Blacksmiths and buses - the fate of the village blacksmith, Temuka

James Grant, blacksmith, Temuka. Image courtesy of Vicki Baker, Aug. 2009
David Grant, Coach builder, Temuka. English oak was unequaled in strength and durability for wheels.

The Mackenzie County Chronicle Vol.1. - No. 74 Wednesday, April 12, 1899
J. & W. Grant Coach builders, blacksmiths and wheelwright, Temuka. We make a specialty of turning out vehicles of all descriptions, from a dray to a wagonette. Our stylish Dog-carts are to be seen all over the district. Good honest work put into them. Our head Wheelwright and coach painter have each secured Exhibition awards. See their work. Vehicles repaired and repainted-made equal to new. Shoeing and General repair work. Charges moderate.

With the arrival of motor vehicles the amount of work arising from horses and horse drawn vehicles was on the decline.

David Grant, son of James, Coach painter and blacksmith, Temuka.  Image courtesy of Vicki Baker, Aug. 2009There were fifty-nine blacksmiths with their own businesses in South Canterbury in 1880 in addition to the larger stations having their own smithy. Strong youths had the opportunity to be taken on as apprentices in those days. Temuka had six blacksmith businesses in 1880. By 1900 blacksmiths were struggling to compete against mass production of farming implements by companies such as Booth McDonald, Reid & Gray, etc. Many blacksmiths from Canterbury headed for the Manawatu area where flax mills were springing up all over the place. By 1908 there was a large increase in sales of motor vehicles which further placed stress on the older trades involved in horse and cart work. David Grant stayed in Temuka and progressed into coach building and engine cab modifications from 1911. A blacksmith in Waimate became a mechanic - adapting to change. When the motor vehicles were being introduced they were largely hand built - and there were no such things as spare parts that you could buy off the shelf - but had them made usually by the local blacksmith. Vehicles arriving in New Zealand were often just chassis with an engine installed. The bodywork was built locally - usually at companies who had in the past built horse drawn vehicles so joiners and blacksmiths worked together - the smith making up the necessary metal bits. Many relics of the horse drawn era have been preserved in the museums in the district e.g. The Fairlie Horse Drawn Museum has a blacksmith shop.

The real "beginning of the end" of the horse drawn transport in the public sector was rail.

From the Temuka Leader and various sources
1894 - James Grant branches out into Coach Building and employs Robert Wotton (Blacksmith)
1895 - James Grant increases the size of his premises to double the original size and takes in his brother William as partner. Now called W. & J. Grant.
1901 - James and William Grant - Blacksmiths and Wheel wrights - dissolved partnership. Now to be carried on by W.S. Grant alone.
By 1903 - James Grant had gone to Hastings.
1910 - David Grant stayed in Temuka, married in 1910.
1911. This is the first year that David Grant has gone into the Coach building business, teams up with his Uncle William.
1917 - William Grant is listed as a carpenter.

James Grant (1855-1914) emigrated from Glenshee, Perthshire, Scotland grated to Southland, New Zealand in the early 1870s. He married Nancy Crombie in Wyndham NZ, 1876. They move  - he has been listed in the Gladstone and Geraldine electoral rolls as a blacksmith living in Temuka in 1887 and 1890. His brother William was a Carriage Builder in Temuka and son Peter Melville Grant b. 1878 in Wyndham, later a blacksmith in Temuka, James Crombie Grant b. 1880 died at age 17 and another son David Alexander Grant b. 1881 in West Taieri, Otago, later a Coach Builder. James was then listed as Blacksmith in Herataunga St., Hastings, Hawkes Bay Electoral roll in 1908  until 1914, the year of his death. Contact Vicki Baker if you have or would like addition information. Posted August 2009. Information and photos are courtesy of Vicki. Ancestry Were William Shaw Grant and James Grant who had the Blacksmiths shop in Temuka in the late 1890s brothers? William is buried with wife Mary Bryce (nee Nimmo) in the Temuka Cemetery.

Otago Witness 3 December 1881, Page 11 Bankruptcy
James Grant, Outram, blacksmith. Debts, £1221 ; assets, £2016.

Plot 153 Temuka Cemetery

David Alexander Grant, resided King street, Temuka district and died Dec. 17 1935 at the age of 53 years, is buried at the Temuka Cemetery in plot 153 along with his wife Mabel Grace nee Story from Orari, who died in 1979 at the age of 89. They were married in 1910. Also in plot 153 is two year Ruby who died in April 1889. Must be David's sister. James Grant, at age 17, interned  Dec.1896 is also in plot 153, a brother of David's.

Timaru Herald, 10 December 1896, Page 2
DEATH. Grant— On Dec. 9th, at his parents' residence, Temuka, James Crombie, second eldest son of James and Nancy Grant ; aged 17 years. GRANT - The friends of Mr and Mrs James Grant are respectfully informed that the funeral of their late son, James Crombie, will leave their residence, Main North Road Temuka, This Day, December 10th at half-past 2 o'clock for the Temuka Cemetery.

The main street of Temuka, c. 1901 looking north taken from where the Council flats are now, with the Crown Hotel, 64 King Street and seven carts in view.  A1 Livery Stables are to the right on Domain Ave with a eucalyptus tree and water tower behind. The Post Office building is not there, it must be prior to 1902. David Grant married Mabel Story, of Orari in 1910 and stayed in Temuka. Mr Story around 1901 retired to moved to Orari and became a farmer.  A well is to the left. Mrs Beri’s shop on right with clothing hanging on outside wall, apparently she was also the Undertaker after her husband had died. Also on the right on the corner was the Butchers. Two storied Wallingford Hotel on the Commerce Street corner.

Arthur Story (b. 1857) (age 7) with his father William (b. 16 Nov. 1823 ) and two brothers, William Henry (b. 1852) age 11, and Charles (b. 1853) (age 10) came out by the sailing ship "Canterbury" and landed at Lyttelton in January 1864. They were not recorded on the passenger list of the "Canterbury".  It listed the paying four chief cabin passengers and the 351 Government assisted immigrants but not the 45 second cabin passengers. William left behind his wife Sarah nee Pepper and their three daughters and baby son at Abdy Farm, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, never to see them again. Arthur first went to Banks Peninsula with his father and worked for Mr R.H. Rhodes and soon after Glenmark Station, Waipara. Then to Christchurch and the training stables of W.C. Webb. About 1889 Arthur came to the Temuka area and worked on farms in the district as an agricultural labourer. Arthur became a very fast shearer and did a lot of work up at the Orari Gorge Station. Livery Bait and Veterinary Stables (Arthur Story, proprietor), Temuka. Single and double buggies, waggonettes, wedding carriages and saddle horses were kept on hire. Emily Hawkins born in Riccarton, Christchurch, married Arthur Story and had twelve children of their own, four sons and eight daughters. Three of his sons went to the front during the War.  Three of his daughters were unmarried when he died and the others were Mrs D. Grant, Mrs H. Pye, and Mrs Wooding, (Temuka), and Mrs Peter Stewart and Mrs Grant, (North Island.) They had a house on Main Road at Orari and called it Abdy Cottage after the Story family place in Yorkshire. They left Orari to move to Temuka and take over the Crown Stables from Arthur's brother Charles in 1900 and soon sold then to Mr T. Gunnion. Mr W. Hopkinson built the A1 Stables and Mr Story conducted them for until Arthur Story and his wife Emily and family sold out and went north about 1901, must have followed the Grant's for whatever reason. Arthur worked in the Defense Stores in Palmerston North for three years during the War and was issued a uniform. Emily Story trained as a mid wife in 1916 in Palmerston North, maybe she wanted help her neighbours! Arthur died up there in about 1919. Emily then married Italian Luigi Luoni, but Arthur and Emily are buried together in Kelvin Grove, Palmerston North.

William died 15 April 1894 and is buried at the Temuka Cemetery, age 70, Occupation STABLE KEEPER. Charles was also buried in Temuka. He was 86 when he died in 1940 and his wife Margaret "Maggie" died in Temuka in 1929 at age 79. Charles Story owned the Crown Hotel Stables around 1877 and his brother Arthur brought them in 1900, then he brought the stables across the road (A1 Livery Stables). William, brother to Charles and Arthur, worked in Christchurch and is buried there.

Timaru Herald 12 July 1888     Timaru Herald 18 Oct. 1898

The name was often mis-spelt and actually should be Story without the E, there was a  family of Storey's with an E in Temuka but he was a tailor and one of his sons, Percival STOREY, went on to be a WWI veteran, and an All Black.

Arthur STORY is listed in the 1881 NZ Electoral Roll shows residence as "Winchester" as does the Arthur #3089 listed in the 1893 Roll. However the Emily #3090 (who has a sequential number after Arthur) shows Residence as Orari. Arthur ran the Stables in Winchester but live just up the road at Orari.

New Zealand Electoral Roll 1881
Electorate Geraldine
Number 903
Surname STORY
Given Names Arthur
Nature Of Qualification Residential
Place Of Residence Winchester
Occupation Livery Stable Keeper
New Zealand Electoral Roll 1893
Electorate Rangitata
Surname STORY
Given Name Arthur
Number 3089
Voting Qualification Residential
Residential Address Winchester
Occupation Contractor
New Zealand Electoral Roll 1893
Electorate Rangitata
Surname STORY
Given Name Emily
Number 3090
Voting Qualification Residential
Residential Address Orari
Occupation Domestic duties

 Storey with an "E" - could be "typo" or transcription error.

New Zealand Marriages 1878,
Folio 1297 Arthur STOREY   to Emily HAWKINS
Folio 0610 Charles STOREY  to Maggie DIGGIN

William has a sequential Electorate number (may have been in same household or on same property in 1893) as "Charles" and "Maggie" - husband and wife.

New Zealand Electoral Roll 1893
Surname STORY
Given Name William
Number 3021
Electorate Pareora
Voting Qualification Residential
Residential Address Temuka
Occupation Gardener
Surname STORY
Given Name Maggie
Number 3020
Electorate Pareora
Voting Qualification Residential
Residential Address Temuka
Occupation Household duties
Surname STORY
Given Name Charles
Number 3019
Electorate Pareora
Voting Qualification Freehold
Residential Address Temuka
Occupation Stable-keeper
Property Detail Temuka

NZ WW1 Service Personnel & Reserves Index
STORY, Leonard Henry
Category Second Reserves
Last NZ Address Orari
Occupation Farm Labourer
Classification C - Reservists who have two children


Timaru Herald, 2 February 1881, Page 3
On the motion of Mr Paterson it was resolved to invite alternate tenders for laying down concrete kerbing from the corner of the Crown Hotel past Storey's stables, and from the Post-office on both sides of the street past the Volunteer Hall, either as at present being done in other parts of the town, or with a concrete water table added ; also for lowering the crown of the road past Nicholas' stables.
Correspondence: From Mr Leonard Tombs, asking the Board to continue the concrete kerbing from his corner past Storey's stables. Granted.

