The Return of the Freeholders of New Zealand, 1882, published by the NZ Govt. Property Tax Dept., in 1884, lists in alphabetical order the names, county of abode, and occupation of owners of land as well as the area and value of land owned as at October 1882.
A study of the names relieves many where absentee land owners living in other provinces, some living in England and 7% were women. The smaller land holdings under an acre were in towns and no acreage is listed. Family relationships can be gathered from the location of the land holding. The return also includes businesses/companies, organisations and deceased estates.
Just a sampling of names
Abbenseth, Eilert, miller, Waimate [died in 1909, age 85]
Babington, Gisborne, draughtsman, Timaru
Bachelor, Benjamin, labourer, Waimate
Cabot, Thomas, farmer, Timaru
Dyson, George, agent, Temuka
Eade, William, labourer, Waimate,
Fagan, Thomas, groom, Upper Ferry, South Canterbury
Fussell, Joseph Rawlings, surveyor, Timaru
Fyfe, David, gardener, Timaru
Fyfe, Thomas Webster, painter, Timaru
Gabites, George, draper, Timaru
Gabites and Plante, drapers, Timaru
Gaby, James, farmer, Geraldine
Guy, Richard, saddler, Temuka
Hackett, Charles Andrew, labourer, Timaru
Lack, James, labourer, Waimate
Lack, John, labourer, Wai-iti, South Canterbury
Lack, Joseph, labourer, Waimate
Lysaght, Andrew, farmer, Pleasant Valley
Maberley, Joseph, cabinetmaker, Waimate
Maberley, Joseph, jun, cabinetmaker, Waimate
Nairn, James Aitken, farmer, Waitohi
Packer, Worthy, farm-overseer, Waimate
Page, George, labourer, Waimate 60 acres
Page, Harriet, Winchester
Page, Joshua, farmer, Temuka, 1 acre Ashley county
Page, Joshua, farmer, Timaru 2423 acres Selwyn Co. 174 acres
Page, Tomas, labourer, Waimate
Painton, Ephraim, farmer, Pleasant Valley, 117 acres Geraldine Co.
Palainet, Cothurst, commission agent, Christchurch, Geraldine
Palliser, Charles, contractor, Timaru, Geraldine
Palliser, Francis, bricklayer, Timaru, Geraldine
Palmer, Catherine, St. Andrews, 5 acres
Palmer, George Joseph, publican, Timaru 2 acres Geraldine Co.
Palmer, John George Paige, butcher, St. Andrews, 97 acres Waimate Co.
Palmer, Samuel, labourer, Waimate
Palmer, Thomas, farmer, Temuka 320 acres Geraldine Co.
Palmer, William, farmer, 213 acres Geraldine Co.
Parfitt, Frederick John, draper, Timaru, Geraldine
Park, Thomas, farmer, Temuka 344 acres Geraldine Co.
Parker, Robert, farmer, Waimate 120 acres
Parker, William Rechab, builder, Geraldine
Parkerson, James Wood, registrar, Christchurch, 356 acres Geraldine Co.
Parkerson, Richard Knowles, farmer, Ashburton. 1,379 acres Geraldine Co. 2,447 acres Selwyn Co.
Parr, Edward, farmer, Point, 20 acres Geraldine Co.
Parr, James, grazier, Timaru, 52 acres Geraldine Co.
Parr, William, miller, Timaru, 16 acres Geraldine Co.
Parsons, Thomas Harris, carter, Timaru, Geraldine
Paterson, James, farmer, Winchester 58 acres Geraldine Co.
Paterson, John and Rogerson, Jas., farmers, Point, 824 acres Geraldine Co.
Patrick, Alexander, farmer, Hilton, 66 acres Geraldine Co.
Patrick, George Henry, carpenter, Geraldine
Patrick, John, farmer, Hilton, 132 acres Geraldine Co.
Patrick, William, farmer, Gapes Valley, 232 acres
Patterson, Thomas, cab proprietor, Oamaru, 50 acres Geraldine Co. and 100 acres Waimate Co.
Patterson, William farmer, Waimate 155 acres
Pattinson, Thomas, shoemaker, 6 acres Geraldine Co.
