Canterbury Pioneers - Hornbrook
South Canterbury NZGenWeb Project
'Early Canterbury Runs' - Acland
In 1854 Mrs William Hornbrook was the first pakeha woman to reach South Canterbury.
Women faced living in a cob cottages and weatherboard homes without any facilities, the danger of motherhood, sickness and education of their children without support. They endured hardships and loneliness for many many years for love of partner and family. The cares of bringing up a large family never daunted them from taking part in station work and learned how to tackle problems with their husband. Their hospitably was noted for there generosity no matter how large the party.
Margaret Smith born 1829 Kirriemuir, Scotland arrived in Port Nicholson at the age of thirteen with her parents and siblings aboard the Arab in October 1841. Married William Hornbrook 8 October, 1848. Reference: Volume 3, Canterbury Provincila District, Cyclopedia of New Zealand, 1903. Page 924
HORNBROOK Wm folio # 177 SMITH folio # 177
Timaru Herald 12 July 1883 Death.
SMITH - On the 21st June, at the residence of his daughter, Mrs W. Hornbrook, Hollywell, Levels Plain, David Smith, late of Silverstream, Upper Hutt, Wellington, aged 82 years. Wellington papers please copy.
Timaru Herald, 12 March 1912, Page 2 OBITUARY.
A PIONEER, MRS W. HORNBROOK. It it with deep regret we have in the death of Mrs W. Hornbrook, widow of the late Mr William Hornbrook, of Arowhenua and Opuha stations (youngest son of the late Sir Richard, Colonel of the Royal Marines and brother of the late Major Hornbrook, of Mount pleasant, Arowhenua and kakahu runs. The late Margaret Hornbrook came to New Zealand with her parents, the late Mr and Mrs David Smith, of Silverstream, Wellington, in 1841, by the ship "Arab." She there married Mr Hornbrook, and went to Lyttelton (Mount Pleasant) with her husband, and thence to Timaru in 1851 - the first white woman who landed here- and had lived in the district ever since. Her husband came down in 1853 to take charge of the Arowhenua run for himself and his brother as partners. This was one of the earliest selections, probably next, after the Rhodes Bros., who were the first in the field. The run embraced the triangluar area between the Opihi and Kakahu rivers, including, therefore, the Waitohi Flat and teh Waitohi Downs. Subsquently the Opuha and Kakahu runs were added. The homestead was made at the western end of the Arowhenua Bush of those days and when the run became settled by farmers with a big block in the Lands of the Australian Land Company, the homestead served for this block also for many years. Mrs Hornbrook experienced trails and pleasures of the pioneer runholders after a while living less solitary than many of the rural holders wives as a considerable bushmen's village srang up at Arowhenua, when Timaru began to build itself into a habitable town, and the station became the source of supplies popular in those days, as she proved herself an excellent adviser in cases of illness, and was frequently called upon in those doctorless days to deal with accidents and wounds and both Mr and Mrs Hornbrook were noted for their kindness generally. When the freehold farmers ousted the pastoral tenants from the plains and downs Mr Hornbrook in 1871 bought a farm of 260 acres at Seadown, and farmed this until his death in 1882. In 1904 Mrs Hornbrook leased the farm and retired to spend her last years in Temuka and on Sunday she passed away quietly after a short illness at the ripe age of 84. The deceased is survived by three sons and three daughters. The sons are Richard W. Horbrook (North Island), Edward A. (Timaru) and A. T.J. Hornbrook (Temuka); her eldest daughter widow of the late Captain Parkerson (Auckland); her second daughter, Miss Hornbrook who resided with her mother, Mr W. Pearce (Temuka). her eldest son was the first white child born in the district. The deceased leaves also a sister living, Mrs W. Aitcheson, of Kaitangata, and her younger brother Mr John Smith, in the North Island. Mr Aitcheson passed away on the same morning as Mrs Hornbrook. In 1855 Mr William Aitcheson married a daughter, Elizabeth, of Mr David Smith, of Silverstream, the Hutt, Wellington, and had several children. Mrs Aitchison, who was born in Forfarshire, came out to New Zealand in 1841 in the ship Arab.
Mr & Mrs William Hornbrook and children did return to the 'Old Country' for a visit and returned on the Columbus to Lyttelton 24 Jan. 1852. In February 1854 Margaret arrived in Timaru on the Despatch probably from Lyttelton with two daughters. A daughter, Louise Augusta Hornbrook, arrived in Timaru in 1854 on the Kaka. On 17 Nov. 1854 William Richard Hornbrook was born in Christchurch and Mrs Hornbrook returned to Arowhenua with the new born baby. Generally it was thought Wm. Richard was the first white child to be born in South Canterbury but Gillespie in 'South Canterbury A Record of Settlement' writes "An examination of his birth certificate shows he was born in Christchurch." Mrs Hornbrook has had four sons and five daughters of whom one son and two daughters had died by 1903. Margaret died Oct. 3 1912, Temuka. Reference: Cyclopedia of New Zealand, 1903
Their children four sons & five daughters:-
1. Louisa Augusta 20 Oct. 1848 - 1929 m Dr Parkerson
2. Caroline Josephine 24 Nov. 1850 - 1921
3. Charlotte (Tot) 8 Dec.1852 - 1921 never married
4. William Richards 17 Nov.1854 - ? m. Caroline E Wood 1853 - 20 May 1922 (see Robert Wood headstone at Temuka)
5. Edward Alexander 1857 - 15 Sept. 1923 farmer, Seadown m. 15 May 1885 Elizabeth Emily Hutt 1864 - 1945 d/o Thomas Hutt of Mt Hutt
6. Dionysia Elizabeth 1856 - 1895 never married
7. Alfred Thomas 18 Oct. 1861 - 1928 m. Dora Hall ? - 1945
8. Muriel Cordelia 22 Jan. 1868 - ? never married
9. possibly one more child - name unknown b 1874 - 4 Feb. 1900
From RPJ (Paul) McNicholl local history file:
HORNBROOK Mrs. Elizabeth Emily c/- J. Hay, Spur Road
b. Cust, North Canterbury
m. Temuka, aged 20yrs, to Edward Alexander HORNBROOK
d. 7 Jun 1945 aged 81 at Washdyke
bur. Timaru 8/6/1945
Father: Thomas HUTT
Mother: Emily CLIFTON
Children: Male 51, Female 59, 55, 48
Death notice: Timaru Herald
Percy Hornbrook, son.