Timaru Herald, 19 July 1888, Page 2
Mr George Hartley, who has been staying at Mr Storey's stables, Temuka, met with a serious accident yesterday. He has been in the habit of sleeping in the loft, and yesterday morning got up a few minutes before five o'clock, intending to come down the ladder as usual, but missed his way in the dark, and fell to the ground, a drop of about ten feet. Mr Storey, senr., was awakened by the fall, and the sound of groaning, ad on going out found him lying on the ground, senseless, and with blood flowing from his ear. He was put back to bed, and Dr Campbell called in. As soon as practicable Mr Hartley was removed to Tombs' boarding house, and it is hoped that with quiet and care he may be speedily restored to health.

Timaru Herald, 7 May 1891, Page 3 Magisterial
Timaru — Wednesday, May 6. (Before C. A. Wray, Esq., R.M )
Mr Raymond called J. H. Wilson who related that he was dealing in horses last January. Plaintiff placed a horse in his hands for sale or to exchange for a harness horse. He exchanged it for one belonging to defendant, who received also ten shillings. Mr White cross-examined this witness very closely in reference to the whole transaction. D. Lennie, plaintiff, blacksmith at Pleasant Point, described two or three transactions with horses, one through -last witness. A mare he got from defendant's son he exchanged with Mr Scowen. Afterwards defendant's father seized the mare as his. Scowen sued witness for her value and gained the suit. He gave details of his loss by the transaction. Mr White applied for a nonsuit as the defendant was under age, and an infant cannot be sued at the Resident Magistrates' Court. He quoted a number of authorities in support of his contention. Mr White called defendant and his sister Mrs Lennard for the defence, after the hearing of whose evidence his Worship reserved judgment until next court day.

Timaru Herald, 26 December 1891, Page 2
The frameless Buckeye Elevator Harvester will be shown in a paddock of green oats near Mr Storey stables, Temuka, on Tuesday next, and farmers visiting the stock sale are invited to attend. The machines have obtained a high reputation in the district and do good work in all classes of crop.

Timaru Herald, 18 April 1894, Page 4
A child named Storey, of Orari, was severely bitten by a sow on Saturday. The child put its band through the rails of the pig stye, and the sow grabbed it, tearing the flesh off the fingers and causing a very painful wound.

Timaru Herald, 8 May 1895, Page 2
A little girl aged nine, daughter of M. J. McGuinn, of Orari, was badly burned on Saturday through her clothes taking fire. She ran out of the house screaming and m her terror ran away from her mother, who went after her. She was chased and caught by Mr A. Story, by which time her clothes were nearly all consumed, and she was severely burned, especially on her back, hands and limbs.

Timaru Herald, 20 April 1898, Page 4
Henry Lee, licensee of the Crown Hotel, Temuka, was charged with committing a breach of the Licensing Act by supplying liquor on Sunday, April 3rd. Mr J. W. White appeared m support of the information, and Mr Hay for accused. Mr Hay admitted the offence, but stated that the liquor had been supplied under exceptional circumstances. On the evening m question Mr Charles Story, the tenant occupying stables adjoining the hotel, an eminently respectable man, and no sympathiser with drunkenness, had applied for 2s worth of whisky, stating that it was for a sick person or he would not have troubled him for it. Mr Lee believing as many publicans did that it was allowable in such cases to supply spirits, did so. Charles Story was charged with procuring liquor for a prohibited person. A prohibition order was granted against William Storey, for the Geraldine, Timaru, and Levels districts.

Timaru Herald, 6 February 1902, Page 2
J. STORRIER & CO., IRONFOUNDERS, BLACKSMITHS, ETC.
In an important district such as Timaru there is sure to be ample room for the ironfounder. Industries of the soil are served by several large occupations which employ great numbers of men, and among those most utilitarion is that of the iron- founder and blacksmith, who can manufacture new implements and repair old. There is annually a big output of trade in this branch in the Timaru district, and of those most largely engaged are Messrs J. Storrier and Co., whose foundry, engineering, and smithing establishment is situated at the south end of the town. The late Mr J. Storrier established the business about twenty years ago, and conducted it until his death about sixteen months ago, when his brother, Mr James Storrier, took it over. The late gentleman was well known, and was one of the first to approach the Hon. W. Hall-Jones to consent to be nominated for a seat in the House of Representatives, taking generally a keen interest in politics. The dimensions of the business were comparatively small till a few years ago, but within the last five years the progress has been gratifying. This has been due not only to increased agricultural activity, but also indirectly to the dredging boom in Otago, by reason of orders for castings, and to building operations in the same manufacture. Messrs Starrier and Co. have the largest foundry and engineering trade in Timaru. Their workshops are located in two buildings, one of which is the foundry and the other the engineering, fitting, blacksmith's and horse-shoeing departments. The two combine to make spacious premises, and when the belting for the plant is seen in motion presents an interesting sight. The plant is of an excellent character, and besides the cupolas and other concomitants of a foundry, includes two lathes, four drilling machines, punching and shearing machines, emery stone, and two blacksmiths' fires, not to mention smaller accessories. All kinds of iron and brass castings are negotiated, a regular output being made of ranges, for which the firm have a good reputation in the surrounding country. Their ranges are sold largely. Castings for verandah columns, and for most other industrial uses, are made, the plant being capable of producing castings up to two ton weight. Plough-shares are also turned out in quantities, while the Cambridge roller is another speciality which is used in the district. A good deal of implement manufacture was at one time conducted, but owing to strenuous competition from the cities this department has been reduced, although the manufacture can still be effected if defied. But at one time and another during the year implements of many kinds are se it to Storrier and Co. for repairs, this bring a very useful department of the business. Mr Storrier is known for the care which he exercises in this class of work, and also for his fair charges, and hence implements are sent to his firm from a wide radius of the town. Milling, brick other plants are repaired, while a fair share of local horse-shoeing is entrusted to the smiths. A number of hands is employed in the whole business, which does trade as far as Ashburton in one direction and Oamaru in the other. In all I respects the establishment fills useful functions in Timaru, and worthily selves local industries.

Timaru Herald, 8 November 1910, Page 1 NOTICE OF REMOVAL.
J. STORRIER & CO., BLACKSMITHS. ENGINEERS, AND BRASS FOUNDERS, BEG to notify that the Blacksmith's Business has been removed to the FOUNDRY at CORNER, KING AND EDWARD STREETS, where they have built a New and Convenient Smithy, to which branch has been added a COACH BUILDING AND WHEELWRIGHT'S DEPARTMENT, under the supervision of Mr J. Miller, who is well known in Timaru and district as a first-class tradesman. Mr A. Irvine is still in charge of the Blacksmith's Department. J. STORRIER AND CO.


John Worthington

Timaru Show results. Timaru Herald 30 Oct. 1879

John Worthington, the pound keeper at Pleasant Point, until December 1875, had a freehold farm, 82 acres at Point, R.S. 20407, one mile from the Point Hotel, included a well finished four roomed house, all the rooms being large and lofty, stable and loose-box, and in February 1881 the place was sold at auction. Married 3rd August 1881. Moved to Waitohi Flat. He was very good with stock, especially sheep. He always had a working dog. He was very fond of riding and driving. John was noted for his horses and dogs. He was meticulous about the grooming of his horses and kept harness in excellent order and he drove a pair of matched bays, well-bred trotting horses in the wagonette, but usually drove his daughter's pony, Black Prince, in a gig. John was a gentleman in the true sense of the word and had good principles. His definition of a gentlemen was a man who never hurt another's principles. He was very erect and a fast walker, was very witty and a good raconteur and was fluent in French, born in France to master mariner, educated at Elizabeth College, Guernsey. He won two large bronze medals for the best carriage horses in South Canterbury.

He always kept a good horse and a good dog.


Timaru Herald, 13 October 1887, Page 4
Temuka— Wednesday, Oct. 12. (Before J. S. Beswick, Esq., S.M.) Peter Grant [age 9], Albert Davis, and Frederick Davis, three little boys, were charged with unlawfully placing certain obstacles on the railway near Temuka. James Curtis gave evidence to seeing the children on the line, finding the boulders (produced) and catching one of the boys. James Grant and James Davis, the parents, stated that the children had been severely punished. His Worship commented strongly upon the increasing frequency of the offence, with the attendant danger to the lives of persons travelling, severely cautioned the boys, and fined the parents £1 each.

Nelson Evening Mail, 31 July 1897, Page 2
The Names of the Wrecked. Gisborne, July 30. The passengers and crew of the Tasmania scattered immediately on arrival. The following names of those known to have been landed have been procured. Passengers, James Macaulay, Temuka ; D. Grant, Temuka; E. Park Temuka; ...

In Stone's Canterbury, Nelson, Marlborough and Westland Directory of 1902 was James Grant, of  J. and W. Grant carriage builders. He was listed as a blacksmith at Temuka in the directories from 1903 to 1906. He was not listed there in 1907. In Stone's Wellington, Hawkes Bay and Taranaki directory of 1909-1910 and 1910- 1911 James Grant, blacksmith, was listed at Hastings. In 1915-1915 Mrs Nancy Grant was listed at 924 Eaton Rd, Hastings.

WISES Directory of 1910 for those in Temuka

TEMUKA
Blacksmiths 			Edward CARR, Patrick CARR, John FISHER
Wheelwrights 			George COLLINS, James ELDER
Engineer and Smith 		James FINDLAY
Coach Painter 			David GRANT
Coach Builder 			William S. GRANT
Carrier and Dealer  		George GIBBS
Carriers and Livery Stables 	GUNNION & Co.

Wise's New Zealand Directory 1872-3 (9)

Timaru
Elder and Cramond 	blacksmiths and wheelwrights
Murray Donald 		blacksmith and wheelwright
Raustrom Hiram 		blacksmith

Temuka
Bryant William 		blacksmith
Gray Kenneth 		blacksmith
Mein Alexander 		blacksmith and flax worker, Kakahu

Waimate
Wall Nicholls 		blacksmith
Wells Richard 		blacksmith

Wright's Australian Directory and Gazetteer 1881 Blacksmiths (51)
ALBURY: Couper Duncan, Cuthbertson Hugh
CAVE: Chapman J
GERALDINE: Anderson James, Glasson John, Kennedy John, Kirby Michael, Martin Thomas, Quimie James, Trengrove Henry
MAKIKHI: Gleich W., Pelvin Alfred, Vale George
PAREORA: Hutton Robert, Jackson Thos.
PLEASANT POINT: Allen John, Ferguson Matthew, Walsh & Smith
RANGITATA: Beck John,
RANGITATA ISLAND: Stevens, John
TEMUKA: Bryant Wm., Gray, K. F. North Rd., Henry & Finlay, Hooper Wm., Napier J., Robinson Win.
TIMARU: Bowkett Ed. & Thomas. Grey rd, Cockroft Wm. Grey rd, Fleming Hey & Co. Bank st, Hughes R &W, O'Gilbey [Ogilvie] & Byers, Great North rd, Timaru Foundry Parsons & Henderson Shoeing and General Smith, Great south rd
WASHDYKE: Gardiner, John
WAIHI BUSH: Trengrove Charles, Wood George
WAIMATE: Allen, WM, Creba Wm, Drayton Alfred, Evans Robert, O'Gilvery David, Rugg Alexander, Thompson Robert, Watt Alexander, Wills Richard, Wall Nicholas 

Press, 29 August 1914, Page 6
The Waimate County Blacksmiths' Association has decided that its members shall bear the loss involved in the increased price of shoeing iron. Members reported that although business is slack, it is not more so than is usual in August, which is one of the worst business months in normal years.

