The South Canterbury Hall of Fame
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Richard PEARSE 1877 -1953
He showed courage and vision to fly.
A farmer, an inventor, a man of vision. About March 1903 he became airborne in a high winged monoplane he designed and built himself. It is almost certain he got into the air under power before the Wrights. The Wright brothers were the first to achieve sustained and controlled flight but did Richard Pearse beat them off the ground as early as March 1903? Neither party was aware of each others work. Born 3 Dec.1877 at Waitohi Flat, the fourth child of Digory Sargent Pearse and Sarah Anne nee Brown His parents were married by Rev. Geo. Barclay 16 Jan. 1871, at Timaru, He was the elder brother of Warne, Ruth and Florence. Digory was b. in Cornwall and had arrived in Lyttelton via Adelaide in 1865. Purchased in 1865, Trewarlet Farm, Waitohi Flat. Richard died 29 July 1953 age 75 years & 8 months in Christchurch. Sarah Anne Brown bc.1850 in Co. Derry, Ireland, and died 11 Aug. 1937 in Landue, Lezant, Launceston, Cornwall. She married Digory Sargent Pearse on 16 Jan 1871 in Timaru, New Zealand, son of William Thomas Pearse and Charlotte Mary Sargent.
Children of Digory Sargent Pearse and Sarah Anne Brown are:
i. Thomas Sargent Pearse, b. Abt. 1870, Waitohi Flat, Temuka, d. date unknown, Unknown.
ii. Charlotte Anne Pearse, b. Abt. 1873, Waitohi Flat, d. date unknown. Married William Smart. Child Gladys Smart.
iii. John Brown Pearse, b. Abt. 1875, Waitohi Flat, d. date unknown.
iv. Richard William Pearse, b. 03 Dec 1877, Waitohi Flat, d. Jul 1953, Sunnyside Hospital, Christchurch
v. Margaret May Mary Pearse, b. Abt. 1879, Waitohi Flat, d. 19 Apr 1950, Christchurch
vi. Digory Warne Pearse, b. Abt. 1881, Waitohi Flat, , d. 1968, NZ
vii. Florence Sarah Pearse, b. Abt. 1888, Waitohi Flat, d. Abt. 1976, Auckland
viii. Reginald Pearse, b. Abt. 1891, Waitohi Flat
ix. Ruth Beatrice Pearse, b. Abt. 1894, Waitohi Flat m. Ronald Gilpin.
Timaru Herald Online 08/07/2013 Pearse's Plane
Those interested in a true, properly researched account could do worse than refer to Errol W Martyn's chapter eight of Volume One of A Passion For Flight, published in 2012.
(a) Pearse stated in 1909 that he did not do anything practical about his aeroplane until 1904. He repeated as much in 1915, 1928 and 1943 - so no celebration possible of a 1903 flight attempt by Pearse.
(b) It is a common error to assume drawings in Pearse's 1906-1907 patent represent a ''plan'', but these, as in most patents of the time, simply represent a concept, which in Pearse's case changed somewhat over the ensuing years, leading up to November 1909 when he finally got around to making his first flight attempt. No original plans, drawings or photographs of the aeroplane Pearse first built are known to have survived.
(c) The wing fabric on the Mudrovcich machine is attached to the top of the wing, whereas Pearse attached his fabric to the wing's under-surface. There was no top covering.
The South Canterbury Microlight Clubs holds the annual Richard Pearse Memorial fly in at Waitohi in March over a weekend with Saturday designed to highlight the versatility of the aircraft and Sunday for cross country flying. Suggested reading: The Riddle of Richard Pearse or Moonshine Country both by Gordon Ogilvie. Another website
There is a plaque at the Timaru airport and the Richard Pearse Memorial with a replica of his monoplane is in the Upper Waitohi district, near Pleasant Point on the Main Waitohi Road, overlooking the field were he crashed. Map. The Timaru Airport was opened 9 April 1932. Timaru's airport "Richard Pearse Airport" at Levels is named after this farmer from Waitohi, the first British citizen to fly. The South Canterbury Aviation Heritage Centre is planned for the airport in a few years. Centennial
Richard William Pearse
New Zealand's Pioneer Aviator
This monument commemorates the first
powered flight to be made by a British
citizen in a heavier than air machine.
Most evidence indicates this flight
took place on 31st March 1903 and
ended by crashing on this site.
Pearse wrote two letters to newspapers.
Dunedin's Evening Star May 10, 1915
"Pre-eminence will undoubtedly be given to the Wright brothers of America when the history of the aeroplane is written, as they were the first to actually make successful flights with a motor-driven aeroplane."
Christchurch Star Sept. 15, 1928
"My aeroplane was of enormous size, having 700 square feet of wing area, and it was extremely light, being made mainly of bamboo, and weighed, with a man on board, under 700lb, so each square foot of wing area had to support 1lb. At the trials it would start to rise off the ground when a speed of 20mph was attained. This speed was not sufficient to work the rudders, so on account of its huge size and low speed, it was uncontrollable, and would spin round broadside on directly it left the ground. So I never flew with my first experimental plane, but no one else did with their first for that matter. But with my 60 horse-power motor, which proved very reliable, I had successful aerial navigation within my grasp, if I had had the patience to design a small plane that would be manageable. But I decided to give up the struggle, as it was useless to try to compete with men who had factories at their backs."
Rodliffe, Geoffrey (1993). Wings over Waitohi, Auckland. 1993 116 pages illustrated. Background and technical information
Ogilvie, Gordon (1994). The Riddle of Richard Pearse, Revised edition, published by Reed Publishing, Auckland. First published 1973.
Rodliffe, Geoffrey. Flight Over Waitohi. The book has been designed to be a semi-technical book for school classes studying the history of flight, and is based on many years of research by Mr Rodliffe into the story of Richard Pearse (1877 - 1953). Foreword by Dr Darrol Stinton. Sketches and drawings by Philip Heath. Paperback book, size 21 cm x 19 cm. 32 pages. Published 1997. 32 pages illustrated for school use.
1 April 2003
Aviation pioneer waits in the wings. New Zealander took off before Wright brothers
The Wright Brothers get all the credit, but a little known New Zealand farmer and self-taught aviation pioneer deserves some recognition, too, his supporters say. On March 31, 1903, Richard Pearse flew his bamboo monoplane over the lush pastures of his farm before crashing unceremoniously onto a hedge, family members and other witnesses said.