Jack Hay, son in law
Edward A. Hornbrook 1857 - 1923
Elizabeth Hornbrook 1863 - 1945
Under births in the book 'Early Wellington' there is an 1850 entry - 'A. Hornbrook, 24th Nov., daughter' this is in fact the 2nd daughter of William and Margaret not Alfred.
Gertrude Dionysia Elizabeth Hornbrook b. 1889 Temuka, Registrar District
Timaru Herald death notice: HORNBROOK 23/2/1882 at Levels Plain, Mr. William Hornbrook, aged 59 years, youngest son of the late Colonel Hornbrook, R.M.
Timaru Herald Oct. 1895
HORNBROOK. On Oct. 19th, 1895, at her mother's residence, Hollywell, Seadown, suddenly, of apoplexy, Dionysia Elizabeth, fourth daughter of the late William Hornbrook, Esq., aged 39 years, Deeply regretted. Wellington papers please copy.
HORNBROOK - The friends of Mrs. W. Hornbrook, are respectfully informed that the funeral of her late daughter, Dionysia Elizabeth, will leave her residence, Seadown, on Wednesday, October 23rd, at 2 o'clock, for the Temuka Cemetery.
Otago Witness, 19 November 1896, Page 29
BIRTHS. Hornibrook.� On the 12th November, at Fairlie, South Canterbury, the wife of W. H. Hornbrook, L.R.C.P.T. and L.R.C.S.T. and L.M., of a son.
Wise 1878 directory:
Hornbrook Alfred, Opawa, C. [C = Canterbury]
Hornbrook and Co., lime and glue works, Woolston, C.
Hornbrook & Co., Jas., lime merchants, Tuam st., Chch.
No listing in PO 1887
Stones 1921 directory
Hornbrook, C, Miss, Temuka
Hornbrook, Thos., labr, Temuka
The Star Saturday 4 April 1891 page 3
Fire - Temuka - Mrs HORNBROOK
A two-roomed cottage at Temuka occupied by Mrs Hornbrook, was destroyed by fire at 2 o'clock on Thursday morning.
William HORNBROOK 1823 - 1882
Born in Brittany, France and came to Wellington on the Tobago on 14 September, 1842 to join his brother Alfred in the storage business - store-keeping business. William first arrived in the Temuka area in 1853 to manage the Arowhenua Station. A year later his wife, Margaret, joined him. He started Opuha Gorge Station in 1864 and sold it to Alfred in 1869. In 1871 after the Arowhenua run had been sold bought 256 acres at Seadown and stayed their until his death in 23 Feb. 1882, Temuka, aged 60. In the 1882 List of Freeholders of New Zealand, the Estate of William Hornbrook owned 189 acres in Geraldine County valued at $2646. In 1903 Margaret owned 131 acres of the Seadown property know as Hollywell, the other portion having been sold. William was one of the first wardens of St. Peters Anglican Church, Temuka with C.J. Rayner.
Timaru Herald death notice 25 Feb.1882:
HORNBROOK 23/2/1882 at Levels Plain, Mr. William Hornbrook, aged 59 years, youngest son of the late Colonel Hornbrook, R.M.
Obit. Timaru Herald 24 Feb.1882
Canterbury Death Duty Register C1/172
Tombstone Temuka Cem. "Hornbrook"
In July 1851 Alfred Hornbrook applied for a run on the rich South Canterbury plain eighty-eight miles south of Christchurch, Arowhenua, between the Te Moana and Opihi rivers, named after the nearby podocarp forest (podocarps are the big trees e.g. kahikatea, totara, matai). In 1853 Alfred Hornbrook, sent William to South Canterbury to manage this run for him and William built a large, colonial-style homestead on the western edge of the bush from where the timber was obtained. A woolshed built in 1854 is still standing in the Y2K. It must have been the finest building around at the time, because Bishop Harper, chose to preach from its doorway. A sketch of the homestead by Edmund Norman does exist.
Ashburton Guardian, 12 March 1912, Page 4
There died at Temuka on Sunday a pioneer settler in the person of Mrs Margaret Hornbrook, aged 84, who arrived m Wellington m 1841; The deceased lady came south in 1854, and, was the first white woman to land at Timaru, and her eldest, son was the first white child born m South Canterbury. She was the widow of the late William Hornbrook, who, with his brother (Major Hornbrook), took up Arowhenua run second selection after Rhodes Bros. They subsequently took up Opuha and Kakahu runs, when the low country was bought up by farmers in 1871. Mr Hornbrook bought a farm at Seadown. After his death Mr Hornbrook, in 1904, leased a farm, and had since lived in Temuka. She leaves three sons and three daughters.
Major Alfred HORNBROOK 1814 - 1898
Born 11 Oct. 1814 in Tavistock, Devon to R. Lyde HORNBROOK and Caroline. Alfred had served in the British Army in the Royal Marines 1806 - 1853 and was awarded the Knight of St. Ferdinand for service in Spain. He came to Port Nicholson, Wellington on the Oriental in 1840. Settled in Wellington before heading south. July 23rd 1845 Alfred was appointed quartermaster for the Wellington Battalion. His one story brick, clay and wattled store at Thorndon Flat was damaged by an earthquake Oct. 16, 1848, fallen out at the front and rear. William his brother also had a general store in Wellington. Alfred married twice. First to Mary Anne Hodges in Wellington March 19, 1840. Second marriage to Frances Anne Hewitt in ?1854. They had five children: Francis Charles 1857 - 1916
Estella Josephine 1859 - m. 2 Jan 1878 Dr Patrick Doyle at Shands Track, Canterbury
Dionysia Maud 8 Feb 1860 Heathcote - ?m 27/1/1881 John F Harper
Alfred Dudley 1863 - 1863
Raymond Hillman 1864 - ?
"Christchurch Press" Thursday 21 August 1930 Obituary
The death occurred this week in Christchurch of Mrs Dionysia Maud Harper widow of the late Mr J.F. Harper of Clarkville. The late Mrs Harper was the daughter of Major Hornbrook, who was one of the oldest settlers in Canterbury and a member of the 1st Provincial Council. Major fought in the Maori Wars in the North Island and may be remembered as being the original owner of the Mount Pleasant Estate, his residence being on the site of the present tea rooms at Mt. Pleasant.
