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The Station Woolshed - Pareora Estate, South Canterbury, N.Z.

The Early Canterbury Runs: Holme Station and Pareora were originally one station— (Run 10 N.Z.R.)

During the 1850s the Government offered land up to 5000 acres to settlers under a scheme of Depasturing Licenses. The rents were low but the conditions included a clause stating that the lessee must stock his run with a specified number of sheep "or great cattle in proportion" within a stated time. Failure to meet this requirement could result in cancellation of the license. It was sometimes difficult for the settler to provide the necessary number of stock. Reference: Blue Cliffs by A.E. Woodhouse, pg 1. Collier Meyer

Otago Witness 4 December 1858, Page 6
Waste Land Board. This Board met on Tuesday. Present— the Acting Chief Commissioner, Messrs. M'Glashan, C. Logie, and Thomson.
Mr. Macdonald appeared on behalf of Messrs. Harris and Innes, to know the amount of stock required to be put upon their run, which was not to the extent applied for. As regarded Mr. Meyer's application — 330 head of cattle must be put on the run. Messrs. Harris and Innes to put 3250 head of cattle on the run.

Otago Witness 26 March 1859, Page 5
A Meeting of the Waste Land Board was held on the 19th instant.
The Chief Commissioner directed the attention of the Board to applications for licenses on the country adjoining the Canterbury Province. The Board resolved not to grant licenses for the country in question, but authorised the return of the deposits on evidence of the stocking being produced. A letter was read from Mr. Healey, requesting that no extension of time should be granted to Messrs. Harris and Innes. It was resolved that the Chief Commissioner inform Mr. Healey that the extension was granted prior to the date of his letter. The Board adjourned.  

Pareora, some 25,000 acres, between the Pareora and Otaio rivers and from the Hunter Hills and down to the coast, was taken up by David Innes (1830 - 1865) in 1853, he owned it, but ran it in partnership with William Harris Harris of Waikakahi, a run further south. In 1855 they acquired the run to the west of Innes’ as the original applicant had not occupied it. By late 1858 a substantial homestead and station woolshed was under construction closer to the centre of the station. Innes started freeholding small areas of land around his homestead and by the end of 1863 he had bought 1000 acres, leaving 59,000 acres as leasehold. In 1854 the partners were running 2800 sheep and by 1863 the tally recorded 20,000. The numbers fluctuated between years as Innes was selling sheep to the new runholders, due to their scarcity at that time. Much of the stock that has made the Canterbury Plains areas world-famous had its foundation laid at Pareora, where David Innes was an important importer and breeder of pedigree rams and sheep, for which he gained a high reputation, and was often the recipient of leading show honours. He was a good stockman and did well at the first Canterbury A & P Show in Christchurch, winning with the best woolled Merino ram bred in New Zealand. Can you imagine driving the merino rams from Pareora to Christchurch in 1859, a distance of 110 miles and have them arrive in great condition with through five river crossings, no bridges in those days, following a bullock track for days through tussock and flax in damper areas. The rams coped better than his future wife.

Overland in 1856:

From Timaru we rode on to Mr D. Innes' station at Pareora (eight miles) the road sometimes following the beach, at others climbing the low ridges and crossing gullies. We passed between the sea and several salt water lagoons, on which appeared a few ducks, and crossed two or three small streams. Mr Innes' house was a fine large one built with split weatherboarding and roofed with galvanised iron. The fender in the sitting room was the rib of a whale, and there was a chair with a whale's vertebre for a seat. It was a storm night, the wind blowing a S.W. gale with heavy rain.
24th May.— Four miles, partly flat and partly over low spurs, brought us to the boundary river between Innes and Thompson's runs, called Otaio. A little further on the track took us to the sea beach, which we rode along for live or six miles, with a salt water swamp and a lagoon on the landward side. We then struck inland, and outspanned for dinner on the bank of the Markikihi stream, which, however, was dry.
25th. — We had a long hunt for our horses, as they had gone up the valley to the bush, where they revelled in the change of food, sow-thistles, etc., so that it was nearly mid-day before we started. The track passed over the low ridges to the Waihao (encompassed by water) river — 3 miles — when it turned to the right and passed a house that was being built for a Mr Innes. It struck me that all this part was splendid agricultural land, and wondered how long it would be allowed to remain as sheep runs.  

Marriage: 1860 Catherine Williams to David Innes

Lyttelton Times Saturday 28 January 1860 Married
INNES - WILLIAMS - On 26 Jan. at St Michael's Church, Christchurch, by the Lord Bishop of Christchurch, assisted by the Ven. Archdeacon of Akaroa, David Innes, Esq, J.P. of the Pareora to Catharine Lucy, only daughter of late D.T. Williams, late of Riccarton, Canterbury, New Zealand, and formerly Heytesbury, Wiltshire. 

Marriage in 1860 changed Innes’ life, and the station management. He had brought his fiancée, along with her mother, for a visit to the station, but the journey from Christchurch was so traumatic that she refused to return. Fleas prevented sleep in the Rakaia accommodation house and it was a nightmare crossing of the Rangitata and due to this David Innes became resident in Christchurch, and was soon a member of the Canterbury Provincial Council, for Pareora from March to July 1864, being twice elected in that time. Because of this enforced absence managers for the station became a necessity and by late 1867 a new homestead, along with a sixteen stand woolshed, was built at the eastern end of the station. F.W. Stubbs was succeeded as manager in 1863 by James Macdonald. When that partnership was dissolved in 1864 with Harris, Innes very soon after entered into partnership with Edward Elworthy. Later that same year, the Pareora was divided between them, Elworthy having the inland, Upper end, and Innes the Lower, eastern half. For a while they both retained the name Pareora, which of course created a deal of confusion. During Elworthy's absence in England his manager, Mr Harry Ford, started to refer to the upper Pareora as Holme, to remove the confusion. The name was adopted by Elworthy on his return. Elworthy bought Innes' remaining interest in 1865. Ford managed Holme Station from 1865 - 1877.  