The Cyclopedia of New Zealand Canterbury edition page 997
Grandi, John James, Coach Builder and Wheelwright, Stafford, Turnbull and Cliff Streets, Timaru. These large premises, which cover an area of a quarter of an acre, were erected by Mr. John Barrett in 1876, and with the business came into the possession of Mr. Grandi in 1890. The main building fronting Stafford Street is a two-storied brick structure with iron roof, and comprises show rooms and painters' shop, with the workshops at the back. Mr. Grandi has in use the latest and best machinery necessary for the trade, and imports all his material from England and America. He now (1902) also carries on farm implement making, and heavy work, in addition to coach building. In connection with this branch of his business, Mr. Grandi has secured the extensive premises and plant lately in use by Messrs Reid and Gray. He has a complete plant of the necessary machinery, and one of West's patent tyre-setters, for which he holds the sole right for South Canterbury. Mr. Grandi is elsewhere referred to as a former Mayor of Timaru.

Burton Bros. postcard, Timaru
S. Clegg Saddler & Harness Maker   Cabinet Maker W. Bourne, Upholster   J. Barratt Criterion Carriage & Factory   T.F. Dillion   W.H. Fode General Painter    Bared Wire

John James Grandi, formerly Mayor of Timaru, was born in Middlesex, England, in 1852. He was educated in London, and came to Lyttelton with his parents by the ship “British Empire” in 1864. In December of that year, he was apprenticed to a firm of coach-builders — Messrs Henry Wagstaff and Co., of Christchurch—and claims the distinction of being the first bound apprentice in Canterbury. After completing his indentures, he was for about twelve months with Messrs. Cobb and Co., and subsequently with Messrs. Barrett, Hudson and Moore, in whose service he continued for seven years. Coming to Timaru in 1879 under engagement to Mr. John Barrett, coachbuilder, he remained till that gentleman's retirement in 1890, when Mr. Grandi purchased the business. He was for many years a member of the Borough Council, and was elected mayor in 1896. He was a member of the Hospital and Charitable Aid Board, High School Board, and Licensing Committee, and has been provincial master in the Manchester Unity of Oddfellows. Mr. Grandi is married, and has ten children. 

The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Canterbury Provincial District] 1903 pg1021
Mr. John Barratt, who has been a resident in the Timaru district for thirty years, was born in 1828, in Shropshire, England, where he was apprenticed as a coach-builder. He came out to Victoria in 1860, and ten months later arrived in Christchurch, where he worked for a few years at his trade. Mr. Barratt became one of the founders of the well known firm of Moor and Co., in Victoria Street, Christchurch. He removed to Timaru in 1872 and established the large coach-building business which he conducted in Stafford Street for so many years. In 1890 he sold his interest, and has since then been living in retirement. Mr. Barratt is married, and has one daughter.

  Timaru Herald 19th Feb. 1875, page 1  Timaru Herald 18 Feb. 1885 page 2  Timaru Herald 15 July 1890 Timaru Herald 28 May 1891
John Barratt, Criterion Carriage Factory, Timaru.

Timaru Herald, 4 July 1884, Page 2
In another column appears a well executed electrotype engraving of the front of Mr Barratt's Criterion Carriage Factory, executed in America to the order of this office. The manager is prepared to take orders for similar work, views of villa residences, business promises, etc, for letter headings, circulars; billheads, or advertisements. All that the engraver requires is a sketch drawn to scale, with written indications of the material to be represented, whether brick, stone, compo, wood, etc.

Timaru Herald, 6 November 1884, Page 5 Timaru A & P Show
The show of vehicles was good, all the local tradesmen, with one exception, being represented. The double buggies made at Mr Barratt's Criterion Carriage Factory and by Mr A. Fraser, and single, buggies by the same tradesmen and Messrs Reid and Gray, were, not to be surppassed by any firm in the colony, while Mr Barratt's two-wheeled dog cart, and the same maker's and Mr Fraser's light American express wagons were of first-class quality. In this section Mr Barratt, got four first prizes and one second, and Mr Fraser two second. As extra exhibits Mr Barratt showed a Whitechapel cart, a buggy, and a station wagon and wagonette combined, and Mr Fraser a very serviceable -looking spring cart, suitable either for a farmer's family cart or for any kind of light business. A most striking feature of the collection was the beautiful finish on all the vehicles and the excellent taste displayed in the painting, triming, &c. The prices marked were most reasonable, and we question very much whether such good articles at the prices quoted could be purchased outside of Timaru.

Timaru Herald, 29 March 1884, Page 1 FAIRLIE CREEK.
WILLIAM HUGHES, (Late of Saltwater Creek), General Wheelwright and Coachbuilder, Beg; to announce to the Inhabitants of the Mackenzie Country and Fairlie Creek that he has STARTED BUSINESS in those Premises ADJOINING MR. H. WELSH'S SMITHY, and is prepared to MAKE and REPAIR all kinds of CARRIAGES, CARTS. GATES, HURDLES, and the Woodwork of Implements, &c, connected with Agricultural Pursuits, at TIMARU PRICES. Estimates Given.

Timaru Herald, 2 December 1908, Page 1
WANTED — A Boy for Smithy; one able to nail on preferred. Apply W. L. Hosking. Coachbuilder, etc., Fairlie.

Timaru Herald, 16 August 1909, Page 3 FAIRLIE DWELLING BURNED
A combined dwelling and wheelwright's workshop, occupied by Mr. W.L. Hosking, and owned by Mr H. Fraser, was burned down at Fairlie during the early hours of Friday morning. The members of Mr Hosking s household retired at about 11 p.m. on Thursday night, and were awakened about a quarter to three next morning by the fire, which had then got a good hold. The firebell was rung and the Fire Brigade turned out. A bucket brigade was quickly organised, and efforts were directed towards the adjoining blacksmith and painter's shops, also occupied by Mr w. Hosking. They succeeded in saving the premises, but the dwelling was burnt to the ground in a short space of time. Mr Hosking was doubly unfortunate in losing his books and much sympathy is felt for him in his misfortune. His business being an extensive one, the loss must be great. Mr Fraser has last two buildings within a twelve month. The Fairlie Fire Brigade's engine is in Wellington, and is expected to hand shortly.

Timaru Herald, 13 November 1914, Page 5 IN BANKRUPTCY.
WILLIAM LESLIE HOSKING. COACHBUILDER, OF FAIRLIE. A meeting of creditors of William Leslie Hosking, Fairlie, was held in the office of the Deputy Official Assignee (Mr Alex. Montgomery), when there were present—Messrs Amyes for the Melville Downs Lands Settlements Association, Walton for the Otago Iron Rolling Mills, and C. E. Morris for Dalgety and Co., also the bankrupt and his solicitor (Mr J. H. Inglis). Bankrupt stated that about nine years ago he entered into partnership with James Riddle, each putting in £100 cash as capital. They purchased for £75 the stock and plant of Fraser's coach-building business at Fairlie and did well in it, the trade expanding very considerably. In 1907 he bought Mr Riddle's interest for £300. and to pay him borrowed £350 from Mr Wilson, to whom he gave a security over his stock and book debts. The business continued to grow steadily until August, 1909, when his house and storeroom, with their contents, including a considerable quantity of stock, were burnt down. The loss of buildings stock furniture was about £300 of which £200 was made good by insurance. At that time he had between and £900 and £1200 on his books. As his books were burnt in the fire be was unable to recover a large portion of the debts and he made the best settlements he could with customers who acknowledged that they could owe him money. After the fire he struggled to keep going. He bought the freehold of his premises from Mr Fraser for 750. Of this he raised £500 on the first mortgage and Mr Fraser took a second mortgage over the property for the balance. Mr Wilson pressed him and he paid him off. Borrowed 100 from Mr Pilkington and gave him security over stock and plant. Want of capital and the burden of the debts owning before the fire proved too much for him. Eventually the first mortgagee sold the premises, the second mortgagee to save himself, buying it. The forced Mr C. Pilkington to take possession of the stock and plant. In 1911 bankrupt formed one of a syndicate to purchase Melville Downs under the Land Settlement Finance Act. Dalgety and Co. financed him in the purchase of Lot 3, finding all the money to pay the deposit and stock the farm. His selection proved an unfortunate one as the-holding (208 acres) was badly infested with twitch that he could not work it properly and his crops were a failure. Notwithstanding this Dalgety and Co. kept him going until the Public Trustee, acting for the Settlement Association, sued him for arrears of interest. Dalgety and Co. then had no option but to sell him up. When this was done he still owed them £540 against which they had (seized under their security) oats to the value of about £200. The purchase price of the farm was £2332 and the deposit paid was more than counter-balanced by arrears of interest. His book debts might realise £30 and his assets were fully pledged. He had nothing left and now had to seek work at his trade. No one had security over his book debts. 

William Leslie Hosking died aged 45years in 1921

Timaru Herald, 16 August 1919, Page 12
SALE BY AUCTION OF FARM AT FAIRLIE. SATURDAY, 23rd AUGUST by order of the Official Assignee, in the Estate of WILLIAM LESLIE HOSKING. Messrs DALGETY AND CO., LTD., will sell as above at their Land Salerooms, George Street, TIMARU, at 12 o'clock Noon— ALL THAT PIECE OF LAND containing 208 Acres 2 Roods, being Lot 3 on D.P. 3182, Block XV., Opuha Survey District, comprising Reserve 2392. R.S. 25838, 36288, and part R.S. 26209 and being all the land included in C.T. Vol. 277, Folio 216, subject to Section 8 of the Land Settlement Finance Amendment Act 1910, and to Fencing Covenant contained in Transfer 95978. The property is part of the Melville Downs Land Finance Settlement, and can be acquired on the easy terms provided in the 1910 Act.

