred E. Ranger, first lieutenant, August 24th, 1862, vice Smith, promoted. James H. Merrill, second lieutenant, August 24th, 1862, from first sergeant, vice Ranger, promoted. Fred E. Ranger, captain, November 5th, 1862, vice Smith, resigned. James H. Merrill, first lieutenant, November 5th, 1862, vice Fred E. Ranger, promoted. Salmon D. Sherman, second lieutenant, November 5th, 1862, from second sergeant, vice Merrill, promoted.
Company G. -- Benjamin Mosher, captain, June 6th, 1861, resigned February 28th, 1862. Henry Hay, first lieutenant, June 6th, 1861, resigned June 12th, 1861. Horrace W. Lucca, second lieutenant, June 6th, 1861, resigned February 28th, 1862. Duncan Cameron, first lieutenant, June 15th, 1861, vice Hay, resigned. Duncan Cameron, captain, March 1st, 1862, vice Mosher, resigned. John F. Town, first lieutenant, March 1st, 1862, vice Cameron promoted, resigned July 23d, 1862. Lucius E. Wilson, second lieutenant, March 1st, 1862, vice Lucca resigned, from first sergeant. Lucius E. Wilson, first lieutenant, July 21st, 1862, vice Town resigned, promoted and transferred to Company D. Lester A. Bartlett, second lieutenant, July 21st, 1862, vice Wilson promoted, transferred from Company I. Asa W. Barry, first lieutenant, September 11th, 1862, from first sergeant, vice Wilson transferred.
Company H. - Thomas J. Strong, captain, May 8th, 1861. William A. Pierson, first lieutenant, May 8th. 1861, discharged on surgeon's certificate August 31st, 1862. Mathew S. Teller, second lieutenant, May 8th, 1861, first lieutenant, August 31st, 1862, vice Pierson resigned. A. Halleck Holbrook, second lieutenant, August 31st, 1862, from sergeant, vice Teller promoted.
Company I. - Lyman Ormsbee, captain, May 9th, 1861. Joseph R. Seaman, first lieutenant, May 9th, 1861, resigned February 22d, 1862. Daniel Burgey, second lieutenant, May 9th, 1861. Daniel Burgey, first lieutenant, February 22d, 1862, vice Seaman resigned, transferred to Company E. Lester A. Bartlett, second lieutenant, February 22d, 1862, vice Burgey promoted, transferred to Company G. Benjamin Wickham, second lieutenant, July 21st, 1862, vice Bartlett transferred, from first sergeant. Benjamin Wickham, first lieutenant, September 3d, 1862, vice Burgey transferred. George Wetmore, second lieutenant, September 3d, 1862, from sergeant, vice Wickham promoted.
Company K. - Miles P. Caldwell, captain, May 9th, 1861, killed in action August 30th, 1862. Edward F. Edgerly, first lieutenant, May 9th, 1861. Page 239 Clark W. Huntley, second lieutenant, May 9th, 1861, resigned in consequence of wounds, February 6th, 1863. Edward F. Edgerly, captain. August 31st, 1862, vice Caldwell killed in action. Clark W. Huntley, first lieutenant, August 31st, 1862, vice Edgerly, promoted. John J. Baker, second lieutenant, August 31st, 1862, from first sergeant, vice Huntley promoted. John J. Baker, first lieutenant, February 6th, 1863, vice Huntley resigned. Charles Bellamy, second lieutenant, February 6th, 1863, from commissary-sergeant, vice Barker promoted.
Register of Fatalities in the Twenty-Second Regiment from the time of its Organization to March, 20th, 1863. - Field and Staff. - Joseph B. Atherly, surgeon, typhoid fever, August 12th, 1862, at Falmouth, Virginia. Gorton T. Thomas, lieutenant-colonel, wounds, September 2d, 1862, at Washington.
Company A - Timothy B. Vandecar, third sergeant, typhoid fever, September 26th, 1861, at Georgetown, D. C. John H. Vanderworken, private, typhoid fever, July 6th, 1862, at Eckington, D. C. Hiram Clute, first lieutenant, wounds, September 18th, 1862, at Washington. John Murray, private, wounds, September 23d, 1862, Frederick, Maryland. Chauncey F. Van Dusen, private, fell in action, August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Leonard G. Fletcher, corporal, fell in action, August 30th, at Bull Run. Jonathan G. Porter, private, fell in action, September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. John Wright, private, fell in action, September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain.
Company B. - William Baker, private, pneumonia, February 11th, 1862, at Upton's Hill, Virginia. Edward Cromwell, corporal, wounds, 1862, at Upton's Hill. Gurdon F. Viele, private, wounds. Robert E. McCoy, captain, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. Charles E. Mills, first sergeant fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Patrick Mehan, private, fell in action August 30rh, 1862, at Bull Run. Charles E. Stickney, second sergeant, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. Oliver L. Lackey, private, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. Duncan Lendrum, first lieutenant, missing August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Charles H. Reed, private, missing August 30th, 1862, Bull Run.
Company C. - Charles Piersons, second lieutenant, wounds, September 7th, 1862, at Washington. Carlysle D. Beaumont, first lieutenant, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. James Murray, private, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. Henry N. Dunckly, private, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. Joseph Pero, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Henry W. Hathaway, third sergeant, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain.
Company D. - James Stalker, private, inflammation of brain, July 17th, 1861, at Washington. Charles J. Eaton, third sergeant, typhoid fever, May 18th, 1862, at Washington. Henry S. Milliman, captain, wounds, September 10th, 1862, at Washington. William T. Beattie, second lieutenant, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run.Page 240
Company E. - John M'Auley, private, typhoid fever, September 14th, 1861, at Arlington, Virginia. Rollin F. Austin, private, typhoid fever, April 10th, 1862, at Alexandria. Timothy Bradley, private, diarrhoea, October 16th, 1862, Smoketown, Maryland. Byron G. Charette, private, wounds, September 13th, 1862, at Washington. Charles Goolah, private, wounds, September 22nd, 1862, at Washington. Frank Aubin, private, wounds, 1862, at Frederick, Maryland. Joseph Whitford, private, wounds, 1862, in field hospital. Jacob Ross, private, wounds, October 14th, 1862, at Smoketown, Maryland. Wilber F. Buswell, private, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. Charles Cushing, second lieutenant, fell in action September 17th, 1862, at Antietam. Patrick Johnson, private, missing August 29th, 1862, Groveton. Nelson Ross, private, missing, August 30th, 1862, Groveton. William T. Norris, first lieutenant, missing, August 30th, 1862, Bull Run.
Company F. - Emanuel Noel, private, typhoid fever, November 24th, 1861, Georgetown. Lyman Ward, private, small-pox, January 17th, 1862, in hospital. Titus L. West, private, typhoid fever, May 13th, 1862, at Alexandria. Rufus N. Barto, private. wounds, October 18th, 1862, Colt's hospital. John E. Benjamin, private, wounds, September 11th, 1862, at Fairfax. Allen Sherman, private, wounds, October 9th, 1862, at Frederick, Maryland. De Witt C. Barton, private, killed April 5th, 1862, at Centerville, Virginia. Willard Combs, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Andrew La Point, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Daniel Pendell, fifth sergeant, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. Benjamin F. Hendricks, private, missing, August 30th, 1862, Bull Run. William O. Jackson, corporal, missing, August 30th, 1862, Bull Run. Archibald Ramsey, private, missing, August 30th, 1862, Bull Run.
Company G. - Nelson Hastings, private, consumption, July 16th, 1861, at Washington. Cornelius White, private, typhoid fever, October 26th, 1861, at Upton's Hill. William Washburn, private, typhoid fever, December 13th, 1861, at Upton's Hill. John Constantine, private, wounds, September 15th, 1862, at Washington. Rufus K. Verrill, private, wounds, September 8th, 1862, at Washington. Ansel Taft, private, wounds, September, at Alexandria. Thomas Whitton, private, wounds, September, 1862, at Alexandria. Lewis T. Johnson, corporal, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Thomas Moore, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. William Riley, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Lewis Fenix, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. John Necson, private, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. James Connell, private, fell in action September 17th, 1862, at Antietam. George F. Cleveland, private, missing, August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run.
Company H. - Edward Blanchard, private, typhoid fever, November 14th, 1861, at Colt's hospital. Lyman Chamberlain, private, typhoid fever, April Page 241 19th, 1862, at Bristol Station. Charles H. Bowen, private, pneumonia, June 20th, 1862, at Carver Hospital. Stephen Podwin, private, wounds, September 3d, 1862, at Washington. James Wythe, private, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. Rollin C. Wyman, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Selden L. Whitney, private, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. George W. Miner, private, missing, August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run.
Company I. - Edward Burge, private, killed June 30th, 1861, in Baltimore. Thomas Crawford, fifth sergeant, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Joseph W. Booth, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Sylvanus A. Durkee, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Ephraim J. Smith, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. James Dignan, private, fell in action September 17th, 1862, at Antietam.
Company K. - Timothy D. Murray, private, wounds, October 15th, 1862, Harwood Hospital. Henry Sumner, private, fell in action August 29th, 1862, at Groveton. Miles P. Caldwell, captain, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. Daniel McCartey, private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. James Gleason private, fell in action August 30th, 1862, at Bull Run. James Evans, third sergeant, fell in action September 14th, 1862, at South Mountain. (1)
1 The preceding rosters are kindly furnished us by Dr. A. W. Holden.
The Ninety-sixth Regiment. - One full company (Co. I) of this regiment was recruited in Warren county in the fall of 1861, almost entirely by and at the expense of C. H. Burhans, now of Warrensburgh, who went out as its captain. Following are the names of its officers and members, as given on the records: -
Captain, Charles H. Burhans; first lieutenant, Gerard L. M'Kenzie; second lieutenant, Emory M. Lyon. Sergeants, Thomas W. Sutton, John G. Joslin, of Warrensburgh; Warren Luce and Levi Hill, of North River; Mortimer Allen, of Athol. Corporals, William Beadnell and Peter Allard, of Pottersville; Paul Declane, Abial Fuller, Thomas Short, Augustus Stone and George Pelton, of Warrensburgh. Musician, Peleg Barton, of Athol. Wagoner, John McMillen, of North River. Privates, John B. Allard, Isaac Archibald, Edward Archibald, William Ausmeut, John Baker, James W. Bennett, John C. Bennett, Augustus Bennett and Levi Bennett, of Warrensburgh; Theophile Beaudry, North River; William B. Blany and George Brown, Warrensburgh; Benjamin L. Cady, Pottersville; Charles Combs and Francis Darrell, of Warrensburgh; Barney Davar and Ed. F. Densmore, of Pottersville; Ebenezer L. Farrar, Ed. S. Fuller, Joseph Genier, Antoine Gerouse, Jamon Harrington, Myles Hewett, James Hill, of Warrensburgh; John H. Ingraham, Pottersville; John Keys and Charles Lamb, of Warrensburgh; Michael Lynch and Edward McDonnell, of Pottersville; William B. Morrill and Samuel B. Moses, of Warrensburgh; Page 242 Levi Olden, Pottersville; Chauncey F. Perry, Oscar F. Perry, Daniel O. Porter, Edward Porter, La Fayette Scripten and Jesse N. Seseton, of Warrensburgh; Cornelius Sherman, of Pottersville; George W. Stearns, Warrensburgh; Eli Streeter, Pottersville; Samuel J. Taylor, Warrensburgh; James Tucker and Giles Vanderwarker, of Pottersville; Daniel Vaughn and Paul Vigean, of Warrensburgh; Nathan Wallace, Pottersville; Henry F. Wright, Warrensburgh.