It was his first successful flight and came months before Orville Wright took to the air in the Wright Flyer over the North Carolina dunes near Kitty Hawk on Dec. 17 that year -- a flight that landed Orville and his brother Wilbur in the history books. The reason was the nature of the Wrights' flight. While several others are thought to have gotten machines off the ground first, the Wrights won acclaim because theirs was the ''first powered, sustained, and controlled flight by an airplane,'' said Dick Knapinski, spokesman for the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, Wis.
Pearse himself conceded the honor to the Wrights, agreeing that none of his flights were fully controlled -- most ended in the hedges around his farm that grew high because he was too busy working on his plane to trim them. A self-taught aviator and inventor, ''Bamboo'' Pearse, who also built a bicycle out of bamboo, got his plane into the air at least five times before the Wrights did, his supporters say.
The New Zealand division of the Royal Aeronautical Society has nominated him for the First Flight Hall of Fame at Kitty Hawk, but says that with only one inductee a year, the earliest Pearse may be considered is 2005. ''He should be in there,'' said the society's local vice president, Hugh McCarroll. ''It will be appropriate recognition of his amazing work.'' Although there is little physical evidence authenticating Pearce's flights, some of the plane's parts have survived and his devotees insist there is no doubt he took to the air before the Wrights.
At least 20 family members and other residents of the tiny rural settlement of Waitohi, near Timaru, reported witnessing the first flight of the aircraft, which was powered by an engine Pearce crafted on his forge. A nephew, Richard Pearse, 83, said his father, Warne, told of being among those present for that March 31 flight and for other flights. ''My father used to help him, spinning the propeller to start the engine.'' A local photographer reportedly took a picture of the plane stuck atop a hedge, but the photo was lost in a flood years later, said Jack Melhopt, chairman of the Timaru Aviation Heritage Center. People told of watching Pearse's plane skim over paddocks, and in one case land in a dry riverbed, the overhead engine frightening a horse.
Amos Martin, a farm worker, recorded a flight on May 2, 1903. ''It taxied 50 yards, rose 10 to 15 feet, flew 50 yards, then crashed into a hedge,'' he wrote in a letter. ''I got on my bike and hightailed off.'' Treated as a crank by many of his neighbors and even some in his family, Pearse ended up in a psychiatric hospital, where he died, unsung and alone, on July 29, 1953, at age 75. ''Pearse was very much a recluse. He was laughed at by the locals. They called him `Mad Dick' and `Bamboo Pearse,' '' said the Timaru aviation center's secretary, Graham McCleary.
A lucky find of rusted parts from one of Pearce's homemade engines and a propeller in an old rubbish heap has given his pioneer work new life. Three replica engines and two planes based on his earliest designs were built to mark the centennial of his first flight. Working virtually alone, Pearse designed and built his light-bodied plane with rigid wings, ailerons, flaps, and rudder, all of which were ''movable from one control column by the pilot,'' said Geoff Rodliffe, a historian who wrote a book about Pearse. Pearce's nephew said he had a firm objective with the early flights: flying the nine miles to the town of Temuka for shopping. ''But I can see that once he was in the air he had a few problems controlling it, so he didn't make the trip to Temuka and back as he intended,'' Richard Pearce said.
Evening Post, 26 February 1902, Page 1 Colonial Inventions
Applications for letters patent, with provisional specifications, have been accepted as under: Richard W. Pearse, Upper Waitohi, farmer, improvements in and connected with bicycles.
PEARSE ARCHIVES MAJOR ACQUISITION FOR MUSEUM
11 October 2005 Timaru Herald
South Canterbury has secured the extensive archives of Richard Pearse researcher, Christchurch author Gordon Ogilvie. Central South Island Tourism has negotiated with Mr Ogilvie for the 23 boxes of material he has collected since the 1960s. The South Canterbury Museum has a high enough level of professionalism and quality control that they can be housed here." Mr Brownie said $12,000 had been agreed on as a fair recompense of Mr Ogilvie's expenses in gathering the materials in the archives, and applications were being made to various funding bodies to raise that money. "This price is substantially below what Mr Ogilvie could have gained elsewhere, so he's made a major financial sacrifice." Mr Brownie said the archives would be given to the South Canterbury Museum, and would be fully accessible for research purposes and any further archives acquired by Mr Ogilvie would be added to the collection. South Canterbury Museum director Philip Howe said Mr Ogilvie had previously lodged in the museum some engine cylinder remains and one or two other pieces relating to Pearse's agricultural experiments, discovered during excavations at Waitohi and Milton. "This acquisition is incredibly significant from our point of view. Gordon Ogilvie has completed the most authoritative collection of printed and written material related to Pearse in the course of research for writing his book (The Riddle of Richard Pearse). "We're delighted that it's coming back to South Canterbury and that it will be available to local people for research and to visiting researchers." Mr Howe said the museum's acquisitions budget of $1500 a year meant it was not in a position to compete with other facilities boasting larger chequebooks, so he was delighted Central South Island Tourism had led the charge. Mr Ogilvie said he had wanted the archive to remain in South Canterbury. "This was always destined to stay in South Canterbury, as long as South Canterbury was in a position to take it. I think the main issue to me was that the archives stay in Richard Pearse's own part of the world. "Almost everything connected with Richard Pearse up to this point has gone up to Auckland, to Motat." Mr Ogilvie said he was keen to see the South Canterbury Museum become a national research place for Richard Pearse. Mr Ogilvie said there remained one Richard Pearse mystery, the location of the rubbish dump around Milton where Pearse's first plane was taken.
Evening Post, 26 February 1902, Page 1
COLONIAL INVENTIONS. Applications for -letters patent, with provisional specifications, have been accepted as under: Richard W. Pearse, Upper Waitohi, farmer, improvements in and connected with bicycles.
Article Utility plane
Flight over Waitohi / by Geoffrey Rodliffe. Rodliffe, C. Geoffrey Auckland : Geoffrey C. Rodliffe, 1997.
Wings over Waitohi - the story of Richard Pearse / C.G. Rodliffe. Rodliffe, C.G. Auckland : Avon, 1993.
The Daily Mail (London, England) (July 3, 2006): p55.