Timaru Herald, 30 March 1889, Page 2
Mr J. Barrett, of the Criterion Carriage Factory, has just completed to the order of Messrs Peacock and Geaney, a first-rate specimen of a butcher's Whitechapel order cart. It does credit to the skill of the builder and to the enterprise of the owners. The body is of the dog cart form, with this addition of steel rails round the top, and is painted a deep blue, picked out with red and fine lines in orange. On the sides, below the Venetian ventilators, are boldly emblazoned the name of the firm, with the Royal arms, flanked by scrolls beneath, and on the back the name "Zealandia Butchery." The wheels are light but strong, mounted on Collins patent axles, and the undergear is very neat, with silvermounted draw bar attached by chains to the axle. Both in construction and finish the vehicle is extremely creditable to Mr Barrett and his staff. With a "spieler" in the shafts and in a new sot of silver-mounted harness, such as was seen at the trial trips yesterday afternoon, Messrs Peacock and Geaney's new turn-out is well calculated to attract attention and custom.


Burton Bros. Dunedin 2818 postcard 1882 J.C. Cowan to the right of the Hotel' McLean Stewart building to the right. R. Cole Old Bank Hotel. R.R. Taylor wine merchant Bonded to the left of the hotel and W. Lance & Co. behind the street lamp. Two 4 wheeled light wagons, a spring cart (a basic, un-sprung cart in Australia and in NZ, it is known as a dray but "dray" elsewhere usually means a four-wheeled wagon.)

Awards, agreements, orders, and decisions made under the ..., Volume 8 By New Zealand. Dept. of Labour, New Zealand. Industrial Commission 1908
A "saddler" shall be defined as any person engaged in the manufacturing or repairing of saddles, bridles, harness, machine belting, military accoutrements, horse and cow-cover making and strapping, or any class of leather-work that a saddler is usually employed at Saddlers, Harness and Collar Makers Employers
Baillie, Adam, Temuka
Borrell, Charles T., Geraldine
Brewer, Edward H., Temuka
Budd, Henry, Winchester
Caskie, John, Fairlie
Dash, Charles, Waimate
Downes, Thomas C., Temuka
George, William, Waimate
Hay, John, Geraldine
Hogan, Thomas, Waimate
Hoskins, Albert, Geraldine and Winchester
Johnson, Albert A. Wilson St, Timaru
Keen, Albert, Studholme Junction
Palleson and Co., Strathallan Street, Timaru
McPherson, William, Waimate
Ray, Charles E., Woodbury
Rogers, James. Waimate
Rowland, George R., Albury
Ronaldson, James, 50 Stafford Street, Timaru
Scott, Edward V., Geraldine
Tregonning, John M., Waimate
Vincent, Charles, Temuka
Wade, Walter W., 61 Stafford Street, Timaru
Workman, John, 148 Stafford Street, Timaru
South Canterbury Farmers' Co - operative Association, Timaru

To Blacksmiths -

Timaru Herald, 19 April 1871, Page 1
NOTICE TO FARMERS AND OTHERS. JOHN ELDER, Coach and Waggon Builder, Wheel-wright, AND USUAL BLACKSMITH, Begs to inform the inhabitants of Timaru and surrounding district that he has commenced business in those Premises formerly occupied by Mr R. Wilson, and lists, by Moderate Charges, and First-class Workmanship, to merit a share of public patronage. Having secured the services of a First-class Blacksmith, Farmers and Carriers can rely upon having their work done well. Carriages, buggies, &c., Repaired, Painted, &c. Horses Carefully Shod. [next to the BNZ]

Timaru Herald, 27 August 1873, Page 1
CRITERION CARRIAGE FACTORY, JOHN BARRATT, (Late of Barratt, Hudson and Moor, Papanui road, Christchurch), COACH BUILDER, Opposite Timaru Hotel, Great South-road.

Timaru Herald
, 2 January 1874, Page 2
T.B. JONES, Shoeing and General Smith, Strathallan-street, Timaru. N.B.— Horses carefully shod.
DONALD MURRAY, Blacksmith, Wheelwright, Shoeing Smith, and Coach Builder. Opposite Woollcombe-street, Timaru.
James COLLINS, Engineer, Machinist, Patternmaker, Brass Founder, Millwright, and Machine Smith. Corner Woollcombe-street and Great South-road ; opposite Albion Dining Rooms.
HIRAM RAWSTORN, Millwright and Machine Smith, On the Cliff, opposite Mr R. Turnbull's store. Every description of Smith's work executed. Lock furniture on hand, keys, &c.
T. GARRETT Coach Builder, Great North-road. Carriages of every description made and repaired.
CRITERION CARRIAGE FACTORY. JOHN BARRATT, COACHBUILDER, South-road, (Opposite Timaru Hotel), Timaru. English and American Carriages Built to Order. Repairs and Painting neatly executed. 

Timaru Herald, 11 July 1876, Page 2
ELDER AND YOUNG Respectfully beg to inform their Customers and the Public generally, that they have now REMOVED into THEIR NEW PREMISES on Great North-road and Sefton-street, where the increased accommodation and facilities enable them to carry on along with the Foundry Work their Blacksmith, Wheelwright and Coachbuildinig Business, on more extended scale than hitherto. THE SOUTH CANTERBURY FOUNDRY, Great North-road and Sefton-street. ELDER AND YOUNG , (Late John Elder) Engineers, FOUNDERS, BLACKSMITHS, AND Wheelwrights. Machinery and Agricultural Implements of all kinds Made to Order. Horses Carefully Shod. Leather Belting all sizes, and Engine Oil always oil hand. Purchased the premises of the late Donald Murray, Temuka, orders left for the South Canterbury Foundry.

Timaru Herald, 7 February 1883, Page 4
WANTED — Immediately, Good General BLACKSMITH, must be first-class shoer. H. BATCHELOR, Blacksmith, Albury

Oct. 1883 C. Trengrove, adjourning the Bush Hotel, Geraldine, selling business. 

Timaru Herald, 13 June 1868, Page 2 Business Notices.
ATLAS FOUNDRY, TIMARU. This establishment being now opened and in full working order, we are prepared to supply the public with castings in IRON AND BRASS, of any required weight or size, at the lowest possible remunerative prices. Competent pattern makers are constantly engaged on the premises.
THE MACHINE SHOP being also well supplied with tools and self-acting machines capable of manufacturing all descriptions and pieces of Machinery, Steam- engines, Threshing and Reaping Machines, and every necessary requirements for Agricultural and Mill work, wool-presses, &c, and capable of cutting screws of all sizes, from one-eight of an Inch to Twenty Inches diameter, and of any required pitch ; we trust the public will make enquiries of us previous to sending their orders for machinery, &c, away from the district. We are also prepared to make designs for, and execute such machines as may from time to time become useful in the development of the natural resources of the country ; and inventors who are desirous of practically testing their ideas, can have an opportunity of doing so, at a reasonable cost. We would call the attention of Engineers in the district to the fact that we are now able to supply
"WROUGHT AND CAST-IRON BRIDGES" on the most improved principles, and at prices which will fairly compete against importation. And further, that we are willing to supply both designs and estimates for the same, where requisite. Any demand for
IRON CARGO BOATS can be supplied, and plans and estimates given. In our department as "
SHOEING AND GENERAL SMITHS," we trust the public will continue to afford us their liberal support.
IN DRAYS AND WAGGONS we still employ the best workmen only, and hope for continued orders from the public.
IN BUGGIES, EXPRESS WAGGONS, AND LIGHT CARRIAGES, we still offer a good selection to the public, at prices which compete with imported goods, and of a far superior quality. We invite intending purchasers to come and see our stock and judge for themselves. A superior Carriage Painter and Trimmer being constantly employed by us, we shall be happy to undertake the re-painting and trimming of carriages in a style which will give general satisfaction. Fancy Painting, lettering, &c, &c. executed. A liberal discount allowed on carriage painting, &c, to the Trade. Wire Strainers and all Fencing Tools, specially adapted to the district.
FENCING STANDARDS. Cut and Punched to any required length or gauge, at prices which-defy competition. Customers' own iron cut and punched.
LICENSEES UNDER GOVERNMENT for the sale and repair of Firearms. A good and select stock of Gun-nipples and Fittings always on hand. FLOCKTON AND CO., Engineers and Machinists, Iron and Brass Founders, Carriage and Waggon Builders, Shoeing and General Smiths,
ATLAS FOUNDRY, Timaru.

Snippets from Papers Past

Grey River Argus, 3 May 1883, Page 4
Timaru, May 2. It is still raining. Some of the larger bridges are damaged. Portion of the town of Temuka is under water during the last 24 hours, and a number of residents had to leave their .houses at Albany. A blacksmith's shop was washed away by the river, and a family named Cowper barely escaped with their lives at Washdyke. Several families were taken from their dwellings on horseback in the middle of the night. The railway is considerably damaged. On north and south Albury lines a number of small bridges are washed away. No mails have arrived from Christchurch or Dunedin. Later. The weather has cleared up, and the floods have gone down. With the exception of breaches in the railway line from Hinds to Waimate, not so much damage has been done as was expected. Railway communication between Christchurch and Dunedin will be completed to-morrow night.

Timaru Herald, 26 March 1884, Page 2
Fairlie Creek - The greatest proof of faith in the future prosperity of this township is the erection large substantial two-stored brick hotel, by Messrs Morris and Gall, opposite the railway platform. It is a facsimile of Mr Young's new hotel at Winchester. It will be nearly finished by Easter, when the local races are run. Winter's almost new wooden hotel is a fine two-storey building, so when the second one is finished Fairlie Creek will be pretty well off for hotel accommodations. The business place in the township now include two stores, two smithies, a wheelwright's, a saddler's, and shoemaker's shop, a boarding-house, and two livery stables. From the last run coaches carrying mails and passengers to Burke's Pass and the Lakes. The water mill is at a standstill, owing to financial difficulties.

Timaru Herald, 17 June 1884, Page 2 Accident at Pleasant Point — A serious accident occurred here on Sunday to Mr Fred. French, livery stable keeper, by which he lost one of his eyes. It appears he was fondling a pet foal, when it kicked out, striking him in the face and, it is said, completely destroying one eye. He was taken to Temuka and placed under the care of Dr Hayes.