Paul, Andrew, farmer, Waimate 96 acres
Paul, Samuel, farmer, Point, 80 acres Geraldine Co.
Peacock and Geaney, butchers, Timaru, 6 acres Geraldine Co.
Peacocke, George Richard, farmer, Sherwood, 904 acres Waimate Co.
Pearce, David, labourer, Geraldine
Pearce, Edwin, labourer, Point, Geraldine Co.
Pearce, John, labourer, Woodbury, 1 acres Geraldine Co.
Pearce, William S., farmer, Waitohi Flat, 207 acres Geraldine Co.
Pearse, Digory Sargent, Waitohi Flat, Ashburton, 481 acres Geraldine Co.
Pearson, Sarah, Christchurch, 216 acres Geraldine Co. 9 aces Selwyn.
Peebles, Robert, blacksmith, Washdyke, Geraldine Co.
Pelvin, Richard, farmer, Redcliffe, 476 acres Waimate Co.
Penman, George, engineer, Timaru, Geraldine
Penman, John, woodturner, Oamaru, 101 acres Waimate
Penn, John, bushman, Geraldine
Perceval, Westbury Brook, solicitor, Christchurch, 50 acres Geraldine Co.
Perry, Arthur, solicitor, Timaru, 2046 acres Geraldine Co.
Perry, Cecil Thomas Henry, solicitor, Timaru 20 acres Geraldine Co.
Perry, Arthur and Orbell, Chas. Newman, Timaru, 246 acres Waimate Co.
Perry, Arthur and Wright Augustus William, Timaru, 2,154 acres Geraldine Co.
Peters, Isaac, contractor, Timaru, 4 acres Geraldine Co.
Peters, Margaret, store keeper, Timaru, 2 acres Geraldine Co.
Pethbridge, William, labourer, Waimate
Petrie, James, contractor, Timaru, Geraldine
Phelin, John, labourer, Point, 3 acres Geraldine
Philip, David W., contractor, Palmerston South, Geraldine
Philip, Isabella, Waimate
Philip, William, carpenter, 2 acres Waimate Co.
Philp, James, contractor, Timaru, 30 acres Geraldine
Philp, William, labourer, Winchester, Geraldine
Philpott, George, storekeeper, Timaru 2 acres Geraldine Co.
Picket, Sarah, Temuka
Pierce, Charles Henry, labourer, Lyttelton, Geraldine Co.
Pierce, George, hotel keeper, Lyttelton Geraldine Co.
Pierce, John, tailor, Timaru
Pigeon, Alfred, farmer, St. Andrews, 640 acres
Pilkington, Benjamin, stationmaster, Oamaru, 87 acres Geraldine Co.
Pinch, William, labourer, Fairlie Creek
Pithie, James, farmer, Peel Forest, 158 acres Geraldine Co.
Pithie, Thomas, farmer, Rangitata, 45 acres Geraldine Co.
Plante, Thomas Crowther, draper, Timaru, Geraldine Co.
Poff, James, farmer, Makikihi, 17 acres
Pohio, John, carter, Waimate
Polaschek, Joseph, printer, Timaru
Polaschek, Tersa, Temuka
Pollard, William, farmer, 20 acres Waimate
Pollam, __, 20 acres Waimate
Ponton, Robert, accountant, Timaru, Geraldine Co.
Pooke, Thomas, farmer, Kingsdown, 65 acres Geraldine Co.
Port, William, 1 acre Waimate
Potter, Alexander, farmer, 253 acres Waimate
Potter, Elizabeth, Timaru, Geraldine Co.
Powell, Thomas L., Temuka
Powell, William, railway employee, Addington, Geraldine Co.
Power, Nicholas, Farmer, Waimate
Power, Thomas, Fairlie Creek, Geraldine Co.
Pratley, George, groom, Milford, Geraldine Co.
Pratt, ___, Waimate
Pratt, Henry R. painter, Geraldine Co.
Pratt, Thomas, farmer, Gapes Valley, 40 acres
Pratt, Thomas, William, storeman, Timaru, 50 acres Geraldine Co.
