The frog design along with specific colours of the bricks was used to identify makers and areas in the early years (1840 - 1870) of New Zealand brick making. The term "frog" for the indentation on one bed of the brick is a depression in the bed face of a brick or building block; used to provide a better key for mortar. The brickmakers name can sometimes be found there. Firebricks were more likely to have brand marks than frogs as it was important to have a recognizable brand as a guide to the special qualities of the bricks.
Timaru Herald, 11 June 1864, Page 2
Now that we have got used to our wattle and dab shanty we are as comfortable as though we were in a brick house. Last winter was very fine and dry, but this spring has been very wet, everything looks uncommonly well, and if the summer favours us we shall doubtless have a fine turn out in the harvest. I think they are beginning to start a few brickyards here and there. We have one or two engines for making bricks by steam. I think they begin to think of building in the brick line a little more now, and I have no doubt but that style will be on the increase. Most of the workmen, I think, get from 10s. to 12s. a day of eight hours, now, as living is dearer; such as carpenters, smiths, shoemakers tailors, masons, bricklayers, &c. But at the same time there is now and again come few out of work. The Lyttelton and Christchurch Rail-way is expected to open this month. The tunnel will not be cut though for two or three years. Tramways are going a-head a little up country: and over to the other hills where the bush and coal pits are. In the other hills there is any variety of stone, coal marble, flags-one or freestone, slate, limestone, &c.
Timaru Herald, 22 January 1909, Page 4
Mrs Susan Exley writes to say that J. Ellis has been credited in error with making the first bricks in Timaru. The first brickmaker, she states, was Harpin Exley, who started in February, 1859, and had made bricks and built them into chimneys before J. Ellis arrived in September of that year.
Berry, William, Geraldine
Brown's Brickworks on Cross Street in Geraldine
Chambers, Thomas, died June 1905 age 45, came to Temuka 1 month ago.
Cooper, Robert, established a brick kiln in Cooper's Lane, near College Rd, partner with James Shears. Had a pugmill operated by a horse.
Doel Alfred, Waimate 1881
Duke, Fairlie 1895
Ede, Ben of Ashburton who had burnt the bricks on the property, Mount Peel, by which the house was built in 1865
Ellis, Joseph of Timaru, 1864
Exell, William: Brick maker living at the Point in 1878.
Fisher, Nathan brickyard Timaru Herald, 1 April 1865, Page 4
Fisher & Forsythe made bricks for bricking wells, £4 10s /1000
Hoare, William, Temuka 1899
Hornsey and Mills erected a kiln at Saltwater Creek in 1883, selling the business to R. Allen
Hudson, Peter: Brickmaker at Timuka, did some work at M'Donald's station, Orari. 1865
Hunt, James, brickmaker, Geraldine 1872
Grainger, Jacob Geraldine 1881
Jensen, Christian Timaru 1876
Joseph Kennington, Geraldine 1881
Kirk, H.B. Brickmaking works, College Road.
Kirk and Goddard, Saltwater Creek, 1911 A. Kirk and J. Goddard
Mann, William Leslie, brickmaker, College Rd, Timaru 5th ballot 1917
O'Bryan, W. In business for 11 years, last 8 years by himself. Partners being G. Filmer and C. Palliser. Bankrupt 28 March 1896.
Philip, J. , Waimate - pug mill 1884
Quinn, William : Makikihi bricks were made in quantity
Ross, Donald, brickmaker, 131 Otipua Rd, Timaru, ballot for 30th Reinforcements April 1917
Shears, James, Robert, Ben, Samuel, College Road
Smith, T.H.G., Temuka 1873
South Canterbury Brickworks Company, Ltd - formed in 1920 - purchased Quinn's then Kirks Brickworks, College Rd
Stewart and Halloway, brickmakers in Temuka in 1866
Tacon, Robert - Saltwater, Timaru 1879
Ure, James, Waimate 1872 , 1881 brickmaker and bricklayer
Whitehead, Joseph, Temuka 1867
The Kirk brick is very dark and a different texture to the Quinn one. The darker the brick - the stronger the brick.
Timaru Herald, 9 June 1888, Page 2
An ancient landmark of Timaru has been demolished. The little brick shop which, many years ago was erected by the late Mr Harrison, baker, at the north end of the town, and which for some time was one of the "most substantial" buildings the town could boast of, has been pulled to pieces. The color or texture of the bricks shows that the brick maker of the period was economical in the matter of black pine.
Timaru Herald, 11 June 1864, Page 5
Ellis & Co. v. John Reilly.— Debt, £10 6s. 9d Joseph Ellis, sworn, said: I am a brick maker at Timaru. Defendant wanted a brick chimney some time ago, and I agreed to do it for £15. I did so by employing a man called Silverton, I paid him £4 and supplied 1500 bricks: I was selling them at £6 10s. per thousand. I also paid 25s. for sand &c, besides my own time and trouble. Defendant has a set off which I allow, bringing the debt to the amount sued for. By the defendant: I did not ask you to buy the bricks. I owed you an account before this transaction. No account has been rendered to me about your son's work done for me. I gave you a bill about five months ago : you paid me one pound on account in March last. I delivered you an account before that. The chimney was to be two feet higher than the roof. By the Court: I built the chimney in 1863. The boy was working for me in the summer of 1862. John Reilly, sworn, said: Plaintiff has owed me money for some time, I asked him for it, he said he would do the chimney for me. I told him Silverton offered to build it for £14, and plaintiff offered to do it for that sum. Plaintiff said no written agreement was necessary. The account was left at my house in my absence from home. By the plaintiff: You told me you could not build the chimney for £14 when in Simpson's Hotel. The chimney was to be like the one built for Culliuan. Verdict for plaintiff, defendant to pay debt costs.