Timaru Herald, 5 July 1897, Page 3
A banquet and presentation to Mr E. Richardson, was recently left the Albury estate to reside at Temuka, was held at Fairlie Hotel on Friday -evening. Mr John McGregor presided, and the vice chair was filled by Mr F.H. Gillingham, chairman of the County Council. After due attention had been bestowed on the good things provided by host Sullivan, the usual loyal and patriotic toasts and a few others were disposed of. Mr Richardson had been for many years one of the largest ratepayers in the County, and one of the largest employers of labour, and had always been held m the highest esteem by the people of Albury and the district generally, as a good neighbour and a good  boss, for he had often heard him spoken of highly by the men who found employment on the Albury estate. He had always taken a keen interest in local affairs, as chairman of the County Council, as chairman of the Albury School Committee, as a member of the Licensing Committee, and as a Justice of the Peace. Mr Wreford endorsed what had been said by Mr Milne, and added that he had probably known Mr Richardson longer that anyone present, having been present at the celebrations in connection with his coming of age and his" wedding. Mr Goodwin referred to Mr Richardson's good qualities as a sportsman, which he thought had been overlooked by" the previous speaker. In burning, fishing, shooting, or coursing, Mr Richardson had always taken a prominent part, Mr Richardson, m replying, said he had to thank them sincerely for the honour they had done him. In the first place he owed them an apology, for altering the date of their gathering, owing to his illness, and he hoped they would again extend their kindness to him, as on an occasion of this sort a number of things he would like to say would probably be omitted. He could assure them he felt very much the kind remarks that had been made by the chairman and others. It was just 21 years from the time he came to Albury. At that time the township of Fairlie consisted of Hamilton's hotel, and was afterwards increased in size by Welsh's blacksmith's shop. In those days it was a great event to get a horse shod, and many a yarn in the old days he had had with the blacksmith, Mr Welsh, who, he was glad to see present that evening. At that time there was only a tussock road from Timaru, and when on the County Council in late years he had often been amused at the complaints made of bad roads when he thought of the old days, when there was neither roads nor grumbling. They would all admit that the Fairlie district was a very fine one, and he thought that Fairlie was one of the prettiest little townships in South Canterbury. He could assure them that it was quite unnecessary to have given him such a handsome present to remind him of his friends, as he would always retain a kindly feeling for the district. Mr Richardson said he was glad to hear that the employees on the Albury estate, when he was manager, had contributed to the presentation. This would give it an additional value m his eyes. He was also pleased to see that a number of his old employees and contractors had secured sections on the estate, and he wished them every luck.  

Timaru Herald, 19 September 1898, Page 1
The PARTNERSHIP hitherto existing between John Storrier, James Storrier, W. J. Palmer, and Mark Higgins, carrying on Business under the name of J. STORRIER & COY., X.L. Foundry & Implement Works, has this day been DISSOLVED by mutual, consent, and will in future be carried on by John Storrier on his own behalf, and he will continue to trade under the name of J. STORRIER & COY. Dated this First Day of May, 1898. JOHN STORRIER. JAMES STORRIER. W. J. PALMER. MARK HIGGINS. Witness to Signatures— J. T. ALLSOP, Accountant. In connection with the above I beg to state that the Gentlemen hitherto associated with me in Partnership will, with the rest of the staff, continue to assist me in catering for the wants of the community in the Iron Fouhdry and General Blacksmithing Industry.: JOHN STORRIER.

IN the matter of the Public Trust Office Acts for the time being, and in the matter of the estate of JAMES Martin, late of Wai-iti, near Timaru,in the Provincial District of Canterbury, Blacksmith, deceased. All moneys payable to the above estate may be lodged to the credit of the Public Trustee's Account, at any Postal Money Order Office, or paid to A. Montgomery, Esq., the Agent of the Public Trustee, Timaru.

Timaru Herald Wednesday 22 November 1899
Magisterial before Major Steward, J.P.
Hugh Corbett, farmer, and Michael O'Shea were charged with cruelty to a mare, the latter with cutting or pulling a portion of the mare's tongue out, the former with working the mare while suffering from the injury. The evidence showed that the mare, an old one, belonged to Corbett, who took her to a blacksmith named Mahoney to have her teeth filed. While this being done, O'Shea assisted by holding the mare's tongue. She reared up, and the result was that two or three inches of the tip of the tongue were somehow cut off, whether bitten off or broken off the tip of the tongue. It was an accident. Both charges were dismissed.

The gig was built in 1912 at the Ferguson Coach Works, Stafford St, Timaru. Was originally owned by the Curtis Family of Limestone Valley Rd,

The Press - October 14 1996 -John KEAST - One of NZ's few remaining working blacksmiths.
Gareth James is an iron man. He used to make crowbars, machetes, bag hooks, and drawbars. Now, among other things, he makes chastity belts. Mr James works from home at 5 Maitland St., Pleasant Point, near Timaru, and fashions all manner of things in iron. When he began work for a Pleasant Point blacksmith firm after leaving school, he made heavy gear from a workshop with seven coal forges and two diesel forges. He worked there during his teenage years, but set up his workshop in 1986. His repertoire now includes many items with a medieval bent -- iron door knockers, massive hinges, candlestick holders, and the chastity belt. He also makes knives of damascus steel....

Timaru Herald 21 Nov. 1868Glossary - Carriage, Cart and Coach

Cart: A two wheeled spring less vehicle. Carts are generally two wheeled and wagons four wheeled. Mail contracts were let to both coach and cart owners.
Barouches: a four-wheeled carriage with a high front seat outside for the driver, facing seats inside for two couples, and a calash (a folding top of a carriage) top over the back seat
Buggies: In New Zealand four wheeled horse drawn vehicles are called buggies and two wheeled called cart or trap regardless of their proper names.
Calash also, calèche. a light vehicle pulled by one or two horses, seating two to four passengers, and having two or four wheels, a seat for a driver on a splashboard, and sometimes a folding top.
Cart: The word 'cart' is a general term denoting a two wheeled vehicle and includes all whether heavy or light with or without springs. e.g. ox-cat, mail-cart, dog-cart, night-cart, governess cart, Whitechapel cart etc.
Dogcart:  c.1800 a light strong, roomy, one horse pleasure cart, usually two wheeled and high bodied, with two traverse seats back to back with a box under the back seat for carrying gun dogs.
Drag: A four-horse sporting and passenger coach with seats inside and on top.
Dray: A low cart, wagon, for heavy goods usually drawn by four or more horses. Often uncovered.
Entire: an ungelded animal, esp. a stallion. Not gelded. An entire horse.
Gig: A light carriage with one pair of wheels, drawn by one horse. Gigs had mud guards. A butterfly gig had curved mud guards.
Governess cart: Safe for children, low to the ground, drawn by a pony, door at the back for entering, to keep the children away from the hooves.
Landau: A four-wheeled, two-seated carriage, the top of which may be opened and thrown back. 
Milkman cart, similar but larger version.
Hack: A horse let out for hire, a horse for ordinary hiding.
Hackney: A horse and carriage kept for hire.
Hanson Cab: a two wheeled, low bodied, one horse closed carriage with a single seat entered through front doors and elevated open seat for the driver at the rear. The reins are passed over the top of the cab. There is one in the Canterbury Museum, CHCH that has been copied by Mr Percy Taylor of Waimate. He took photos of it from every angle and has built a couple of reproductions.  The hanson cab at the Canterbury Museum was built for Robert Allen during 1912-13 by Boon & Co., Coach Carriage and Tram-Body Builders, Ferry Rd, CHCH. It was made from cedar, hickory and American ash by W.E. Richardson, W. Bellany and H. Greenfield. No. 96 on the cathedral Square cab rank, it piled the streets of Christchurch until 1941when Mr Allen gave it to the museum.
Hunter: A horse specially trained for quietness, stamina, and jumping ability in hunting.
Omnibus: In the 1870s saw the horse drawn omnibus in the city.
Spring carts: a homely two wheeled cart with large wheels and sides. The driver would sit on the load, e.g. corn sacks.  In 1882 G. Vale from Makikihi won the first prize at the Waimate show for a town delivery cart, the spring cart.
A sprung cart was a light, one-horse (or more usually pony), two-wheeled vehicle with road springs, for the carriage of passengers on informal occasions. Its name varied according to the body mounted on it. An Australian spring cart was a simple cart designed for carrying goods and did not have seating for driver or passengers. The driver usually sat on the sacks or goods carried. The shafts were wider than usual to accommodate a draught horse or a part bred one. The un-sprung cart by contrast was a simple, sturdy, one-horse, two-wheeled vehicle used by roadmen, farmers and the like for road metal or dung.
Sulky: a light two wheeled one horse carriage of skeleton construction with a seat for one directly on the shafts: used for harness racing. A doctor's gig.
Tooled: To drive. A horsey expression. 'With hampers to match, filled a large four-horse drag " tooled " by Mr J. King, and overflowed into a buggy'. TH 16 March 1889,
Trap: a light two wheeled carriage on springs.
Waggon: a four wheeled open carriage, drawn by horses, with two length wise seats facing one another behind the drivers crosswise, often with removable seats and a removable top.
Wagonettes: a light four wheeled two horse pleasure carriage. It is entered through the rear. Seats six or more on two facing longitudinal seats.
Engine cabs: horseless carriage, a motor vehicle

Canterbury Museum, CHCH

TH 20 Feb. 1893, Page 3
On Friday morning the visitors were taken for a drive in a four-in-hand tooled by Charlie Wheeler, down the main road to the Elginshire, round the Alpine road through Beaconsfield making a nice drive rou
nd.

TH 22 June 1887, Page 2 To the Dam
The rear of the procession was brought up by an open carriage drawn by four horses, containing His Worship the Mayor and Mrs Jonas (Mayoress) with Mr E. H. Lough, Town Clerk of Timaru. This carriage was attended by another, containing members of the Borough Council, and a four-inhand tooled by Mr Jas. King, and containing the members of the Jubilee Committee brought up the rear.

TH 28 January 1888, Page 4
The Annual Picnic. Trip to the Dam
the Mayor and Councillors visited the headworks of the water race on Thursday. The party consisted of Mr Moss Jonas (the Mayor), Mrs Jonas, the Misses Jonas, Mr B. Turnbull, M.H.R., and Councillors Bush, Hill, Bennett, Plante, Delaney, Owers, and Burford, Messrs Dawson, Anderson, Lough, Dale, Berwick, Brown, McGuinness, and Green. The main party was seated in a drag, whose four horses were tooled by Mr Jabez Lnkey, who, we regret to learn, is about to commence business m Chrislxhurch. His Worship and party had a wagonette driven by Lukey, junior, Mrs Jonas had a buggy driven by Mr Anderson, and Mr McGuinness drove Mr Green in his own dog cart.

TH 19 Sept, 1883, Page 3
The morning of Monday, the 10th, saw me being tooled by Mr Ashby in a tandem to Strathconnn, our horses having been sent on, Mr R. Rutherford taking the rest of the Mountnessing party with a "unicorn."

Timaru Herald, 25 May 1888, Page 3
At the invitation of Mr D. McLaren, of Bankfield, St. Andrews, about sixty gentlemen, residents of the Otaio, St. Andrews, Pareora, and Timaru districts met yesterday for a day's pleasure among the fur on the estate, which is situate on the south bank of the Otaio river. The Timaru party left town in King's drag, the four-in hand being in charge of Mr John Meikle, and an express, the three in-hand being tooled by Mr John Hammond. Timaru was left at 9 o'clock, the morning being beautifully fine, and after a most enjoyable drive, the picturesque town of St. Andrews was reached about 10.30. At Mr Wederell's hostelry Mr McLaren cordially welcomed his visitors, there being present with him Messrs Macpherson, McCaa, Lawrie, Cague, and other residents of the district.