Major Alfred Hornbrook's Mitre Hotel in Lyttelton opened in December 1849. The establishment hosted local meetings. By 1849 in Alfred was aquatinted with the Rhodes brothers and A. McDonald in Wellington later early South Canterbury runholders. In 1849 took up at Mount Pleasant Station near Christchurch a venture partly financed by the Rhodes brothers. In December 1849 Major Hornbrook was in Lyttelton and in preparation for the 'Pilgrims' arrival, opened the Mitre Hotel, a grog store, probably the first pub and the first commercial enterprise in the Canterbury province. His wife joined him at Mt Pleasant in 1854. In 1870 Alfred purchased Kakahu Station from Alfred Cox. Alfred sold Opuha George to Studholme, Banks and Wigley. Alfred and family migrated to Australia and Alfred died in Mackay, Queensland on 18 August 1898.
Arowhenua Station - 31,000 acres
No. 7. No. 413. License fee paid 9 Dec. 1854 by Alfred Hornbrook. Stock assessment Dec. 1 1854 - 2,000 sheep and one cow or bullock. Two years later still one cow or bullock.
No 30. 22,500 acres. License fee paid 16 Oct. 1854 by William Hornbrook of Mt. Pleasant. Stocked with 1,000 sheep by Dec.
AROWHENUA Run 7
This run of thirty thousand acres, on the west side of the Arowhenua Forest and along the north bank of the Opihi, was allotted to Major Hornbrook (whom I mentioned as owning Mt Pleasant) by Colonel Campbell on 1st November, 1853. It was the first station after the Levels to be taken up in South Canterbury, and one of the first to be organised and stocked. William Hornbrook, who went there to manage it for his brother in 1853, and 3000 sheep there the following year, and 5500 in 1857. Chudleigh says in his diary that it belonged to Alfred Cox in May, 1863.
Hornbrook sold the Arowhenua station 29 May 1871. J.T. Ford and Co. bought the station, which by then was all freehold. William Hornbrook bought a farm at Seadown, where he died in 1882.
In 1878 Ford and Co. cut up and sold more than half the land in sections, but during the bad times which came in the three or four following years, most of it fell back on their hands, and in 1883 the Bank of New Zealand took over the place with 10,000 sheep.
For some years from about 1885 the Bank ran the station in the name of A.M. Clark, who was their station supervisor. At that time Clark had the following stations and estates under his control (the managers' names are in brackets): - Arowhenua (John McColl), Riverslea (Mackintosh Murray), Albury (Edward Richardson), Eskbank (David Sutherland), Waihorounga (K.B. Bain), also the Clarence Reserve near Kaikoura. Clark lived at Arowhenua but worked the stations from an office in Temuka.
In the 'nineties' Ariwhenua was transferred to the Bank of New Zealand Estates Co., who cut up and sold what remained of it in 1899.
One of the people who lived at Arowhenua in the early days was an inveterate practical joker. A man had been drowned in the river there, and during the inquest at the Accommodation House, while the Coroner and a jury were having lunch, the practical joker removed the corpse and got into its place, and when they lifted the sheet to view the body, he greeted them with loud guffaws.
OPUHA GORGE Run 30
This run of twenty-two thousand acres, between the Kakahu and Fourpeaks Stations, was first alloted as Run 47 by Colonel Campbell to William Hornbrook, on 1st November 1853. William Hornbrook was a brother of Major Hornbrook, and like him had served in the Foreign Legion in the Spanish Civil War. He started the Opuha Gorge Station in 1854. He lived chiefly at Arowhenua, which he managed for his brother. About 1869 Opuha Gorge passed into the hands of Major Hornbrook, who sold it to Studholme Brothers and F. Banks, in 1871. In those days it and the Kakahu, which was worked with it, carried 26,000 sheep. At that time the Hon. T.H. Wigley, an old South Australian squatter, who had come down to New Zealand in 1860, had just left Balmoral, in the Amuri.
Otago Witness, 29 June 1867, Page 11
The Timaru Herald reports that the Kakahu run, belonging to Mr Cox, has been sold to Major Hornbrook. Messrs White and Selfe are also said to have sold their station at Makikihi, to Mr Perring. The prices have not transpired.
Strange having a girl's first name - and Elizabeth named their son Caroline as well, no wonder C.F.S. junior changed it to Fred.
Caroline Frederce Scott MAUNDRELL baptized 5 Oct. 1822, a convict ship captain. Married 16 Jan. 1851 at Old Church, St Pancras, London, Elizabeth Constantia Hornbrook, daughter of Colonel Lyde Richards Hornbrook, RM & Caroline Hillman, bap. 28 Feb 1828, Norley Street Chapel, Plymouth. She died 1 March, 1855 Mount Pleasant, New Zealand, at her brother's house. Capt. Maundrell died in Lyttelton 20 Sep. 1854 on board the Norman Morrison, barque, 529 tons, which had arrived from London to Wellington via Hobart, July 29th 1854 with 42 passengers and arrived Auckland 26th Oct.1854. via Wellington Captain Burke. 'White Wings'.
Probate file for Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL
National Archives ref. AAOM 6029 no. 81 of 1855
Will of Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL master of the Barque "Norman Morrison" of London at present confined by illness at the house of Charles Sharp esq of Wellington in the Colony of New Zealand. "I give all and singular my real and personal estate over which I have any power of appointment unto my wife Elizabeth Constantia."
[Signed] 8th day of September 1854.
Witnesses: John KING, solicitor and notary public.
A HORNBROOK, Wellington, settler
Affidavit of Alfred HORNBROOK of Mt Pleasant in the Province of Canterbury, Gentleman,
"I swear that I believe the paper writing bearing the date 8th September 1854 to be the last will and testament of Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL and that I am one of the executors of the will of Elizabeth Constantia MAUNDRELL the wife and afterward the widow of the deceased. I swear that I will faithfully execute the said will by paying the debts and legacies of the deceased as far as the property will extend and the law binds."
Value of estate less than �1500. What does this mean ?
Sworn at Lyttelton 21 August 1855 before Christopher Alderson CALVERT Deputy Registrar of the Supreme Court.
Affidavit of William DONALD, of Lyttelton Colonial Surgeon
"I knew Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL late master of the barque "Norman Morrison" of London when alive he was on board the said barque in the Harbour of Port Victoria within this District and he died on board the said Barque in the Harbour aforesaid on or about the 20th September 1854 in my presence."
Sworn at Lyttelton 21 August 1855 before Christopher CALVERT.