First Canterbury A& P Show

It was in 1859 that the first annual show in Canterbury was held on the property of Dr Moorhouse. Johannes Andersen in his Jubilee History of South Canterbury suggests that Acland was the originator of the idea and Mount Peel would have been the show ground if the sheep from the north could have been got across the Rangitata. He writes that there were 28 pens in the show . . . many of singularly fine character. The show was held in September under the auspices of the Canterbury Pastoral Association, with prizes for five different classes. Tripp in his diary makes an interesting story in a few words: "Sheep show at Moorhouse's. Innes carried off most of the prizes. Dowling's sheep beat all I have ever seen. Gave our men a holiday. Chapman got drunk. De Renzy slept here".

Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle, 8 October 1859, Page 3
A show of sheep had been held in connection with the Canterbury Pastoral Association. The following prizes were conferred :
1. For the five finest woolled rams, of any age, bred in the colony : — Mr. David Innes, prize ; Mr. Alfred Cox, worthy of commendation.
2. For the five finest woolled rams, under two years old, bred in the colony : — Mr. David Innes, prize.
3. For the five finest woolled ewes, of any age, bred in the colony :— Mr. Alfred Cox, prize; Mr. Edward Chapman, worthy of commendation.
4. For the five finest woolled ewes, under two years old, bred in the colony :— Mr. E. H. Fereday, prize ; Mr. E. Chapman,
worthy of commendation.
5. For the five finest woolled rams, of any age, imported:—Mr. B. Dowling, prize ; Mr. M. Studholme, worthy of commendation.
6. For the five finest woolled ewes, of any age, imported:—Mr. B. Dowling, prize; Mr. Alfred Cox, worthy of commendation.
7. For the best single ram of any age, bred in this island, or imported:— Mr. E. Chapman, prize (bred by Mr. E. H. Fereday) ; Mr. McLean, worthy of commendation.
8. For the best five fat wethers : — Mr. George W. Hall.
The Secretary has handed as the following resolutions unanimously adopted at the business meeting of the Association held on the same day; at which upwards, of thirty gentlemen enrolled their names as joining members :— That his Honor the Superintendent be requested to become the Patron of the Canterbury Pastoral Association. That the following gentlemen be the committee, with power to add to their number:—Messrs. A. Cox, B. Dowling, C. Tripp, B.
Moorhouse, D. Innes, E. H. Fereday. G. D. Lockhart, E. Chapman, R. L. Higgins. R. McLean, E. W. Templer, G. W. Hall, M. Studholme, and J. T. McDonald. That the annual subscription be £1 1s. That the next show of sheep be held at Mr. Turton's accommodation house, on the Ashburton River, on the third Wednesday of August, 1860. That the Secretary be requested to send to England for the cups and medals by the first opportunity. That B. Dowling, Esq., be requested to act as Honorary Secretary. A cordial vote of thanks was then proposed to the Judges, Messrs. Wilkin and Matson; also to the Secretaries (Messrs. Dowling and Innes), and to Mr. Benjamin Moorhouse; all of which were, adopted unanimously. The meeting then adjourned.

Star 24 January 1899, Page 1
Edward Elworthy came to the colony in 1864. He was offered a suitable investment in the Pareora station, then held by Messrs Harris and Innes, and purchased Mr Harris's interest. Shortly afterwards he returned to England and married, and on returning purchased Mr Innes's share for £33,000. The run at that time extended from the Hunter Hills and down to the sea, between the Pareora and Otaio Rivers. The advent of the New Zealand and Australian Land Company put a fresh complexion on Mr Elworthy's prospects, as the company purchased the frontage and best block of 30,000 acres out of his run. This compelled Mr Elworthy to purchase in self-defence against further encroachments, and subsequent purchases have made up a freehold estate of over 50,000 acres. As a large sheep-grower he took more interest in the frozen meat trade than most producers, and had a large share in initiating the South Canterbury freezing works. When many of the leases expired in New Zealand in 1890, Elworthy set out to buy as much land as he could and became the largest single landowner in South Canterbury.

Gossip said that the partnership between Innes and Harris was about to dissolve. As soon as he could move, Elworthy made his way to Timaru to investigate the truth of this rumour. After talking to the agent and riding over some of the country, he decided to throw in his lot with Innes. Their partnership lasted only six months, however; Innes took over what became the Lower Pareora and Elworthy took the up-country which was afterwards called Holme station. Once on his own Elworthy had scope for his great abilities, and made Holme Station one of the finest in Canterbury. In the 1880s, when the freezing industry began, he was farming 65000 acres on which he ran 60000 sheep. Thirty blade-shearers clipped the wool, 30 teams prepared the ground by contract for the fattening and winter crops;  Turn back the clock by Evelyn Hosken - 1968