Preddle, Albert, farmer, Orari, 7 acres Geraldine Co.
Preddy, George, labourer, Temuka
Prentice, Esther, Point
Prentice, George, labourer, Waitohi, 7 acres Geraldine
Preston, H.M., miner, Geraldine Co.
Preston, James, clergyman, Geraldine
Price, Alexander, carter, Waimate, 1 acre
Price, Beatrice, Waimate, 40 acres
Price, Eliza, Waimate 3,325 acres
Price, Eliza, Norma, 60 acres Waimate
Price, Elma Alexander, 80 acres Waimate
Priest, John, farmer, Pareora, 74 acres Geraldine Co.
Priest, William, ironmonger, Timaru, 2 acres Geraldine Co.
Prinderville and O'Connor, farmers, Washdyke, 5 acres Geraldine Co.
Pringle, Alexander Campbell, farmer, Claremont, 386 acres Geraldine Co.
Pringle, Thomas, miller, Timaru, 5 acres Geraldine Co.
Pringle, William, Timaru 1,828 acres Geraldine Co.
Prior, Herbert Nehemiah, draper, Auckland, 1 acre Geraldine Co.
Protor, George, stonemason, Temuka
Protor, Robert, carpenter, Timaru, Geraldine Co.
Profit, Robert, labourer, Orari, 1 acre Geraldine Co.
Pym, James, farmer, Waimate
Quarrie, Daniel, butcher, Temuka
Quine, Thomas, farmer, Geraldine 50 acres
Quinlan, James labourer, Geraldine
Quinn, Michael, hotelkeeper, Temuka
Quinn, Nicholas, farmer, Makikihi
Quirk, John, labourer, Timaru
Quirk, Thomas, labourer, Timaru
Raddon, Edward, farmer, Kingsdown
Raddon, Jane and F E, dairy-farmers, Washdyke
Saddler, Mary, Timaru
Tagg, Jonathan Henry Mason, labourer, Hilton
Talam, Charles, labourer, Pleasant Valley 3 acres
Talbot, John, farmer Temuka 1,165 acres
Talbot, Thomas, farmer, Temuka 233 acres
Tancred, Clement (trustees of) Geraldine, 40 acres
Tancred, Lady Jane, Geraldine 20 acres
Tancred, Seymour Mitford, sheep farmer, Carterton, 20 acres Geraldine
Tack, Robert, labourer, Washdyke, 14 acres
Tapling, Nathaniel, shipwright, St. Albans, Waimate
Tapp, George William, carpenter, Timaru
Tarborttom, Robert, farmer Orari 80 acres
Targase, Alfred, carpenter, Timaru
Tasker, Stephen, carpenter, Wai-iti
Tate, Edward Henry (Estate of the late) Geraldine 275 acres
Tate, John, farmer, Point, 191 acres
Tate, Sophia Amelia, Timaru owns land in Taranaki
Taverner, Edward, farmer, Orari 13 acres
Tayler, George, agent Winchester, 1 acre
Taylor, David, draper, Temuka, Geraldine
Taylor, David, seaman, St. Kilda, Geraldine
Taylor, David Wood, brickmaker, Auckland, Geraldine
Taylor, Duncan, farmer, South Rangitata
Taylor, Frederick, labourer, Waimate 4 acres
Taylor, George, gardener, Timaru 2 acres Geraldine
Taylor, George, miller, Timaru, Geraldine
Taylor, George, storekeeper, Winchester, 25 acres Geraldine
Taylor, James, labourer, Timaru,
Taylor, John H., merchant, Waimate 83 acres
Taylor, Robert, dealer, Timaru
Taylor, Robert, hotelkeeper, Geraldine 339 acres
Taylor, Robert Ross, storekeeper, Timaru 51 acres Geraldine
Taylor, Susan Harriet, Geraldine 98 acres
Taylor, William Henry, Kakahu, 1 acre Geraldine
Telford, William, farmer, 80 acres, Geraldine
Temperton, Ann, Timaru 5 acres Geraldine
Temperton, Frederick, ironmonger, Nelson, Geraldine
Templer, Edward H. farmer, Geraldine, 220 acres
Teschemaker, Thomas, sheep farmer, Waimate, 12,337 acres
Thackerey, Albert C. compositor, Timaru
Thatcher, John, farmer, Woodbury 182 acres
Thew, Robert, farmer, Peel Forest 445 acres
Thierns, John jun. station-manager, Otaio
Thieullaenx, Alexia, painter, Dunedin, Waimate
Thin, Wilhelm, labourer, Palmerston north, Waimate
Thin, Francis F. farmer, Cave, 61 acres, Geraldine