Timaru Herald, 8 August 1866, Page 2
W. Stewart v. H. Halloway. Claim— £50.
This case was brought forward again through a former non-suit. Mr Perry appeared for plaintiff.
William Stewart, sworn, deposed lam a laborer, residing at Temuka. I was formerly working as partner, in 1864, at brickmaking, in the summer time, and working in the bush during the rest of the year. It was about April when I joined defendant I gave him £45 at the time to put into the concern. He has never paid me anything since I have been with him, as a labourer. I bought goods frequently for our house while with him, such as meat, etc. Sometimes I paid for them, at other times defendant did it was always out of the partnership money. We sold, while together, 20,000 bricks to the Government for Timaru, and 6,000 to Mr Simpson of Timaru, &c. I received part of the money from Mr Simpson myself, when I left, which was on the 30th May. I left 25,000 good bricks m the field, and the brick kiln, which defendant afterwards told me he had sold to Mr Dyson for £10. I left some sawn timber, &c. I valued the whole at £70. Defendant gave me £8 in notes, and a promissory note, which was impounded by the Court at last hearing.
Thomas Graham Reich, sworn, deposed: I am manager for Major Hornbrook. I know plaintiff, and remember in 1864 supplying him with meat I enquired of the men who served him who he was. They told me he was mate or partner with Halloway, brickmaking. I supplied him several times. Sometimes the account was paid by defendant and sometimes by plaintiff, which clearly proved to me that one recognised the debts of the other. The public generally considered them as partners.
Isaac Greaves, sworn, deposed I am a labourer residing at Raincliff Station. I know both plaintiff and defendant. I remember them working together as brick-makers. I always understood them to be partners. I was living about a hundred yards from where they worked, I remember when Stewart went away. I heard defendant say he owed plaintiff £70. The Bench gave judgment for plaintiff, with costs.
Timaru Herald, 11 March 1872, Page 4
Bricks, £3 per 1000 Paving Tiles, £4 per 1,000 JAMES HUNT, Brickmaker, Geraldine.
Timaru Herald, 6 October 1873, Page 2
WANTED — One or two BRICKMAKERS slop or stock for the summer on the hack. Apply Brickfield, Temuka, T. H. G. Smith.
Timaru Herald, 6 September 1875, Page 2
WANTED— Eight Bluestone QUARRY- MEN ; also, BRICKMAKERS, to make 25,000 Bricks for the Timaru Reservoir. Apply to Jones & Peters, Contractors, Timaru.
Timaru Herald, 11 October 1876, Page 2
ABSTRACT OF SALES BY AUCTION. This Day. By Mr Moss Jonas, at Mr Christian Jensen's Brick-yard — Brick-maker's stock.
Timaru Herald, 10 October 1876, Page 2
Wednesday, 11th October, 1876. D. and L. MACLEAN Have been instructed by Mr Thomas Hampson, to sell by Public Auction, on Wednesday; October 11th, 1876, At Mr Christian Jensen's brickyard, the undermentioned property, under Bill of Sale ; One Bay Gelding, (Prince), One Tip Dray, One Pug Mill, Six Planks, Thirty Sheets Galvanised Iron, Six Shovels and Two Picks, Forty Thousand Bricks.
Timaru Herald, 31 October 1878, Page 4
TO BRICKMAKERS, CAPITALISTS, AND OTHERS. FOR SALE BY PRIVATE TREATY. JONAS, HART, AND WILDIE have been instructed by Mr R. Tacon, who is relinquishing the Business, to Sell by Private Treaty, 7 Acres Freehold Land situate within a mile of Timaru, and near the Town Belt, together with Brickmaking Plant, Sheds, &c. The Land has been erected for its valuable properties for Brick and Tile making, and for that purpose is not to be equalled in the district. There is a ready sale for an unlimited number of bricks, and therefore offers a rare opportunity to anyone who may wish to embark in that business. For particulars, apply to JONAS, HART, & WILDIE, Timaru.
Timaru Herald, 6 May 1879, Page 4
In bankruptcy. In the District Court of Timaru and Oamaru, holden at Timaru. In the matter of "The Debtors and Creditors Act, 1876," and of "The Debtors and Creditors Act Amendment. Act,1878," and m the matter of the Bankruptcy of Robert Tacon, a Debtor. This is to notify that Robert Tacon, of Saltwater Creek, near Timaru, in the Provincial District of Canterbury, New Zealand, Brick- maker, has this day filed a statement under the provisions of the above mentioned Acts] that he is unable to meet his engagements with his Creditors. The first meeting of Creditors to be held at the District Court- house, Timaru, on Friday, the 16th Day of May, 1879, at the hour of eleven o'clock m the forenoon. Dated this 5th day of May, 1879. THOMAS HOWLEY, Clerk.