Affidavit of John King "of Wellington, solicitor, that I was present on the 8th day of September 1854 and did see Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL master of the barque "Norman Morrison" but then at the residence of Charles SHARP Esq at Wellington sign the
[will] and in the presence of Alfred HORNBROOK then of Wellington settler and of me John KING witnessed the last will and testament of Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL.
(letter to Caroline Frederick Scott Maundrell snr, age 18)
Plymouth May 24th 1840
My dear Fred
I have returned Mr Martin's very kind letter to you and many thanks for its perusal. And now I beg to offer our united congratulations on your appointment. You are certainly a most fortunate young man to have such kind friends for your Cousins have really proved themselves sincere in their endeavors to serve you, also Mr Martin. I hope you will always endeavor to merit their friendship by strictly following their counsel they can have no motive, but your good. You appear hurt at my saying you were deep & suspicious, I believe you will allow I am right. Perhaps you are placed in a situation that requires you to have your wits about you, but it is an unamaible feeling to foster in your bosom too early in life. Precaution is absolutely necessary, and you are too open and candid but the latter is far better than the former. I consider it bad taste to consider every man a rogue, till you find him an honest man. My principles are to do by everyone as I would wish others to do by me and I cannot then go far from the right path. Captain Parkers advice is to make yourself perfect in navigation and then he has no doubt of your soon obtaining better wages. You must be more diligent than you were with Mr Bruce.
Your mothers letter written by Mrs Wyatt is as you say funny. I am happy to find she is well and that Mrs Barn [Barr?] is going to leave that place it would be happy if all the rest were.
I have not heard from Spain since you left, but I am told, I may expect them home very soon. Neither from Alfred, but I have seen the most flattering accounts of the arrival out of Col Wakefield, therefore my heart is at ease about him as I have no doubt of his doing well if it should please God to spare him he will be his own master, which was always his ambition.
The trifling attention I had it in my power to pay you was no more than I hope either of my own would meet with in similar situations from some kind person or other and I trust wherever you go you will always meet with a friend if not an earthly - you will be sure of a heavenly - he will never forsake those who trust in him.
You are kind enough to say all my family are interesting to you they are all well and heartily join in every kind wish for your future welfare an happiness nothing of the smallest importance has occurred since you left a little scandal of course but that is nothing new. Harry Harris gives you all other news. I shall always (I hope) be happy to hear from you, and how you get on be sure not to neglect your Cousins where ever you are, and be as moderate in your demands on them as possible they will like you the better for being prudent and frugal.
With every kind wish for your future happiness and prosperity. Believe me to remain
Very sincere friend
(signed) C Hornbrook
The above letter was in an envelope:
from: "Mrs Hornbrook, 1840"
to: "Mr F Maundrell, No4 Strongs [Strangs?] Buildings, near the East India Docks, London."
"paid" "Isabella Captain & Mrs Parker ---------- their kind regards."
(letter from Alfred Hornbrook to Mrs Sharp, March 1857)
Mount Pleasant, 1st March 1857
My dear Sharp
My Sister has arrived all safe & I have again to return you and Mr Sharp my sincere thanks for your kindness to one of my relations, how I am to make you a suitable return I know not as my debt is continually on the increase and I have no opportunity of being kind to either you or yours. Most likely she told you that things were quiet at home she is very much altered, I thought it was my aunt ----- my Mothers eldest sister ----- and she fancied I looked nearly as old as my Father only he was the most active of the two. So we were mutually complimentary. She thinks of going to Fin------ to teach Williams children if they can come to an understanding. I was very sanguine of sending you and ----ch a remittance this opportunity but no wool has as yet made its appearance. ---------- - intend sending for it this week as I hear from ----- that he had got it on the ------ but I am afraid that I shall not have so much as Wm led me to expect.
We are going to have a new farm under the name of R Waitt & Co consisting of the following persons, R Waitt, Hargraves & -----, Waitt will go back to his station and the other two will carry on the business in town. Waitt has brought out some youngsters with him to initiate into the mysterys of colonial life, alias young bears to lick into shape. I am about enlarging my house by two rooms but in reality I gain only one as my present bedroom will be the entrance hall, when completed I shall be pretty comfortable. Mrs H has made up her mind to see you & Mr Sharpe next summer we shall have a spare bedroom for you & a spare horse to ride about the country. We say next summer as the days will be long and the fruit in season, strawberries & cream to the --------. .... The boys have given us all the Wellington news. Mrs Hatn & Dr ck I am told are going to make a match. I wish her well, it is to be hoped he will make a sober husband, as I understand he drink pretty considerably. ...I must ---- ---- with kind regards to Mrs Sharpe, Miss Kelly & ----- ------- believe me,
Yours very sincerely
A Hornbrook (signed)
Octr. 1st 1854.