Born on December 3, 1877, at Waitohi Flat, Temuka, South Island, to Digory Pearse, an English immigrant from Cornwall, and Sarah Brown, from Ireland, Richard William Pearse was the fourth of nine children. From an early age, he developed an interest in mechanics and by the time he'd finished his primary education his tinkering had blossomed into several inventions. These included a mechanical needle threader for his mother, a zoetrope that produced moving images by flicking through a series of stills for his sisters, and a small steam engine made from a golden syrup tin full of water. For his 21st birthday, his father gave him a farm at Waitohi, but Richard showed little interest in farming and used his farmhouse as a workshop, building aircraft and their engines from parts salvaged from agricultural machinery, supplemented by bamboo and wood. His first aircraft, a high wing monoplane with a 25ft span, was built over several years and flight-tested in 1902. Its homebuilt, two- cylinder, 24 horsepower engine weighed less than 5lb per horsepower. The structurally strong body of the craft was built from bamboo rods, supported on a tricycle undercarriage constructed from tubular steel. Cables stretched from posts at the front and rear to the wing tips, with wire bracing from the undercarriage outboard of the wheels to the wings. Strong evidence suggests that with this machine Pearse may have achieved a powered but - crucially - uncontrolled flight of several hundred metres on March 31, 1902. To attain fully-controlled flight, a pilot would have to be able to get his plane into the air, fly it on a chosen course and land it at a predetermined destination. Pearse's short 'hops' or 'flights' established the fact that he could become airborne but didn't come within this category. Neither, for that matter, did the first powered flights of the Wright brothers in December 1903. The Wright brothers, however, had the resources to continue until they achieved fully controlled flight. Pearse's achievements remained virtually unknown beyond the few who witnessed them and had no impact on his contemporary aviation designers. Little recorded information is available concerning Pearse's early flights and but for the discovery of a strange mock-up aeroplane and its extraordinary engine at his farmhouse, it's likely that his achievement would have remained hidden. This aeroplane and some written material were collected and presented to the Museum of Transport & Technology in Auckland, where the plane is exhibited.
Pearse link lost
Tracy Miles - South Canterbury Herald 17/08/2011 End of an era: Richard Pearse's great-nephew, also called Richard Pearse, right, died in Timaru last month.
South Canterbury lost the last close link to aviator Richard Pearse following the death of his nephew, also called Richard Pearse, last month. Mr Pearse, who died aged 92, was 34 years old when his now-famous uncle died and had spent time with him over the years at the family home at Manse Bridge, Temuka, where the aviator in later years living in Christchurch would visit for Sunday dinners to catch up with family. The South Canterbury Herald visited his son Jeffrey, who, with wife Patricia, lives in the house the aviator and inventor grew up in, on Pearse Rd at Waitohi and talked about the family's links with the world's earliest days of flying and the later controversy Richard Pearse's 1903 flight engendered. According to witness statements, Richard Pearse flew and landed a powered heavier-than-air machine on March 31, 1903, about nine months before the Wright brothers flew their aircraft. Since the 1960s there has been controversy around the Pearse story, with claims that the design of his plane meant he could not have flown. For the family, being on the inside, statements by what Jeffrey Pearse calls "experts, in inverted commas" that his great uncle did not fly, have been hurtful. He said his father was a reserved man and did not talk much about the aviation achievements of his forebear. "Dad's sister Margaret, she was less reserved than my father and she always was a strong advocate he flew not publicly at all, but to us younger generation. I can clearly remember her saying, `Richard flew.' She was very proud of that. "As I say, my father was far more conservative and quiet in nature but if push came to shove he would always say that he did fly as well." Jeffrey Pearse's grandfather, Warne Pearse, was a key witness to the early flights. Warne, the brother of the aviator, and the closest of the family to him, was there "from time to time" at Richard's neighbouring block of land, helping him start his aeroplane invention and get it airborne, "and so forth". Warne was one of the key witnesses featured in later research into his brother's flight. It was well documented in newspapers of the day that he was highly regarded as a most honest sportsman, and tennis player, his grandson said. "For critics of Richard Pearse to claim that the story was a load of nonsense and that he could not have flown, really that did question the credibility of some of the witnesses, for example, Warne Pearse, and that did hurt my father," he said. Jeffrey said there has never been a statement from the family that he flew before the Wright Brothers. What mattered to them was the controversy over whether he had actually flown. "Certainly he was airborne in a heavier than air machine and was able to achieve short flights." Research by his biographer Gordon Ogilvie found that after considerable taxiing on his farm paddocks, Pearse made his first public flight attempt down Main Waitohi Rd adjacent to his farm. After a short distance aloft, perhaps 50 yards (45 metres), he crashed on top of his own gorse fence. (NZ History Online). "No details were recorded, by Pearse or onlookers, of this tentative flight." In two letters, published in 1915 and 1928, the inventor writes of February or March 1904 as the time when he set out to solve the problem of aerial navigation.
He also states that he did not achieve proper flight and did not beat the American brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright who flew on December 17, 1903. "However, a great deal of eyewitness testimony, able to be dated circumstantially, suggests that March 31, 1903 was the likely date of this first flight attempt," according to NZ History Online. His attempts at flying were witnessed not only by Warne, but by local farmers and pupils of Upper Waitohi School who would see him flying on their way to or from school, Jeffrey said.
The controversy over whether he flew did not arise until the 1960s, after the aviator's death. Gordon Ogilvie bore the brunt of it as the researcher and argued the claims on behalf of the family. While the flights or lack of them were debated it was forgotten there were real people involved, Jeffrey said. "Twenty-two witnesses from right throughout the country all having some account of Richard Pearse and his flights all interviewed independently so no collusion. So it's a fairly weighty lot of evidence. "There were errors in times and dates and varying degrees of the distance he flew but they were all adamant he was airborne."
But for the family it was never in question, because of Warne's close association with his brother, and his upstanding character.
Pearse's plane lacked an aerofoil section on the wing, a necessary element of flight. The wings worked more like kites, but according to Timaru man Jack Mehlhopt who helped build a replica of the Pearse's first plane, with the fabric covering the bamboo structure not stretched tightly, the ballooning affect in flight would have acted like an aerofoil. "It's all about the angle of attack," another local Pearse enthusiast Paul Marshall said. "I don't think there was ever any commercial purpose. But what was absolutely categoric was his vision for flight in the early 1900s history has shown 100 years later how absolutely correct his vision was," Jeffrey said.