Timaru Herald, 12 November 1881, Page 2
The Saltwater Creek brickyard being now under the superintendence of an experienced manager, bricks of a superior quality can be supplied at lowest current rates. At Mr Raymond's coal yard, main street, and Mr E. H. Tate's office samples can be seen, where orders also will be promptly attended to.
Timaru Herald, 23 January 1884, Page 3
BUILDER'S CONTRACTING PLANT. MR F. M. RICKMAN has received instructions from the Executors of the late Mr J. Philip to Sell by Public Auction, on the above date, on the Premises, Timaru road, 8-Roomed House and Acre of Land, fronting on Innes street and Manse street, Waimate; fenced in, and good well of water. Also, ALL THE STOCK AND PLANT, Consisting of
First-class Pug Mill
20,000 Well-burnt Bricks
8,000 Feet Sawn Timber
Ropes, Blocks, Oils, Paint Tools, Quantity of Ironmongery Boards, from 12 to 18 inches wide
Morticing Machine — &c,.. Sale at 12 o'clock. F. M. RIOKMAN, Auctioneer
Timaru Herald, 9 December 1895, Page 2
Brickmaking is to be added to the as yet few local industries of Fairlie. Mr Duke, who has for some time past been working a coal seam and burning lime on Mr Nixon's property, about two miles from the township, is now laying out a brickyard and fixing up a pug-mill, in order to supply the local demand for bricks. The yard is being placed a few chains only from the coal pit, and close to a high bank of clay, which Mr Duke says is of very good quality for brickmaking. The coal seam he is working is about 5ft thick, standing nearly upright, and there is no doubt that it is the same seam which has been operated on at several points m the locality, as on the Opawa and Albury estates, as it occupies the same position in relation to the limestone. Mr Duke has driven along the seam two and a half chains, with a dip of about 15ft, and uses a horse to haul trucks up a small tramway. He lately began a cross-cut in the belief that he would strike a second and older seam, within a few feet. Mr Duke also believes that there is an older coal in the district, geologically beneath the limestone, but he has not yet proved it. He and his partner have put in a lot of hard work in making a kiln for lime-burning, by cutting down the upper half of a bluff of limestone rock and sinking a circular kiln in the lower half. He has also fixed up an ingenious arrangement for hauling coal up to the charging floor, but is evidently as well as confessedly hampered by want of capital.
Timaru Herald, 18 January 1899, Page 1
FOR SALE, BRICKMAKERS BUSINESS, LAND AND PLANT. IN ESTATE LATE WILLIAM HOARE, BRICKMAKER, TEMUKA. Tenders will be received by the Undersigned until Noon on Saturday, 28th January, Instant, For the Purchase of Sections 168-173, Temuka, containing 1¾ Acres with 2 kilns and good supply of water and clay for Brickmaking purposes, also Brickmaking Plant and Goodwill of Business as carried on at Temuka by the late Mr William Hoare. Good demand for Bricks in district and no other Brickworks in the same locality. Title, Land Transfer Act. Mr James Blyth, of Temuka, Executor of the late Mr Hoare, will give any information to intending purchasers. J. HAY, Solicitor for Executor.
Timaru Herald, 12 September 1899, Page 2
At the inquest on the remains of the late Mr Joseph Whitehead, of Temuka, held at the Courthouse, Temuka, yesterday morning, the evidence of Mr Warren, who made a post mortem examination of the body, was that death was the result of syncope caused by fatty degeneration of the heart. A verdict of Death from natural causes was returned. Deceased came from Victoria to New Zealand in 1867 and settled at Temuka. He established the first brickyard there, and afterwards engaged in various mercantile pursuits. He was much respected fur his kindly disposition and upright character. He leaves a widow and two grown-up sons, one of whom resides in Temuka, and the other in Australia.
Timaru Herald, 12 December 1911, Page 8
A. KIRK AND J. GODDARD beg to announce that having purchased a BRICK WORKS at SALTWATER CHEEK, they are starting business as Brickmakers, and are installing all the latest machinery for brick making purposes. As Mr A. Kirk has been working and managing for his father for the past 27 years, and Mr J. Goodard has been a practical Brickmaker for the past 15 years, they are confident of placing a First class article on the market early in December. The firm will trade as Kirk and Goddard.