My dearest Charlotte,
The fearfully melancholy event has indeed happened my beloved husband breathed his last most peacefully on the night of the 20th September a few minutes before 12 o'clock. I still cannot but believe he will return to me I cannot reconcile or awaken myself the awful reality Charlotte dear. I am truly miserable I have lost a treasure my only true friend and comforter with him all my hopes of earthly happiness have fled I am truly, miserable, my darlings sufferings were very, very, great it was wonderful to see his patience and resignation he said to suffer as he was he did not wish to live. After he had settled all his affairs with my brother he called me back to the room, he made me sit down and then told me what he had done and he wished a lawyer to make a will and to see a clergyman to take the communion, he could not tell me all, I could not hear more, he told me not to cry, he said it was the will of the Almighty and we should meet in heaven never more to part, he said he did not fear death, as he had been preparing himself for years he had never neglected his prayers night and morning, and he said he had found religion a most beautiful thing for giving comfort to ones feelings. Indeed, dear Charlotte, since I have lost him I find religion my great and only comfort. The dropsy had reached such a height that it was melancholy to him move, such a fine man so helpless. We came on board this day three weeks he was in such good spirits at the thoughts of being on board and having his poor legs scarified, as the medical men said he would find such relief, the day after it was done he felt so much relief, that he said he should soon be better. He continued, improving for ? days, after having passed about 3 gallons of water from the wounds in his legs. He found himself weaker but was still in such good spirits as the Doctor came to see him 5 or 6 times every day flattered us that all the symptons were very favourable until the morning the awful change took place. It then gave me a great shock, I sent on shore for another medical man who came immediately. He told me he was afraid there was a very little hope. I felt in an agony of despair. I had not time for thoughts, for my darling called me, he could not bear me to be out of the room or even out of sight and every ten minutes I had to get or do something for him. I never lay down until nearly 12 up as soon as it was light in the morning, besides in and out often during the night, at the last my feet were fearful, I could only get on my darling's slippers. I was afraid they would burst and everyone telling me to take care of myself or I should be very ill, but nothing would induce me to allow any one to do anything for him. I even made his little puddings in the cabin because I should hear his call, but the last three or four nights I felt my strength failing and my legs so painful that when I sat down on my bed on the floor by his side I could scarcely rise again. I began to be alarmed fearing I should be obliged to leave my darling to strangers, thank God I was spared this pain. I was standing from 2 in the morning until just 12 that night when my very dear one gave 3 sighs and breathed his last in my arms, he only looked as if he were asleep. I could have sat by him all that night I supported him for some minutes after all was over I could not bear to leave him, I was calm when by his side, his sweet calm expression had the same effect upon me. I asked him if he knew me and would he look at me. He nodded and tried to turn his dear face towards me but could only turn half way round. He began to shed tears. He was speechless for many hours but appeared to be quite free from pain, but I wished to hear his dear voice utter something at the last. I have only had one wish since I have lost him that was to be buried in the same coffin he looked so happy and comfortable. I had the best and strongest coffin I could get which was a very strong wood covered with black velvet, it looked very handsome and he looked so comfortable, I wish I were with him, he was carried with the Union Jack thrown over the velvet. All there were 8 pall bearers with crepe hat bands, four were gentlemen he had known some years, everyone sent to know when his funeral was to take place. About 40 gentlemen followed him to the grave, his good name came before him. I felt I could not do enough to pay him every mark of affection and respect, and now dear Charlotte I wish you and Robert to see about getting a handsome tombstone and iron railings for his grave as I cannot get them here and I wish to put flowers over it that will flower summer and winter. Can you get anything for it. I hope to write to you in the course of another month more fully. I'm bewildered now I know not what to think of anything. I had two doctors Mr. Burke, his brother, Miss Leckie to the house with me or just outside when my darling was leaving me, they all said they never saw such a peaceful death bed, they said to see my darling going off so quietly, it made them fear death very little. You may be astonished at Miss Leckie's being with me. She is the only lady passenger left and has been such a comfort to me, she has read to me, I could not get a bonnet made nor a cap Miss Leckie has helped me make both. I was obliged to use my brown straw bonnet for a shape. The crepe I have the best to be had here - is 7/6 per yard, it is more like gauze with a slight lace (?) In England I should doubt its being crepe. I am happy to say I shall see a very little company on the hill, therefore, I hope to be quiet. I do not like seeing anyone. By the time this reaches you I have not been allowed time to think of my bereavement. Would you believe it dearest Charlotte, that in this short space of time they are trying to take advantage of my loneliness, and only last night by one of the bills my brother was looking over he found that they had taken advantage of my darling to the amount of some pounds . He will write to Wellington about it for me but they say I shall get no redress. Dearest Fred attended to the interest of the ship until the last. He has felt so much anxiety on account of the owners that they might not be taken advantage of. He told Alfred that so much annoyance since the vessel had been chartered and annoyance on the voyage had hastened his illness but Charlotte dear there is one thing which adds to my misery when I think of it that is all the medical men have given it as their opinion that had he remained at home 12 months he would have become quite strong as he naturally had such a strong constitution. When I think of I get almost mad to think Mr.Chapman did not say a word about. I hope that if any of you are ill you will have further advice. I am miserable and do not wish to live, you may think it strange that I hope soon after Xmas to have a little son, whom I hope will follow his dear father's good example . Give my love to Mrs. Pearson (?), Mary and Caroline, I wish I were able to send them a present for mourning but dear Charlotte I shall be obliged to go to my brother for money as my mournful expenses have been very great. I do not yet know their extent. Tell dear Mary I will write to her soon. I shall not forget her. I am so bewildered I cannot think.
October 2. Yesterday was Sunday, and all the week being fine I reckoned so much on going to Church and then to my home for the present but it has very stormy and heavy rain to-day less wet but blowing hard to my sorrow. I am so anxious to leave the ship where I see everything to remind me of my severe loss and when I go on shore I have no Mother, sister or old friend to be with me to console me. Will you write to Aunt Di with my love. I will write to all, in time if I am living. I make sure of nothing now, oh! what happiness I have been looking forward to with my darling. He said only three weeks since how happy he would be when all the passengers were gone. I have never had one line from England since we left. I am so anxious to hear from all. I trust I shall have good news but fear nothing would cheer me now, I am happy to say the weather is clearing, my head is getting almost distracted. Do write to me every opportunity and send a duplicate directed via Singapore, as I am told I shall get them sooner that way, as I am afraid to ask Rbt. for money which is not done, it is dreadful when I am so miserable to have so much of money matters to attend and one thing is not settled now, is making my brother very anxious about it, he says he can see plainly I shall be rooked in many ways.
October 4th. Dear Charlotte I left the ship yesterday in such stormy weather that no boats would venture, and I was obliged to have the life boat to come off in, I did not care had it been the last hour of my existence I have known so much misery on board, and I am afraid I shall have more trouble about the things I have left on board for the ship. I am now staying with some kind friends on shore although very nice people yet they are strangers and I am so anxious to be alone. I shall be so quiet on the hill that in the winter I may not see anyone for three months together. I am longing to see all my dear friends in England. I trust I shall in a year or two.
October 6th. I am thankful to say the sun is shining Dear Charlotte at last. I have had so much business to attend to connected with the ship which was obliged to be finished before the ship left but I felt it a cruelty, to be obliged to see people, and attend to business, when I feel so truly miserable. I trust I shall have strength to get on the hill this afternoon, where I shall have little chance of seeing anyone from one end of the month to the other and I have not a single thing made for my expected little one. I was in hopes of going to see my darling's grave before I left the town but the mud is too deep. Miss Leckie has been reading to me "Voices of the Night", by ? I Iike it so much I intend getting it, if not send home for it. I have seen my darling's grave today. It is indeed a dismal looking place, I am so anxious to do something for it. He was so anxious to go home to die and be buried in England, it makes me so miserable to see him lying there. I hope you dear Charlotte with Robert see about something for me. I will give GBP30 or GBP40 for it. I feel I cannot do enough for him he was so good and kind.