TH 4 April 1893, Page 2
A monster picnic, which included the children attending the Albury, Cave, and Cannington schools, was held on Friday last at the invitation of Mr J. S. Rutherford. About 250 of all sizes were present, and the Pareora Creek just below the gorge was the the sting place selected for the occasion. The procession of vehicles which formed up at Coal Creek would have been considered a large one in any of our big towns. It comprised a six-in-hand drag tooled by Mr Rutherford, four well-horsed four-in-hand coaches supplied by Messrs Shaw and McKay, of Mount Cook coaching fame, eleven American waggons, and ten two-wheeled traps.


Timaru Herald, 31 December 1890, Page 2
Mr J. Shaw, of the Stone Stables, has just imported the very latest thing in drags, made after the pattern approved by the leading four-in-hand clubs at Home. The drag is capable of holding 22 persons, and townspeople and others will have full opportunity of inspecting it to-morrow and next day, while taking passengers to the South Canterbury Caledonian sports. The drag should also come in very handy for picnic and other pleasure parties.

Cobb & Co.

Stagecoach or Stage: a four wheeled coach, running as a public passenger vehicle for journeys between towns. Cobb & Co. started in Otago in 1861 by Charles Cole with fifty horses, 5 wagons and a buggy. A Concord coach. The thorough-brace spring was used until the last mail coach was off the road. Mail runs were a chief source of business.


Cobb & Co. No. 2. Australasian Coach builder and Wheelwright Volume 20 pg251

Otago Witness, 5 October 1861 page 5
Sept. 28 - India, 202 tons, Lucas from Geelong, with 2 cases saddlery, 6 wagons, 9 carts, 2 spring carts, 1 coach, 1 buggy, 2 wool presses, 1653 palings, 108 stakes, 54 horses, 4 passengers.

Timaru Herald 11 June 1864, page 1

Timaru Herald, 8 October 1864, Page 4
We take the following from Thursday's Press: — "Yesterday was the anniversary of the day on which this spirited firm commenced running coaches in Canterbury, and it must be admitted that they have not allowed the grass to grow under their feet. At that time there was only a small waggon running twice a week to Timaru. Messrs. Cobb and Co. soon increased the accommodation to three times a week each way, and exchanged the small waggon for a four and five horse coach. A coach was next put on the road once a week from Timaru to the Waitaki. By an advertisment in our issue of to-day it will be seen that on Monday next they commence running three days a week direct to Dunedin Passengers will then be able to travel in comparative comfort from Christchurch to Dunedin in three days and a-half, and we understand that in a short time the journey will be reduced to three days...

Timaru Herald, 18 May 1866, Page 2
Cobb's Coach Lost. — On Tuesday night last, "King Cobb" was lost in a fog. The coach which runs between the Rangitata and Timaru, when within about three miles of town got off the track and did not arrive until eleven o'clock at night. The fog was more dense than we have seen before in any part of New Zealand ; and it was quite impossible for any person either riding or driving to see the track.

Timaru Herald, 2 February 1867, Page 2
An accident which might have been attended with the most serious results, occurred yesterday morning to Cobb and Co.'s coach. It appears that the driver (Mr Griffin) stooping down to look for a parcel, the leaders turned suddenly round and pulled the pole horses with them, breaking the pole ; they then dashed down the road at a tremendous pace, but Griffin stuck to them in first-class  style, and succeeded in stopping them close by the brewery. Mr Hewlings was the only passenger. Heavy breakages having been sustained, a wagon belonging to Messrs Marshall and Donelly was kindly lent, and the mail was travelling along to its destination in less than half-an-hour after the accident.

Timaru Herald, 3 August 1867, Page 3
Being a passenger per Cobb's coach from Oamaru, which arrived last night, I would call attention, through the medium of your paper, to the dangerous state of the bridges and culverts between Waimate and this place, which, unless speedily rectified, will soon lead to some serious or fatal accident. The dangers of road travelling in the winter season seem to have been greatly overlooked by those who are responsible for the erection of the many culverts and bridges in the district referred to. They are all more or less inefficient to withstand the effects of a winter's flood such as has taken place within this last week, and were it not for the prudence and care manifested by Mr Robert Kett, Cobb's driver on this road, an accident attendant with loss of life and property would most assuredly have taken place. The bridges are too narrow, but not only so, they are constructed in some cases so far below the level of the road that one day's rain completely covers all trace of the existence of a culvert, and for want of substantial guard rails on either side, the perplexed traveller is left m total ignorance as to the safety or even existence of bridge or culvert. No protection is made against the force of water washing away all the shingle packing m the approaches to the bridges, and the result, therefore, is that both before and behind the water sweeps away all the shingle and leaves the wooden structure solitary, alone m the midst of the flood. Might I suggest the erection of water indicators at the various creeks and rivers, so that at one glance travellers might be made aware of the depth of water, and, consequently the risk they run m crossing. I remain, yours truly, P. W. Hutton. August 2, 1867.

Timaru Herald, 13 June 1868, Page 2
Communication with Temuka. — We observe that Mr Griffin, late driver of Cobb and Co.'s coaches on the South Road, intends starting next week a coach tri-weekly between Temuka and Timaru. It is to be hoped that the speculation will prove a successful one.

Timaru Herald, 19 January 1870, Page 5
On the 18th Dec. the children of the Timaru school were invited by Mr and Mrs Elworthy of the Holme Station, Pareora, to a school treat to be held on the grounds of the station. The children, 120 number, assembled at the school house at an early hour in the morning, and proceeded in traps kindly provided for the occasion. The following were the traps that started from the school house : a large coach of Cobb and Co.'s, which held 33 children, and those of Messrs Crawford and Green, Melton, Fraser, Elworthy, and Turnbull. Beside these there was a horse-dray. The children safely stowed in the traps, the procession started, and it presented a pretty sight, as with flags flying and all the youngsters dressed in their best the several carriages drove away. The road taken to the Pareora was the upper one, known as King's track. The following teachers accompanied the children : Rev. Mr and Mrs Foster, Mr Jagger, Miss Cuff, Miss Beswick, and Miss Melton. Just before reaching the Pareora river some trifling accident happened to Cobb and Co.'s coach, which necessitated the removal of its passengers to two of the other traps. The river was then safely crossed, and all arrived at Mr Elworthy's at about half-past one o'clock. The children were then regaled with fruit and cake. At half-past 3 o'clock the children sat down to a plentiful tea provided by their kind entertainers.

Timaru Herald, 9 July 1870, Page 3
A singular accident occurred yesterday to the driver of Cobb's coach, which was on its way to Christchurch. When a a little past Dr Rayner's residence, the horses from some cause became restive, and one of them inflicted a severe kick on Mr Kitt, the driver. I was told that the kneecap was broken. Kitt was attended to by Dr Rayner, after which he was conveyed to Timaru.

Timaru Herald, 27 July 1870, Page 2
Coach Building — A coach for nine passenger — six inside and three outside — has just been finished by Mr Murray, builder, Timaru, for Messrs Cramond, the mail contractors. The iron work has been done by Mr J. C. Cramond. The whole of the material and workmanship seem remarkably good, and reflect credit on the builders. The new coach, with a four-horse team, was tried on Saturday last ; running easy, and without vibration, it gave general satisfaction to the passengers.

Timaru Herald, 30 July 1870, Page 5
A very nasty accident happened on the 6th instant to Mr Roger Kitt, the driver of Cobb's coach running between Timaru and the Selwyn. As he was driving between Temuka and the Waihi, one of the horses became restive, and commenced kicking, striking the driver a furious blow on the kneecap, causing a compound fracture of a rather serious nature. Mr Kitt was at once conveyed to Temuka, where his leg was bandaged by Dr Rayner, and he was then brought to Timaru where he was attended by Dr Fisher.

Timaru Herald, 26 August 1874, Page 3
We observe by an announcement in another column that Mr Cramond purposes running his coaches daily between Timaru and Ashburton. The coach's will leave Cobb and Co.'s office at Timaru on Saturday, Tuesday and Thursday at half past seven in the morning, on which days the lower route over the old ford of the Rangitata will be taken. On the other days of the week the coach will leave at half-past six, and proceed to Ashburton as heretofore by way of Geraldine and the Rangitata bridge. John Cramond, proprietor.

Timaru Herald, 26 December 1879, Page 2
Timaru and Wai-iti Coach — The above coach is now being run by Mr James King, of the Timaru Horse Repository.

At the Fairlie Horse drawn Museum. Photo taken 1st Nov. 2009.
For donkeys years now coaches and cabs have been photographed in detail and builders have made the coaches by studying the photos.

Postcard, Herald Printing Works Timaru. That is Martain Collins, teh chemisy, in the tan shirt and black hat, inside, holding on.
Four matched pair.

Looks like Vince Jones and  Mrs Marge Jones Connell, in the yellow dress and all their kids, maybe Loiuse standing with the blonde hair.
The Vince Jones family, New Years Day, 1970s.

Coaching

Timaru Herald 13 Oct. 1881
SALE OF COACHING AND LIVERY STABLE PLANT AT GERALDINE. J. MUNDELL & CO. have received instructions from , Esq., to sell by public Auction, at his Livery Stables, Geraldine.

Timaru Herald, 5 February 1883, Page 2
Country Sales — On Tuesday last they held a clearing sale on account of Mr John Hinkley, at his stables, Albury, of horses, coaches, buggies, harness, etc., but owing to harvest operations being in full owing in that district, the attendance at the sale was limited, and most of the horses were withdrawn with a view to submitting them again on an early date. At Winchester on Thursday last they held a clearing sale of horses, coaching and livery stable plant, on account of Messrs Smith and McIIwraith, who are dissolving partnership. There was a large attendance of buyers, and prices realised were remarkably good.

 Timaru Herald 13 Oct. 1881


Timaru Herald
, 9 November 1887, Page 2
It is reported that a coaching company line has been formed to convey tourists from the Gladstone stables to the Hermitage during the coming season. If the tourists prove to be as numerous as expected, there will be ample work for both lines of coaches for a few months. The Government, I believe, are offering every facility to travellers anxious to visit the Mount Cook glaciers by issuing through tickets by rail from the chief centres.