New Zealand and Australian Land Company

Mathew Holmes, the agent for the Canterbury and Otago Association purchased the Pareora Run from Innes in 1864. Between 1859 and 1877, the landed interests of seventeen individuals, associations and companies all based in Scotland were by a number of stages brought together to form the New Zealand and Australian Land Company Ltd in 1867. Following a Private Act of the British Parliament in 1877, the New Zealand and Australian Land Company was registered in Scotland on 26 October 1877. The purpose of the Company was to acquire property, freehold and leasehold, in New Zealand and Australia. The registered office was originally in Glasgow, later Edinburgh and administrative offices in Dunedin and Sydney. The magnitude of the amalgamated company was such that it demanded the services of a man who under-stood agricultural and pastoral methods in the colonies and who, at the same time, was familiar with business circles in Glasgow and Edinburgh. Such a man was William Soltau Davidson. For more than fifty years, Davidson served the Association. The freehold estates in South Canterbury included “Levels” and “Pareora,” at Timaru, and “Hakataramea" (52,000).  All the land had been carefully selected and the leases and freeholds acquired by Mathew Holmes, a prominent Otago merchant and runholder acting as purchasing agent for the Canterbury and Otago Association. For two years, Wm. Davidson was employed as a cadet on the Levels from Jan. 1866 - 69, then became assistant to Donald McLean, the new manager. Reference: William Soltau Davidson: A Pioneer of New Zealand Estate Management, by Mervyn Palmer, p 148-164.

Levels estate, 50,000 acres, was also bought by the Government for close settlement in 1902 and Hakataramea in 1908. By 1929 only two properties remained in New Zealand. Australian acquisitions increased from 1900. In 1968 the company was taken over by Dalgety and Australian New Zealand Loan Limited (Dalgety Australia Limited). In 1969 its domicile moved from Scotland to Australia. From 1970 NZAL in Australia operated, with associated companies, as a subsidiary of Dalgety Australia Limited. From 1970 Dalgety New Zealand Limited owned the two remaining New Zealand properties. C.N. Orbell had managed Pareora at one time. He latter managed Levels for the NZ&ALCo.

At 21,440 acres Pareora was one of the great South Canterbury runs until in the 1890s. The owners of the Estate were the New Zealand & Australian Land Company and they slowly subdivided and sold off the Estate into smaller units that were distributed by public ballot with the last 8000 odd acres being sold to the Government late in 1899 which became the Pareora No 2 Settlement, now known as Lyalldale. George Lyall was the last estate manager. Part had already been purchased by Edward Elworthy to form Holme station.  Edward also sold land too, e.g. to his long time manager Ford and the latest being for soldier settlement after WWII.   ‘‘The Company’’, as it was known, had always been held in high esteem by local farmers. Over a long period they had worked for and dealt with a well-run organisation managed by capable and fair-minded overseers such as CN Orbell, Andrew Turnbull, Alex McPherson and George Lyall. They appreciated this, which explains why the Pareora No. 2 Settlement became ‘‘Lyalldale’’ — the only place in the world bearing this name — after the last manager of ‘‘the Company’’, wrote  John Button, Timaru Courier, 2010.

The Clearing Sale took place on the 29th March 1900, one day before the ballot. Not a good move.  

This created a dilemma for aspirant ballotees; they would need (the) stock and plant if successful in the ballot, but would be embarrassed with their purchases if they were unsuccessful. Despite this the sale was a great success with around 750 people attending, many arriving by train at St Andrews and being taken to the sale at the homestead in two four-in-hand drags. The stock were yarded and paraded under the personal supervision of Mr George Lyall, the manager (whose many friends, by the bye, were glad to hear that he had secured a goodly piece of Pareora, near St. Andrews), and among the many present were Mr Thomas Brydone, the company's general manager for the colonies, Mr P. Patullo, one of the superintendents, and Mr G. Macpherson, manager of the Totara station ; also Mr Andrew Turnbull, the first manager, if we mistake not, of Pareora, who had come to have a look round on a place that to him is reminiscent of many pleasant memories. March 30, 1900, was ballot day, a chance for settlers to own a farm formed by the subdivision of the Pareora Estate. It was a big day in Timaru as farmers gathered at the Sophia St Hall.

Andrew Turnbull's OBITUARY. Timaru Herald, 11 June 1900, Page 3
He was 64 when he died.  Andrew arrived in Auckland in 1864, coming from Scotland with a consignment of prize stock for the New Zealand and Australian Land Company. After delivering his consignment at one of the company's stations at Hawkes Bay, the late Mr Turnbull went down to Mr Matthew Holmes' station at Oamaru, and was the first to bring sheep from there to stock the Pareora (St. Andrews) station of the company. He succeeded the late Mr Cunningham Smith as manager of the Pareora station in 1865, and held this position for about 20 years, when he was promoted to be assistant to the in general manager, Mr T. Brydone. He discharged the duties of this position for several years, and on deciding to retire the company gave him the option of accepting a pension or a handsome bonus. He chose the latter, and, in partnership with Mr R. Stewart, opened a wool and fellmongery business at Wellington. He was also one of the first promoters of the New Zealand Grand National, and as a judge of stock was reckoned to be one of the best in the colony. [He is buried at the Timaru Cemetery and there is no headstone.]

Mr Thomas Brydone was credited with being practically the father of the frozen meat industry of the colony. He was one of the Dunedin business men who called the first meeting in this city to consider the possibility of inaugurating the export of frozen meat from the colony, and took a leading part in establishing the New Zealand Freezing Company's Burnside works, the first of their kind in the colony. He was a large shareholder in the company, and a director from its inception up to the time of his death. The work that Mr Brydone had been able to accomplish had been the salvation of New Zealand. A cairn erected to the memory of the late Thos. Brydone was unveiled in February 1907 built of white stone in the form of an obelisk on Sevastopol Hill on the Totara estate, Oamaru and is a conspicuous landmark.