Thomas, John coal merchant, Sydenham, 1 acre Waimate
Thomas, John Thomas, labourer, Point, 1 acre, Geraldine
Thompson, George Henry, horse dealer, Temuka
Thompson, James Elliot, farmer, Bennett's, 60 acres Waimate
Thompson, Peter, cooper, Timaru
Thornton, Edward, compositor, Waimate
Thornton, Edwin George, farmer, Waitaki, 40 acres Waimate
Thornton, Frances Ann, Nelson
Thornton, George, civil engineer, Christchurch
Thornton, George William, confectioner, Wellington
Thorpe, Eliza Emma, Temuka
Thorpe, George Frederick, labourer, Temuka
Thyne, Martin, milkman, Waimate, 1 acre Waimate
Thyne, Robert Gibb, cabinetmaker, Timaru
Thorpe, Gervase, coach builder, Auckland
Timms, John, railway inspector, Oamaru, 61 acres Waimate
Timms, John, Oamaru and Roberts, William, New Plymouth 400 acres Waimate
Tindall, Thomas, hotelkeeper, Hilton, 191 acres Geraldine
Tobin, Thomas, Mrs., Leeston, 3 acres Geraldine
Todd, William 200 acres Geraldine
Tomlinson, Henry, farmer, West Eyreton 1 acre Geraldine
Toomey, Anthony, farmer, Hilton 20 acres Geraldine
Toomey, Edward, farmer, 160 acres Geraldine
Tooth, Benjamin Rowland, carpenter, Timaru, Geraldine
Tosswill, William, solicitor, Timaru 10 acres Geraldine
Townsend, Joseph, farmer, Gapes Valley 120 acres
Townsend, Walter, expressman, Timaru 2 acres Geraldine
Tozer, Frederick, farmer, Point, 101 acres
Tragenza, Edward, farmer, Seaview, 64 acres Geraldine
Travis, William, land agent Christchurch, 223 acres Waimate
Tregoning, Mary, 2 acres Waimate
Tripp, Charles George, sheep farmer, 17,639 acres Geraldine
Tripp, Charles Howard, England 20 acres Geraldine
Tripp, James labourer, Oamaru
Trist, John, sailmaker, Timaru 2 acres Geraldine
Tuite, Christopher, labourer, Invercargill, Waimate
Tuite, Thomas, farmer, Timaru 90 acres Geraldine
Turk, Matthew, gardener, Timaru
Turnbull, Andrew, St Andrews, 200 acres Geraldine, 4 acres Waimate
Turnbull, Richard, auctioneer, Timaru, 2 acres Geraldine
Turnbull, Thomas, Arthur, Timaru
Turnbull, William, labourer, Timaru
Turner, Ann, Timaru
Turner, Frederick, tinsmith, Temuka
Turner, John, Geraldine
Turner, V, (Estate of the late Thomas) Waimate
Turpin, Robert, Martin, farmer, Orari, 26 acres Geraldine
Turton, William Parsons, Sheepfarmer, Woodbury, 575 acres
Tyne, Mertin, dairyman, Waimate, Canterbury
Tyrrell, George, grocer, Timaru
Uden, Annie, Temuka
Uden, Edward, labourer, Temuka
Uprichard, William R., commission agent, Temuka
Upton, James R., carpenter, Waimate
Upton, William John Nickel, architect, Temuka, 2 acres Geraldine County
Vale, George, wheelwright, Makikihi, Waimate
Vallender, Evan, butcher, Temuka
Vance, John, labourer, Waitohi, 209 acres Geraldine County
Vickers, James, labourer, Point
Vogeler, Carl G., book-keeper, Timaru
Von Gurtner W., gardener, Waimate, 20 acres Waimate
Voyce, Henry, platelayer, Temuka
Yeatman, William, chaffcutter, Timaru
Yeatman, William, labourer, Timaru
Yelland, Harriet, Timaru
Yesberg, John, labourer, Waimate, 27 acres
Youdale, Hugh, farmer, Mount Horrible, Geraldine, 281 acres
Young, David, farmer, Waitohi, 344 acres
Young, John, blacksmith, Waitohi Flat, 60 acres
Young, Mrs, Waimate, 20 acres
Young, John Albert, farmer, Winchester 353 acres
Young, Richard, Winchester
Ziesler, John William Smith, agent, Timaru
3 acres Waimate County
646 acres Geraldine County
Ziesler, Jno WmS., Fraser, Charlton S., Taylor, Ashburton
Robert Ross Ziesler, Timaru - 999 acres Ashburton County.
