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Crystal Brook (John Elliot's farm about 1910)

The Land for Settlements Act of 1892 promoted the division of large estates into smaller farms.  In 1899 the Government purchased the large sheep run 'Waikakahi Estate' of 47,830 acres, all freehold, for about �322,835 for closer settlement.  A property survey was carried out and the sections were balloted on 29th and 30th March 1899. 122 farms and eleven grazing runs were on a on a lease-in-perpetuity from the government for a certain yearly rent.  The county population and businesses in the service township of Waimate grew thanks to the subdivision of the estate which was located 39 miles couth of Timaru.  The village of Morven, eight miles south of Waimate, and 31 miles south of Timaru was established when the run was broken up to supply farmers needs.  Twelve sections in Morven were offered for ballot.  Only land-less men and women could take part in the ballot and all the land whether sections, farms or small grazing runs had to be drawn by ballot. In 1948 the population of Morven was 601.

Henry Demarset Lloyd was invited to be one of the scrutineers wrote 'The ballot was to take place in the little town of Waimate... and when I arrived I found the hotels, boarding-houses and private residences filled to the eaves with people who had come to submit their applications to the scrutiny of the Land Board... Even the railway carriages were turned into sleeping rooms..., later 'The dingy Court room, lighted by a dull, flaring lamp, was filled to the doors with patient, eager faces.  It was a plain lot of working farmers and their wives, and of young men and young women... There were also villagers, farm labourers, workers on railway, constables, shepherds and domestic servants.... One applicant had come from Queensland; there were some from the North Island; one from Canada.'  Thomas Noel Brodrick (1855-1931) the surveyor helped to interview some of the applicants, some had problems filling out the application forms due to their writing ability.

Allan McLean born about 1822 in Scotland, the son of a farmer-fisherman, came to Australia with his widowed mother and brothers John and Robertson.  In 1852 they took up a run near Christchurch.  In 1866 the McLean's acquired Waikakahi about ten miles south of Waimate.  The run on the Waihao flat was bounded on the south by the Waitaki River, the west by the Elephant Hill estate, on the north by the Waihao River and on the east by the coast. A homestead, the Valley, was built about 1874 and still stands today surrounded by fine and well kept grounds.  Allan McLean's sheep returns: 1879 - 1880 - 1881  49,383 - 46,510 - 45,200 respectively.  A self-made man from grim beginnings McLean's hospitality and response to loyalty were well known in Canterbury.  He gave sides of mutton weekly to his Maori shearers and any bereaved families. During the depression in the 1870s a sixteen bed bunkhouse was set aside on the Waikakahi Estate for swaggers and they were always given an evening meal and a morning meal before they moved on. 

The Star Friday 20 June 1879
Inquest - Oamaru - McGregor page 3
The inquest on the body of John McGregor, who was found drowned in the
harbour yesterday, resulted in an open verdict. The body was recognised by Mr A. McLean, late manager of the Waikakahi Station ------------ deceased has intimated his intention of returning to the Old Country and was probably on his way to go to Dunedin on the night of May 27th, when he stumbled on the wharf and drowned.

Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, Oct. 22nd, 1898 page 5 Local News

The Waikakahi estate, consisting of 44,000 acres has been purchased by the Government under the land for Settlements Act for �6 15s per acre.

North Otago Times, 22 December 1898, Page 3

The harvest prospects and the cutting up of the Waikakahi Estate are throwing a little vigor into business in Waimate. Several new business premises are going up, and there are no dwelling houses vacant. In connection with the Waikakahi Estate it should be mentioned that Mr Cox, the photographer of Waimate, has been out taking views wherewith to illustrate the Government schedule book of area to be let. There are six surveyors on the estate, and it is expected that their work will be completed about the end of February.

Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, Nov. 5, 1898 page 1 Public Meeting.

The weather on Monday evening was very wet and cold, but nevertheless a good number of people turned up to the meeting held in the Liberty Hall.
    His Worship the mayor (Mr R. Nicol) was voted to the chair, and explained the object of the meeting, which was to have the ballot for sections of the Waikakahi Estate held in Waimate.
    Mr Petit thought it was the right of the Waimate people to have the ballot held in their town, as the estate to be cut up was within a few miles of it, and much closer than Timaru or Oamaru. He would move, "That in the opinion of this meeting, Waimate, owning to its proximity to the Waikakahi Estate, the accommodation people are prepared to place at the disposal of intending applicants and the Crown Land Commissioners, should be the place at which the ballot for sections in the above estate might with great convenience to all concerned be conducted."
    Mr. S. Boreham said "In an estate like Waikakahi every person would have to be on the spot to sign and to show that they were capable of farming the land, and it would be a great saving to Waimate people of they had not to go away. He could guarantee that there would be 140 applicants. If these had to go to Christchurch they could see the amount of money that would be taken out of town." Mr. George Manchester seconded the motion, which was put to the meeting and carried unanimously.
    Proposed by Mr Boreham, seconded by Mr Kennard, "That this meeting expresses its thanks to the Hon. John M'Kenzie, for the practical and beneficial land laws introduced by him, and its confidence in the hon. gentleman as an impartial administrator of land laws, which, in the opinion of this meeting are a boon and a blessing to the colony." The motioned was carried.

Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, April 1, 1899

The drawing for sections in the Waikakahi Estate took place on Wednesday at the courthouse.  On Tuesday the Canterbury Land Board, Mr. Sydney Weetman presiding, sat to examine the applicants and after sitting late at night had to finish on Wednesday morning.  There were 803 applicants, making 8242 applications.  The Board struck out 85, and 31 did not appear, so that 686 went to the ballot.  At 2.30 the ballot commenced, the courthouse being crowded.  Seats for the ladies were provided inside the court.  Mr. Sydney Weetman  presided, the members of the Canterbury Board and Mr. March, Superintendent of Settlements, being present.  Before the ballot commenced Mr. McLachlan (ex M.R. R.) rose and said he would like to address the public. Mr. Weetman objected, but Mr. McLachlan insisted and said he objected to people who had up to �1500 in property being admitted to the ballot while others with much less were not, also against applicants who had not been examined being allowed to ballot.

The business of the afternoon then proceeded. This took a good deal of time, the staff not being large enough for the work. As each lot was drawn the name of the applicant, as well as his or her wife or husband, was struck out of all other sections. Mr. Lloyd of Chicago, who is travelling through New Zealand to enquire into the system of land settlement in vogue here, was elected drawer until he had to leave for the train, when Mr. J.B. Grave (Oamaru) took his place.  The balloting continued until 12 o'clock on Wednesday night, commenced at 9 a.m. on Thursday morning and finally finished at 1.30 p.m. Thursday afternoon. Following are the successful applicants, with area and address:-