"The Estate managers had planted, probably soon after the woolshed was built, a line of bluegums (NW) windward of the shed and some distance from it. Even though you can drive a bus between them, they provide wonderful protection, slowing the wind speed down dramatically." The nor-west gale of 1st August 1975 uprooted dozens of bluegums but the woolshed escaped with negligible damage, losing but one sheet of roofing iron, in stark contrast to the damage it sustained from a big blow in the 1930s when 30’ at the eastern end was damaged beyond repair.

Moffat-Virtue Ltd.

There appears to have been two brands used. The NZ&ALCo stencil has been nailed below the window for generations, and there obviously was a Pareora one too but no stencil has survived, apart for three quarters of a print. Bales were branded boldly and neatly with a stensil plate and black branding ink, a cake on a plate, just a little water was added, on the long and narrowest side. This allowed for the opening of the bales and more bales exhibited side by side on a given floor space at the wool sales.


1878 sale - 6000 acres

Timaru Herald, 7 June 1886, Page 3
The Pareora Estate managed by Alexander Macpherson, Esq,

Timaru Herald, 15 April 1893, Page 1 Land District of Canterbury.
It is hereby notified, in terms of the Land Act, 1892, that the Leases of the Blocks of Crown Land specified hereunder, will be offered for disposal in the manner and at the time stated :
SMALL GRAZING RUNS Under Part V. of the Land Act, 1892, to be opended for application. At this Office on and after Thursday, April 20th, 1893.
2 Runs of 1356 and 1900 acres, parts of the Ashwick Station
Run 38. 3700 acres, part of the Pareora Station.
Lithograph Plans may be seen at Railway Stations' and Post Offices, And at this Office, where full particulars and forms may be obtained. J. W. A. MARCHANT, Commissioner of Crown Lands. District Lands and Survey Office, Christchurch.

Evening Post, 30 May 1893, Page 2 Land for Settlements Act.
Re-Purchase of a rich estate. The Government has just negotiated the purchase of 620 acres of rich agricultural land on the Pareora Estate, near Timaru, belonging to the New Zealand and Australian Land Company. It is understood that a Village Settlement will be formed there.

Hawera & Normanby Star, 29 December 1893, Page 3
Christchurch, December 28. The Pareora Block, near Timaru, recently acquired by the Government from the New Zealand and Australian Land Company, was allotted at the Land Office to-day by ballot. The land is situated to the south of the Pareora river and west of the main line of railway, the nearest station being St. Andrews, distant about two miles. The block is connected with Timaru by the main south road, the distant of about eight miles. The sections comprise open level agricultural land, of good quality present laid down in English grass. The Otaio water race supplies some of the sections, and many are well fenced. Water can easily obtained by the means of shallow wells. All the surrounding roads are good, and the sections are in very way adapted to the purpose for which they are leased in perpetuity, viz., to make homes for working men, gardeners and others. The block was divided into 29 sections, from 10 acres to 20 acres in area, the half-yearly rent ranging between £3 and £9. There were 380 applications, all except three sections being applied for and allotted. Pareora Village Settlement

This old T shaped weathered board shed with the with the obligatory red oxide paint was constructed in 1867 as a 14 stand woolshed on the Pareora Estate, Lyalldale district, carries a category II Heritage NZ classification - "...places of historical or cultural heritage significance or value" and a C classification from the Waimate District Council - means controlled activities. An application is necessary before making alternations or additions. Local authorities are required to notify the NZHPT if a project information memorandum (PIM) or building consent application is received regarding a registered property. A small part of the Baltic pine floor remains as over the years the flooring has suffered from weather due to a skylight being broken from hail damage and later borer. The woolshed was used extensively by most of the settlers for many years, and by close neighbours until after WWII. The historic Hakataramea Station woolshed, T-shaped building of limestone, originally with 24 stands, dates from around 1868, when the Land Company took over the property. The shed featured a slatted floor, familiar nowadays, but at the time this was seen as a novelty.

St Andrews

Ten minutes south-west from Timaru, established in 1871, when the railway opened. St Andrews is believed to have been named after Andrew Turnbull, who managed the Pareora run for many years for the New Zealand and Australia Land Company. Don't be fooled by appearances St Andrews once amounted to something. It was the centre of a good farming and sheep rearing district. Trains brought farmers to regular stock auctions at the town's saleyards. The hotel provided accommodation and refreshments, across the road from the station. Frequent trains carried stock, wool, wheat, barley, grass seed and specialist produce such as blackcurrants. The ruins in the paddock, on the coast side of the railway and opposite the now closed garage, were once a grain store, built in 1878 for the New Zealand and Australian Land Company. The store held grain from local farms for loading onto railway wagons. There is only the walls left and on the west wall, facing the road, there is impressed in the concrete NZ&ALCo. In 2003 The Historic Places Trust ruled a piece of agricultural history in South Canterbury - the Pareora grain store - should not be demolished. An application to bowl the pioneer concrete grain store was declined by the trust, who said it "occupied a significant place in the agricultural history of South Canterbury". The grain store was built in 1878 by the New Zealand and Australian Land Company to store grain from its extensive land holdings, and is one of the earliest examples of concrete construction still standing. The earliest concrete farm building in England was built only nine years earlier. Subsequently the farm upon which it stands was sold and subdivded and the sections sold. The wide strip of land east of the highway was railway reserve, where once a row of houses for railway employees' families stood. According to Wises there was good fishing in Pareora and Otaio rivers and good hare and duck shooting and good roads. Crean's Country -The Press writer 