Aerilons (the small flap on the outside of the wing), the propeller in front of the plane, single wings all have been adopted as the norm. "If he'd had a world patent on aerilons all would have been well," he said. It was not his last aviation invention. He created an autogyro in his garage in Christchurch which was designed to be an everyday utility plane, to be driven down the road, and to take off vertically. This plane was found by aviation pioneer and early Richard Pearse researcher, George Bolt, who took it back to Auckland. A newspaper article alerted Pearse's sisters Ruth and Florrie, and they made contact with Mr Bolt, telling them the history of its inventor, and that he flew before the Wright Brothers. That sparked off Mr Bolt's interest. "He came down to South Canterbury [in 1958] on the suggestion of the aunts and started digging around. When he found pieces of the original plane, he started to interview witnesses," Jeffrey said. In later years, his uncle, who never married, would worry, on visits to the family at Temuka, that others were stealing his ideas. He died in Sunnyside, in 1953, but Jeffrey said at that time the hospital was also a home for the elderly. "It wasn't necessarily a loony place but he was no doubt very eccentric." Jeffrey cannot pinpoint any point in time when he was told about his famous great uncle the story was just there in the background of family life that he had been airborne and that he was incredibly clever as an engineer. The harshest criticism against the flight came from within New Zealand, he said. The most generous support came from overseas with the aviation publishers Jane's, recognising his contribution to aviation. There has still not been official New Zealand government recognition of his achievements, although he has appeared on a coin. "I think it's probably in the too hard basket because there are still `experts' that will deny his achievements." These experts are aviation people with high qualifications but who are very distant from the real story, he said. His father, Richard Pearse, died suddenly in Glenwood Home, Timaru, in early July, the same home where Warne died in 1967. His passing marked the end of those with the closest association to the man who may well have been the first to fly a plane.
Timaru Courier July 1st 2010 pg 7
Pearse's feats not recognised in lifetime
LITTLE interest was taken in Richard Pearse until 1958, five years after he died.
Only then did recognition come the way of the locally born aviator whose early flights may possibly have predated the historic flights of Orville and Wilbur Wright on December 17, 1903. After leaving school, Pearse worked on the family farm at Waitohi until the age of 21. He probably started his experiments late in 1899, in 1900 or early in 1901. He had no machinery, no one to bounce ideas off, and no financial backing. First, he designed a monoplane and successfully tested a model of it. Then he built himself a lathe, a forge and a flimsy shelter to house the plane while it was being built. The hardest job was to build a motor light enough to make flight possible. No such motor was available and car engines were far too heavy, so Pearse had to make his own. He began with a single cylinder but had to add a second, made from four inch steel irrigation piping. Other parts, such as pistons and crankshaft, which he could not make, were made in Timaru. The motor was attached to a tubular steel frame that rested on a homemade tricycle carriage with air filled tyres. The front wheel was steerable. Pearse sat on a sort of saddle that he could slide forwards or backwards to adjust the plane's centre of gravity. He also hoped the movement of the seat might absorb some of the impact if the plane crashed. The rectangular wing had a bamboo framework and the whole surface was covered with canvas. The propeller was wooden, about eight feet long (2.4m) and beautifully finished. After 18 months work mostly on Sundays and some trial runs on his farm, Pearse took his monoplane out on to the road for its first serious trial. His younger brother, Warne, the only other person present, dated the event at about June 1901. Unfortunately, the motor was underpowered and could not lift the combined weight of man and aircraft off the ground. Pearse then built a more powerful motor. The result was a two cylinder engine of about 15 horsepower. He was very proud of this, believing it to be the lightest engine in the world for its power. He changed the propeller to an iron one, with metal blades cut from sheep dip drums. The machine was then hauled by horses to the main road and parked facing Temuka. The road was little more than rough grass and shingle with gorse hedges on each side. The hedge on the left was about 10 or 12 feet high. A few spectators helped push the plane after Pearse had spun the propeller. Mine was the last push, and off she went. There was no silencer, what a breeze! As he whizzed past me, my hat flew in the air, Warne Pearse later said. The plane taxied some distance then rose slowly and noisily into the air, at an estimated speed of 20mph. It then veered to the left after a 100 -150 yards and landed on top of a high hedge. Pearse was taken to Temuka for medical treatment, in a slightly dazed condition. Everyone agrees the date of the flight was March 31, but memories differ over the year. Many say it was 1903, and some are sure it was 1902. Nearly all those who witnessed the flight are sure it was before any news of the Wrights flight reached them. Pearse made no claim to being the first to fly, even saying the Americans, the Wright brothers, were the first to achieve extended and controlled flight. But who is to definecontrolled? All Pearse wished to take credit for was being the first to use ailerons, a pneumatic tyred tricycle under carriage, nose wheel steering, and direct transmission to the propeller. One of his neighbours, John Casey, later made a sworn declaration to the Geraldine County Council, in 1967, that in about March 1903 Pearse flew twice around the perimeter of his farm before landing again on top of a hedge. About 30 people witnessed the flight. In 1902, Pearse patented a new style of bamboo framed bicycle whose pedals moved up and down instead of moving in a circle, and he equipped this bike with four speed gears. He also invented two sound recording devices. One was a type of gramophone on which he could record music and play it back loudly enough to be audible a quarter of a mile away. His last effort was to build a multi purpose vertical take off craft, which could act as a plane, helicopter or road vehicle, thinking it might be useful in anti submarine warfare.
He died in Christchurch in 1953, aged 74 unknown, unrecognised and friendless.
Innovator: A formal studio portrait of a young Richard Pearse in 1902. Regardless of the uncertainty over the date of his first brief flight and the debate over what constitutes controlled flight, his ideas about ailerons, under-carriages and engine design were revolutionary. Sadly, Pearse's achievements went unrecognised in his lifetime.
PHOTO: SOUTH CANTERBURY MUSEUM P4963
March 12 2004. Jim Anderton
We pride ourselves on an attitude of believing we can tackle anything - "we can do that". We are far from the rest of the world and comparatively few in number. Although that has its disadvantages some times, it has some special advantages as well. Lord Rutherford, said, "we in New Zealand don't have much money, so we have to think." New Zealanders like to try things out. We have had to learn a skill of being resourceful. We are culturally innovators. We are also incredibly creative.