Clinch, Henry Tomas, Jr. Temuka 1940 Ellen, Thomas Edward Timaru 1940 Ellis, Joseph Timaru 1859 Hall, Emil 1878 & sons built buildings as well as bridges Holloway, Henry Temuka 1878 Hutcheson, George Timaru 1879, employed at the High School Machin, Thomas Sandie Town, Timaru 1872 Ogilvie, Timaru 1879 employed at the High School Ure, James Waimate, 1878, brickmaker & bricklayer Werry, W Timaru 1895 Whitehead, John Temuka 1878
The Cyclopedia of New Zealand [Canterbury Provincial District] pg997
Hall, Emil, Builder and Contractor, Timaru. Mr. Hall was born on the 1st of October, 1838, at Copenhagen, Denmark, and was brought up as a bricklayer and plasterer. He came out to Victoria in 1853, and was attracted by the gold rush. To begin with he had good fortune. In 1867 Mr. Hall went to Hokitika, and remained on the West Coast till 1878. On removing to South Canterbury he confine his attention to general building and contracting. He has erected a good many buildings in the Timaru district, including part of the convent, the Marist Brothers' school, and many private and public buildings in town and country.
Joseph Ellis was born in 1829 and married 23 Feb. 1852, he and his wife came on the "Clontarf" in 1859. He was the first bricklayer in Timaru, a carter and contractor, proprietor of the Old Bank Tavern, a farmer at Springbank and Kingsdown, a member of the Timaru Town Board.
Timaru Herald, 14 January 1905, Page 2
0n October 14th, 1904, at Leeds, Yorkshire, England, Thomas Wood, bricklayer, late of Timaru; aged 67 years.
John Frederick Hall, a bricklayer, in Theodocia street in 1906
Timaru Herald, 7 January 1901, Page 2
Mr Berry, of Geraldine, the contracting bricklayer for Mendelson's new buildings at Temuka, had a very narrow escape from a serious accident on Saturday morning. He was assisting in the erecation of some scaffoldings and stepped on a cross piece of 4 x 2 pine, which, snapped in two. Mr. Berry fell upon a stack of bricks and sustained a severe shaking and some nasty abrasions. His injuries, although painful, are fortunately not likely to be serious.
Timaru Herald, 11 March 1903, Page 2
An old resident of Timaru, Mr W. C. Silverton, died suddenly yesterday, aged 70. He came to the colony and Timaru about forty years ago, and in the early days was an important artisan, being 'a first-rate bricklayer, and many a chimney in the older houses still testify to the excellence of his workmanship. When brick came into more general use Mr Silverton became a successful builder. Of late years, when age began to tell upon him, and he had to relinquish active work, he found useful and congenial employment as clerk of works on buildings erected by others, his last engagement of this kind being on Mr T. Thomson's Coronation Buildings. He had suffered from weakness of the heart and asthma for some time past, and yesterday while sitting at dinner he suddenly expired. He leaves a widow, one son and two daughters—(Mrs R. Holdgate and Mrs J. Radcliffe).
Timaru Herald, 6 April 1907, Page 5
Mr Frederick Hall, a bricklayer, and a resident of Timaru, sustained somewhat serious injuries at the Cave yesterday. He was engaged in building a chimney when he was seized with a fit, and fell on to the roof of the house, and thence to the ground, falling on his head. He was attended to as well as possible at the Cave, and brought into Timaru by the evening train and taken to the Hospital. The extent, of his injuries is not yet certain, but it is understood that he is in a somewhat precarious condition, necessitating careful attention for a few days. Inquest 9th April. C. Hall, brother.
Military service Timaru Herald, 1917 - 1918
Baker, William, bricklayer's labourer, Shearman St, Waimate
Berry, Alfred Yeomanson, bricklayer, Church Street, Timaru
Berry, William, bricklayer, Allnutt Street, Temuka
Buckthought, Kerwin Richard, bricklayer 29, Daire Street, Temuka
Darling, Samuel, bricklayer, 15 Regent Street, Timaru
Foley, Michael, bricklayer, 157 Otipua Road, Timaru
Melville, Martin, bricklayer, Hornbrook Street, Temuka
Ockleshaw, Herbert Charles, bricklayer, 120 Willis Street, Ashburton
O'Hagan, Patrick, bricklayer, 131 Rathmore Street. Timaru
Pearce, George Christopher, bricklayer, 17 Fritz Street, Timaru
Robinson, Albert Edward, bricklayer and contractor 3 Jackson Street, Timaru
Simmons, John Robert, bricklayer, Otipua Road, Timaru
Taylor, Albert, bricklayer, Fairton, Ashburton
Timaru Herald, 10 July 1913, Page 9
MAGISTERIAL. Timaru. Wednesday July 9. Before Mr V. G. Day, S.M.) BREACHES OF AWARDS
A. Kennedy, builder, Timaru, was proceeded against for a contravention of the Canterbury Bricklayers' Award, by employing Edward O'Hagan as a bricklayer from 9th May to 7th June, when he paid him 1s 1½d per hour, instead 1s 6d per hour as required by the award. Edward O'Hagan was also charged with a breach of the award in working for the lower rate. After O'Hagan's statement the Magistrate fined him 10s and Kennedy 1s. O'Hagan said he understood that a permit had been obtained for him to work at 1s 4½ per hour.
Timaru Herald, 29 November 1913, Page 3
Teacher—"If a bricklayer gets 4 dollars for working eight hours a day, what would he get if he worked-ten hours a day?" Bright Pupil— He' d get a call-down from the union."
Builders often dated their work.