The coming of the railway was an enormous boon, facilitating the easy movement of the harvested grain, and wheat from areas like the Pareora Estate was carted to the railway in up to 30 drays at a time. In 1878 the Waimate County, which included the Pareora Estate, had 21,000 acres of wheat. By 1881 part of the old Pareora run had become an immense wheatfield, and it was not an unfamiliar sight during the harvesting to see 14 horse-drawn reapers and binders following each other in the vast paddocks. Much of the harvesting was done by contract and newspaper advertisements. Cropping reached its peak in South Canterbury in 1912 when 101,000 acres of wheat were harvested. Timaru Courier Jan. 21st 2010

Otago Witness, 22 March 1879, Page 4
The road leading from St Andrews to Gillpentown, a distance of six miles, is a good one, double the width of our Otago roads ; one half of it being covered with gravel for winter traffic, but a great portion of it is completely overgrown with thistles— the down in some places covering the ground like snow. This road passes through the 6000 acres of the New Zealand and Australian Land Company's Pareora estate that were sold in farms, in December last. This splendid tract of land is divided into farms of from 150 to 200 acres each, and brought, we believe, an average of £13 108 per acre. Nearly all the purchasers were bona fide farmers, but only two or three have, as yet, commenced working upon the ground.

Sheep returns 1873-4 1875-76 pg 6 & 7, 1878 1879-1881

Ashburton Guardian, 6 November 1895, Page 2
The Timaru Herald says ."Shearing is now in full swing on the lower stations, among the larger places which made a start on Monday being the Levels and Pareora estates of the New Zealand and Australian Land Company, and Mr E. Elworthy's estate. Mr W. Grant, of Elloughton, has about finished the merinos he had brought down from the Mackenzie Country, and in his paddocks can be seen sheep, some in the wool and some shorn, that got through the severe winter. All these sheep are now looking very well."

In 1896, the New Zealand and Australian Land Company had the biggest flocks in New Zealand: it had 84,000 sheep at the Levels in Geraldine County and 76,000 at Pareora and Hakataramea in Waimate County (Scotter 1965). Other large flocks in the south were those of Allan McLean (67,000 at Waikakahi), Arthur Elworthy (54,000 at Holme Station), and Acland and Tripp (both over 40,000) (Scotter 1965). In the Mackenzie Country, no owners had more than 30,000 sheep (Scotter 1965).   

The shearing plant is a two stand Moffat Virtue, and was driven by a petrol motor mounted outside, now by a 1hp electric motor.   

Timaru Herald 6 Nov.  1869
Timaru Herald 26 Oct. 1870
Timaru Herald 3 Nov. 1876 (r)

Shearing Difficulties
There were frequent communications with stations and managers kept diaries. Henry Ford, the manager of the Edward Elworthy's Pareora Station wrote:
1870: Jan 27. Shearers struck - went to Blue Cliffs next day to try to get shearers.

Timaru Herald, 3 November 1876, Page 3
Shearing.— A well attended meeting of sheepfarmers was held at the Ship Hotel yesterday, to consider the price of shearing. The decision the meeting arrived at will be found, in an advertisement [see above]. The price of shearing is a matter which appears to be troubling the sheepfarmers and shearers at the present time: the former on account of their unwillingness to pay over 16s 8d per hundred, and the latter on account of their determination not to shear for less that £1. We are informed that several sheds in this district are filling up at 16s 8d, but strong efforts are being made by a union of shearers, to prevent men accepting this price. Advertisements from New Zealand squatters are appearing in several Australian papers, stating that shearing, in New Zealand will be 16s 8d with rations. We learn that 60 Victorian shearers arrived at the Bluff yesterday.

Timaru Herald, 13 November 1877, Page 7
The annual show, under the auspices of the Timaru Agricultural and Pastoral Association, commenced on Oct. 30 on the grounds to the north-west of the town. SHEARING PRIZES. More interest was exhibited in, and excitement caused over, the shearing contest, than any other during the day. It was with the utmost difficulty that the police could keep the dense crowd from trespassing on the space alloted to the shearers, and to keep the contestants from being cramped in their action. Twelve men entered for the prizes, and started to work about 2.30 p.m. The sheep, which were kindly placed at the disposal of the Committee by Mr A. Turnbull, of the Pareora Station, wore to be shorn in English, i.e., ribbed, fashion, and the result was highly satisfactory, for some first-rate work was made. The President (Mr Fulbert Archer) certainly deserves the thanks of all owners of long-woolls in the district for instituting a contest of this kind, and we hope it will be continued from year to year.