This regiment was entirely enrolled in Northern New York and earned a most gallant record. One of its companies (G) was from Essex county and was commanded by Captain Alfred Weed, it having been principally raised in the town of Ticonderoga. This fact led to the preparation by Winslow C. Watson, esq., of Plattsburg, of a detailed history of the organization, which was printed in his valuable History of Essex County, published in 1870, when data for military history was much more accessible than at the present time. From his work we condense the following account: -
"The regiment was organized at Plattsburg, and departed for the field March, 1862, under the command of James Fairman, colonel, Charles O. Gray, lieutenant-colonel, and John E. Kelley, a veteran of the regular army, major. Nathan Wardner, of Jay, was appointed chaplain of the organization, John H. Sanborn, quartermaster, and Francis Joseph D'Avignon, of Ausable Forks, surgeon. The Ninety-sixth, in the early stages of its services, was severely depressed, through the unfavorable auspices by which it was surrounded, but after the brave and accomplished Gray was placed in command, the regiment rapidly attained a very high reputation. It had been precipitated by ill-advised councils into active service without the advantages of any adequate drilling, and was hurried into the peninsula campaign before the habits of the troops were adapted to field duty, and while they were yet unacclimated. From this cause and some dissensions among officers the efficiency of the regiment was much impaired for a period.
"Major Kelley was killed in a picket skirmish immediately before the battle of Fair Oaks. In that action the losses of the Ninety-sixth regiment were extremely severe. The services of the regiment, throughout the peninsula campaign were marked by great perils and hardships, and elicited from General Peck, the commander of the division, warm and unusual encomiums. It was afterwards ordered to Suffolk, enduing all the trials and sufferings of that field, and was subsequently engaged in the North Carolina expedition, and gallantly participated in all the hard services of that vigorous campaign. In the battle of Kingston, December 14th, 1862, Colonel Gray, who had already, although a youth of twenty-four, achieved a brilliant fame, was killed while charging at the head of the regiment over the bridge on the Neuse, and in the act of planting its standard upon the enemy's works. Three weeks before in presenting a new flag to the Ninety-sixth, he had uttered a glowing and eloquent Page 243 tribute to the old flag, and now this enveloped his coffin, as the remains were borne from his last battle-field to its resting place among his familiar mountains. That venerated flag is deposited in the Military Bureau. After this event the Ninety-sixth was for a short term under the command of Colonel McKenzie. A. A. Fuller and J. C. Bennett, Company I, were wounded in this battle.
"Early in 1864 the regiment was transferred to the Army of the James before Petersburg, and attached to the same brigade with which the One Hundred and Eighteenth was connected. It was incorporated with the Eighteenth and afterwards with the Twenty-fourth Corps. The Ninety-sixth was engaged in all the subsequent operations of the Eighteenth Corps. At Cold Harbor, and the assault on Fort Harrison, the Ninety-sixth and the Eighth Connecticut formed the assaulting columns, with the One Hundred and Eighteenth New York, and Tenth New Hampshire on their flanks as skirmishers. The division approached the works in close order, and in a distance of fourteen hundred yards was exposed to a plunging and galling fire of artillery and musketry.
"It steadily advanced to the base of the hill, which was crowned by the enemy's work. Here the column, exhausted by its rapid progress, paused. The enemy perceiving the point of attack were meanwhile pouring reinforcements into the menaced works. The crisis was imminent, and General Stannard commanding the division sent an earnest order for an instant assault. The head of the column charged up the hill, and scaling the parapet, drove the enemy from their guns. Sergeant Lester Archer of the Ninety-sixth and the color bearer of the Eighth Connecticut simultaneously planted their respective regimental flags upon the ramparts. The Rev. Nathan Wardner, chaplain of the Ninety-sixth, charged with his regiment in the advancing columns, prepared to administer spiritual consolation on the very field of carnage. The captured guns of the fort were turned upon the retreating enemy with terrible effect. The Ninety-sixth were conspicuous in opposing the repeated, resolute and desperate attempts of the rebels to recover this important position.
"The Ninety-sixth continued near Fort Harrison, in camp with its brigade, after the capture of that work, until the 24th of October, when the entire division marched against Fort Richmond at Fair Oaks. It bivouacked that night, about three miles from the fort. While the skirmishing party of the One Hundred and Eighteenth was engaged in the perilous and hopeless assault of the enemy's line, the next morning the Ninety-sixth, in common with the remainder of the division, stood idle spectators of the slaughter of those troops, although little doubt now exists, that a combined and energetic attack of the fort, when the One Hundred and Eighteenth advanced and while it was occupied by a force wholly inadequate to its defense, would have secured a glorious success. A designed feint had been converted into a real and sanguinary assault, Page 244 and the character of this bloody field, conspicuous for its profitless and murderous losses, was only redeemed by the valor of the troops.
"For two long and trying hours, after the repulse of the One Hundred and Eighteenth the residue of the division stood under arms, in front of the enemy's lines, with no orders, either to advance or retreat, while the rebels were observed eagerly rushing troops into the fort, on foot and upon horseback. Horses were constantly perceived hurrying up at their highest speed, bearing three riders, and as they approached the works, two leaping from the horse would enter the fort, while the third returned at the same speed, to bear hack another freight of defenders. At length, when the lines by this delay had been rendered impregnable to an attack, the division was madly hurled upon the works. It was bloodily repulsed. The casualties of the Ninety-sixth were in the highest degree severe.
"The ground upon which these unfortunate operations occurred had been signalized by the sanguinary battle of Fair Oaks, during the peninsula campaign. The works erected by McClellan were still discernible, and as the Federal troops moved to the assault, they disturbed and trampled upon skulls and bones and other ghastly memorials of the former conflict. The Ninety-sixth participated in the brilliant closing scenes of the war around Richmond and its final consummation."
After paying a glowing and deserved tribute to Dr. Francis Joseph D'Avignon, surgeon of the Ninety-sixth, Mr. Watson concludes his sketch with the following: -
Officers of the Ninety-sixth mustered out with the Regiment, February 6th, 1866. - Colonel, Stephen Moffitt, brevet brigadier-general U. S. V.; lieutenant-colonel, George W. Hinds, brevet colonel N. Y. V.; major, Courtland C. Babcock, brevet lieutenant-colonel N. Y. V.; quartermaster, Allen Babcock; surgeon, Robert W. Brady; chaplain, Nathan Wardner, Captains - Earl Peirce, Moses Gill, Moses E. Orr, Henry C. Beckham, brevet major N. Y. V. ; William B. Brokaw, brevet major N. Y. V.; Merlin C. Harris, brevet major N. Y. V.; Thomas E. Allen, Oscar B. Colvin. First lieutenants - William B. Stafford, Thomas Burke, Charles H. Hogan, Orlando P. Benson, Lyman Bridges, George J. Cady, Lucien Wood, Alexander M. Stevens, Alonzo E. Howard. Second lieutenants - Washington Harris, Stanford H. Bugbee, Alexander McMartin, Charles Sharron, Amos S. Richardson, Silas Finch, Judson C. Ware.
Enlisted Men of the Regiment to whom Medals of Honor have been Awarded by the Secretary of War. - Sergeant Lester Archer.
The archives of the State present the following brilliant record of the services of the Ninety-sixth: Gainesville, Second Bull Run, South Mountain, Antietam, Mine Run, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, North Anna, Mattapony, Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, Petersburg, Weldon Page 245 Railroad, Chapel House, Hatcher's Run, Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fair Oaks, Seven Days' Battle, Blackwater, Kingston, Whitehall, Goldsboro', Siege of Newbern, Drury's Farm, Port Walthall, Coal Harbor, Battery Harrison, Charles City Road.
One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment. - One company (K) of this regiment was raised in Warren county, largely in the town of Queensbury, and principally by Frederick J. P. Chitty, who served as its captain. Philip H. Fitzpatrick, first lieutenant, and C. H. Pike, second lieutenant, were from Clinton county. The regiment was recruited for three years' service and organized at Fonda. The other companies were from Fulton, Montgomery, Saratoga, Clinton and Essex counties. It was mustered into the service of the United States October 18th, 1862, and was mustered out at the expiration of term of service, October 2d, 1865. The principal engagements in which the regiment took part were those at Sabine Cross Roads, Pleasant Hill, Marksville, Cane River, Mansura, and Alexandria, La., as given in the reports.
Captain Chitty has kindly furnished us with the enrollment papers, containing endorsements of the fate of the members of the company, from which the following list is made up: -
George Albro, mustered out with regiment; Mark A. Allen, died in Richmond as a prisoner; Amos Baker, jr., died in hospital; Amyel Baker, mustered out with regiment; Stephen J. Beadleston, mustered out with regiment; Franklin Benman, mustered out with regiment; Robert Blackburn, discharged for disability; Benjamin Brown, mustered out with regiment; John M. Crossett, died in hospital; Lemuel Davis, mustered out with regiment; Leonard N. Foster, deserted; George Harris, died in hospital at Alexandria, December 1st, 1862; William Hillis, died in hospital; Philander Hurd, died in hospital; Anson Jones, rejected at Fonda; Charles La Point, mustered out with regiment; Frank La Point, mustered out with regiment; Cass La Point; Joseph Luther, mustered out with regiment; Jacob F. Miller, mustered out with regiment; Charles W. Morgan, mustered out with regiment; Daniel R. Moss, died in hospital; Thomas Robinson, mustered out with regiment; Anson A. Scovill, discharged from hospital; William H. Sheffer, mustered out with regiment; Seneca B. Smith, mustered out with regiment; William H. Stevenson, mustered out with regiment; Henry A. Swan, mustered out with regiment; William Sullivan, transferred to veteran reserve corps; Thomas Taylor, discharged for disability; Allen S. Underwood, mustered out with regiment as first lieutenant (in command of the company much of the time of its service); Weston J. Wilkie, discharged for disability; James M. Walkup, died from disease.