Timaru Herald, 16 August 1871, Page 1
T. MACHIN Bricklayer, &c. Sandie Town, Timaru. Steam Boilers, Kitchen Ranges, Coppers, and all kinds of Furnace Work done, and the proper working of the same guaranteed. 8 To STATION MASTERS. Estimates given for making bricks on own ground, and erecting buildings. Plans and Estimates given for Cooking Apparatuses capable of cooking for any number of men. [In Bankruptcy” in 1883] Moved to Victoria in 1884.
Timaru Herald, 3 April 1886, Page 2
The Royal Mowing Mills have ceased work for a couple of days, in order to have a thorough overhaul. The additions to the mills are being pushed on rapidly, and the contractors for the brick work, Messrs Moore and Hornsey, expect to get the foundation completed during the early part of next week
Timaru Herald, 17 July 1895, Page 3
The usual monthly meeting of the South Canterbury Hospital and Charitable Aid Board was held yesterday, present— Mr John Jackson (chairman), Messrs Gillingham, Hardie, Hill, White, Moore and Coltman. Tenders for putting up the brick wall in the eastern frontage of the Hospital were as follows :— W. Werry, £64 17s ; McKenzie and Co., £71 10s ; J. L. Potter, £73; F. Palliser, £73 11s; W. H. Hunt, £75 12s ; S. Sibly, £80 10s. Messrs Coltman and Moore moved that Mr Werry's tender be accepted.
The beauty of bricks -study the brick wall
Brick bond - The Common (header) Bond is the most common type of masonry construction, with full header courses every fifth, sixth or seventh row. Below we see the full header every fourth row. In double-thickness walls, they strengthen the wall by connecting the layers. Vertically staggered bonds tend to be somewhat stronger and less prone to major cracking than a non-staggered bond. The walls of The Royal Arcade are of brick, photo below, built in 1888; the bricklayer contractor was Mr. Emil Hall. He has erected a good many buildings in the Timaru district, including part of the convent, the Marist Brothers' school, and many private and public buildings in town and country.
The Royal Arcade, Timaru -good work.- see the pattern -common pattern bond.
Northern Advocate 20 May 1912, Page 3
WHY BRICKS ARE THE SAME SIZE. If bricks were made larger, it would save a great deal of time and labor in building, but the standard has been set and any change would be attended by considerable inconvenience. In England, when bricks were first made, and up to sixty or seventy years ago, there was a tax on bricks, and, in order to evade it, the bricks were made of larger and larger sizes. These were used for cellars and other concealed places. To stop this fraud an Act was passed in the reign of George III fixing the legal size of bricks. Early in Queen Victoria's reign the tax was taken off, and bricks may now be legally made of any size whatever. But any change from the standard size would bring about great inconvenience. All calculations are made for building on this standard size.
Red brick is found through out the city from the art deco TBHS Library to brick fences, chimneys, mills, warehouses, wells, homes ... and the brick wall around the old Dr Mckenzie's house at the hospital the corner of Queen St, and High St. Timaru
Rebuilding of Timaru
Timaru Herald, 19 June 1869, Page 2
Over six months have now elapsed since the great fire on the 7th of December, 1868, and as a number of buildings have been since then finished and occupied, and others are still in course of erection. The destruction of the wooden buildings has led to the erection of buildings on a much improved style of architecture; and where formerly wooden buildings of inferior workmanship and finish stood, stone buildings of first-class character have been, and are being erected. At a distance of a few feet to the southward commences the stone and brick block of buildings belonging to Mr Henry Cain. The back, sides, and partition walls are built substantially of bluestone, and the front wall of brick stuccoed, with a handsome cornice at the top, and a lower one of smaller dimensions under the upper windows. Mr Ross, of Dunedin, is the architect, and Mr Cliff contractor for these buildings. Next in order, and attached to Cain's buildings, is a row of one-story buildings extending down the street about 150 feet the back and side walls are built of bluestone with wooden fronts up the street, is a pretty looking two story building, with a brick front with cornice and dressings of stucco work, the property of Mr Clarkson, and occupied by Messrs Inwood and Bilton, a booksellers and stationers. The back and side walls are constructed of brick nogging, faced with sheet iron. The architect and contractor for this building was Mr F. Wilson. We have now named the principal buildings which have been erected since the fire, but besides these, preparations are being made m many parts of the town on sites of buildings which were destroyed, and on fresh sites, for other stone and brick buildings. As the Building Act which precludes wooden buildings in the principal thoroughfares will soon become law, Timaru will probably in the course of a very few years present a most creditable appearance in its buildings, and second to no town of its size in New Zealand.
Brick nogging aka brick and stud work: bricks used to fill the spaces between studs or other framing members.