Timaru Herald, 12 July 1893, Page 4
We, the Undersigned, have BOUGHT OUT THE OLD COACHING STABLES and MAIL CONTRACT lately carried on by Shaw and McKay, at Fairlie, and hope by strict attention to business to merit a fair share of the support so liberally accorded the old firm. Horses bought, told, or exchanged ; also carefully broken to saddle, single or double harness (under the superintendence of Mr A. Adamson), at Moderate charges. McKay & ADAMSON, Mount Cook Stables, Fairlie.

Timaru Herald, 29 July 1893, Page 3
SALE OF COACHING PLANT. GOODWILL OF BOAD AND MAIL CONTRACT FROM FAIRLIE TO THE HERMITAGE. LEASE OF STABLES, &. W.S. MASLIN & C0. have received instructions from the holder of the Bill of Sale to Sell by Auction at the GLADSTONE STABLES, Fairlie, on TUESDAY, AUGUST 1st, 1893, At 11 a.m., sharp,
The Goodwill of the Road, Mail Contract, and Leases of Stables, from Fairlie to the Hermitage.
12 First Class Mares and Geldings, good in all harness
The Coaching Stallion Liveryman, 5 years old
1 Single Buggy and Harness
1 14-Passenger Cobb and Co., Coach, nearly new
1 9-Passenger Cobb and Co. Coach
1 American Waggon and Harness
1 Double Buggy and Harness
1 Trotting Sulky
Set Tandem Harness, Set Dog Cart Harness
4 sets Coaching Harness, Coach and Buggy Lamps, Rugs
10 Horse Covers, D.B. Gun, Spring Mattress, Iron Bedsteads, Whips, &c.
Also,— An Assigned Mortgage for £300, having 6 years to run, at 6 per cent. The above offers a chance seldom to be met with of purchasing one of the best Coaching Lines Canterbury. Everything is in first class order. Horses young and sound, being the pick of about 50. Each lot will be sold separately, Without reserve.

Papers past.Timaru Herald 19 Sept. 1878
Atlas Carriage Factory - Elz Bros. & Sims, Coach Builders, opposite Brown's Timber Yard, Temuka.

Coachbuilders

Timaru Herald, 30 July 1870, Page 5
Coach Building. — A coach for nine passenger — six inside and three outside — has just been finished by Mr Murray, builder, Timaru, for Messrs Cramond, the mail contractors. The iron work has been done by Mr J. C. Cramond. The whole of the material and workmanship seem remarkably good, and reflect credit on the builders. The new coach, with four-horse team, was tried on Saturday last ; running easy, and without vibration, it gave general satisfaction to the passengers.

Timaru Herald, 3 August 1870, Page 2
Coach Building. — A paragraph in our issue last week on the above has, it seems, caused a slight disagreement between two members of the coach building trade in Timaru. Believing we were correct, in the first place, we credited Mr Murray with being the builder of the coach referred to. We were, however, soon set right in the matter by Mr Garrett, who claimed for himself the right of being a participator in the building of a good portion of the vehicle. Now, again, Mr Murray comes forward, and says what we care not to repeat of Mr Garrett's workmanship.

Timaru Herald, 15 February 1871, Page 2
From Mr G. Cliff, Fire Inspector for the Borough, stating that he had received the Council's letter, requesting him to take charge of the engine, and report on a suitable place to store it in. He had temporarily housed it in an out shed belonging to Mr Garrow, used as a coach painting shed, gratuitously lent. He advised the Council to provide a shed for it as early as possible.

Timaru Herald 1 November 1886

Timaru Herald, 14 December 1883, Page 1
Coachbuilder BON - ACCORD CARRIAGE WOKKS.
BUGGIES, SPRING CARTS and CARRIAGES of every Description BUILT to ORDER, REPAIRED and RE-PAINTED on the Shortest Notice and the most approved styles. An assortment of all the best grades of Carriage Materials always kept in stock. ARCHIBALD FRASER, Coachbuilder, Main North Read (next King's Stables), Timaru.

Timaru Herald, 23 September 1884, Page 2
Locally Grown Ash. — Mr A. Fraser, proprietor of the Bon Accord carriage works, has recently secured for the purposes of his trade several hundred young ash logs, cut in thinning plantations on the Orari estate. The logs as brought to Timaru are only short ones, as the butt only of the young trees has the requisite freedom from knots, and they run from five to eight inches in diameter in the rough. He has had a number of them cut into inch slabs, for drying preparatory to use, and the wood looks excellent. It is remarkably tough. A piece an inch and a half square was bent in the vice, without steaming, to a half circle of less than a foot in diameter before it showed signs of breaking. The rings of growth, which in a deciduous tree may safely be taken to show the annual growth, are clearly seen, and the outer and later ones are of considerable width.

Timaru Herald, 30 October 1884, Page 3
The show of vehicles was good, all the local tradesmen, with one exception, being represented. The double buggies made at Mr Barratt's Criterion Carriage Factory and by Mr A. Fraser, and single buggies by the same tradesmen and Messrs Reid and Gray, were not to be surpassed by any firm in the colony, while Mr Barratt's two-wheeled dog cart, and the same maker's and Mr Fraser's light American express wagons were of first-class quality. In this section Mr Barratt got four first prizes and one second, and Mr Fraser two second. As "extra exhibits" Mr Barratt showed a Whitechapel cart, a buggy, and a station wagon and wagonette combined, and Mr Fraser a very serviceable-looking spring cart, suitable either for a farmer's family cart or for any kind of light business. A most striking feature of the collection was the beautiful finish on all the vehicles and the excellent taste displayed in the painting, trimming, &c. The prices marked were most reasonable, and we question very much whether such good articles at the price; quoted could be purchased outside of Timaru.

Spring dray. Australasian Coach builder and Wheelwright Volume 20 pg221 

Timaru Herald, 20 September 1888, Page 1
BON ACCORD CARRIAGE WORKS. WE BEG TO INFORM the inhabitants of South Canterbury that we have DISPOSED OF the above business lately carried on under the management of Mr Archibald Fraser to Messes Thos. Ferguson & Co, and bespeak for them the patronage co liberally bestowed on their predecessor. All accounts owing at the present date are payable to ourselves. PRIEST & HOLDGATE. Timaru, 31st August, 1888.
    With reference to the above, we shall do our utmost to merit the confidence of Mr Fraser's late customers ; the members of our firm having been in his employ for the last seven years, have a thorough practical knowledge of every department of the business, and by working ourselves will be able to make OUR CHARGES STRICTLY MODERATE. THOS. FERGUSON & CO.

Australasian Coach builder and Wheelwright Volume 20 pg233 

Timaru Herald, 3 September 1888, Page 2
Messrs T. Ferguson, J. Newland, and E. Muchmore, announce that they have entered into partnership and taken the Bon Accord carriage works from Mr A. Fraser, who leaves this week for Melbourne. The new firm contains thoroughly practical and good tradesmen, who solicit a fair share of support in South Canterbury. 

Timaru Herald, 29 April 1891, Page 2
Attention is directed to Messrs Grandi and Co.'s advertisement in another column, respecting the Criterion Carriage Factory, so long and so successfully carried on by Mr Barratt [17 years in business]. In connection with the announcement (page 1 col. c), it may be stated that Mr Lachlan Macpherson, well known in South Canterbury, has written to the firm stating that he had got his "New Zealand dog cart" done up and taken north, and must tell them that it is considered by his friends and others at Home a beautiful cart, and the workmanship on it as good as any in England ; that in fact a dog cart can be built and finished as well in Timaru as in any other place un the colony. Just now Messrs Grandi and Co. are putting the finishing touched on a couple of dog carts which are also first class specimens of the work they can turn out. To allow of the shafts
having full play the front of the body springs away from a fulcrum ; a decided improvement so far as the comfort of the driver and occupants is concerned ; and another improvement is a double step at the back, which gives the easiest of access to the seat. A strongly built double buggy in the coach-painter's hands, and promises when finished to also reflect great credit on the firm. The stock of shafts, spokes, axles (of all kinds), springs, and other material is large and specially selected; and the "furniture" (which can be had in solid silver, silver-plated, brass or other metals), for shafts, hand-rails, dashes, etc, is of a very choice kind. Speaking of furniture we were shown a complete set for a landau, which is very handsome. One other line we may mention here, namely, carriage and other lamps which are fitted with patent spring and other sockets, out of which it is impossible to lose the candles. Space will not admit of us describing the patent indiarubber brake block, or give details of the choice stock of cushion leathers, American duck, etc., and will conclude by advising all who take a pride in their turn out to have a look over the premises and workshops of Messrs J. J. Grandi and Co.

Timaru Herald, 28 October 1896, Page 2
There will be on view in the window of Mr Gibson's cycle works, Empire Buildings, to-day some specimens of the handiwork of Mr A. J. Bell, coach painter, in the finer branch of his trade, the collection consisting of a number of coats of arms, trade symbols, etc., for the embellishment of vehicles. The colouring is very well done, some of it very intricate work, and the samples are well worth seeing by those interested in such work. There is among them a coat of arms painted on glass, a couple of ornamented ostrich feathers, and a novel card-table top, in a multitude of colours cleverly marbled together, suggesting the conundrum.

Press, 21 January 1897, Page 4
Mail Contract.—A now contract for the mail service to Pukaki and Mount Cook, from Fairlie, was signed at Fairlie on Monday. A new line, Messrs Kerr and Frayne, have the contract, which contains a stipulation that passengers shall be carried to Mount Cook for £3 10s.

Timaru Herald, 3 April 1899, Page 2
Messrs J. J. Grandi and Co., coachbuilders, last week put out to the order of Messrs Ballantyne and Co. two very fine sample vans for use of the firm's travellers m the country districts of South Canterbury. The vans are fourwheelers, fitted with shafts, and the body rest ß on springs coupled on the American system, so that riding is as easy as though the driver were on an air cushion. The bottom framing of the body is cut up the sides from the seat forward, to give the fore-carriage a better lock, and so that this will not weaken the framing, an iron plate running along the outside takes the place of the usual bead, and another iron plate running along the inside of the frame, the double plating makes the whole extra strong. A number of improvements have been introduced. On each side of the body above the front wheels is a door, which enables the traveller to easily get at his samples there the driver's seat is so constructed that it can be utilised as a desk underneath what is known as the lady's seat is a recess for the wrench, and other odds and ends and the tailboard of the van is utilised as a counter. To effect this all fastenings were done away with, a rest slides out from the underfloor of the body, and the board drops upon it, the rest being edged with rubber to minimise jar and wear and tear. The roof of the van is flat and waterproof, and the furniture of the whole vehicle is of the best— Howe and Burleigh's silvermounted patent lamps, American axles, etc. The colouring of the vans is dark green lined straw colour, with the monogram of the firm m gold on the front side-panels. The workmanship and finish reflect the greatest credit on the builders, and the vehicles should fulfil all that is expected of them.  