The following brief account of the career of this regiment is also from Watson's History of Essex County: -
"The regiment immediately after its organization was ordered to Alexandria, Page 246 and subsequently at Washington was employed in provost duty. Early in 1864 the One Hundred and Fifty-third was transferred to Louisiana and incorporated with the Nineteenth Army Corps. It was engaged in the Red River expedition and participated in all the hardships and disasters of that campaign. When the Union forces, after the battle of Sabine Cross Roads, fell back, Company I (of Essex) was the rear company in the retreat of the army. The Nineteenth Corps sailed from New Orleans on the 3d of July with sealed orders; but its destination proved to be the Chesapeake. The One Hundred and Fifty-third, and four companies belonging to other regiments, the advance of the corps, on the arrival at Fortress Monroe were instantly ordered, without disembarking, to the defense of Washington, then menaced by Early's incursion. These troops were hastened through the city amid the deep excitement and alarm of the people to a position at Fort Stevens, where they went into immediate action. After the repulse of the rebels, the One Hundred and Fifty-third joined in their pursuit across the Potomac into the Shenandoah Valley, but was suddenly recalled to the vicinity of the capital, to oppose another apprehended advance of the enemy. The regiment was soon after engaged in the battle of Winchester, and it participated in the engagement at Fisher Hill and in the pursuit of the Confederates from that field. The Nineteenth Corps was at Cedar Creek and suffered heavy losses incident to the surprise and early catastrophies of that eventful day. The One Hundred and Fifty-third formed part of the picket line that enveloped Washington after the assassination of Mr. Lincoln, and discharged guard duty at the arsenal on the military trials that succeeded. In June, 1865, the regiment was ordered to Savannah, where it performed provost duty until its discharge. In the succeeding October the One Hundred and Fifty-third was mustered out at Albany."
In this connection the following brief sketch of the career of Captain Chitty, embodying military history, will be of interest: He was born in Birmingham, England, in April, 1824, and is by profession a druggist. He was mustered in as Captain of Company K, One Hundred and Fifty-Third Regiment, October 12th, 1862. In April, 1863, the One Hundred and Fifty-Third, then doing duty in Alexandria, Va., he was detached by order of Brigadier-General J. P. Slough, Military Governor, as Provost Marshal of the city, remaining in that position until the following August, when the regiment was removed from the command. Accompanying the order relieving him was a complimentary letter from the general, thanking him for the very efficient manner in which he had discharged the duties of his office, and regretting that a military necessity compelled his return to the regiment. Captain Chitty, in command of the guard of his regiment, removed the first lot of rebel prisoners (five hundred in number) from the Old Capitol prison in Washington to Point Lookout in Maryland, and in command of a battalion of his regiment Page 247 escorted the remains of General Cochrane through the city of Washington on their way to New York for interment. In February, 1864, the One Hundred and Fifty-Third was assigned to duty in the Department of the Gulf, and in March Captain Chitty was appointed Acting Assistant Inspector-General of the First Brigade, First Division, Nineteenth Army Corps, on the staff of Brigadier-General William Dwight, and remained in that position through the Red River expedition and until the Nineteenth Corps was removed to Washington, D. C., in July, 1864, when the city was threatened by the rebel General Early. General Dwight then being assigned to the command of the First Division, Captain Chitty was removed to the Division Staff as Inspector-General of the First Division, serving as such through General Sheridan's Shenandoah campaign; but on the removal of the division to Washington, immediately after the lamented Lincoln's assassination, he was assigned to duty at Camp Stoneman as Provost Marshal of the post, at that time the camp of organization for Hancock's Veteran Corps, and in a very demoralized condition. Captain Chitty, however, went to Savannah, Ga., with his division in June, and the organization then being broken up, he was assigned to duty on the staff of Major-General I. M. Brennan, on the order of Major-General Steadman, commanding the Department of Georgia, as Inspector-General of the District of Savannah, First Division Department of Georgia, remaining in that position until the following October, when his term of service having expired he was ordered to Albany, N. Y., and there mustered out of the service October 20th, 1865, having served full three years and participated in all the engagements on the Red River expedition and those of Hunter and Sheridan in Virginia in the summer and fall of 1864; never having been in a fight but what the gallant First Division came out victorious.
The Ninety-third Regiment. - This regiment was recruited in the counties of Albany, Alleghany, Rensselaer, Washington and Warren, nearly half of its members being from the last-named county. It was mustered into service in October, 1861, for three years. At the expiration of its term of service the organization returned to New York two hundred and sixty strong, February 28th, 1864, all of whom re-enlisted and were retained in service until June 29th, 1865, when they were finally mustered out.
Following are the names of the officers of the regiment, with the memoranda of the career of each as far as obtained, and the names of recruits in the different companies from Warren county, as given in the records: -
Field Officers.- Colonel, John S. Crocker, discharged September 19th, 1864; lieutenant-colonel, Benjamin C. Butler, then of Luzerne, mustered out February, 1865; adjutant, Haviland Gifford; surgeon, Strobridge Smith, of Glens Falls, mustered out with the regiment; major, Ambrose L. Cassidy; Chaplain, Christopher H. Edgerton, of Johnsburgh, resigned May 2d, 1862.
Company A. - Captain, Orville L. Colvin, of Chester, dismissed May 25th, Page 248 1863; first-lieutenant, Henry C. Newton, then of Glens Falls and now of Moreau, promoted to captain July 20th, 1863, discharged May 15th, 1865; second lieutenant, James M. Southwick, died of disease May 4th, 1862; sergeants (1st to 5th, inclusive) - Danford R. Edmonds, John D. Nutting, Oscar B. Ingraham, promoted to second lieutenant; David Burnham, Queensbury, promoted to second lieutenant June, 1862, and resigned March 2d, 1863; Frederick J. Thompson. Corporals (1st to 8th, inclusive) - James W. Nutting of Chester, promoted to second lieutenant September 30th, 1864, mustered out with regiment; Charles A. Culver, Obed A. Brooks. Charles Finch, Rufus D. Hastings, Eldridge Fletcher, Joseph M. Wood, Philetus Bump. Privates, Alexander Anderson, George Algier, Sheldon Austin, Nathaniel Albro (transferred to Captain Charles F. Barnes's company); Rufus Bump, Henry A. Brooks, Jeremiah Bennett, Joel Benjamin, Daniel Benjamin, Joseph C. Carpenter, Benjamin Cleveland, Calvin Clemens, Franklin Colt, Almer Conklin, James M. Cowles, Chauncey Davis, Augustus Davis, Jeremiah Driscoll, Andrew J. Dickens, Orvis Fish (died in hospital December 21st, 1861); Daniel Farr, Louis Frederick, Franklin G. Gatchell, George W. Greene, Dallas M. Gurney, Isaiah Gifford, Patrick Hurson, Norman Hitchcock, John Haverty, John W. Hays, Edgar Inlay, Henry Johnson, Lewis Jenks, Samuel Jackson, Aaron Knowlton, Jerry M. King, Allen P. Lillebridge, Adolphus La Point, James Lowe, Andrew J. Merithen, Peter McGown, John McMahon, John Mauller, Samuel Murdock, Marvin E. Orlon, James Pollard, Loland Page, Henry Porter, Francis Quinn, Orlin M. Russell, George B. Rogers (died is hospital December 25th, 1861), Lewis Robbins, William G. Russell, Orville Ross, Charles D. Roberts, Nelson Rhodes, Elisha Randall, Franklin D. Smith, Charles Smith, Bethuel Smith, Cyrenus Sprague, Moses Sherman, James Scribner, James H. Stewart, Asa Swarz, Elijah Taft, John T. Turner, Lorenzo Underwood, Jay Vandusen, Wesley Wood, George Williams, Simon Welch, George Youngs, Anson M. Pettys, John Pettys.
This company was nearly or quite all recruited from Warren county, but we have no means of crediting them to their respective towns. Below are given the Warren county credits to the other companies of the regiment, with data of such promotions of Warren county men as we have been able to collect: -
Company B, Nathaniel Albro, corporal (promoted from private), James Barney, Charles Cowles, Charles Fish, Oris H. King, Elijah Rider, James Ross, Elijah Robbins, Lewis Taber, George Taber, Henry C. Taber, Andrew J. Smith.
Company C, William W. Clark and Ambrose Spencer, sergeants; James H. Lawrence, corporal; Abraham Austin, Martin B. Clemens, William C. Fuller, Samuel Galusha, Thomas J. Hays, Charles Ramsey, Truman M. Stewart, Henry E. Whitmore.
Company F, Edward A. Tanner and Fayette Selleck, sergeants; Abram Page 249 Austen, Daniel Bennett, Thomas Bemis, Jonathan Brown, jr., Elnathan Bristol, Samuel B. Cutts, James I. Darling, Patrick Ford, James H. Gray, Lewis Hamlin, Robert Martin, George McDonald, Edward Story, Wesley Scofield, Jesse B. Thompson, Francis L. Tanner, Joseph Woodman, Hough Wells.
Company G, James H. Morehouse, James F. Rowe.
Company H, Captain, Hiram S. Wilson, of Bolton, died March 24th, 1864, of disease. First lieutenant, Edson Fitch, of Warren county, promoted to captain December 1st, 1863; mustered out on expiration of term. Sergeant, Charles F. Brown. Corporals, Charles Cleveland and Charles Roberts. Privates, Owen Allen, Avery Allen, Fayette Bush, Franklin Brese, Rolland Balcom, Murray Bentley, Benjamin Clark, Thomas D. Clark, John Calihan, David H. Decker, John Dean, Ira Duell, 2d, Joseph Duell, Martin J. Eastwood, Warren Emerson, Norman F. Eldridge, Johnsburgh, promoted to second lieutenant May 25th, 1863, and to first lieutenant, July 20th, 1863, killed in action in the Wilderness, May 6th, 1864; Horace P. Eldridge, Sidney Fuller, Thomas Fitch, Montgomery Fish, Harley Finkle, George French, William J. Griffin, Henry Goodwin, Samuel G. Goodman, Ashel Granger, Loren S. Gibson, Almon B. Griffin, M. C. Holcomb, Perry G. Hammond, Hialmer P. Hammond (musician), Artemus A. Hastings, Nicholas Hartman, Daniel T. Hicks, Homer Hammond, Charles H. Hall, Josiah F. Lovett, Andrew Lord, Warren Mead, Sylvester McCauley, E. McDonnell, Philander Norton, Ira Ogden, Leroy Potter, Oliver Pratt, Stephen M. Pratt, Luther W. Peck, Robert Ramsey, Andrew Ryan, Clark Shaw, Russell Streeter, William Sexton, Julius P. Sexton, Leander Sherman, George Smith, George Sweet, Isaac Threehouse, Erskine Truesdell, Dallas M. Vernam, Sidney B. Viele, Alfred L. Wescott, Moses Wright, Ephriam T. Weeks, commissioned second lieutenant January 30th, 1862, resigned January12th, 1863; David Bushaw, James Barnes, Otis Beswick, Chauncey Bullard, Isaac Bentley, Philander Bartlett, Leander Bartlett, George Lake, Charles Larose, Joseph Larkin, James McCabe, DeWitt Munger, John Austin, Isaac R. Knapp, Bernard Murray.