Dick ARNST (1883- 1953) cycling. buried at Timaru. brother
Sir Douglas Copland KBE, C.M.G. 1894-1971
Douglas Berry Copland was born on 24 February 1894 at Otaio, between Timaru and Waimate in the Canterbury Plains of the South Island, New Zealand. He was the thirteenth of sixteen children born to Alexander and Annie Morton, nee Loudon, both Scottish-born Presbyterians. Copland. They were pioneer farmers who grew wheat, raised sheep and bred horses. From 1899 to 1906 he attended Esk Valley Primary School and spent the next six years at the Waimate District High School. Upon graduation, Copland tried to enlist in the New Zealand Expeditionary Force, and subsequently in the reserve, but was rejected as medically unfit because of a lesion in the heart valve. Greatly unsettled, he spent the summer of 1915-16 as a compiler at the Census and Statistics Office in Wellington before becoming a mathematics master (1916-17) at Christchurch Boys' High School and a graduate research assistant in economics (1917) at Canterbury College. In addition, in 1915-17 he lectured in economics for the Workers' Educational Association, both in Wellington and at Christchurch. By the time he left New Zealand in 1917 he studied teaching at the Christchurch Teachers' College, and gained Bachelor of Arts 1915, and Master of Arts degrees at Canterbury College. MA 1916 1st class Hons. in economics. In addition, he tutored for the Workers' Educational Association and worked as a Compiler in the Census and Statistics Office of the Department of Internal Affairs. Copland's love of teaching and fascination with economics stems from these years - in particular from his work on his father's wheat farm and the research for his M.A. thesis, 'The progress and importance of wheat production in New Zealand'. From 1917 Copland pioneered the development of the economics profession in Australia. Was professor at the University of Tasmanian from 1920 - 1924 and professor of commerce at the Melbourne University for 15 years. He began his work as a Government adviser in 1931. He was knighted in 1933. 1946 First vice chancellor of the Australian National University in Canberra. High Commissioner for Australia in Canada (1953 to 1956). Sir Douglas Copland was elected president of the UN Economic and Social Council March 29 1955. Became principal of the Australian Administrative Staff College in Melbourne when it was founded in 1956. He retired in 1959 but continued to write on economic matters. speech Died at age 77 from pneumonia, Sept. 27 1971.
He was the organiser of the programme that took Australia out of the depression.
He lost a brother in WWI.
COPLAND, ROBERT DAVIE
Rank: Rifleman, New Zealand Rifle Brigade, 2nd Bn. 3rd. Service No: 24/1254
Age: 21 Date of Death: 19/09/1916
Son of Alexander and Annie Morton Copland, of "Rosslyn," King St., Timaru, New Zealand.
Grave/Memorial Reference: I. A. 6. Quarry Cemetery, Montauban
Timaru Herald April 1993 DEATH:
COPLAND. On April 9th, at Brookfield Street, St Andrews, George, infant son of Alexander and Annie Morton Copland, aged 6 weeks.
"Bob" Ruby Robert FITZSIMMONS 1862-1917
William HALL-JONES Liberal Prime Minister 21 June 1906 - 6 August 1906.
Mary Margaret Kelly b. 15 Sept. 1886 at Timaru. Third of eight children of Irish-born parents Jeremiah Kelly, labourer, and his wife Deborah, nee O'Connor.
Norman KIRK 1923-1974
Born in Waimate on January 6th 1923, the son of a cabinet maker. The family moved to Christchurch in search of work when Norman was five. He was of working class origins. His first job was cleaning guttering at 77 cents a week. As a boy he joined the state-run railways as a cleaner before earning his fireman's ticket. A self-taught man. He worked as a stationary engine driver on mining sites in various parts of NZ. The hardships of the depression committed him early to Labour philosophies. Mr Kirk became a member of the Labour Party at age 20, New Zealand's youngest mayor in 1953 at the age of 30, a Member of Parliament at age 34, President of his Party at age 40, and the youngest Leader of the Opposition two years later, and Prime Minister in 1972, and served in that post until his death in 1974. Prince Charles representing the Queen, attended the funeral at St. Paul's Cathedral, Wellington on Wednesday 4 Sept. Mr Kirk had died on Saturday after 20 months on office. His body lay in state in Parliament in Wellington and in Christchurch at the town hall. He was buried, 5 Sept. 1974, close to the graves of his parents. The simple ceremony was delayed when the RNZAF Hercules, carrying his body was unable to land because of low cloud. The cortege finally travelled by road from Christchurch. While he was PM he opposed the French nuclear tests in the Pacific and he banned all visiting sports teams from South Africa. He was a big man, unwell for some years, died suddenly from a heart seizure at the Island Bay's Home of Compassionon on Saturday August 31st 1974, less than two years after becoming Prime Minister. A man with impressive qualities of leadership. The Labour Party, unprepared, made finance minister Bill Rowling his successor. Wallace Rowling's rival was Rob Muldoon. "Big Norm" was a hit song by Ebony in January 1974.
He married Ruth Miller in 1941and they had three sons and two daughters. Dame Ruth Kirk, 77, died 20th April 2000 in Christchurch after a long battle with cancer and was buried beside her husband Friday 24 April at Waimate. About 180 people paid their last respects at a service in the St Peter's Anglican Church, Upper Riccarton. The church, consecrated in 1858, was Dame Ruth's parish church. She was raised in the King County, NZ. Dame Ruth was born Lucy Ruth Miller in Taumarunui on April 28, 1922, the youngest child of Margaret Miller, a teacher, and George Miller, the postmaster. She met and married Norman Kirk in Auckland in 1943, moving to Canterbury in the late 1940s and settled in Kaiapoi. In 1975 she was made Dame Commander, Order of the British Empire, and received the Queen's Silver Jubilee Medal in 1977.