Timaru Herald, 28 June 1881, Page 2 Resident Magistrate's Court.
Timaru — Monday, Junk 27. (Before R. Beetham, Esq., R.M.) Trespassing in purist of game. James Poff, John Coll, Michael Tregoning, and Frank Poff were charged with, on June 15th, trespassing in pursuit of game on the New Zealand and Australian Land Company's estate at Pareora. Inspector Pander conducted the prosecution, and Mr Jameson appeared for James, Poff and John Coll. Michael Tregoning pleaded guilty. George Smith: I am staying at the Pareora station. On June 15th I was out on the ran with one Macpherson. I first saw James Poff walking in an open paddock about one and a half chains from me. I soon after saw four or five dogs in the same paddock. I next saw the other three accused on a hill some two or three hundred yards away. They were on the Pareora estate. Four of the dogs were greyhounds. - I took three of them to the station. I only spoke to Tregoning, whom I told to give up the dogs. By Mr Jameson : James Poff was near a fence. I do not think he was on a road. I said none. I did not see the dogs coursing. I can only swear to James Poff and Tregoning. Alexander Macpherson : I am Overseer at Pareora Station. I was out on the run with last witness on the 15th ult. We came across James Poff in one of the paddock, and shortly after saw four greyhounds and another dog. We next noticed three men get up from the tussocks on a rise. I subsequently came up to one of them, who gave his name a James Robinson. He said he only knew the name of one of the men. I took the numbers of the collars and sent them by Mr Smith to the station. An objection raised by Jameson that Mr Turnbull must prove that from personal knowledge the land where the defendants were seen belonged to the Company. His Worship adjourned the case till Friday next, the accused not being required to find bail.  

 The setout is pretty much as it was when built. The catching pens were made smaller 60 yrs ago. The grating you can see are original, by and large, cut from the Company's bush behind Waimate, hard as hell requiring drilling to nail through and wearing thin from 145 years of sheep feet.

Daily Southern Cross, 3 November 1857, Page 3
The New Zealand Gazette of the 29th ultimo contains the following notifications : also, that his Excellency the Governor has beer pleased to appoint David Innes, Esq., to be a justice of the peace for the Province of Canterbury.

Timaru Herald, 4 February 1865, Page 2
Tenders are invited immediately for the erection of a fence, five or six miles long, on the Otaio River, between the runs of Messrs. Innes & Ellworthy and Mr. Henry Poingdestre. The fence to consist of iron standards and six wires, fifteen straining posts to the mile. All material placed on the ground. Tenders to state price per mile. For further particulars, apply to MR ELLWORTHY (sic), Pareora Station ; or MR. RICHARD GROOM, Blue Cliffs Station.

Timaru Herald, 29 December 1865, Page 2
Wire Fences.— An accident which had nearly been attended with fatal - results occurred to James Macdonald. Esq, of the Waitaki on Saturday night last. He was riding from Blue Cliffs Station in the direction of the Waitaki when he was suddenly rendered senseless by a fall from his horse. On regaining a little consciousness Mr Macdonald walked as he believed in the direction of the nearest house; but he was out the whole of the night, and the greater part of the following day, and reached the Pareora Station about four o'clock on Sunday afternoon completely exhausted. He was attended by Dr. McLean and subsequently conveyed into Timaru where, we are happy to state, he is fast recovering. We are sorry to add that this is not the first accident which has occurred through wire fences, in riding across country on a dark night. It is quite impossible for either the horse or the rider to see such a fence.

Timaru Herald, 20 March 1867, Page 3
Ploughing. Tenders wanted for ploughing 100 acres of new land on the Pareora Station. To be sent in on or before the 31st inst. The lowest or any tender not necessarily accepted. Specification to be seen with WM. CUNNINGHAM SMITH, Manager on the Station, or GEORGE GRAY RUSSELL & CO.

Timaru Herald, 21 March 1868, Page 1
Wanted — Tenders for the Erection of a Wooden Dwelling House, labor only. Plans and specifications to be seen at Messrs G. G. Russell and Co's office, Timaru. Lowest labor may not be accepted. Tender sent in on or before March 24 to JAMES ANDERSON, Pareora Station.

Timaru Herald, 10 April 1869, Page 1
To farmers and others. Wanted — Tenders for Ploughing, &c, about 267 acres stubble hind on Pareora Station. Specifications may be seen at Messrs Geo. Gray Russell and Co.'s office, Timaru, or at the station. Tenders to be sent in to James Anderson, Pareora Station, on or before 13th April. JAMES ANDERSON 

Otago Witness 18 February 1892, Page 7
The Timaru Herald says : — " The races in the Lower Pareora water supply district are now practically completed, and farmers interested are emphatic as to the benefits already received. The races are in all about 35 miles in length, and supply the south side of the Pareora estate and the that between that property and the Otaio river. Upon the Pareora estate especially must the benefit be felt, for upon the down land it has hitherto been a difficult task to keep a sufficient supply of water both with mills and dams. Now there is a capital running stream in nearly every paddock. The races also supply the township of St. Andrews. The head works are situated at the Otaio Gorge, near Bluecliffs station, and the main race runs for about six miles on the south side of the river before the water supply district proper is reached. At Mr Copeland's farm the race is taken across the river in a flume about 800 ft long, and shortly afterwards, by means of a sidelong cutting on the river terrace, enters the upper part of the Pareora estate, and is then subdivided. The general scheme of the work is similar to the works in operation in the Geraldine County, and it speaks well for the engineers, Messrs Meason and Marchant, that the Waimate County Council should a second time secure their services. The cost of the work will be about L1500, the area watered about 7000 acres, and the cost to the settlers about 6d per acre, a mere bagatelle compared with the benefits derived. The contractors for the work were Messrs Johnstone, Campbell, and Co., of Waimate, who have carried out their contract in a very faithful and satisfactory manner."