Company I, Bethuel Comstock, George Cleveland, Stephen Monthoney, Stephen F. Monthoney.
Company K were all credited to Troy, N. Y.
During its term of service and upon the re-organization of the Ninety-third after the expiration of its first term of service, as above alluded to, there were other enlistments, appointments and promotions from Warren county, among which were those of Joseph S. Little, now of Glens Falls, who was promoted to first lieutenant July 20th, 1863, and lost a leg in battle; Daniel W. Thompson, commissioned as first lieutenant January 30th, 1865, but not mustered under the commission; Oscar B. Ingraham, commissioned first lieutenant September16th, 1864, but not mustered under the commission; Lewis W. Hamlin, then of Queensbury, now of Moreau, commissioned second lieutenant January Page 250 30th, 1865, and mustered out with the regiment; John Bailey, of Stoney Creek, commissioned captain July 20th, 1863. was killed in action May 5th, 1864. There may be others who deserve mention under this feature of the records, but if so, we have been unable to obtain them.
The Ninety-third regiment has a noble record, and it is to be regretted that a more explicit account of its valorous deeds in the field and the individual acts of heroism on the part of many of its members cannot be given at this late day. It bears upon its banners a list of engagements embracing Yorktown, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville, Antietam, Wilderness, Coal Harbor, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Tolopotomoy, Petersburg, Strawberry Plains, Deep Bottom, Poplar Spring Church, and Boydton Road - a series of battles through which no regiment could pass and come out without leaving a large portion of its members either dead on southern soil, or wounded in many hospitals. We find the following brief sketch of the regiment in a Glens Falls paper of a date not long before its return to New York, in 1864: -
"This remarkably fine regiment was raised in the fall and winter of 1861, in the counties of Washington, Warren, Essex and Alleghany, and took its departure from the State in March, 1862, one thousand strong, of whom but two hundred and sixty now remain. It formed part of Palmer's Brigade, of Casey's Division, in Keyes's Corps, and went down to the peninsula with the rest of McClellan's army. In the advance from Fortress Monroe, in April, the Ninety-third formed the extreme left of the army and was encamped near the mouth of Warwick River, where they took part in many skirmishes and reconnaissances and performed much severe labor. While here Colonel Crocker and Major Cassidy were taken prisoners within our own lines, through the negligence of the officer of the picket, and until their exchange several months later, the command of the regiment devolved upon Lieutenant-Colonel Butler.
"At the battle of WiIliamsburg the Ninety-third was the only regiment of the brigade that arrived on the field during the action and was highly complimented by General Keyes for its promptness and energy.
"Soon after the battle of Williamsburg General McClellan ordered the regiment to be detailed as guard at general headquarters of the army - a high testimonial to its drill, discipline and morale. General Burnside, on assuming command of the army, retained the Ninety-third at his headquarters, as did also General Hooker and General Mead, all of whom spoke of it in the highest terms. In drill, discipline, and morale, it is surpassed by no regiment in the army of the Potomac and none can better perform the duties of the position. Noble, pure-minded General Patrick greatly admires it, and declares it shall remain at headquarters as long as he does."
One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment. - This regiment was organized at Plattsburg, N. Y., for three years' service. It was recruited entirely in the Sixteenth Senate District, comprising the counties of Clinton, Essex and Warren, Page 251 companies A, D, and G, being from the last named county. It was mustered into service on the 30th of August, 1862. Following are the names of the regimental officers at the organization of the regiment: -
Field Officers. - Colonel, Samuel T. Richards, resigned July 8th, 1863. Lieutenant-colonel, Oliver Keese, jr., promoted to colonel July 31st. 1863, and resigned September 16th, 1864. Major, Geo. F. Nichols, promoted to lieutenant-colonel August. 1863, and to colonel November 28th, 1864; mustered out with the regiment. Adjutant, Charles E. Pruyn, promoted to major August, 1863, and killed in action June 13th, 1864. Quartermaster, Patrick Delaney, resigned August 19th, 1864. Surgeon, John H. Mooers, resigned April 4th, 1864. Assistant surgeon, James G. Porteus, promoted to surgeon Forty-sixth New York Volunteers, November 12th, 1864. Chaplain, Charles S. Hagar.
Following are the officers and members of Companies A, D, and G, raised in Warren county, with considerable details of promotions, etc.: -
Company A, captain, Josiah H. Norris, of Glens Falls, resigned January 1st, 1864. First lieutenant, Edward Riggs, of Glens Falls, promoted to captain January 12th, 1863, resigned August 5th, 1863. Was drowned while on his way South, in 1865, to procure substitutes to apply on the Queensbury quota. (See biography of Daniel V. Brown, in later pages of this work.) Second lieutenant, Simon E. Chamberlain, promoted to captain Twenty-fifth New York Cavalry, May 19th, 1864. Sergeants (first to fourth inclusive), Edgar Comstock, James Kendall, Orange A. Cowles, Michael Reynolds, commissioned second lieutenant April 13th, 1864, killed in action near Coal Harbor, June 2d, 1864; these all from Queensbury. Corporals (first to eighth inclusive), Amos B. Haviland, James Goodwin, Gustus C. Sherman, Charles A. Grace, commissioned second lieutenant May 11th, 1865, mustered out with the regiment; Samuel Van Tassell, Cass C. La Point, Edward E. Clute, George H. Wing; all from Queensbury. William E. Hall, drummer; Carlos M. Brainerd, wagoner; Clark Arnold, Adelbert Andrews, William H. Allen, Henry Andrews, Charles C. Bennett, Royal Bullion, William Bullock, Edward Brownse, Andrew J. Brummagim, John Balfour, jr. Adolphus P. Burkhart, William A. Coffee, Martin Chamberlain, Abner Croff, Charles F. Copeland, Abner B. Crannell. John Clute, John M. J. Crannell, Joseph Doket, Marquis Davis, Hosea Day, Robert K. Evans, Edward B. Fish, Franklin Foster, Isaac Gilman, William H. Groom, Norman H. Gourlay, Hubbard W. Goodrich, Adolphus Guyat, Joseph Granger, Joseph Herbert, William Hartman, John H. Hall, Henry L. Hall, Allen D. Hubbell, Alonzo S. Hopkins, Clifford Hubbard (of Glens Falls; commissioned second lieutenant November 30th, 1864, and made adjutant, May 11th, 1865; mustered out with the regiment); Eber F. Irish, John Jordon, Franklin Jandro (awarded medal of honor by the Secretary of War); De Estaing Johnson, Stephen B. Little, Mahlon Lord, Levi Page 252 Ladao, Joseph Morrison, Henry M. Mellis, Arad B. Mickle, William Mallery, Clark N. Northrup, Daniel Norlon, Ira Norlon, Franklin T. Paige, William D. Palmer, George A. Potter, Mandeville Potter, William H. Potter, Isaac Philo, jr., Henry W. Persons, John C. Robillard, Theophile Rienvielle, Silas Randall, Addison L. Stoddard, Alanson D. Simpson, Frederick W. Shaw, Janurius Surprenant, John S. Shippy, Wells E. Stone, James R. Tillotson, William W. Thayer, James Van Wagoner, Albert Wilson, Duane Williams, Holdridge H. Whipple, Abraham White, Charles C. Wright, Amos Ward, Edgar M. Wing, (Glens Falls, commissioned second lieutenant January 12th, 1864, died May 16th, 1864); Benoni T. Wert, George Wescott, Hiram Yetto. This company was raised largely in the town of Queensbury.