Property-Tax Commissioner notes in 1884
The information has been compiled from the assessment rolls of the Property-Tax Department as at 1st October, 1882; Very great difficulty has been experienced in getting names accurately, and this was more particularly the case with owners of small properties, and with persons having foreign names, of whom there are several hundreds of various nationalities. The following are instances in which, owing to the different ways of spelling names of similar sound, errors are likely to arise: —
Bailey, Bailie, Baillie, Baily, Baylee, Bayley, Bayly.
Jansen, Jensen, Jonson, Jonasen, Johansen, Johanson, Johnson, Johnston, Johnstone.
Matheson, Mathewson, Mathieson, Mathison, Mattheson, Matthewson, Matthieson, Mattison.
Paterson, Pateson, Patterson, Pattenson, Pattison, Petersen, Peterson, Pedersen, Pederson.
Bay Of Plenty Times, 13 December 1884, Page 2
An announcement appears on the cover of Hansard of a new publication entitled "The Freeholders of New Zealand," price 30s, being " a return giving names, addresses and occupations of owners of land within the Colony together with area and value in counties, and the value in boroughs and town districts compiled from the Assessment Rolls of the Property-Tax Department at the 1st October, 1882." This is a Government production and if one third of the colonists whose names appear therein purchase a copy the total sum so obtained will represent a very tidy item in the revenue.
Hawera & Normanby Star, 9 September 1887, Page 2
How the land is held.
It is great pity that the Domesday Book, or Return of the Freeholders of New Zealand, which was presented to Parliament in 1884, is so expensive a book that it is practically beyond the reach of the great mass of those who take an intelligent interest in public affairs. It is a work which every man who wishes to make a conscientious study of the politics of this country should get access to and master the main features of. It is also, which no man who claims to be a leader of the people or who honestly desires to lead, the people aright, should fail to have at his fingers' end. A very slight acquaintance with some of the facts demonstrated in it would do more enlighten the people as to the real condition of New Zealand in respect of ownership of land than all the ignorant or mendacious declamation of demagogues can do to blind them to the truth. The people are told every day that the lands of the Crown which have been sold in this colony have been monopolised by a handful of wealthy capitalists or greedy land sharks, and that in times past the land laws were so framed and administered by the propertied class or their own selfish interests, that men of moderate means were precluded from obtaining a bit of land to make a home upon. Even politicians professing to speak under some sense of responsibility, quite commonly say that the distribution of land lies been so partial and exclusive that to check it, the confiscation of landed property, by penal taxation is not only a justifiable, but a laudable design, within the range of practical politics. Why do they not spend half an hour reading the Domesday Book, and go and tell the people truth instead of falsehood? They would find the whole thing cut and dried for them there. The figures given in the Domesday Book are not open to dispute. They are not compiled for any political object, but were taken direct from the Property, Tax returns of 1882 by the Commissioner, quite independently of the Ministry of the day, and simply tabulated in the form of a Parliamentary paper, in fulfilment of a promise given to the House of Representatives at the instance of Sir George Grey. And what do they show? They show that in 1882, out of a population of about 550,000, of whom 143,000 were adult males, there were 71,240 owners of land in freehold. That is to say about one person in eight men, women, or children or one adult male out of two, was a freeholder; a state of things, we venture to say, which has scarcely a parallel in the whole World. Now, let us see how the land was, distributed among these 71,240 owners. No fewer than 40,476 of them were owners of land in boroughs, town, districts; or land classed as township lands. These include the great mass of the laboring class in towns, owning their own home upon their own land. The remaining 30,764 