October 6. I have arrived on the hill. It is quite out of the world but when I write next week I will tell you more about it. My kindest love to each and every member of your family, and it is my earnest prayer that you may never feel the sorrow and misery I have. May God protect you from its pain.
Believe me dearest Charlotte,
Yours most affectionately,
(Sgd. ) Eliza C. Maundrell
October 14, 1854
Mr dearest Charlotte,
You have received my letters forwarded about a month before this reaches you informing you of my beloved husband's death. Charlotte dear I am now beginning to feel it is indeed a sad reality that my very dear Fred is gone. I wish I was with him he was so good and kind I am thankful to think I was with him. He said two or three times to my brother that no one knew the comfort of a good wife but those who had one, two of the Doctors have since said that if he had not been so well nursed he would not have lived so long but I did it thinking I should assist in saving his precious life but the thoughts of his being spared had he remained in England twelve months under good medical attendance haunts me. He was constantly saying he would go home as soon as possible to be under good medical treatment. He felt sure he should be quite strong again. He told my brother that he knew he ought to have remained in England longer and had intended it but he had nothing but trouble the whole time he was there and he said after three years absence he did expect to find things different and on the passage out he had a great deal of trouble and annoyance so much so that he had made up his mind that this should be his last voyage although ill. He has been up three nights following on deck and the day we arrived in Wellington although so ill he was up the whole night and the next day Saturday, on Sunday we were in harbour he was in bed very ill all day and was cupped; early on the Monday morning we went on shore on business and to get lodgings he was obliged to have a quiet horse to ride upon there being no carriage. He went to Captn. Sharpe's then he could scarcely breathe or stand. Captn. Sharpe said he should not think of lodgings but remain where he was and he would man his boat directly and fetch me which he did. I was preparing a little for going on shore and was ready in a few minutes. When I arrived at Captn. Sharpe's he was sitting before the fire so unwell he had seen another medical man on his way up but he treated him as if my darling were a horse, he gave him such strong medicine that he had two hot baths on Sunday evening. I cannot write more on this subject I feel as if I should get mad when I think of all my very dear one has gone through as he said after toiling hard for eighteen years, I trust his services will be greater in the world to come. He was so beloved by all the poor steward (you remember him) came on to shore to see me at the very last he began to cry very much. He said he liked my dear one so much he was so good and just by all. I have indeed found the steward has been a treasure to both of us since my loss. He has been a great comfort to me. He has pointed out everything to my brother and told him of many things that were on board of which I had not the least idea although my very dear one told Alfred of many things which were on board and I think I should like to keep the plate, even a small dinner and desert service. He had settled all these things and yet even to the last he cheered me with the hope of his being better. He even bought a goat for taking on to India and made me go out to feed it every day to tame it. Charlotte dearest I am as it were in a mist without any prospect of seeing anything to cheer me although my brother is all kindness to me yet I am on the top of a barren mountain 1600 miles above the reach of the sea and in a land of strangers the two or three families I know here cannot venture up here on account of the bad approach. You have to walk along by the sides of this rugged mountain it took me two hours when I came up with my brothers and Mr. help but the greater part of the way you must go singly that I cannot venture down again until I am well. You will pity me when I tell you I have not a single female friend to come to see me from the fatiguing journey up and then they would be only strangers. I only know two ladies down in town and they are both delicate the rest sent cards Mrs. Dudley the clergyman's wife has invited me to stay the night at their home when I go down in town, but I cannot venture although I have no Doctor, or Nurse, and nothing made no one to help me, or speak for me and truly miserable in mind. I went to the side of the hill today and looked down on the cemetery that is all I can do I cannot go down to see his dear grave put in nice order. Mr. Dudley would go with me if I am able. Captain and Mrs. Sharp have written to say I should go and stay some months with them and my brother but that would indeed be misery for me to be surrounded by everything which would remind me more than ever of my dear lost one . They do not think it safe for me to be here but I intend remaining. I do not fear death and should it come I shall then be at rest with my dear one. Do not send this home. I now send a power of attorney which my brother has obtained for me fearing Robert might have some trouble in getting anything settled. I have named Bob as a kind friend who would act for me in case you should have left town. I know Bob would do anything for my very dear husband. I shall enclose a bill drawn on Mr. Richardson which Robert had better take to him before presenting it. I trust it will be accepted or it will be GBP60 out of my pocket. It was for his wine bill and money but his son I hear he stabbed himself by accident. He was taken to an Inn and lived at great expense.
Give my kindest love to all at home, in great haste, believe me dearest Charlotte your dearest sister
(Sgd.) Eliza C. Maundrell.
P.S. I have not time to write to Robert's sister via India and Southampton.