Company D, captain, Richard P. Smith, Horicon, resigned December 10th, 1862. First lieutenant, Cyrus O. Burge, Chestertown, resigned November 24th,1863. Second lieutenant, John H. Smith, jr., commissioned first lieutenant, June 12th, 1863, but not mustered, resigned January 16th, 1863. Sergeants (first to fifth inclusive), Elisha M. Baxter, Horicon; James M. Colony, Ebenezer N. Jenks and Warren S. Wickham, of Chester; Joseph A. Hastings, Horicon. Corporals (first to eighth inclusive), Samuel Sherman, Horicon, commissioned second lieutenant March 17th, 1863, and promoted to first lieutenant April 13th, 1864, discharged October 19th, 1864; George B. Green, Ebenezer M. Sexton, William C. Duel, C. Brown, of Horicon; Reuben W. Mead and Charles H. Osborn, of Chester; William Cox, Johnsburg. Alfred H. Holley, Horicon, drummer; Eli Pettys, Chester, wagoner. Privates, David Austin, Johnsburg; Lorenzo J. Barton, Chester; John Bolton, Royal Z. Bennett, Washington Baker, Lewis Bartlett, Hiram Brown, Joel Brown, Benjamin Baker, Enos Brown and Lemuel Bentley, of Horicon; Jeremiah Bennett, Johnsburgh; John Calkins, Hague (commissioned second lieutenant September 16th, 1864, and promoted to first lieutenant May 11th, 1865; mustered out with the regiment); Michael Cummings, Johnsburgh; Henry D. Coville, Hiram Drake, Reuben J. Davis, James P. Davis, of Chester; Oscar O. Duel, Richard Dycher and Patrick H. Dugan, of Horicon; James H. Dingman, Luzerne; Edmond Eldridge and James D. Flansburgh, Johnsburgh; George Frazier, Horicon; William Frazier, Levi Fuller and Henry Flansburgh, of Johnsburgh; Emory Gregory, Horicon; James Hughes, Alfred Hotchkiss and Charles W. Higley, of Chester; James Hastings, Amasa Hill, Timothy Hill and Thomas J. Hays, of Horicon; Ira Hill, Chester; Tarquin Ingram, Horicon; Hollis Johnson, Irwin Johnson, Norman W. King and John E. King. of Chester; Daniel King and Norman J. King, of Horicon; Napoleon Laperarie, Johnsburgh; James Lamb, Horicon; Horace P. May, Chester; Russell McCauley, Horicon; James McCormick and Frank Potter, of Johnsburgh; Dalhousie Priestley and David G. Perry, of Chester; Lewis Pilotts, Adam Putnam and Jeffreys Prichard, of Horicon; Henry R. Putnam, Johnsburgh; Michael Page 253 Rattigan, Chester; Orange Remington, Martin Russell, Benager Robbins and Solomon Robbins, of Horicon; Rodney Ross, Johnsburgh; William W. Stannard, Chester; Toner Smith, Horicon; Thomas Simmons, Samuel Smith and George W. Sherman, Horicon; George Sturgis, Johnsburgh; Charles C. Smith, Alva B. Taylor, Oscar Tyrrell and Daniel R. Taylor, of Chester; Lorenzo D. Tripp, Mallory Tripp, Alonzo Tyrrell and George W. Tyrrell, of Horicon; Charles Underwood, Chester; Josiah D. Waldron, Richard S. Waters and Henry A. Wood, of Horicon; Job A. Wilcox, Luzerne. Company G.-Captain, Dennis Stone, of Warrensburgh, resigned May 26th, 1865. First lieutenant, Stephen H. Smith, Horicon, resigned November 23d, 1862. Second lieutenant, M. Nelson Dickinson, Warrensburgh, promoted to first lieutenant June 12th, 1863, resigned May 3d, 1865. Sergeants (first to fifth inclusive), Henry P. Grump, Luzerne; B. P. Dean, Stony Creek; Bennett J. Leonard, Johnsburgh; Truman N. Thomas, Bolton, discharged November 20th, 1863; George W. Carnes, Warrensburgh. Corporals (first to eighth inclusive), Thomas H. Tripp, Stony Creek; George W. Fuller, Johnsburgh; David W. Bartlett, Bolton; Charles A. Lincoln, Warrensburgh; Roswell Walsh and George Murray, Stony Creek; Henry S. Perkins, Warrensburgh; Orlando J. Brown, Johnsburgh. J. W. Odell. musician, Stony Creek; Calvin G, Wood, musician, Warrensburgh; D. M. Woodward, wagoner, Warrensburgh. Privates, Lewis Aldrich, Luzerne; Edgar Burnett, Johnsburgh; Sewell P. Braley, Bolton; John Beswick, John Burnett, Johnsburgh; Robert Boyd, Bolton; Royal Bates, Caldwell; Nathan Beswick, Bolton, John H. Bennett, Warrensburgh ; William J. Barber, Luzerne; George Casey and George H. Clark, Johnsburgh; Martin V. B. Coon, John Dawson and William N. Dingman, Stony Creek; Charles Fenton, Warrensburgh : William Freeborn and Darius Fuller, Johnsburgh ; John J. Flanders, Luzerne; William Goodnow, Stony Creek; Martin Gardner, Johnsburgh; John A. Grimes, Warrensburgh; Lemuel Griffin, Bolton; Parley Gray, jr., and William Gamble, Stony Creek; William H. Gates and Hiram B. Gates, Johnsburgh; Edmond Gibo, Joseph H. Higgins and Jasper Harvey, Johnsburgh; Harrison Hall, Luzerne; G. H. Hall, johnsburgh; Valentine Hoyle, Luzerne; John Jones, Johnsburgh; James A. King, Stony Creek; Edgar E. Lincoln, Johnsburgh; William Latham, Warrensburgh; William H. Layway, Bolton; James McCarthy, Warrensburgh; Benjamin F. W. Monroe, Johnsburgh; Samuel Maxim and William Morehouse, Warrensburgh; Sylvester McDonald, Stony Creek; A. J. Myers, Warrensburgh; Joseph L. Norton, Johnsburgh; Jonathan Nolton and Benjamin F. Nolton, Stony Creek ; Truman H. Parke, Warrensburgh; Dudley R. Peabody, Luzerne; Alfred S. Purver, Warrensburgh; William R. Perkins, Stony Creek; William H. Parkiss, Warrensburgh; Benjamin B. Perry, Caldwell; Delius Rist, Johnsburgh; Rufus Randall, jr., Aaron G. Randall and Selah Randall, Bolton; Joseph Reed, Stony Page 254 Creek; Henry Shaw, Luzerne; George Sanders, Johnsburgh; Ransom H. Stanton and Joel Streeter, Warrensburgh; Sidney Smith, Johnsburgh; Sylvanus H. Smith, Bolton; Elias K. Sargent, Johnsburgh; H. O. Shedel, Bolton; Elihu Stevens and William C. Stevens, Stony Creek; Wilson Smead, Luzerne; Charles C. Sexton and James E. Sexton, Bolton; Edward Tucker, Warrensburgh; Richard H. Turner, Johnsburgh; James Tucker, Warrensburgh ; William S. Taylor, Luzerne; Merritt Vermun, Warrensburgh; Garry Vandenburgh, George Williams and William H. Washburn, Johnsburgh; Franklin L. Weaver and Joshua Carnes, Warrensburgh.
Three of the companies of this regiment were from Essex county (C, E, and F), and a part of Company K, which fact rendered it incumbent upon Mr. Winslow C. Watson, in the writing of his history of that county, some ten years ago, and from which we have already made extracts in this connection to give an account of its career; from his sketch, revised and corrected by several living officers, we condense the following: -
"The regiment, with great appropriateness called the Adirondac, was mustered into the service the 29th of August, 1862. By the successive resignations of Colonel Richards and Lieutenant-Colonel Keese, as above noted, Major Nichols was promoted to the command of the regiment, and led it with distinguished skill and courage. John L. Cunningham, then of Essex, and now of Glens Falls, went out as first lieutenant of Company F, of which Robert W. Livingston, now the veteran journalist of Essex county, living at Elizabethtown, was captain. Lieutenant Cunningham was promoted to captain of Company D, of Warren county, September 4th, 1863, and to major November 28th, 1864; he was also brevetted lieutenant-colonel, and mustered out with the regiment. James S, Garrett, now of Glens Falls, was promoted from sergeant to second lieutenant, December 9th, 1862, and to first lieutenant March 8th, 1864; he was brevetted captain and mustered out with the regiment.
"The One Hundred and Eighteenth entered the service with an aggregate of nine hundred and eighty-three men; it was re-enforced at intervals by three hundred and fifty recruits, but returned from the field at the expiration of its term with only three hundred and twenty-three in its ranks, both officers and privates. Immediately upon joining the army the regiment began a series of active and incessant duties. It formed a part of Peck's force, in the memorable defense of Suffolk, and was employed in the arduous raids along the Black River. It was warmly engaged through two days and often under heavy fire, in a continued skirmish with the rebel sharp-shooters near Suffolk, and participated in a diversion to the northward of Richmond, to attack Lee or a portion of his army from Pennsylvania, in June, 1863. The brigade to which the One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment was attached was in the advance, and the regiment was ordered to destroy parts of the Richmond and Fredericksburg railroad. While the regiment was engaged in executing this service, two companies, Page 255 A, Captain Norris, and F in the absence from sickness of Captain Livingstone commanded by Lieutenant Cunningham, were advanced as skirmishers along the railroad, towards the South Anna River, and after cautiously proceeding about one mile came in contact with the rebel pickets. The command continued to advance in line under a sharp and constant fire, the enemy slowly retiring, and speedily in addition to small arms they opened a fire on the Union troops from batteries in front commanding the line of railroad and on a flank. The companies under this concentrated fire were compelled to retreat and fell back in order, assuming a strong position in a wood, behind a ditch with an open field in front. During this movement, Lieutenant Cunningham received a painful wound from a spent ball, but did not leave the field. Major Nichols soon after appeared on the ground with two fresh companies, D, Captain Riggs, and a company of the Ninety-ninth New York. These companies deployed on either side, and the line thus formed made a rapid advance. A warm action ensued in which the command was subjected to a heavy fire of mingled bullets, shot and shells. The enemy were at length driven back along their whole front, except at one point in their position, which was obstinately maintained and appeared to be fortified. This point, which proved to be a breastwork of plank, Lieutenant W. H. Stevens of Company F proposed to capture; and calling for volunteers for the service, selected five of the first who offered. He rapidly advanced in the dark behind a screen of bushes, which flanked the rebel's position on the right, and with fixed bayonets and loaded guns rushed upon the breastwork with a wild shout. Although surprised, the enemy attempted a resistance, but the gallant Stevenson killed one with his revolver, wounded a second and captured the remainder of the party consisting of thirteen men, who were brought into the Federal lines. The constancy and resolution of the regiment was first tested on this occasion, and the conduct of the officers engaged and the steadiness and discipline of the troops received the highest encomiums.
"The One Hundred and Eighteenth continued attached to the column of the James until the spring of 1864, and was engaged in operations near Norfolk and at or near Bermuda Hundred, and in February it advanced to Bolton's Bridge from Williamsburg, in an attempt on Richmond; and in operations near Norfolk and at or near Bermuda Hundred. It at this time constituted a part of the Second Brigade, First Division of the Eighteenth Corps. General W. F. Smith commanded the corps, Brooks the division, and Burnham the brigade. All these officers were eminently distinguished by their fighting qualities and high reputation. Early in May the army marched upon the ill-omened expedition against Fort Darling on the James, which was terminated by the fatal results at Drury's Bluff. This march from its commencement to its disastrous issue was a constant scene of fighting and skirmishes. On the tenth, companies D, F, and K, were advanced in a skirmishing line, the last held in reserve, Page 256 while the remainder of the regiment was deployed. The coolness and bearing of Lieutenant Stevenson of F, and Kellogg of Company D, were conspicuous, and the steadiness of the whole line was eminently distinguished. The One Hundred and Eighteenth four days after captured with small loss a series of rifle pits, redoubts and batteries, which formed a strong advance line of the enemy. This work from the form of its construction offered no protection to the Federal troops. The enemy occupied a short distance in front far more formidable works mounted with heavy guns, and during the whole day the Second Brigade was exposed to a severe fire of shells from this work. One of the missiles crushed the head of Sergeant Place of Company K, a brave and intelligent soldier. Throughout Sunday the 15th the brigade maintained this exposed position, which was soon to acquire a dread and bloody prominence in one of the darkest pages of the war. Heckman's Brigade, lying to the right of the second, formed the extreme right of the army line. Between Heckman's Brigade and the James there was an interval of a mile in length, which was left unoccupied, except by a few feeble and scattering posts of colored cavalry. No entrenchment had been constructed either in front of the Union lines or on the flank; excepting such as were hastily thrown up under the direction of commanders of particular brigades or regiments. The ground had been previously occupied by the Confederates, by whom scattered and irregular redoubts, trenches and rifle pits were constructed; but these were so arranged that they afforded no protection to the Union troops in their present position. The line held by the Second Brigade stretched along a deep excavation which had been made by the rebels and at this time was filled with water. A standing place was formed for the brigade by leveling a narrow space, between this ditch and the embankment created by the earth thrown up at its construction. Slight bridges were at short intervals thrown across the trench. These precautions proved a few hours later of infinite importance. The embankment was thus converted into an important defense which in the subsequent action afforded great protection to the troops. General Brooks conceived the novel and happy idea of extending a telegraph wire in front of the brigade; but unfortunately Heckman's Brigade was without even this feeble protection and lay totally exposed to the assault of a vigilant foe.