After the bale cap was sewn on, and branded with the farm name and bale number the door of the press was swung open and the bale moved onto to the scales and the weight recorded. Above is the wool table and an electric Van-Guard hydraulic wool press that replaced the old wooden Donald. The press originally used would have been similar to the one in Te Papa. When the bottom bin was full the empty top bin was lifted on a vertical pole and swung around on top with the fleeces then being thrown up to the top and packed down. That is the reason there is the hip roof in the middle of the shed. The old bale weights used to aim at around 400lbs. If the fleeces were 6-7lbs that would make around 55/bale, a figure still used as a guide.  Today farmers aim for around 160+kg. There is a concern for over and underweight bales at the moment. This impacts on shipping costs. If they were nearer the target weight of 180kg there would be less to ship = lower costs. Most no-tramps presses have scales insitu so the problem would go away. Woolsheds always had a set of scales for weighing the bales and shearers and sheds hands would sometimes weigh themselves and scribble down their weight on the side of a wooden bin. There were bins for storing fleeces right down one side. In this shed we have:
 S Cague 10st 8lb 15/11/96
A Williams 10st 7lb 15/11/96
J B(?) Cooke 11st 15/11/96 [shearing]

Then lower down
John Cooke 9st 11lb 28/2/95......10st 7/6/95

J Maundell 11st 6lb 5/3/95
J Stowell 9st 11lb 5/3/95

Sam Cague was born in 1882. Looks like he was a local boy. He would have been 14 in 1896, probably a rouseabout. He was buried at the Otaio Cemetery in 1956 at age 74. Or this could have been his father, Samuel, as he weighed 148 lbs. He died 2nd December 1896 at the age of 55 at his residence in St. Andrews. Sam was working in the Pareora Station woolshed two weeks prior. J Stowell would have been local as well, from Esk Valley.

Wool shed terminology

Otago Witness 23 December 1887, Page 34 Waimate
December 20.— During the past fortnight the weather has been all that could be desired by the agriculturists in this country, and haymaking has in consequence been the order of the day. Shearing is still in full swing at the larger sheds in the county, but another fortnight will see almost the whole of the clip in the bale. The wool this year it generally very fine in quality, particularly among crossbreds, but there is a considerable falling off in weight owing to the absence of grease. Merino wool is not so good, being clammy and dry. On the Waimate estate Messrs Studholme have just finished the shearing of about (65,000) sheep, a decrease in the number in comparison with that of last year by a few thousands. The reduction is due to the fact that a large area of the freehold estate has been disposed of during the past year. Mr Allan McLean, of Waikakahi, paid off all his shearers last week after securing a very excellent clip. Mr John Douglas, of Waihao Downs, has put through all his heavy sheep, and the shearers are now busy with Messrs Parker Bros.' Elephant Hill shed. Mr E. Elworthy, of Pareora, will finish in about a week's time with good weather, Mr T. Teschemaker, of Otaio, has just cut out, and his shearer have gone to Mr R. H. Rhodes' Blue Cliffs station. Shearers are now making back into the Mackenzie country and up the Rakaia Gorge to pick up late sheds, returning in time to shear "straggler" after the second mustering of the early stations. What sort of tucker shop is it?

Timaru Herald, 24 November 1888, Page 4
James Bell alias James Walls was charged with stealing a sack value 1s and 143 lbs of wool value £2 10s 9d, the property of the N.Z. and A.L. Company, Pareora. Sergeant Major Mason, who conducted the prosecution, stated accused, who had no settled place of abode, had been selling wool and skins about the place for some time. Detective Neil arrested him for stealing wool and he thought he would be able to show that the wool belonged to the complainants. John Joseph Eason, manager of the Timaru Wool Works for W. Collins and Co., stated that on the 30th Oct. prisoner came to the works between 6 and 7 am. with a bundle of seven crossbred skins (now in Court) which witness bought. On Nov. 2nd prisoner brought four bags of wool (produced), one of daggings, two of pieces, one of fleeces. These witness bought, giving him an order on Collins and Co. for £3 10s 9d. On the 17th prisoner brought one bag of wool, which witness declined to buy. Prisoner said he was a farmer at Pareora, and that he had more wool to sell.
Williams Collins, auctioneer and owner of the wool works, paid accused £2 10s 9d on the 2nd inst. on the order of last witness. Last Saturday prisoner brought a bag of wool to the auction room for sale. He said then he was a farmer at Pareora.
Alex. Macpherson, manager of the Pareora Estate of the New Zealand and Australian land Company
P. Fgan, labourer employed at Pareora Station, recognised one of the bags containing wool by the brand and the grass seeds in it.
Michael Lagan, labourer on the estate, recognised the bag containing dagaings, by its general appearance.
W. Tooley, head shepherd at the station, saw prisoner at the shed one day during one of the shearings, 1st October or 5th November supposed he was looking for work did not speak to him.
John Drinnan, farmer, Pareora, stated that prisoner called at his house on the evening of Oct. 28th, and asked for and was given something to eat. Later on saw him sitting by the Pareora dip. He had nothing with him then.
Samuel Bee, farmer, Kingsdown, did not know accused. Early on the 2nd of November saw him at the end of Munro's road, with two full bags.
Alex. Munro, farmer, Pareora, had seen prisoner in the neighborhood of the station and saw him camped on Munro's road between two bags full of something.
W. Robinson, farmer, Pareora, saw prisoner in some flax at the Kingsdown school on the last of Oct. or first of Nov.
Detective Neil stated he saw prisoner on the 17th at Collins sale rooms.