Timaru Herald, 23 January 1869, Page 2
After the fire everything was in favour of the Council taking decisive action with respect to future buildings; the heart of the town was completely eaten out, and three-fourths of the business premises which Timaru contained were utterly destroyed. And why destroyed? Simply because they were all with the exception of one building which was built of brick, but with a wooden front constructed of wood, on which the flames seized, and demolished one after the other with inconceivable rapidity. We venture to assert that had the buildings which were burnt been constructed throughout of brick or stone, with iron or slate roots, the fire would never have extended beyond the workshop it originated in. And yet, with this fact so patent, the Council have refused to take on themselves the onus of ordering that for the future noninflammable materials only should be used in the business part of the town. Notwithstanding, however, this apathy on the part, of the Council, the large majority of those who were sufferers by the fire have wisely determined to use brick or stone in the buildings which are now being erected in place of those destroyed. The Council could have known six weeks ago that it was the intention to re-erect at least seven eighths of the buildings again in stone, and this would have given them strong ground for action but they have ignored the question, and, as far as we can judge, on most shallow grounds. We cannot, of course, fathom the depths of reasoning which led the Council to adopt the course they have, but if strikes us, on carefully considering the matter in all its hearings, that there can be but one point on which to ground an argument in favour of the Council not taking on itself to prohibit in future the erection of wooden building's, and it is that, if prohibited, the Council believe they would do an injustice to those persons unable to afford to build in a more expensive material, and that by so doing: the interests of the town would necessarily suffer. Granted, if the present circumstances were such as to draw the conclusion that, even a moderate minority of those who have been burnt, out of house and home wished to re-erect their buildings m wood. But what do we find that fully seven-eighths of the buildings which were destroyed are at the present moment being re-erected in stone or brick. And so, for the sake of one or two individuals, the Council have refused to entertain a question of improvement, the carrying- out of which is most essential for the future prosperity of Timaru. There is another point also worth considering, arising from this strange apathy of our Councillors, and it is this that by allowing the erection of wooden building's, good properties adjoining-, of brick or stone, are actually depreciated in value for we are told by certain of the Insurance Companies that stone buildings contiguous to wooden ones are not to be insured except at a very high rate. This of itself is bad enough, but having just passed through such an ordeal as we have done, it is folly to allow wooden building's to be erected m our main thoroughfares, and amidst valuable properties. To talk of inflicting- injustice on a few individuals by prohibiting- the use of wood for the outside of building-s is absurd, and ought not tor a moment to be considered. Pro bono publico is an all-powerful argument, and the interests of the few must give place to the interests of the many. And after all, the injustice, if such a term could be used m this case, is on examination very small indeed. In what does the injustice consist It compels the landlord or tenant to expend at the very outside one-third more on his building; than he otherwise would. But it must be remembered that m the end he is an absolute gainer by this extra expenditure for he not only possesses an almost fire-proof building externally, but he is able to insure it at a low rate of premium, which, after our late experience here, he certainly would not be able to do, and perhaps not at all if he were to build of wood. We ask the Borough Council to reconsider the question as to our future buildings. They have committed a very grave error in not at once taking the matter up. But still, they can now prevent other wooden building's being put up m the business part of Timaru, and for the interests of the town they are bound to do so. regulations
Timaru Herald, 12 March 1870, Page 3
There might be a few holders of sections under short leases who have not the means to build with brick or stone, and who consequently leave their land unbuilt upon. We all know that comparing the price of a brick or stone building, and one of wood, the advantage is with the latter, but not to any great amount. But this advantage at first is of really no account when the stability and after-value of a stone building is considered, together with the difference m the rates of insurance of the respective buildings. A man of small means, not able at first to afford the extra cost of the more stable building does, I admit, suffer to a certain extent under the present law, but although a few individuals may thus suffer, the town and the bulk of its inhabitants are considerable gainers.
Timaru Herald, 8 January 1868, Page 2
IMPORTS. In the Timaru, from London, Russell and Co, agents 4548 barn iron, 3 tons pig iron, 3000 fire bricks, 80 kegs nails, Reese.
Timaru Herald, 13 November 1877, Page 2
Timaru Herald Office. Everyone is still complaining of hard times and the tightness of money, but as shearing has now fairly commenced on the coast, business may be expected to improve shortly, and continue brisk, till after harvest' is over; The building trade still continues very active, and new and handsome buildings are going up in all parts of the town. In the building material Mr John Jackson quotes as follows: bricks £3 10s per thousand
Brick Collections - Canterbury bricks
The two photos of the W. Quinn bricks were taken at the Northbrook Colonial Museum at Rossburn Receptions in Sparks Lane, in Rangiora. They have the largest brick collection in New Zealand. The Museum boasts an extensive range of New Zealand's colonial history, displayed in 1,200 sq. m of buildings. Each area was divided off into separate themes such as farming implements like chainsaws, medical display which had old beds and surgical implements, clothes from a variety of eras, old magazines, old records, old plaques and medals, an old bar with hundreds of bottles. There are also lots of old photos from around the North Canterbury and Rangiora region showing weddings, school events, farming events. In another shed has the largest collection of Allis Chalmers tractors in the Southern Hemisphere.
2011. A Christchurch builder is urging residents with earthquake-damaged chimneys to watch out for trades people using old bricks. New bricks must be used in chimney repairs to ensure a sturdy stack. The New Zealand Building Code prohibits the reuse of bricks unless they pass strength testing. "Once a brick's been used, all the micro-pores in the brick have been filled up with the cement or the lime mortar," he said. "The next time they're used, those aren't available and therefore the bind between two bricks is `under code' – it's not strong enough."