A NAME THAT STILL LIVES ON 30 September 2006
Timaru Herald By Margaret Mather
Norman Eric Kirk was born in Mrs Turner's maternity home at the end of Parsonage Road, Waimate, on January 6, 1923. His father Norman Kirk, born in Gore, was of Scottish origins and his mother Vera Janet Jury of Cornish descent. The family had strong Salvation Army beliefs and often attended three church services on a Sunday. His father was a cabinet maker but worked at odd jobs including cowman/gardener at the Waimate hospital. This was the Depression years, and when the job ended work was hard to find in the Waimate area so the family shifted to Christchurch. Norman Kirk became a foundation pupil at Linwood Avenue Primary School. Times were still hard and at age 12 he left school with his proficiency certificate and a lifelong passion for reading. His first job was with a firm of roof painters, cleaning out gutters, scaring his wrists for life. By correspondence he gained his stationary steam and river engineers tickets. At the age of 16 he was working at Frankton Junction as an engineer cleaner, the Second World War had begun but he was declared unfit for services because of a thyroid condition. In 1943, in Auckland, he married Ruth Miller, daughter of the Paeroa postmaster. Money was scarce and with a young family the decision was made to move to Kaiapoi, buying a section for 65 ($130). Here he set about digging a 70 foot well to source water so he could make the concrete blocks for his house. Norm Kirk joined the Labour Party in 1943 and in 1953 was invited to run for mayor of Kaiapoi on a Labour ticket. Winning the election made him the youngest mayor in New Zealand at just 30 years old. Kaiapoi was to receive new footpaths, a sewerage system, better roads, pensioner housing and a new rates system. Standing unopposed in the 1956 elections, his organisational and leadership ability was noticed in Wellington and saw him standing for Parliament in 1954. He lost, but was elected MP for Lyttelton in 1957. His maiden parliamentary speech was about New Zealand's place in the world, being an advocate of greater self-reliance for New Zealand. He was elected president of the Labour Party in 1963 and leader in 1965 after only seven years in Parliament. Labour under Norm Kirk's leadership lost the 1966 and 1969 elections. The next three years were spent in rebuilding the party and union movements and in 1972 Labour won with a 23 seat majority. Norman Kirk, at just 50 years, was Prime Minister of the third Labour Government. He excelled in international affairs and had a broad, sweeping vision but was narrowly suspicious of his colleagues. He became a significant international figure but the domestic economy was heading for oil shocks and the start of inflation. The Kirk Government established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China, stopped visas for a racially selected South African rugby team, urged the French to cease nuclear testing in the Pacific and sent a New Zealand frigate into the test area in protest. The early months of 1974 were hectic with the Commonwealth Games in Christchurch attended by royalty and heads-of-state, inflation causing industrial unrest, abortion and homosexual law reform causing divisive factions. A heart scare and dysentery contracted while in New Delhi had been hidden from the public but surfaced when varicose vein surgery in April resulted in blood clots and heart complications. Attending the May Labour Party conference, delegates were shocked to see a gaunt Prime Minister walking with the aid of a stick. On June 10 he was given a medical clearance to resume full duties but his health never returned to full strength. August 28 saw him admitted to the Home of Compassion Hospital in Island Bay for a complete rest as ordered by his doctors. August 29 a bulletin was issued saying the Prime Minister had a comfortable night with no reference to his condition. On August 31 the country was shocked to hear of Mr Kirk's death. Norman Kirk was laid to rest in the Waimate cemetery 32 years ago on September 6, 1974. A state funeral was held in Wellington Cathedral, next day a service in the Christchurch town hall. An RNZAF Hercules aircraft with the casket and two Friendships carrying the official parties was to fly to Timaru airport. The funeral procession would then drive to Waimate for the burial service at 3.15pm. A thick, misty drizzle was hanging over the whole area like a shroud of sorrow, that preventing the three planes from landing at Timaru. They were diverted back to Christchurch where a fleet of 15 cars were assembled to drive everyone the 126 miles in approx two-and-a-half hours.
Margaret Hayward recorded in her diary: "It was an undignified, distressing race against time because by law no burials can take place after sundown". A crowd of about 4000 people were waiting in the wet at the cemetery to pay their last respects and welcome him back to the area he loved. Guards of honour, a Maori challenge and singing, a Pacific Island Tapa cloth placed at the front of the grave alongside a mass of floral tributes were all part of the ecumenical service in tribute to him. The Kirk name is still evident in Waimate today, the Kirk Memorial Swimming Pool opened in 1978, a scholarship established at Waimate High School in 1997, business and farming activities, also a street name. Waimate Museum frequently gets asked for information on Norman Kirk and is keen to add to their archival records. If you have anything you can add to the collection the museum would be most appreciative. Photographs, etc, can be copied and originals returned. Waimate Museum is situated at 28 Shearman Street and is open from 1.30pm to 4.30pm Monday to Friday and 2pm to 4pm Sunday. For further information phone 03 689-7832.
Jack Lovelock 1910-1949
James McKENZIE 1820 -1858
Heroes get remembered but legends never die!
Mckenzie, born in Ross-Shire Scotland had emigrated to Australia and drifted like so many others of his class to NZ. He fancied that the difference between the price for sheep on the Rhodes' run and the value of them in the Mataura district of Otago would afford good remuneration for him. New Zealand's most famous sheep stealer had a sturdy bullock that carried his sack of oatmeal, his horn of whiskey, and other stores. Mackenzie County and Pass are named after him even though it is spelt differently. His faithful collie dog Friday drove approximately one thousand sheep towards Burkes Pass in 1855 from Levels Station. McKenzie was apprehended at the Mackenzie Pass by J.H.C. Sidebottom an overseer for the Rhodes Brothers at Levels Station. Friday lived the rest of his years at Levels Station. Details of the Mckenzie story, Son of the Mist, can be found in O.A. Gillespie's book South Canterbury A Record of Settlement.
Beattie, Herries (1881-1972) Mackenzie of the Mackenzie Country : pioneer, explorer, sheeplifter : story of a remarkable man Dunedin, NZ: Otago Daily Times and Witness Newspapers, 1946 113pp Index.
Samuel Butler wrote in 1860 "He is a man of great physical strength, and no uncommon character; many stories are told about him, and his fame will be lasting. He was taken and escaped more than once, and finally was pardoned by the Governor, on condition of his leaving New Zealand. His boldness and his skill had won him sympathy and admiration, so that I believe the pardon was rather a popular act than otherwise".