"At three o'clock on the morning of the 16th, the One Hundred and Eighteenth was aroused and at its post, in conformity to special orders, or its established practice. The air was loaded with a thick, dank fog, which the opening dawn but slightly dissipated. As sun-rise approached, the advance or movement of troops was noticed in front, but in the obscure light the color of their uniform could not be distinguished, nor their evolutions determined. A few shots from Belger's artillery in front of the brigade, were thrown into the ravine along which these troops were advancing and they were seen to halt and lie down. A staff officer who at that moment appeared on the field, pronouncing Page 257 them to be Federal pickets retiring and ordered the firing to cease. Small white flags or signals were distinctly discerned waving in the mist, and voices shouted from the obscurity, 'Don't fire on your friends.' The musketry had already become sharp on the right, but the Second Brigade had received no orders of any kind. There was a period of fearful suspense and hesitation. Captain Ransom of Company I, unable to restrain his impatience, leaped upon the embankment and firing his revolver, exclaimed: 'This is my reception of such friends.' The last chamber was scarcely exploded when he fell, pierced by a ball that passed through his body, and shattered an arm. Doubt no longer existed of the character or purpose of these troops, and the One Hundred and Eighteenth instantly poured a volley into the advancing line. The front rank of the enemy now rushed impetuously forward, and in the dimness of the light stumbled over the wires, and those in the rear pressing after them all were hurled together in a promiscuous mass; their ranks broken and thrown into inextricable disorder. Many of the enemy involved in the confusion threw down their arms and surrendered, and were sent to the rear. Up to this point the One Hundred and Eighteenth had achieved a success. It was vigilant and the contemplated surprise had been defeated; but Heckman's Brigade had been surprised and nearly flanked from the undefended space on its right. It had fallen back and at one time the whole brigade were prisoners; but in the tumult and amid the dense mist and smoke escaped. The Eighth Connecticut, next on the right of the One Hundred and Eighteenth, was attacked in flank, doubled up and disappeared from the field. The One Hundred and Eighteenth was now exposed to a crushing fire in front and upon the right flank. The extemporaneous traverses which it had constructed at this crisis were most effective, affording a partial protection, and for a while the resistance of the regiment appeared to be successful; but it was enveloped by an overwhelming force, and a sanguinary conflict ensued. In this desperate aspect of the battle each man was directed to gain the rear without regard to discipline. A few embraced the opportunity to retreat; others still sustained the fight, while the wounded implored their comrades not to abandon them, and more than one noble life was sacrificed to preserve these sufferers from the horrid calamities of a hostile prison house. The regiment was soon after rallied and made a gallant stand; but was compelled to fall back; again advanced a short space and ultimately retreated in order. Captain Dominy, the senior officer, succeeded to the temporary command of the regiment on the disability of Colonel Nichols.
"The dire aceldama was ennobled by deeds of daring heroism, and instances of exalted devotion. An intrepid young lieutenant, Henry J. Adams, of Elizabethtown, at the moment the regiment was breaking seized a standard and shouting the words so familiar to scenes of home and festive joyousness: 'Rally around the flag, boy's,' attempted to arrest the retreat, and essentially Page 258 aided in rallying the troops. Captain Robert W. Livingston of Company F, early in the action moved from the cover of the embankment in order to communicate with Colonel Nichols, and while standing a moment exposed was struck down by a frightful wound in the shoulder. His gallant young lieutenant, W. H. Stevenson, who was behind an embankment and in a situation comparatively secure, saw him fall and calling on the men to bring in their captain, rushed out to Livingston's assistance, accompanied by four of the company. Livingston admonished them of the great exposure they incurred and urged that he might be left; but Stevenson persisted in his generous purpose and in a moment after fell dead at his commander's side, a sacrifice to duty and friendship. Livingston, as he was borne from the field, was struck by another shot that terribly lacerated his foot and leg. He languished in great suffering fourteen months in a hospital before his severe wounds permitted a return to his home, a mutilated and disabled soldier.
"The regiment was not pursued by the severely punished enemy and was immediately rallied by its own officers. It maintained a bold and defiant attitude until most of its wounded were borne from the field. In that conflict, scarcely extending over the space of half an hour, the One Hundred and Eighteenth, out of the three hundred and fifty men engaged, lost one hundred and ninety-eight privates and thirteen officers in killed, wounded and prisoners. Amid all these disasters and sacrifices the regiment had captured and secured two hundred prisoners, a greater number than it retained men fit for duty. Among the killed on this fatal day was Captain John S. Stone, of Company K. Lieutenant Stevenson was killed and Lieutenant Edgar A. Wing, Company E, a youth of high promise who had been promoted to the company only a few days before, was mortally wounded, taken prisoner and died the next day. Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols was slightly wounded in the side and hand, from which his sword was stricken by a shot; and his clothing, as was that of several other officers, was riddled by bullets. Adjutant John M. Carter lost an arm and was captured; Captains Livingston and Ransom were severely wounded; Lieutenants Treadway and Sherman were wounded, and Captain Dennis Stone, Company A, and James H. Pierce, Company C, taken prisoners. The army on the same day fell back to Bermuda Hundred and fortified; but the stricken and fragmentary One Hundred and Eighteenth were exempted from the toil of entrenching.
"On the 29th of May the Eighteenth Corps, embracing the One Hundred and Eighteenth, embarked in transports, and passing down the James, ascended the Pamunky and landed at the White House. Directly upon disembarking it was rushed to the front, and on the 1st of June it joined the army of the Potomac. On that day near Coal Harbor commenced a battle which continued until the 3d, and was one of the most severely contested and sanguinary engagements of the war; but its incidents and results have been singularly Page 259 veiled from the public eye. The Eighteenth Corps occupied a position in front of the Union army. The One Hundred and Eighteenth was engaged in the bloody scenes of these conflicts, but not unconnected with its corps. Its casualties were extremely severe. At times exposed to a heavy fire in front, and enfiladed by a battery and rifle pits, to escape annihilation the troops were compelled to lie prone upon the earth, while a tempest of minnie balls, shot and shells, hurtled just above them. The dead could neither be removed nor buried, and their corpses were thrown upon the breastwork, with a slight covering of earth strewn upon them, and thus their decaying bodies aided to form a bulwark for the protection of their living comrades. The taint from the decomposing mass became almost insufferable before the corps was withdrawn from the trenches. The sufferings of the regiment through the trying ordeal of those eight days were extreme. It lost at Coal Harbor seventy men and officers. Among the casualties were Lieutenant Michael Reynolds, of Company A, killed, and Captain Jacob Parmerter, of Company E, severely wounded with the loss of a leg.
"An impregnable line in front arrested all advance by the Union army, but the enemy was held in an equally tenacious and unyielding grasp. The Eighteenth Corps sustained its exposed position, and in the end formed a curtain behind which, on the 12th, General Grant accomplished his perilous and memorable flank movement which effected the change of his base. When this bold and remarkable operation had been accomplished, the Eighteenth also hastily abandoned its entrenchments and fell back unopposed to White House, and returned to its previous field of duty. On the 15th of June the One Hundred and Eighteenth was engaged in the attack on Petersburg. Here it suffered a heavy loss in the death of Major Charles E. Pruyn, who was in temporary command of the regiment. While standing in an exposed position, and in the act of surveying the works he was preparing to assault, he was struck and horribly mutilated by a shell. He had acted as adjutant in the organization of the regiment, and its singlar proficiency and high discipline were chiefly imputed to the skill and assiduity of his services, sustained by the field officers, pre-eminently by the military attainments and persistent zeal of Colonel Keese. Lieutenant Rowland C. Kellogg was also wounded by the explosion of a shell. Captain Levi S. Dominy of Company B succeeded to the immediate command of the regiment.
"The fierce and protracted siege of Petersburg exacted from the One Hundred and Eighteenth the most arduous and exhaustive duties. Night succeeded the clay, days rolled into weeks, and the weeks formed months, but their toils had no mitigation, while their endurance and dangers were perpetual. Now exposed to the burning sun and breathing the arid sand, and now struggling in mud and water; often suffering for drink, seldom able to wash, and never changing their clothing for rest. Constantly shelled and frequently enfiladed Page 260 by new batteries; burrowing in the earth to escape projectiles, against which ordinary entrenchments afforded no protection, the troops were yet joyous, patient, enduring and full of hope. Amid all these exposures and suffering, after it had recovered from an almost universal prostration by chills and fever at Gloucester Point, and altogether moving in a malarious region, the One Hundred and Eighteenth was always vigorous and healthy. The rigorous ordeal to which it was now subjected continued with brief relief until the 29th of July, when the regiment was withdrawn to aid in the support of the storming column, which was designed to assail the enemy's works, on the explosion of the long projected mine. They witnessed in sadness and humiliation the disastrous failure of that magnificent experiment. On the 27th of August, after a term of two months, the Second Brigade was relieved from its arduous trench duties. During the long period of one hundred and thirteen days the One Hundred and Eighteenth had marched and toiled and endured, with no enjoyment of quiet repose, and almost incessantly subjected to the fire of the enemy.
"A single month the One Hundred and Eighteenth was permitted to repose, after its prolonged and severe service, in a pleasant encampment near the southern banks of the James. In that interval the Ninety-sixth had been attached to the Second Brigade. This brigade, by the proficiency of its drill, its exact discipline, and general efficiency, had become conspicuous and universally esteemed second to no other in its distinguished corps. On the 27th September, every indication presaged the renewal of active duty. Rations for two days were ordered prepared. An unusual earnestness and activity were manifested by the generals and their staffs. The next night the tattoo, suggestive of repose, had scarcely sounded, when the brigade was ordered to move promptly and in profound silence, leaving their tents standing. Previous to breaking camp, the One Hundred and Eighteenth and the Tenth New Hampshire had by a special order exchanged their Enfield guns for the Spencer repeating rifle, a tremendous weapon in the hands of resolute and expert marksmen. This selection by the corps commander was a distinguished recognition of the efficiency of the preferred regiments. At three o'clock on the morning of the 29th, the division led by the second brigade, was passing over the James upon a pontoon bridge, which had been completed the same hour. The sound of the movement was suppressed by earth or other substances strewn upon the bridge. On reaching the north bank of the river, the One Hundred and Eighteenth and Tenth New Hampshire were thrown out as skirmishers and flankers, while the remainder of the command was advanced along the road in column. Soon after daybreak a brisk fire was opened by the enemy's pickets which fell back on their reserves, and the whole were forced rapidly back through a dense wood, for the distance of more than two miles, when the Union column entered upon open ground. A strong earth work was now revealed Page 261 in front, and mounted with heavy guns. This formidable work, was Fort, or rather Battery Harrison, and General Stannard instantly ordered Burnham to take it by assault. The Ninety-sixth and Eighth Connecticut forming the storming column were supported by the First and Third brigade of the division with the One Hundred and Eighteenth New York, and Twelfth New Hampshire as skirmishers on their flank. The column rushed impetuously forward, along the open space, met by a furious, plunging fire from the enemy's lines. When it reached, after this rapid advance along the distance of nearly three-fourths of a mile, the base of the eminence upon which the works were erected, the column breathless and exhausted, paused in a position comparatively protected. As we have already seen, the enemy was hastening re-enforcements to the point of attack, and the commander both of the division and brigade, alarmed at the posture of affairs, sent a member of his staff to order an instant assault. Lieutenant George F. Cambell, Company C, One Hundred and Eighteenth, aid to General Burnham, dashed across the plains exposed to the whole range of the enemy's fire and unhurt communicated the order. The two regiments impetuously scaled the hill, mounted the parapet, and their gallant color-bearers planted simultaneously their flags upon the works. The enemy precipitately abandoned the lines, falling back to other works, while their own guns were turned upon them with deadly effect. In the act of training one of these guns upon the fugitives, General Burnham was mortally wounded and died in a few minutes after.