New Zealand Decr. 1st, 1854
My dearest Charlotte,
I will endeavour to write to you if only a few lines to let you know that I am pretty well, knowing you will be glad to hear from me. I wish you were with me now, but I am in bad spirits. I scarcely know how to write to any one. I now begin to feel that it is indeed a reality my very dear husband is no more. At times I feel as if I should get melancholy mad and I have such a constant inclination to burst out screaming. In fact I cannot tell what to do with myself at times. I have been very unwell since I last wrote to you, I did not know what to do with suffering so much in mind and body, and living in the house with three bachelors, then I did indeed feel that I was alone in world, although my brother is tenderly kind to me, but yet dear Charlotte, he is a bachelor. We have a most respectable man and his wife living with us, but I have no female friend, although we are living only a mile from the town, it takes the gentlemen an hour and half coming up. Alfred has a nice quiet pony for me which I went down to the town upon about a fortnight since (I was very anxious to see my very dear one's grave) but I know not when I shall venture again, there is only a footpath, in some places not that, and over immense stones, and it is so steep, in some places, that I was obliged to keep myself in a most painful position, in keeping or throwing myself backward on the horse to prevent my making a summer set over the animal's head, and in some places had I fallen I should have been killed, although my brother led the pony most carefully going and returning, I was obliged to dismount. I am thankful to say I returned safely and I visited my dear one's grave. I was horrified when I beheld it. Mr. Dudley went with me to show me the spot, but he had, forgotten which it was, I saw a spot without a blade of grass, it reminded me of a pit being dug to throw mud into such as I have seen in Devonshire. In fact dear Charlotte, I could not believe it was a grave, until Dr. Donald came to show me that unhappy spot, I was right; You, dear Charlotte, may imagine what my feelings were. I was in an agony. Had the grave been open and 100 feet deep, I should have gone in. All that my darling had said about his great hope that he should be buried ......... rather than in this colony, rushed ........ mind, and when I saw his dear grave ..... what a place for one so good and kind, had I lived where I could have gone out and tended it, and planted flowers I should have felt that a little consolation, but that is indeed impossible, all I can do I have requested to be done, that is to enclose it with wooden rails, the only ones to be had here, and have some grass seed planted over it until I hear from You and Robert. At present I think it probable I shall return with my brother in Feby. 1846 (sic) after his return here, he will let this place and go to Wellington to reside, and then there will be no one to look after that dear spot. Alfred and Mrs. Meach have both told me that I am to bury them on the hill rather than take them into the town, they say "horrid hole," that should I have wished it, ever so much to remain here I could not it will indeed be a great trial to me should that ever arise to leave it and yet I am so anxious to see you all after all the trouble and suffering both of mind and body and there is yet another trial in store for me in the beginning of January. Should anything happen to me dearest Charlotte I shall be happy to leave this world, at present I am very well but in mind truly miserable at times, I often want to be alone to vent my suppressed grief but I do not if I can possibly avoid it as it is if they see me looking sad or not speaking for some time they begin talking to me seriously and I always think of what darling Fred told me not to cry as it made those around me miserable. I am in such bad spirits that I know not how to write and yet I must to Robert. I hope Robert will attend to all the business immediately as I am anxious to have all my affairs settled out here before I leave as I am well aware you would be all kindness to me yet I am fully aware you have already a great many demands on your kindness. My brother has made his money in four years and he strongly advises me to invest some money in the same way. Both brothers have most kindly promised to take care of my interest and whatever I get I shall be at no expense for labours and should I go home they would send me a certain income and allow the rest to accumulate and should I be as fortunate as they have been they say in six or seven years I should have a comfortable little independence which would be some comfort to me more especially should I have another and darling Fred told me that if we went home we should feel the difference when we were in search of a home. It is half past nine and I must write to Robert therefore must close this to you. Give my love to all those you know I should like you to and kindest love to yourself and all your dear circle all of whom I hope to hear are well after nine months silence.
God bless you and yours
Believe me dearest Charlotte
Your affectionate attached sister
( Sgd . ) E.L. Maundrell
December 20th 1854
My dearest Charlotte,
There being an opportunity of writing to you via Melbourne I avail myself of it although I feel quite disheartened at writing any more. I have now left home going on 10 months and I cannot even here of home much more from and now begin to feel my solitude more than ever. I feel as if I should get frantic when I think I shall indeed never 'behold my darling husband more and so far from those I cannot think that how if you have written to me to add to my sorrow this day 12 months we were happy together and left home for town when we alarmed you by our early arrival in the morning. In 5 days it will be Christmas Day how different from the last when we all dined together with Hector and Fanny and after 12 o'clock we all commenced dancing and now there is nothing but sadness and solitude. Oh Charlotte dear you know not how much I wish I were with him in my grave. I have only one consolation now that is a kind brother who is exerting himself in studying my interests but he says he cannot do what he would wish for me this year not having the ready money he requires. He says he knows I am fretting fearing I shall be dependent on my own but he will try with what I may have to make me more than independent by being able to assist those I love. He is now looking out for some gentleman to leave this place in charge of during his absence in February 56 therefore I am very anxious for Robert to send me some money as soon as he can that I might leave all my affairs here in a settled state and to pay my passage home I trust Robert will be able to send me GBP300 if the owners accept the bill or Mr. Burke has written to me to say he will pay it on his arrival in England. I received a letter from him yesterday from Auckland dated llth November then getting under way for China and India en route ....... as he intends giving up the ...... will be greatly surprised to hear that Miss Leckie enclosed their cards to me written, (Mr. and Mrs. J. Burke) and a few lines to say they were married the day before by special license and they were very happy and I might be sure her husband would do everything to study the interest of the ship and they would write to me from China. When I first heard it I was almost dumb founded I had not the slightest suspicion, in fact we all considered he was engaged to Miss Porter another passenger who came to see me on a few days since. She wished to know whether I had heard from Auckland and what news. I would not tell her until she compelled me and then I softened it with a doubt poor girl I shall never forget her she seemed choking and when she recovered a little she said Mr. Burke told her he intended taking the ship home and returning in twelve months he has done better in marrying Miss Leckie is quite a lady very sensible and accomplished but quite 12 or 14 years older than Mr. Burke. You may remember my two best bonnets and flowers packed in a tin case. My brother went to see if they were in good condition and he found them spoiled from damp. My brother says they are not worth a penny and I am afraid my other things will spoil as I cannot go down in town now although I wish it very much. I went to see my lost dear one's grave last night from the hill and although I had ordered some wooden railing to be put round nearly two months since through the glass I saw it was looking as miserable as ever. I am going to send about it this morning but labour is so scarce you cannot get people to work at any price all servants and labourers become masters in four or five years and now some of the people from the diggings who have made money are coming here I believe a steamer will be put on for that purpose. I am only writing a short letter now as I do not wish to lose an opportunity of writing home to wish you all very happier returns of the season a dismal one for poor me and when I see letters from home I shall be almost afraid to open them. Give me kindest love to those you know. I should like all at Ipswich, to Horace and Hector, the Martins I forget whom I know I feel as if I had left home for years. I shall write again in a fortnight. It is I think unnecessary to ask you to be kind enough to take care of all the things that were left in your charge anything that might get spoiled from damp I hope my sisters will do the same how I long to see you all but I would have been truly happy here had my very dear husband been spared to me. I think it a first rate place for making money although you must rough it at first. I wish dear Robert to pay any money he thinks right but should he have a doubt about anything concerning the ship he had better wait her return to England in a few months. I hope you will see Mr. and Mrs. Burke both of whom I like very much they were truly kind to me. Send this letter to dear Mama as the steamer leaves so soon. I fully intend writing long letters home, be sure and forward this by the first post to her. I have 80 (?) more sheep added to my flock, the pool of the 180 will give me for the year GBP80 and my brother says if I return home next year I shall have a home as long as my dear father lives therefore he says I am just to have enough for clothes and pocket money for one or two years. I will send John some papers by a friend on the ships account soon. I must conclude with affectionate love to all at my two homes and may you all be as happy as I pray you may.