A man ahead of his time. May 5th, 2008 - New Zealand's Colin Murdoch, inventor of the disposable syringe, which has potentially saved millions of lives over the last half century by stopping cross infection, has died. He was 79. Murdoch died in his home town Timaru after a long battle with cancer, his family said Monday. As a pharmaceutical and veterinary chemist, he patented 46 inventions including the tranquillizer dart gun for big game animals, the childproof bottle cap and the silent burglar alarm, as well as the disposable syringe, the Timaru Herald reported.
RHODES Brothers Their 1856 timber, thatched roof cottage still stands at Levels Station, near Timaru.
Sir Edward William STAFFORD 1820-1901
Represented Timaru from 1869 to 1877 at the General Assembly. Stafford St. the main street in Timaru was named in his honour. He had arrived in New Zealand on the 'Aurora' the first emigrant vessel into Port Nicholson, now Wellington, 22 January 1840. Reference: White Wings Vol. II by Sir Henry Brett
Death: April 18 1857 at Auckland, Emily, wife of Edward W. STAFFORD, Esq., of Mayne, County Louth, Colonial Secretary of New Zealand, died aged 29. There were no children of this marriage. On 5 December 1859 Stafford married Mary Bartley at Auckland. They were to have three daughters and three sons. Mary Stafford died in 1899.
Three times Premier of New Zealand and twice Superintendent of the Province of Nelson (Nelson's first Superintendent), was born in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1820 and reached New Zealand soon after the Wairau affray of 1843. At 37 he became New Zealand's first and youngest-ever Prime Minister, holding office from 1856-1861, 1865-1869 and in 1872. In 1846 he married [Emily Charlotte Sidney Wakefield, niece of E.G. Wakefield] the daughter of Colonel [William] Wakefield and was thus brought into close contact with the New Zealand Company. His high character and sterling abilities rendered him the most suitable candidate in the Province for the office of Superintendent and he was twice chosen for the high position. The institution of a System of Education, afterwards extensively imitated in the other provinces and the establishment of Roads Boards, were among his most important achievements. In 1856 he gave up provincial for colonial politics, and accepted the offer of Premier in New Zealand's first Government. He displayed marked political ability, and great energy in his conduct of public affairs; and in 1859 he visited England to arrange for the Panama Steam Service. On his return, in 1861, his Government was defeated, chiefly on account of it's native policy. Mr Stafford was Premier again from 1865 to 1869 and again in 1872. Some years afterwards he went to England to spend the evening of his life in retirement in that country where he died on 1st February 1901, and was buried in Kensal Green, London. A wreath was sent by the Government of New Zealand, on behalf of the Colony with the inscription; "New Zealand to her Statesman" Cyclopedia of New Zealand - Nelson, Marlborough, Westland 1906.
Registrar General's Marriage Index 1840
Edward Stafford: New Zealand's First Statesman by Edmund Bohan 432pp. Hazard Press.
"His vision of an independent,
democratic and racially tolerant nation set him apart from almost all his
Timaru Herald Saturday 10th August 1867
"Stafford, spare that tree,
Touch not a single bow;
In youth it shelter'd me.
And I'll protect it now.
Sir Keith Lindsay Stewart 1896-1972 b. in Timaru
Rodolph and Harry Wigley - One family on the road to tourism
TIMARU's FESTIVAL OF ROSES Every year, end of November
Poetry Awards 2009
2010 - Owen Marshall - Poetry Awards Judge - report
First place - IN MY UNCLE'S FOOTSTEPS by Ruth Arnison, Dunedin
Second place - WANAKA HOLIDAY by Ruth Arnison, Dunedin
Third place - Global Warning by Jan Hill, Geraldine
Round Hill on Richmond owned by Don Waters. 25 May 1961 the Tekapo Ski Club was officially formed. History. Bruce Scott, David Allan, Dick Wardell, Don Prouting, John Dampier Crosley and Brian Waters, then took on the massive task of discovering potential fields using such criteria as snow conditions, access, safety from avalanche dangers and, most importantly, run holder cooperation to make a final decision. Bruce recalls there were four finalists. Cass basin on Godley Peaks, Tekapo Saddle on Mt Hay, Coal Creek basin on Lillybank and Round Hill on Richmond. And the best option? Round Hill.
What to see and do
slideshow. search Temuka Waimate
Stafford St. 1990s
Fairlie facebook photos
81 photos from around Geraldine Feb. 2007
Timaru District plan - Geraldine
South Canterbury Events
Waitaki Hydro-electric Project photograph album taken between May 1929 and February 1933.
Power station 75 years images
Four Peaks - Te Moana flickr
The roads less travelled
Timaru Hall of Fame Colin Murdoch
South Canterbury Chamber of Commerce history
1930s Photos Off Site - Burkes Pass Hotel, Fairlie, Caroline Bay
Queen's Chain Rights Press Release
Caroline Bay Association
A Visit to Peel Forest
Mackenzie in winter
Black stilt or Kaki are the world's rarest wading bird, once widespread in NZ they are now essentially restricted to the Mackenzie Basin
The Bloody Good Race Mt Cook to Sherwood Downs over the Mickleburn Saddle to the Rangitata to Arundel to Mt Hutt to New Brighton.
Clayton Station Andrew
Kurrow, Waimate, Haka cycle map more maps
Cycle - Skins Alpine - Mt Somers to Tekapo 2010 Day 3. Stage 4: Rangitata Gorge to Sherwood Hall - 80km, 2300m ascent There's a massive climb to start the day with a steep descent. Head off into the remote Phantom River region. There's a gradual 25km climb before some undulations and fast descents. The riding will be unforgiving and rough.
Flickr 2009 Timaru photos
Mt Cook St. flora
1976 Higher Trails
Old tractors - Fairlie & Geraldine
Allan Guard of Fairlie at the wheel of a Massey Ferguson tractor at Scott Base Antarctica, 1968.
2009: Te Kahui Kaupeka Conservation Park in the Two Thumb Range includes 11 tracts of public land, including a large segment of Mesopotamia Station. It will be host to a number of outdoor activities, including guided walks, horse-trekking, cross-country skiing and mountain biking.
Pass To Pub Mountain Bike Ride - A 36Km mountain bike ride from Burkes Pass (at 545m above sea level) in the Mackenzie Country through valleys, across streams do to the Albury Tavern (at 238m above sea level). It is on shingle roads, farm tracks and 100% rideable 4WD trails. A family ride that provides a challenge for all levels of rider from absolute novice to elite riders. Early March.