Timaru Herald, 2 November 1888, Page 2
A school committee asked the board for a grant to enable them to repair a chimney, and the board suggested that it could be easily repaired with a bit of cement. The committee replied: — The chimney cannot be repaired as suggested. The only way to repair it is to pull it down and repair it. It will do as it is for the present.
Timaru Herald, 16 April 1875, Page 2
To Carpenters, bricklayers and plasters. The undersigned is open to receive separate tenders for the following in connection with erection of additions to the Timaru Hospital, viz;. -
1. The whole of the Brickwork
2. Roofing of main building
3. The whole of the plastering. Thomas Roberts -Architect
History of brickmaking
The Pug Mill by Allen Curnow "his horse hears the bell and stumbles out of a doze into the collar and begins orbiting the pug-mill, plods a muddy zodiac..."
Lime Kiln on Hall Rd near Kakahu.
Historic Place - Category I
In 1886/7 the operation of the kiln was taken over by James Shears. Shears experienced difficulty in finding workers for the kiln and in 1887 the property was leased to G Hornsey and Co. Benjamin Shears (brother of John) operated the kiln in the 1890s but with a diminished need for lime and the heavy running costs associated with production, operations probably ceased about 1897. The stone base course of an old brick kiln built by Ben Shears c.1895 remains near the quarry face.
Timaru Herald, 5 May 1881, Page 2
Mr Langdon's Lime Kilns, Kakahu. These kilns are situated in a valley of the Kakahu ten miles from the Winchester railway station, and about two from Hilton Hotel. On driving towards the place, and when just beyond the last hill which conceals it, one is at first struck with the beauty of the situation and the size of the building, with its massive chimney stalk towering above it, and, on a closer inspection the completeness of the structure, and indeed of all the surroundings connected there with is at once apparent. The kilns are divided into 12 chambers, constructed on the Hoffmann patent principle, and burns the flare lime which in England is considered 20 per cent purer than that burnt in the ordinary kiln. There are 12 dampers and about 150 feeders, by means of which coals are added from above as required. Each chamber holds 13 truck-loads of stone, besides the bricks which are necessary to be put in, and is calculated to produce 150 bags of lime. To give one some idea of the size of the works, we may mention that in building, the kilns required 100,000 fire-bricks, the greater portion of which was made on the ground. Adjacent to the kilns are the store, the stable, and the workmen's apartments. The quarries are about half-a--mile further up the valley, and are connected with the main works by means of iron rails, which are also continued round the kiln for the purpose of charging the several compartments. The roads between this and the rail way station are on the whole in very good condition excepting at one place, the west side of the Hae-hae-te-moana, which is in anything but a satisfactory state. Mr Langdon assures us he will sell the lime, but also to farmers, as large quantities of slack, which is very beneficial to some soils, can be obtained here at a nominal cost. Mr Meredith's coal pits are within a stone's throw of these works, and as a company is, we hear, being formed, we hope soon to hear that they are turning out well.
- Gordon's Valley
Timaru Courier May 27 2010 pg7 South Canterbury Tales by John Button
The Courier, Timaru edition, a weekly, Thursday, is archived online.
Kakahu lime burner enjoyed the profits
GEORGE Meredith recounts how he became a lime burner at Kakahu: Leaving the sea at twenty one years old, for the gold diggings in Victoria, I got sandy blight in my eyes and was advised by the doctor to clear out, which I did, and came to New Zealand 55 years ago, where I have learned many trades, such as pit sawing, sawmilling, making my own furniture, building my own houses, from standing trees to finished building, also wheelwright, blacksmith, building my own sawmills, engineering and lime burning, which I liked best of all trades, and made more money, but had to work day and night to keep things going. I must just here explain how it came about that I took up lime burning. I was fixing up the fireplace in our home to make it more suitable to coal burning, since there was plenty of coal just a mile away, and when pulling out the stones to do the work I intended, I put them in a bucket and emptied them on the ground, going for more rubbish, and cleared up ready to put more iron bars in, and, when going back to my workshop to fix up the iron, my wife drew my attention to the bucket of stone smoking, and she remarked, "That is lime, the same as I have seen in the old country, so I got a stick and poked it up, when it all fell like flour, and as white, and since I had millions of tons of the same stone on my section, and plenty of coal handy, I made inquiries as to whether there was any demand for lime. I went to Temuka and Geraldine and consulted bricklayers about it, and they advised me to build my kiln and burn away as fast as I could. So everything else was put aside for this new venture of lime burning, and building a kiln for that purpose. I found there was a big demand for the lime, and when the Timaru fire came in 1868 I was well prepared for it and had my lime shed full up. When large orders came in I had both my teams of horses kept busy carting in to Timaru, with my two sons in charge. Then when these big orders slackened, and my shed was full up with lime ready for any emergency order, to fill up the gap I took contracts for road making to give work to my two teams and two sons, so it became lime burning and road making as a combined business. In Timaru they started building in stone and there was again a big demand for lime, so I took a contract for 700 bags for the Timaru hospital which was being built, and again went back to my old job of lime burning and carting it to Timaru, and for a while the demand was greater than I could supply, finding I could not burn it fast enough. It was very