Timaru Herald, 26 March 1884, Page 2
New Buildings — It it with great pleasure we give our renders the following description of Barrett's new coach factory and show rooms. Mr J. Barrett is a very old resident, his business being one of the longest, established in this town, and doubtless his enterprise in erecting a handsome block of buildings such as they will prove when the work now in hand is finished. The new buildings will be erected adjoining the brick shops which were put up some time ago for Mr Barrett. The material will be brick and the facade will be finished to correspond with that, of the shops just mentioned. A large substantial-looking double- panelled door leads in from the street, and on either side of the door is a pair of square-headed windows. In the upper storey are shown four circular-headed windows, all of them being of more than average size. On the ground floor there will be a show room 30ft 6in by 32ft, and 11ft high, and above this will be a room of similar dimensions, which will be used as a paint shop. At the back of these rooms a space about 12ft square will be enclosed, in which will work a lift to he used for conveying carriages up to the painting room after they have left the coachmakers' and smiths' hands. The office and upholsterers' room are also situate at the back. The smith's shop will be placed in the brick building at the back of the section, which was formerly used as a paint shop. In one corner of the smiths' shop will be put up one of the latest improve tire, furnaces, the chimney-stack of which will be forty feet high. The chimney being of this height will of course carry the smoke, etc., away effectually and cause no nuisance to the neighborhood. The coachmaker's shop will remain as at present, the back of the new building abutting against the end of it. The new building, when finished, will improve the appearance of that part, of the town very much, and Barrett's block will rank among the handsomest in the town. The architect for the building is Mr W. J. N. Upton, and the contractor Mr Wood, who has already made a good start with his work.

Timaru Herald, 7 January 1865, Page 6 INNS AND TRAVELLERS.

(From the Press, Jan. 5.) We may safely take it for granted that nothing strikes a traveller in a new country more that the modes of travelling he finds prevailing in it, and the conveniences provided for him at his journey's end. In the early days of the province we will own to the feeling of novelty brought upon us, not by the compulsion of travelling on foot (such things did not come amiss to most of us), but by the " swag." To carry one's bed may be sufficiently astonishing to one of the world of modern civilisation, but to carry one's provisions, practically, is a bore, and if it were not that one must eat, we should in our first experiences have thankfully dispensed with the load of vital fuel necessary for our locomotion. Now-a-days, one's rest is too often made wretched by complaints of the shortcomings of the hotel, and of everything save the stable under the excellent "Tommy." (Who does not love the hostler to whom one can conscientiously resign a tired horse!) But then we were afoot, and after the frugal meal rose, though perhaps somewhat stiffly, to again pursue the shelterless track, past fern beds (now no more), past Cabbage-tree hill (now so only in name), and so on to Lake's. Hail ! sweet memories of that early inn; you were but a poor hovel, but many a tired one looked refreshed on the then pleasant fair minister of modest comfort. It was, and ever will be a wretched place, but never less so than then, and how much more so now, only travellers can tell. This was then the last resting place of southern bound civilized man and when the Rakaia, norwester compelled, hurried down in might and turbid flood, this the Ark of refuge whence at intervals would sally forth an impatient detenu, who, if he returned, gave report of the river's impracticability ; and if he did not, he must have crossed and so proved its practicability, and everybody tried to think he was not drowned. We well remember our first crossing the dread river; foot-sore march over the stony bed, the welcome bathe in the cold gliding stream, the half-confidence with which, advancing, step by step, we noted one waistcoat button, then another disappear, as the torrent boiled against our side; neither can we forget how, in mid-stream a very very cold and a horribly buoyant feeling pervaded our frame. But how glorious the camp for the night: what store of dry got for the roaring fire, lighting up the cypress-looking manuka and palm-like cabbage-trees, behind which rose the broad moon and twinkled many a star. The site of our camp is now a railway-reserve, and, but yesterday, the ferrymen were witness of our hath at the abominable delay in crossing the river; But, of course, the wool had to be crossed (else what would they say in England?) so we and our belongings had to wait. And we wished we had been bales of wool.
    But horses, spring-carts, waggonettes, and buggies have long since superseded swag carrying; and now the world are to be passengers by Cobb and Co. to Timaru in a day! It is a wondrous sight, that Timaru Mail— a cross between a diligence and a coach of the date of Queen Anne, so bulky-looking yet so light in substance that as it stands, ready for the horses, the light breeze makes it float on on its leather fore-and-aft springs. Thunderbolt-holding eagles, star-spangled banners, and other devices not in the best of taste, clearly establish the country of its manufacture; while the driver, in steeple-crowned hat, full of strange phrases and nasal vernacular, adroitly managing his plunging team, completes the unity of the Yankee notion. But the journey is done in a day. No more nights then at the model inn of the Christchurch justices, with its inevitable shake-down on the floor mid some dozen companions of travel. "Shall I not take mine ease in mine inn!" has risen to the lips of many a traveller since old Sir John; but here we venture to say one rarely indulges m the expectation without disappointment. Our country inns— we speak chiefly of the South road, where a clean bed is usually the exception— are, as a rule, comfortless dirty grog-shops. The legal notices, conditions of license posted in the public rooms, with the book kept for visitors, convey to the stranger the idea of a rigorous supervision, and he might justly suppose the inhabitants of this province accepted dirt and drunkenness, hard fare and straw pallets as a condition of being "up the country." The magistrates in town do not care, under, the present Ordinance, to sit on the Bench on licensing days; it is no wonder then that country justices follow their example, and consequently consider the visitors book of complaints a shame. ..

Reference: Papers Past
Star
12 April 1886, Page 4 THE FATE OF " THE VILLAGE BLACKSMITH."
Slaves of the Forge
SLAVES OF THE FORGE.
Timaru Herald,  23 August 1888, Page 4
Referring to a cablegram received lately and writing as one who knows something of his subject, the editor of the New Zealand Times says : —For the past two or three years this industry, which ten years ago employed over 30,000 men, women, and boys, has been in a very bad state, and the people employed have barely earned enough to keep body and soul together. In Tipton, Dudley, Netherton, Cradley, Sedgeley, Cosely, Old Hill, Round Oak, situate in South Staffordshire and East Worcestershire, are hundreds of families who make the smaller kinds of chains at a small workshop at their own homes. In most cases the whole of the family are so engaged. The father is what is known as " a striker," a man who does the heaviest part of the work ; the mother is "a welder ; " a daughter, say, of 16, is " a small forger ; " and a boy, say of 10, is " the heater ; " while a younger child is employed at working the bellows which supplies the necessary heat to the small blacksmith's hearth on which the iron links of the chain are "heated" previous to "welding." This family of five souls employed in making say, the small iron chain known as " dog " or " jack " chain, will work from 14 to 16 hours per day for five days in the week and, say, 8 hours on the Saturday, and at the present time their united earnings will not reach 20s. They are indeed fortunate if they can make 16s or 18s. Out of this they have to pay rent for house and forge, food, clothing, and other necessary expenses. This was the actual state of affairs in many parts of Worcestershire and Staffordshire a couple of months ago. That the matter is as bad now or even worse may be judged from the fact that their deplorable condition was of sufficient importance for it to be wired out to this colony. No wonder, then, in the words of our telegram, that great distress prevails ; many are absolutely in want of food. It must not be thought that the above rate of wages is constant. They are often very much lower than we have stated, for this reason : These small workers can only obtain employment from the small merchants when orders are in hand. Very little chain is made for "stock." The workpeople go to the merchants on Saturday with the results of their week's work and are paid, and then if the merchant happens to have orders on hand he gives out the necessary amount of " rod iron " required to complete that order. But should orders be slack then the unfortunate workers are compelled to wait until more orders arrive. The one difficulty is that in the majority of cases the merchants advance money to these workpeople during the week on their work, and thus keep their labour in pledge, perhaps for months or even years. Hence they are compelled to work for the one master, and if he has no work to give them at times, they have to wait until he has. One reason of this deplorable state of affairs in the chain trade is that at one time America was a large customer for Staffordshire and Worcestershire made chain, but the American Protective tariff shut the English makers out of the market, and American chain-makers are reaping the benefit. Another reason for the bad trade in England is that as that country allows all iron imports to come in duty free, the Belgian chain makers have swamped the English market with chain at least 10 per cent less than it can be made in England, and the result is almost absolute starvation.

Emil Lienert, Pleasant Point - wheelwright and tool-maker. Article


Press, 17 March 1911, Page 9
Notwithstanding the set-back Temuka ultimately began to go ahead again. The destruction of the Arowhenua bush assisted to confine the extension of settlement to the north side of the river. Other business places were established. The earliest blacksmith was Mr W. Bryant, Mr K. F. Gray for many years carried on a similar business, particularly in connection with farm implements, and Messrs D. and J. Findlay were also in the blacksmith and engineering trade.  
    The old accommodation house at Orari opened in 1856 by Mr J. W. Giles, and afterwards carried on by Mr T. Wadsworth, was a well-known place of call in the early days on the way to and from Christchurch, and as a stopping place for Cobb and Co.'s coaches before the erection of the Upper Rangitata traffic bridge, when they came round via Geraldine. The old house, near to which Mr D. Taylor had his blacksmith's shop, was burned down many years ago, after it had ceased to be occupied, the license having been transferred to the hotel erected near the railway station. Among those who took up land in the Orari district was Mr J. Stranks, of the Crown Hotel, Temuka; Mr T. Dunn, of the Stumps farm; Mr H. J. Gladstone; Dr. Barker, of Ohapi farm, Mr W. Stewart, Mr G. Bissett. Mr A. B. Barker lived until his death at Ohapi, and his brothers, Messrs A. L. Barker and F. H. Barker, still own farms in the district. Across the Orari river, and north of the railway line, is the Belfield settlement, established some thirty years ago, and south of the railway line, and near the sea, is the Clandeboye settlement, which was lately increased by the purchase of land from the Rolleston Estate. The latter settlement is becoming a prominent dairying district, the rich land being specially adapted for cow pastures.

New Zealand Tablet, 26 April 1906, Page 20
The farming community seem to take little interest in technical education in this district (says the 'Timaru Herald'). Last year wool classing, though an excellent subject for a young farmer to have Knowledge of, and though taught by one of the best men in the district, was the worst attended class at the Temuka technical school, and now, in response to a request for a class in practical blacksmith, pupils were this year advertised for at Temuka, with the result that one pupil applied.

Timaru Herald, 28 October 1890, Page 3
An ordinary meeting of the Timaru Borough Council was held last evening. Present — The mayor (Mr Ross), and Councillors Sherratt, Bennett, Owers, Hole, Delaney, Foley, Burford, Crawford, Hall-Jones, and Hill. Mr E. H. Lough, Town Clerk, said that since he had last met councillors he had been on a holiday trip to Dunedin. He had enjoyed himself very much.
Driver's License. On the motion of Councillor Crawford Mr D. Gibson was granted a hackney carriage driver's license.  

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