The tar pot, a relic of the Station days when the call "Tar boy!" would ring out when a cut was in need of treatment...with tar, an antiseptic.

Observer, 3 February 1894, Page 17
The ringer of the shed is an important personage is the shearing season, as the following lines, which appeared originally in the Australasian, will show : —


I'm the ringer. Down the street
The women turn to look at me in dresses - trim and neat,
I'm the hero of the youngsters, and the dogs forget to growl
When the ringer of Terara's in the township on the prowl.

Squatters pass me wide enough,
And mutter, 'Bloomin' shearer that, and blanky bloomin' rough ' ;
And swear by all the gods above and half the gods below
'That blanky man will never get another blanky show.'

Tar, boy! sheep, ho ! Broom!
I'm the ringer, give me room.

Mates don't like my name put down,
And watch the blessed monkeys fill my count p — with a frown ;
I know the bloomin' half of 'em would sooner I was dead,
For the blanky, blanky ringer takes the cream off every shed.

A sweeping cut does the trick,
Not too high and pretty level, or the boss will shift you quick ;
If now and then you see a scar the halflength of the sheep,
Well — something must go whipping when the Ringer's shearing deep.

Tar, boy! sheep, ho ! broom!
I'm the Ringer ; give me room.

Slow my mate is, two for one.
You can see my sheep and his sheep glisten in the sun.
See, we stoop and catch together, and together lift the shears —
Mine is sliding down the gangway when he's fiddling with the ears.

Now, then, yarder, watch my pen.
When my mate has caught the "cobbler," for the Ringer's racing then,
The big white fleece goes rolling down, for tallies must be tall,
And right along the shearing-board you hear the Ringer's call,

Wide I travel, east and west,
And I'm always far the fastest, if I'm never quite the best.
When the other coves are shearing nice and clean to suit the boss,
I'm going late and early for a tally on the cross.

I've been sacked from fifty sheds,
And broken a stirrup-iron over two shed bosses heads.
While there's fifteen bob a hundred, ewes and lambs, and British beers,
I'll be the blankey ringer while my hand can hold the sheers.

Tar, boy ! sheep, ho ! broom !
I'm the Ringer ; give me room.

The Ringer. ["Woomera"]

Acland, L.G.D., 1876-1948 The Early Canterbury Runs
Button, John Lyalldale, A Vision Realized Lyalldale Historical Group, 2000. 304pp a centennial history. Map on front pastedown of Pareora Estate. Chapter 3: The Pareora Estate.
Crawford, Noel. The Station Years: a history of the Levels, Cannington, and Holme Station, with special attention to the upper regions of the Pareora River where they joined. 1981 - 259 pages
Palmer, Mervyn
The closer settlements on the Pareora estate, South Canterbury. University of Otago, 1954. 352 pages. Dissertation.
Thompson, Isaac Moorhead, 1905-1983  The Lyalldale Waltz : a light-hearted look at rural life about South Canterbury over the past seventy years.

New Zealand and Australian Land Company Limited (1877 - 1968)

The company after the Crown was the second largest landholder in New Zealand. They managed Acton near Rakaia, Levels, Pareora, Hakataramea, Totara, Moeraki, Clydevale near Clinton and Edendale in Southland. The Hocken Collections, Otago University, Dunedin holds a hard copy of the Land Company archives prepared by the Scottish Accord Office and also 63 microfilms covering the minute books also contain balance sheets, journals, account sales, produce books as well as letter books and cablegrams.

The head office was responsible for recruitment. They recruited staff in Scotland before sending then out to NZ. The regional inspectors and farm hand were trained in a cadet system where they served time as shepherds and farm hands to educate them about the workings of a sheep run. NZALC

Freehold Acreage
Property  Acreage 1879 	Acreage in 1889 
Acton 		20430 	16215
Levels 		74002 	57579
Pareora 	22505 	13999
Hakateramea 		23379

The New Zealand and Australian Land Company Ltd dated its origins to the 1860s when small associations were formed in Scotland and England to acquire pastoral and agricultural lands in New Zealand and Australia. A number of these associates combined and were registered in Scotland as the Canterbury and Otago Association Ltd in 1865, while others amalgamated to form the 'old' New Zealand and Australian Land Company in 1866. In 1877 the two companies were amalgamated and the New Zealand and Australian Land Company Ltd was formed and registered in Scotland on 26 October 1877. The registered office was originally in Glasgow, later Edinburgh, and administrative offices operated in Dunedin and Sydney. At the time of registration, the major portion of the company's interests were in New Zealand. By 1910 nearly all their freehold and leasehold lands were sold to settlers or acquired by the New Zealand Government under a Closer Settlement scheme. In 1939 the only two properties remaining in New Zealand were Hakataramea and Mount Possession. Australian acquisitions increased from 1900 to 1914, when the stations in New Zealand and Australia carried over 1.6 million sheep and 100,000 cattle. However, from 1946 to 1948 the Crown resumed 310, 000 acres of freehold land for Soldier Settlement, reducing the company operation to less than half those of 1914. In 1968, the company was taken over by Dalgety and New Zealand Loan Ltd. The company's tax domicile was removed from Scotland to Australia. From 1970 its properties in Australia were operated as a subsidiary of Dalgety Australia Ltd, and those in New Zealand by Dalgety New Zealand Ltd.

South Canterbury NZGenWeb Project

Photos - 2009 and July 2011 taken by J. Williams and his local knowledge appreciated.