"While these events were in progress in the center, the skirmishing support had approached the fort, and used their rifles in picking off the gunners in the works, and demoralizing the defense. Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols, with the One Hundred and Eighteenth, after being distinguished for cool conduct on the skirmish lines in the general assault, captured two redoubts on the right of the fort, during the main assault. Surgeon F. G. Porteous, of the One Hundred and Eighteenth, was officially noticed with strong recommendations for bravery and attention to duties, being the only surgeon in the brigade advancing with his regiment in the charging column. The Second Brigade now moved upon two intrenchments in front, and captured them successfully, driving the enemy back upon their third and last defense on this line of works. Fort Harrison had thus been snatched from the jaws of the Confederate army, which lay in great force immediately contiguous, and was too important a position to be relinquished without a desperate struggle. The last line captured by the Union troops was exposed to the fire of the enemy's gun-boats and to assault, and it was deemed expedient to fall back upon Fort Harrison. The enemy vigorously pursued, and in this movement both Colonel Donohoe and Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols were severely wounded. The night and the succeeding morning were assiduously employed in extending and strengthening the works, which now acquired the form and strength of an enclosed fortification. Page 262 A second and third time the onset was repeated, and met in the same corageous spirit, and with similar results. On the last assault, those of the assailants who survived the withering fire of the Federal troops, threw down their arms and surrendered. About noon the next day rebel troops had been massed in three heavy columns, and covered by two batteries, rushed upon the new Federal lines with heroic impetuosity. The One Hundred and Eighteenth and Tenth New Hampshire were stationed at salient points in the works, and the fatal power of their new weapons was frightfully demonstrated upon the Confederate ranks. Gun-boats were constantly, but with trifling effect, shelling the Union position. This formidable assault was repulsed by musketry alone, and the rebels falling back to cover, abandoned their numerous dead and wounded upon the field. Besides Lieutenant-Colonel Nichols, Captain Dobie and Lieutenant Treadway of the One Hundred and Eighteenth were wounded.
"The One Hundred and Eighteenth moved with its division from the quarters near Fort Burnham where it had remained since the capture of that work, on the 26th of October, to a position within about three miles of Fort Richmond, erected on the former battle-ground of Fair Oaks. The regiment at that time was composed of two hundred and five men for duty including supernumeraries. At dawn the succeeding morning it advanced. That part of the regiment embracing more than half which was armed with the Spencer rifles, was thrown in front as skirmishers, and the remainder held in reserve. Passing a covert of woods, the skirmishers entered upon a cleared field which extended to the fort, a distance of about one-fourth of a mile. Over this space they made a rush upon the work, in the face of a terrible fire, and succeeded in approaching it within about one hundred yards. The enemy's lines at this moment were only slightly manned, but the entrenchment was heavy and formidable, and wholly unassailable by the feeble skirmishing force. Major Dominy, an officer conspicuous for his fighting qualities, commanded the regiment, and at this time passed an order for the troops to lie down, seeking any cover that presented itself, for protection against the irresistible tempest of shot and balls that was hurled upon them. Soon after they were directed to fall back singly to an excavation on a road in the rear. The regiment made no further advance, but after the repulse of the assaulting column mentioned in the notice of the Ninety-sixth Regiment, retreated to its former encampment. The losses of the regiment were greater in proportion to its strength than on any previous occasion. The skirmishing party entered into action with nine officers: three of these, Major Dominy, Lieutenants McLean and Gibbs returned in safety, but Captain J. R. Seaman, Company A, was seriously wounded. Lieutenant M. J. Dickinson was wounded and taken prisoner, with Lieutenants Saunders, Potter, O'Connor, and Bryant. Captain M. V. B. Stetson in the reserve was also wounded while aiding to remove Colonel Moffitt of the Ninety-fifth Page 263 from the field. When the regiment reached its former quarters scarcely forty men had gathered to its standard, but others returned until the aggregate was increased to nearly one-half the number who had marched out the day preceding. The One Hundred and Eighteenth remained in camp through the winter, and on the march upon Richmond the ensuing spring, its relics were engaged on picket duty and advanced as skirmishers, covering the Third Division of the Twenty-fourth Corps. It was the first organized Federal regiment that entered Richmond. The One Hundred and Eighteenth bore the noble inscription upon its national flag: 'Suffolk - South Anna - Coal Harbor - Fort Harrison - Bermuda - Swift Creek - Petersburg - Fair Oaks - Drury's Bluff - Crater - Richmond.' This attests its military glory, but its high moral qualities are still more illustrated by the remarkable fact, that not a single member of this regiment was known to have deserted to the enemy. In more authoritative language than I can use, General Devens, in recapitulating its services, pronounces this eulogium upon the One Hundred and Eighteenth at Drury's Bluff: 'This regiment distinguished itself for great valor and pertinacity, and won the reputation it has since enjoyed, of being one of the most resolute regiments in the service,' He adds: 'with this weapon (the Spencer rifle) they will return to your State armed, and it is a most appropriate testimonial of their efficiency.' " (1)
1 Mr. Watson acknowledges assistance in preparing this sketch to a series of articles in the Glens Falls Republican, to several officers of the regiment and to official documents. In our work we must give credit for valuable aid to Captain Livingston, of Elizabethtown, and Colonel J. L. Cunningham, of Glens Falls.
Officers of the One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment, when mustered out of the service, June 13th, 1865. - Colonel, George F. Nichols, brevet general U. S. V.; lieutenant-colonel, Levi S. Dominy, brevet colonel N. Y. V.; major, John L. Cunningham, brevet lieutenant-colonel U. S. V.; surgeon, William O. Mansfield; assistant surgeon, J. C. Preston; chaplain, Charles L. Hagar; adjutant, Clifford Hubbard; quartermaster, Henry J. Northrup, brevet captain N. Y. V.
Company A. - Captain, Joseph R. Seaman, brevet major U. S. V.; first lieutenant, J. W. Treadway, brevet captain N. Y. V., from Company E.
Company B. - Captain, George H. Campbell, brevet major N. Y. V., from Company C; first lieutenant, James A. Garrett, brevet captain N. Y. V., from Company A; second lieutenant, Merril Perry, brevet captain N. Y. V., from Company A.
Company C. - Captain, C. W. Wells, brevet major N. Y. V., from Company K; first lieutenant, L. S. Bryant; second lieutenant, N. H. Arnold, from Company E.
Company D. - Captain, John W. Angell, from Company E; second lieutenant, Philip V. N. McLean, from Company K.
Company F. - Captain, Robert W. Livingstone, brevet major N. Y. V.; first lieutenant, Daniel O'Connor, assistant hospital steward; second lieutenant, Charles A. Grace, from Company A.
Company G. - First lieutenant, James H. Pitt, from Company H.
Company H. - Captain, David F. Dobie, brevet major N. Y. V.; first lieutenant, F. Saunders.
Company I. - Captain, Martin V. B. Stetson, major N. Y. V.; first lieutenant, Nelson J. Gibbs, brevet captain N. Y. V., from Company F.
Company K. - Captain, John Brydon, brevet major N. Y. V.; first lieutenant, John W. Calkins, from Company K; second lieutenant, George Vaughan, from Company I.
In this connection we deem it most important to append the following chronological record of the movements of the One Hundred. and Eighteenth, as furnishing ready means of reference, which has been kindly transcribed for us by Colonel Cunningham: -
September 1st, 1862, left Plattsburg. 3d, in New York. 4th, reached Baltimore. 5th to 12th, at Camp Hall, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, near Elkridge, Md. To October 23d, Camp Wool, near Relay House, Md. October 24th to February 12th, 1863, camp near Fort Ethan Allen, Virginia. February 12th to April 20th, Camp Adirondack, near Findley Hospital, north of the capitol, Washington. April 20th to 22d, en route to defense of Suffolk, Va. 22d to 29th, Camp Nansernond, Suffolk defenses. 29th to May 1st, camp near Fort McClellan, Suffolk defenses. May 1st to 14th, camp near Fort Union, Suffolk defenses. 14th to June 18th, camp near Seaboard and Roanoke Railroad, Suffolk defenses. While in this camp the following expeditions were participated in: May 20th to 26th Blackwater raid and destruction of railroad, and June 12th to 17th reconnaissance toward Petersburg, Va. June 18th, 19th, en route for Yorktown, Va., by railroad and transport. 19th to 26th, camp at Yorktown. 26th, en route by transport to White House, Va. 26th, 27th, camp at White House. 27th to July 1st, beyond Pamunky River in detachments as advance pickets on different roads. July 1st to 4th, on the march with General Dix's expedition to the north of Richmond, sometimes called the "Blackberry Raid." 4th, battle of South Anna. July 5th to 10th, on return march to Yorktown. 10th to 13th, camp at Yorktown. 13th to October 2d, in garrison at Fort Keyes, Gloucester Point, Va. 2d, 3d, en route for Norfolk, Va., by transport. 3d. in Camp Barnes, near Norfolk. 11th, Companies E, G, I and K ordered to Portsmouth, Va. November 6th, Companies C and H joined the Portsmouth detachment, and A, B, D and F went into the entrenched camp about two miles from Norfolk. November 4th to December 12th, whole regiment quartered at Portsmouth. December 12th to Page 265 January 21st, 1864, in camp at Newport News, Va. 21st to 23d, on march to Williamsburgh, Va. 23d to February 6th, in camp near Fort Magruder, Williamsburgh. 6th to 9th, on the expedition against Richmond, via Bottom's Bridge and the Chickahominy. 9th to 13th, camp near Union Cemetery, Williamsburgh. 13th to 15th, marched to Newport News, thence by transport and railroad to Getty's Station, Va. 15th to March 12th, in camp near Getty's Station. While here, March 1st to 9th, on expedition to Deep Creek to resist raid of the enemy and pursuing raiders to Ballyhack, on the Dismal Swamp Canal. Part of the time while here, Companies B, H and K were stationed at Magnolia Station. March 12th to April 19th, camp at Bowers's Hill, Va., near Dismal Swamp. From this camp several expeditions and raids were made; the most important, April 13th, 14th, across the Nansemond, through the Chucatuck country, April 19th to 21st, en route by transport to Newport News, and march via Big Bethel to Yorktown, Va. 21st to May 4th, in camp at Yorktown. May 4th to 6th, on transport up the James River. May 6th, landed at Bermuda Hundred, Va., and marched to near Point of Rocks on the Appomattox. 7th, 8th, engaged with enemy near Richmond and Petersburg Pike and Railroad. 9th, 10th, skirmishing and destroying railroad; battle of Swift Creek on 9th. 11th, resting in entrenchment near Point of Rocks. 12th to 14th, fighting and skirmishing along the Richmond and Petersburg Pike and in action at Warebolton Church and Proctor's Creek. 15th, holding captured works near Drury's Bluff. 16th, battle of Drury's Bluff. 17th to 19th, slashing timber, entrenching, skirmishing and meeting attacks at various points along the Bermuda front. 29th, 30th, on transports via James, York and Pamunkey Rivers to White House, Va. 30th and June 1st, on march to Cold Harbor. June 1st to11th, battle of Cold Harbor and in trenches and advanced rifle-pits there. 12th, marched to White House. 13th, 14th, on transports back to Bermuda Hundred. 15th, crossed the Appomattox; battle of Petersburg Heights; Major Pruyn killed. 15th to August 27th, in and about the trenches and rifle-pits in the siege of Petersburg, variously stationed near corps headquarters, near Beasley House, among the pines, near Mortar Battery (called the "Petersburg Express"), in ravine, at the battle of the Mine, etc. August 27th to September 28th, on Bermuda front, near south bank of the James. September 28th, marched at night across the James River and received new armament, the Spencer repeating rifle. 29th, battle of Chapin's Farm and capture of Fort Harrison; brigade commander, General Burnham, killed. 30th, battle of holding the fort against three charges of the enemy. 30th to October 27th, in vicinity (and in entrenchments) of the captured fort, now called Fort Burnham. October 27th, marched to Seven Pines. 28th, battle of Second Fair Oaks. 29th to November 3d, in vicinity of Fort Burnham, in trenches. November 3d, marched to Aikens's Landing, following orders which were revoked there, November 4th Page 266 to 7th, in reserve near Fort Burnham. 7th, marched to Deep Bottom against expected attack 8th to April 3d, 1865, in camp in vicinity of the New Market Road at the front. April 3d, entered Richmond. 4th to June 14th, in camp near Manchester, Va. June 14th, down the James en route for home. 17th, in New York city. 19th, reached Plattsburg. June 16th, mustered out.