were owners of five acres and upwards of country land, and were summarised as follows 5 to 100 acres 14,766 100 to 1000 acres 14,267 1,000 to 10,000 acres 1,484 10,000 to 60,000 acres 224 50,000 and over 23 It will thus be seen that out of 80,764 owners of country land, 29,033 owned less than 1000 acres and 14,766 owned Hess than 100 acres. There were only 1781 estates in the colony exceeding 1000 acres, and only 23 exceeding 50,000. These 23 estates included virtually the whole of the mountain country which has been alienated by the Crown, and also, the whole of the swamp land and the pastoral land of the North Island which has been purchased from the Maoris and which never was public land at all. Turning now to the table of values, we find that the average value of the 80,764 freeholds was £2733, and that, by far the most valuable of the lands were held by the owners of less than 1000 acres. In short, the distribution of land, both as to area and as to value, was extraordinarily wide; and there were in reality only in insignificant number of large estates, the few remaining of the pastoral properties purchased in the early days, or the ruinous speculations in native lands. Most of these, and all of the larger one's were owned, not by individuals, but by companies having many shareholders, who really stood in the position of a distributing medium between the Crown or the natives and the public, and whose sole object, of course, was to dispose of land in small blocks to a multitude of purchasers as soon as possible. That was the state of affairs on October 1st, 1882; just 5 years ago and what has been going on since then. Have the rich been growing richer and the poor poorer? Quite the contrary. The subdivision of the larger estates has been progressing apace while the number of the smaller freeholds has been steadily and rapidly increasing. Instead of penal taxes being necessary to compel the distribution of the land the only reason why every one of the larger estates has not already been broken up into small ones, is because there have not been enough purchasers forthcoming to take up the land at prices which would return to the owners their outlay upon it, with interest. So soon as such purchasers appear, the owners will cheerfully, nay, eagerly, accommodate them with as much land as they want and, in the meantime, the land is occupied and worked much more profitably for the country than it could possibly have been, if it bad-remained in the possession of the Crown. What the colony wants, is an influx of people with capital enough to cultivate land to advantage and confidence enough in the country to invest it here.
What do I see? A South Canterbury homestead amongst the trees, with a few cabbage tress on the lawn, tall old pines and marcocarpa trees behind, hedges providing privacy and shelter, a three bay implement shed, a white ute, a wooden woolshed with a corrugated iron roof painted orange to the right with sheep yards. Fences with tanalised posts, netting, top barb wire and probably with the middle wire electrified. Roadside recently mowed.
Dowager - a woman who holds some title or property from her deceased husband.
New Zealand Illustrated Magazine, 1 January
1902, Page 275
A familiar and striking figure in the Wairarapa, and at an earlier date in Canterbury, was the Dowager Lady Tancred, who died last month at Clareville at the age of eighty-three years. Lady Tancred, who was born Miss Jane Selby, married Sir Thomas Tancred in 1839, and landed with her husband in Lyttelton in 1851. After a few years' residence in Canterbury, the Tancred family returned to Europe and travelled on the Continent. They sailed again for Lyttelton by the "Pleiades" in 1872, and again settled for eleven years at Lyttelton. Sir Thomas died at Napier in 1880. Lady Tancred then settled at Clareville, Wairarapa, where she lived up to the time of her death. She was buried with her husband in Napier. Lady Tancred left a family of four sons and three daughters, the best known of whom is Mr. P. F. Tancred, a prominent, sportsman. There are also many grandchildren. The present Baronet lives in England.
Timaru Herald, 7 September 1897, Page 2
Death. Tate — On 3lst August, at "The Laurels," Greytown, Wairarapa, Sophia Amelia, widow of the late Edward Henry Tate aged 63 years.
South Canterbury, New ZealandGenWeb Project