The Timaru Herald | Wednesday, 28 February 2007
"With settled weather predicted for the ride we think the number of riders could be right up there with last year's record of 850". "It can be used as a starter event for anyone who wants to give mountain biking a go and many family groups compete." The trail consists of farm tracks and shingle roads and runs from Burkes Pass to Albury Tavern. The ride appeals to a wide range of ages and abilities because if you ride it at a leisurely pace it is not physically demanding. "However if you want to go flat out it does require a good level of technical skill." The race crosses 10 farms, several rivers and is mostly down hill with an altitude decrease of 200 metres. The support from the local community and run holders has been fantastic. "The event is a great fundraiser with a share of the proceeds from the event going to the Albury Home and School Association and Burkes Pass Heritage Trust". Entry forms are available at bike shops in Timaru. However late entries will be accepted on the day at the start. Registration opens at Burkes Pass from 8.30am to 10am, with the race starting at Rollesby Valley Road at 10.30am. The prize giving will be held after the last rider has finished around 3.00pm. A bus was available to take one rider per car from the finish back to Burkes Pass to collect their vehicle. The Pass to Pub is one of the oldest mountain bike events in the region and was first run in 1986. The Albury Home and School Assn will have a BBQ operating, as their fundraiser, and the Hospitality at the Albury Tavern is the best.
Queen's Chain plan to be axed
The Press | Saturday, 24 Feb. 2007
Plans for a "Queen's Chain" across New Zealand's back country are set to be dumped by the Cabinet in a major Government concession to farmers. The Press understands a consultation panel headed by South Canterbury farmer John Acland has recommended Rural Affairs Minister Damien O'Connor ditch plans to force open large tracts of the countryside to public access through legislation. Instead, the panel has recommended the Government reaffirm the private land rights of farmers and set up a travelling agency with the power to hear district access issues and negotiate solutions with farmers and the public. In return, farmers are understood to have agreed to allow walkers the right to use the large number of paper roads that criss-cross the country. Where these are unsuitable, the agency could hold talks on a land swap in return for the deletion of the paper road. Better signposting of rights-of-way and areas where the public can walk or drive are recommended. The panel's findings follow a year of public hearings and two years of controversy over plans by the Government to create a 5m-wide strip of public access, dubbed a New Zealand version of the British Queen's Chain, across private land to access publicly owned waterways and the coastline. The proposal was announced in late 2004 but caused protests from farmers, who threatened to blockade their land and sue the Government for compensation for the removal of their property rights. "It's an acknowledgement that, overall, farmers have been very generous over the provision of access to private land. They just want the courtesy of being asked," Carter said. The panel's findings have been hailed as a victory by farmers. The attempt by Sutton to ram through legislation had caused a massive rural backlash that had made access issues worse, Mason said. Federated Farmers president Charlie Pedersen said farmers were delighted with the panel's work. While he had not seen the recommendations, he understood farmers would retain the right to say who could walk across their land.
Senior Stories Annett Prattley - Temuka
Baker and Grant - Geraldine &Temuka
Black / Searle Timaru
Black's of Waimate and Timaru
Brown - Zealandia 1870 , Blue Jacket 1867
Cross, Preddy, Necklen and Thomas families Neville's website
Griffin Hamilton Rae
Hamilton and Litster families of Fairlie
Hawkins, Walter - Waimate
Hoare - Kerrytown
Loomes - Fairlie
MacKay Wm & Margaret Smith m. 1902
Charles James Morris was employed by Morrison's, Geraldine between 1898 and 1903
Shaw -Geraldine Flat settler
Stanley - Temuka
Stevens - William & Mary at Orari arrived on the "Ballockmyle" in 1874
Growing up in South Canterbury
The Baker family from Coach Road, Orari
- Thornycroft Farm
- Winchester Woolscour
- Ben Ohau
Biographical register of Christ's College, 1505-1905, and of the earlier. By John Peile
Le Cren, Douglas Russell Jaumard: son of John Henry; born at Timaru, 12 April 1879. School: Lancing College, 1879-809; Christ's College, CHCH, 1880-7; Otago university, 1887-9; Admitted pensioner under Cartmell 29 April, 1889. B.A. 1892. medical Student at the London Hospital. Returned to NZ. Present address: Craighead, Timaru
Was Your Ancestor a Firefighter in New Zealand?
All Fire Brigades in New Zealand (some of which are over 125 years old) hold attendance records of members who were in the Brigade. Members who have completed 25 years service with good attendance were issued with a Silver Medal, and every two years, a Bar to go with the medal. After 25 years, these were replaced with a 25 year Gold Star with a Gold Bar being added each year after that. The United Fire Brigade Association issued the medals. And to date over 5,350 medals have been issued. If you have a relative who has been a firefighter, then contact the Brigade in which he/she served in the first instance. If your relative was a member then they should have details like time of service, etc. The Ferrymead Hall of Flame also holds a lot of Brigades' histories, and may also be able to assist.
Temple Forest photos
Real ENZ Look under Canterbury, rural. 22 Nov. 2002: Huge increase in the value of South Canterbury rural properties over the last three years with an 89% increase in land value and a 53% in capital value.
From Fairlie the Clayton Rd will take past the Sherwood Downs-Ashwick Flat War Memorial and Lake Opuha. Fox Peak ski field is located on the run 'Lilydale' on the left just before Clayton Station. (Lilydale was named in honour of Lily Anne Henrietta (Worthington) Bray who was born at Waitohi in 1883. Her mother, a school teacher, taught Richard Pearse). Continue on over the Meikleburn Saddle, 2,200ft, and Lochaber. Over the range. North Opuha hut
According to Robin Startup's New Zealand Post Offices (1977 edition) page 172
Sherwood Downs, in Timaru Postal District, a farming area 19km north of Fairlie, Post Office 18 December 1912 to 25 April 1917 then Telephone Office 25 May 1917 to 31 May 1930.
Additions, corrections, comments welcome!
A visit to your friends and relatives in Timaru combined with some local sightseeing may be just as psychologically rewarding as a 10-day trip to Europe." Several studies showed regular holidays were good for our health. They can help us be happier, sleep better, and stop the onset of depression.
South CanterburyGenWeb Project