The foregoing pages of military history embrace the record of the services of all the full companies that went from Warren county; but it falls far short of comprehending all of the enlistments in the county, statistics of which, as far as available, will be found a little further on. The county was most honorably represented by numerous enlistments, besides those already noted, in the Ninety-first, Ninety-third, Thirtieth, One Hundred and Fifteenth, One Hundred and Twenty-fifth, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth, One Hundred and Fifty-sixth, One Hundred and Sixty-ninth and One Hundred and Ninety-second regiments, and the Second Veteran Cavalry, the Sixteenth Heavy and the Twenty-third Light Artillery, while many other organizations contained scattering recruits from here. It is impossible at this time to give even statistical details of all these enlistments, the records in existence not being perfect by any means, and the space at our disposal being entirely inadequate in which to cover so broad a ground. The Thirtieth regiment, organized at Albany to serve for two years, was raised in the counties of Columbia, Duchess, Rensselaer, Saratoga, Washington and Warren, containing a considerable number of recruits from the latter. It was mustered into the service June 1st, 1861, and was honorably engaged at Gainesville, Groveton, South Mountain, Antietam and Fredericksburg. It was associated with the Twenty-second, Twenty-fourth and Eighty-fourth regiments, forming the honorable "Iron Brigade," a title which it won in the first advance upon Fredericksburg in the spring of 1862. At the expiration of its term of service most of the men reenlisted for three years and were transferred to the Seventy-sixth New York Regiment. Dr. Francis L. R. Chapin, now of Glens Falls, was surgeon of this regiment.
The Second Veteran Cavalry. - This organization was recruited largely from the "Iron Brigade," to which allusion has been made, some three hundred or more of its members being from Warren county. The brave Captain Duncan Cameron, who went out in the Twenty-second regiment and lost an arm, raised a company mostly in Glens Falls, and William H. Arlin, then of Glens Falls, raised the greater part of another company The regiment was organized at Saratoga, to serve for three years, and was recruited in the counties of Saratoga, Schenectady, Montgomery, Clinton, Essex, Warren, Albany, Rensselaer and Columbia. It was mustered into the service from August 16th, to December 30th, 1863, and mustered out November 8th, 1865. It went out commanded by Colonel Morgan H. Chrysler, with Asa L. Gurney, of Queensbury, Page 267 as lieutenant-colonel; Duncan Cameron, of Glens Falls, as major; John S. Fassett, of Glens Falls, who was instrumental in recruiting for the organization, was also commissioned major, and both he and Major Cameron were brevetted lieutenant-colonel; adjutants, Michael A. Stearns, Henry W. Heartt, and Robert Barber, the latter of Glens Falls. Among the captains of this organization from Warren county were Smith J. Gurney, of Queensbury; William H. Arlin, of Glens Falls; Mason W. Covell, of Queensbury; and Israel Litno, of Horicon. Thomas Ledwick, Augustus Higby, Miles T. Bliven and Mason W. Covell, all of Glens Falls, held commissions as first lieutenant. Thomas Ledwick, Enoch H. Gurney, Albert W. Thompson, Harrison P. Kingsley, Henry M. Bailey, W. Scott Whitney, and Albert Case held commissions as second lieutenants.
This regiment performed noble service and bears an honorable record. It made its first rendezvous after leaving the State, at Giesborough, Md., and thence went by transport to New Orleans in February, 1864, to join Banks's army of the Red River, Department of the Gulf. It was next transferred to Brashear City and thence to Alexandria, La., being engaged in skirmishes and other active field service on the way. It then accompanied General Banks's army to Pleasant Hill, participating in the engagement at that point, and others at Grande Cour and Cane River Crossing, the latter a severe engagement. The regiment was then transferred to Canby's command and stationed at Morganzia, La., during the winter of 1864; its principal duty was in quelling guerilla raids and in opposition raiding on its own part. After the somewhat noted Mississippi raid, it crossed the river at Baton Rouge and proceeded into Mississippi to distract the enemy from possible opposition to Sherman's march to the sea. A detachment of the regiment was sent out fifty miles in advance to destroy the trestle work and tear up the track of the Mobile and Ohio railroad. The enemy was encountered at McLeod's Mills, a short distance from the railroad, about a thousand strong; the force was charged, a number killed and several prisoners captured. This event occurred December 10th, 1864, and the force was commanded by Colonel A. L. Gurney. The detachment numbered two hundred and fifty. Lieutenant Harrison P. Kingsley was wounded, taken prisoner and afterward died from his injuries. The raid was entirely successful. The regiment was with Canby and participated honorably in the capture of Fort Blakeley and Mobile. After these events it was ordered to Talladega, Ala., where it was mustered out.
Statistics. - The following valuable and interesting records were furnished to the Bureau of Military Statistics by Frederick A. Johnson, of Glens Falls, county correspondent of the bureau, under date of January 1st, 1864: -
Up to the date named Warren county had furnished one thousand two hundred and twenty-five men for the war, of whom two hundred and seventy were enlisted for two years and the remainder for three years. Of the latter Page 268 three hundred and thirty men enlisted between July 1st, 1863, and January 1st. 1864. The regiments into which these men entered were as follows: Twenty-second (two years), from Washington, Warren, Clinton, Essex and Rensselaer counties. Colonel Walter Philips, jr., two entire companies from Warren county, viz.: Company E, Captain George Clendon, jr., one hundred and forty men; Company F, Captain A. W. Holden, one hundred and fifty men.
Seventy-seventh Regiment, chiefly from Saratoga county, known as the "Bemis Heights Regiment," in companies not known, twenty-five men.
Ninety-third Regiment. from Washington, Warren, Essex and Clinton counties, three companies from Warren county: Company A, Captain Orville L. Colvin, one hundred men; Company H, Captain Hiram S. Wilson, one hundred men; Lieutenant .P. P. Eldridge, twenty-five men.
One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment, from Clinton, Essex, Warren and Franklin (chiefly from Sixteenth Senatorial District). Company A, Captain J. H. Norris, one hundred and ten men. (The reader has learned of the two other companies which went out in this regiment, but which do not appear in Mr. Johnson's report.)
One Hundred and Twenty-third Regiment, raised chiefly in the Twelfth Senatorial District. Company .A, Captain George R. Warren, fifty men; Captain Coleman, fifty men.
One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment, Washington, Saratoga, Warren and Hamilton counties (Fifteenth Senatorial District). Company K, Captain F. J. P. Chitty, fifty men. (The muster rolls and the enrollment papers furnished us by Colonel Chitty and herein given, report but thirty-three men.)
One Hundred and Sixty-ninth Regiment, chiefly from Twelfth Senatorial District. James Brice fifty men.
In Independent Cavalry, William H. Orton, fifty men enlisted since July 1st, 1863. For Second Veteran Cavalry, Company A, Captain Duncan Cameron, one hundred men; Company F, Captain J. S. Fassett, one hundred men; Company K, Captain William H. Arlin, one hundred men, and fifty in other companies.
Supplementary to this report, we find a statement, evidently made up with care, which gave the number of volunteers from ten towns, which reported (exclusive of Caldwell, which did not report) as two hundred and twenty-eight to the first thirty-eight regiments organized in the State; five hundred and twenty-three between the last of those regiments to which Warren county contributed and the president's call for six hundred thousand troops, and under that call, five hundred and seventy, making a total of one thousand four hundred and twenty-one men. The same statement gives the amount of money raised in the country to promote enlistments as $30,082, and the amount raised by individual subscription as $15,575. The amount of money Page 269 raised by Warren county for bounties to her soldiers, in the respective years 1881, 1862, 1863 and 1864, was as follows: -
The distribution of the above totals among the towns of the county is shown in the following table: -
|Stony Creek (1)|
1. No bounties paid.
From the for going pages, imperfect as the record undoubtedly is, the reader will have correctly inferred that the county of Warren was in no respect behind any other locality in her promptness of action, liberality in the expenditure of money, and patriotism in enlistments. As the various calls of the president for troops in the closing years of the Rebellion were issued, and the State Legislature made it possible for counties to pay generous bounties for the more rapid filling of the different quotas, the Board of Supervisors of Warren county held numerous special meetings, the representatives of the several towns being fully authorized by their constituents, and bounties proportionate with those paid in other localities were promptly offered and enlistments were made as required to fill the quotas. In the succeeding history of the town of Queensbury, the reader will find still further details of the action in that town throughout the Rebellion, as given in Dr. Holden's valuable history.