Believe me dear Charlotte
Your affectionately attached sister
( Sgd . ) E.L. Maundrell
January 18, 1855
My dearest Charlotte,
Having an opportunity of writing to you today I do so although I do not feel well and instead of getting more reconciled to the loss of my ever to be lamented husband last month and the present are sad indeed to me. On the l6th of this month it would have been four years that we were married and with such bright prospects of happiness and I am left alone in this friendless world to mourn over the greatest of all losses that of an affectionate and one of the kindest of husbands. I am-daily expecting another trial and had been trying to console myself with the happy prospect of having my very dear sister to be a comfort and companion for me but there was a happier lot in store for her. She was taken because she was good and we were all so fond and proud of her but we have that great consolation in hoping and knowing there is a better and happier world for us to go to when we leave this. She was taken just before my beloved husband and now I have indeed, if I am spared, a dismal winter to look forward to and to add to this I now begin to feel that I am forgotten and no one has troubled to send a note even after ten months absence Dear Mama and to inform my brother of the death of our dear sister her letter arriving here from in two months and three weeks the Royal Stewart arrived here direct from London to Plymouth in 83 days and no letter from anyone it does indeed appear cruel to me in all my affliction and painfully reminds me of what my very dear husband has said and my very kind brother has made the same remark. Charlotte dear you know not how disheartened I feel after having never omitted an opportunity of writing if only a few lines. I have just had a very kind letter from Mrs. Sharp to know what she can send me and what she could do for me. I hope Miss Kilby will come and spend some little time with me. She is such a kind good little creature. Darling Ted said "She has a little kink" but they were so truly kind I shall never forget it and I am to go there whenever I feel anxious. I must bring this to a close, I am in such bad spirits and I have just heard more bad news and last week my nurse sent word to say her daughter who had been confined three weeks since was so dangerously ill she could not leave her and she hoped I would lose no time in getting someone else. I was obliged to send for my dressmaker and have engaged her she being the mother of six children and was the only person who could come on board to measure me for anything. I hope dear Robert will attend to my business and be careful what he pays. If I have an opportunity of sending home soon by a friend I will do so. You know not how much I feel your long silence as I may say I almost hourly think of all at home. I trust you were all happy this Christmas I shall indeed feel my homesickness and may you all enjoy many happy New Years together. With sincerest love to each and every member of your family, Believe me dearest Charlotte your very affectionate sister
(sgd.) Eliza C. Maundrell
MAUNDRELL - At Lyttelton on 1st March 1855, at the residence of her brother Major Hornbrook, Elizabeth Constantia, widow of the late Capt C F S Maundrell of the barque Norman Morrison. New Zealander 1 Apr, 1855
Probate file for Elizabeth MAUNDRELL
National Archives Wellington New Zealand
Ref. AAOM 6029 No. 82 of 1855.
I, Elizabeth Constantia Maundrell [make this] my last will and testament. The whole of my real and personal property to my beloved infant son, Caroline Frederick Scott MAUNDRELL for his sole use and benefit. I also request my brother Alfred HORNBROOK of Mt Pleasant and Robert John MAUNDRELL esq of Belvedere House Belvedere Road Lambeth to act as my executors and guardians to my beloved infant son.
Signed by Elizabeth, and witnesses: Thomas R MOORE M.D, Barton farm, Charteris Bay, Canterbury, New Zealand.
Also William HORNBROOK, stockowner, Arowanui Bush, farmer, Canterbury province.
There is an affidavit by Thomas MOORE that he and William HORNBROOK did witness Elizabeth MAUNDRELL, widow, sign her will.
William DONALD of Lyttleton signed an affidavit saying he knew Elizabeth MAUNDRELL and that she died on 1st March 1855, at Mt Pleasant.
Alfred HORNBROOK signed an affidavit that he is one of the executors named... will faithfully execute the provisions of the will, and pay all debts and legacies and furnish the court with a full inventory of all the personal estate [not attached].
Signed Alfred HORNBROOK at Lyttelton 21 August 1855.
Capt. Maundrell and Elizabeth had the following child: Caroline Frederce Scott MAUNDRELL, born Jan ?17, 1855 at Mount Pleasant. He was born four months after his father died. His mother died forty days after he was born. He married Amy Louisa Noble CAMPBELL in 1897 in NZ and had one child Cecil Frederick Scott Maundrell. Caroline Frederick Scott Maundrell jnr who went by Fred became a master mariner and died at Sydney, NSW.
(letter from Caroline Frederick Scott Maundrell jnr, age 13, in 1868)
February 25th 1868
My dear Aunt
Since I last wrote to you our master Mr Scott has give up the High School and has opened a private school of his own, Frank and I both go to it and like it much better than the other- we are still day-boarders. We have had a very wet summer and dreadful floods in some parts of the country but you will see full spectacular accounts of all this in the news-paper. We have had some distinguished visitors here Lord Lyttleton & his son and Mr Selfe they are all going back to England very soon. I wish you would (some day) send us some nice copies for drawing, as we all four learn. I would have sent you some Peacock feathers, but we have none now, for the Peacocks are all at "Mount Pleasant". There is a convent here now, and 5 nuns, every body stares at them and as soon as they arrived some people called out "Oh! How ugly they are". Do you know what convent my Aunts are in? I aean my father's sisters. Aunt Carry said there were two Miss Maundrells who were nuns in France. If you know I wish you would tell me when you next write. I am surprised you think Mr Robert Maundrell's family so vulgar, Aunt Carry says they are clever, agreeable & gentlemanly. We have a beast show here with lions & monkeys. Major has taken us to see them.
I remain dear Aunt your affectionate nephew
Information courtesy of Vicky Hornbrook. Posted 28 February 2001. Updated 4 July 2009. References: Oliver Gillespie's, A. South Canterbury A Record of Settlement.
The Alexander Turnbull Library has letters from Eliza Scott-Maundrell to her sister Charlotte Maundrell in London from Lyttelton. Eliza Scott-Maundrell was a sister of Major Alfred Hornbrook and William Hornbrook of Temuka. She died shortly after her son was born in Jan 1855. Her husband was Caroline Frederick Scott Maundrell who died before his son was born. It appears Charlotte's surname was Maundrell, perhaps she was married to the Robert mentioned in Eliza's letters, or that she was staying with a branch of the family in London. The letters cover the period between her husband's death and the birth of the son.