tiring work and long hours, working night and day, for the kiln had to be fed continuously, and I was the only one to do it. It would have been better for me, as I found later, had I stuck to the lime burning, for there was good money in it and I had a comfortable home life with my family, but just when things were looking brighter and farmers were needing lime for manure, a large kiln was built just above mine by a Mr Langdon from Christchurch, costing £1800 and formed into a company. It was called the Hoffman kiln and employed a great number of men, and since it was started on a much bigger scale than mine, I felt they would soon outdo me in production. However, it did not turn out to be a success, for the lumps of stone put in the kiln were too large and were not sufficiently burnt to be of any use as lime. He then tried another way, on my style, built a pot kiln, thinking it would turn better that way, but this he found too slow, and he could not keep the necessary supply going, so finding it was not paying expenses, the company chucked it, and the £1800 kiln lay idle for years. The property was bought by Mr Griffiths, who allowed the settlers to pull it down, selling the bricks for 3/- per 100, and that was the end of the venture. So if I had kept my kiln going at that time I could have picked up the unfilled orders after the breakup of the Company. But by this time I had gone back to my mill again, which was lying idle and there was any amount of timber needed for the farmers, who were now building houses rather than huts. After being at home for some time and getting things in order once again my funds were getting low and I could see all the expenses and no profit before me, so I carted all the coal I had to my kiln and started lime burning again, had a few local orders, and filled my shed with 200 bags as a standby which came in handy later on. Feeding the fire: An unknown Kakahu limeworks labourer accompanies a horse and a cart of limestone down wooden tracks to a kiln. Lime-burning was a boom industry in the area during the 1860s and '70s. Photo: South Canterbury P7343
Timaru Courier May 20 2010 pg7
Lime burning provided jobs. Building kilns hit and miss for owners, but employees glad of work
EARLY immigrants in South Canterbury without capital did not
have many options to make a living, and most of the options they did have
involved very heavy labour.
Sheep stations had a small, steady working population with limited seasonal work
available. It was not until the advent of refrigerated shipping and the breakup
of the great estates that there was any scope for small, mixed farming.
Sawmilling took up much of the very early labour force until the Waimate bush
was burnt and the Geraldine forests cut down. Any new opportunities for work
were understandably jumped at and one of these was lime burning. The production
of lime brought reasonable prosperity for the men who built kilns in the 1860s
and 1870s, the first being George Meredith 's in 1867. He had bought land at
Kakahu and considered that the limestone outcrops there gave promise of a
living. In his kiln he burned lime for the building trade and for use in
tanneries, and he once had a contract to supply 700 bags to build the Timaru
hospital. The marble of high purity (and some Kakahu marble was 95%) made the
best lime, but crushing the rocks was backbreaking work. Other men too built
kilns and burned lime for the trade, with William Langdown bringing in Cornish
stonemasons to build his pot style lime kiln. The method of firing was general
to all the kilns. A layer of wood, usually manuka, was set at the bottom. A
barrow load of coal then went in, and on top of it three barrow loads of
limestone chips were tipped. This was repeated until the kiln was full and the
wood in the narrow opening below was then fired. The burnt lime was then
shovelled out from below. Good quality coal had to be brought from the
Winchester railhead and this proved to be too costly to keep the industry going
much beyond 1890, though from time to time lime was burned there until 1920.
There was a campaign to bring a branch railway line to Kakahu but nothing
eventuated. Langdown, who built continuous process kilns, also had kilns at
Staveley and Christchurch. In 1875 his Christchurch company built a huge Hoffman
kiln at the enormous cost for that time of £1800, to burn lime for Christchurch.
He employed men to quarry for marble and to cart it by horse and dray.
However, the big kiln did not work well, Meredith's the ory being that the pieces of marble fed into it were far too big, so that the lime was only half burnt. Langdown then had a pot style kiln built and tried burning lime in it but this one was much too slow. Eventually, the two kilns closed down and lay unused for years.
The Hoffman kiln then suffered the ignominy of being demolished and sold for the bricks, which fetched three shillings a hundred. A year later Langdown tried again, engaging his Cornish men, Walker and McDougall, to build a potstyle kiln on the north bank of the Kakahu. Constructed of various types of stone, including marble and "lime rock", a harder form of limestone, its interior was lined with firebricks made at the nearby brickworks. A ramp was built out from the bank and trucks loaded with coal and lime were pushed along on a tramway above the kiln and tipped in. The wood was set alight from an opening at the bottom, from which the burnt lime was extracted. It was used for building purposes such as mortar and pointing for brick laying and masonry. The kiln was worked continuously till 1889, and spasmodically for another three decades. The local coal was low grade so high grade coal had to be carted in. Several other kilns of varying types were established in the Kakahu district about this time. Sometimes wooden rails were laid on the track and a horse pulled a skip or trolley loaded with marble along them. A round kiln made by Walker and McDougall in 1885 was later taken over by Hornsey, a brick worker from Hull. Set into a small hill, it was fed from the hilltop. It was beautifully arched and rather resembled an igloo.
South Canterbury NZGenWeb Project