Block Section  Acres Rent/acre  No. of Applicants Successful Applicant
II 	 1	261	9s 3d	27	John Moynihan
II	 2	174	 9 0	25	Maurice Lawlor junr. 	Geraldine
II	 3	265	 8 0	11	William Dixon		Waituna
II	 4	348	 8 0	19	Munro Don		Oamaru
II	 5	250	 8 6	 5	G.T. Stewart		Banks Peninsula
II	 6	253	 8 0 	 7	D. Flynn		Oamaru
II	 7	264	 9 3	 9	John Elliot		Waikari
II	 9	196	 4 0	28	Wm. Forrester		Little River
III	 3	186	14 0	11	Michael Crowe		Waihao
III	 4	148	14 0	18	George Sides		Christchurch
III	 5	221	 9 0	10	Adam Borwick		Waihao
III	 6	250	 9 0	11	Mary Dixon		Waituna
III	 7	239	 8 0	 3	W. Wreathal		Methven
III	 8	278	 7 9	 5	Benj. Corry		Alford Forest
III	 9	166	 9 0	42	John O'Connor		Waimate
III	10	164	 9 6	38	Fanny Aitken		Kurow
IV	 1	104	20 0 	30	Kathie Burns		Doyleston
IV	 2	101	19 0	29	Robert Kerr		Ashburton
IV	 3	 94	12 0	22	Murdoch Bruce		Cheviot
IV	 4	 82	19 0	13	Thomas Scales		Woodend
IV	 5	 19	18 0 	10	Eliza Wellwood	
IV	 6	 88	17 4�	10	Elizabeth M. Wellwoood	Christchurch 
IV	 7	121	18 0 	11	Jas. Bruce, jur.	Cheviot
IV	 8	109	18 0	15	Jas. McIlwraith		Cust
IV	 9	103	16 0	41	Mrgt. Fitzharris	Waihao
IV	10	104	16 0	45	George Spriggs		East Eyreton
IV	11	110	18 0 	46	A.F. Forsyth		Coutt's Island
IV	12	 99	19 0	42	Christina Smith		Waimate
IV	13	101	19 0	26	Arthur Dale		Kingsdown
IV	14	110	19 0	40	David Lundy		Kaiapoi
IV	15	110	16 0	56	Thomas Huston		Tinwald
IV	16	112	16 0	49	James Arnold		Rangiora
V	 1	470	10 6	 5	Joseph Allan		Kaiapoi
V	 2	208	10 0	 3	Kate Gorman		Springfield
V	 3	250	10 6 	 1	R.B. Hurst		Waimate
V	 4	324	 6 6	 3	Arnold G. Field		Chertsey
V	 5	197	 8 6	12	W. Simpson, jr.		
V	 6	255	 7 0	13	Thos. McGinnis		Templeton
V	 9	634	 6 3	10	John W. Cowan		Southbridge
V	10	667	 7 8	(not applied for)	
V	11	462	 6 3	(not applied for)
V	12	341	 8 3 	16	Jessie M. McCallum	Amberley
VI	 1	228	 9 0	 3	John Matheson		Waimate
VI	 2	233	 8 9	 2	Alex Shepherd		Pleasant Point
VI	 3	173	 8 6 	13	Jas. McCrossan		Southbridge
VI	 4	240	 8 0	 3	James Dalziel		Amberley
VI	 5	814	 5 9 	 6	Jane Tyndall		Woodend
VI	 6	225	 7 6	11	William Ray		Owaka
VI	 7	230	 8 0	 2	Thomas Currie		Waitohi Flat
VI	 9	541	 7 0	(not applied for)
VI	13	345	 6 9	(not applied for)
VI	14	492	 7 0	(not applied for)
VI	15	325	 5 6	 1	Neil Menzies		Amberley
VII	 1	143	14 0	40	Robert Smith		Longbeach
VII	 2	157	14 0	31	John Netting		Longbeach
VII	 3	197	14 0	19	Ellen Allnutt		Ashburton
VII	 4	172	14 0	34	Margt. Kennedy		Papanui	
VII	 5	193	14 0	26	Richard Reece		Longbeach
VII	 6	 76	14 0	51	Jas. Carston, jr.	Leeston
VII	 7	253	 8 3	 1	Eliz. Meehan		Oamaru
VII	 8	238	12 0	120	G.E. Marshall		Woodend
VII	 9	46	14 0	66	John M. Taggart		Waimate
VII	10	196	14 0	26	R. McAlister		Ashburton
VII	11	243	13 6	32	A.W. Barnett		Leeston
VII	12	181	12 6	 6	Patrick Condon		Kurow
VII	13	211	12 6 	15	John Slattery		Bangor
VII	14	195	 8 6	45	John Morrison		Pleasant Point
VII	15	266	12 0	12	Emily R. Hart		Winchester
VII	16	257	12 6	 4	Maggie Hay		Lincoln
VII	17	244	12 6	 2	Alex Brown		Orari
VII	18	240	 8 6	 5	G. Robbins, senr.	Ashburton
VII	19	138	 9 0	 9	Geo. H. Curtis		Albury
VII	20	241	 1 0	 8	John F. Cooney		Gebbie's Valley
18179		 79	13 6	76	John Breslin		Little River	
IX	 1	200	 8 6	55	Jas. Coskerie		Little River
IX	 2	640	12 10	 1	A. McLean		Waikakahi
IX	 3	280	8 10�	 6	Alfred Judge		Oamaru
IX	 4	478	 9 0	22	Mary C. Dixon		Ashley
X	 2	389	 6 9	 2	G. Dabineit		Owaka
X	 3	317	 8 6	 4	John A. Raine		Kurow
X	 4	372	 6 9	 3	Eliza Corrigan		Lincoln
X	 5	290	 8 6	12	John W. Gray		Papakaio
X	 6	419	 7 0	 5	John Blakie		Papakaio
X	 7	296	11 9	40	James Smillie		Awamoko
X	 9	 49	 5 9	 9	James Major		Fernside
X	10	 48	 5 6	10	J. Humphries		Waitaki North
X	11	 49	 5 0	11	Janet Blackwood		Waitaki North
X	12	 45	 4 9	 6	Patrick Higgins		Christchurch
XI	 1	110	4 61	 9	Mary Quigley		Awamoko	
XI	 2	278	 9 0	130	Jos. Callaghan		Lincoln
XI	 3	221	 9 0	165	Joseph Reed		Ohoka
XI	 4	400	 5 0	23	Jas. Cochrane		Waimate
XI	 5	480	 4 9	(not applied for)
XI	 6	496	 4 9	 1	Jas. Carlson		Oamaru
22267		262	 4 9	19	Wm. Williams		Glenavy
XIII	 1	 50	 3 6	15	John Brooker		Fairlie
XIII	 2	 50	 3 6	17	Hy. Davidson		Amberley
XIII	 3	 50	 3 6	17	Eliza Hyland		Glenavy
XIII	 4	 50	 3 6	17	Thomas Coulter		Christchurch
XIII	 5	 50	 3 6	13	Jennings Coates		Kaiapoi
XIII	 6	 50	 3 6	12	Chas. Morrison		Waitaki
XIII	 7	 50	 3 6	16	Jas. M. Cowan		Glenavy
XIII	 8	 50	 3 6	16	Albert Henry		Glenavy
XIII	 9	 50	 3 6	(not applied for)
XIII	10	417	 4 9	(not applied for)
XIV	 1	421	 4 6	(not applied for)
XIV	 2	420	 4 6	 5	A.J. McLean		Waikari
22268		191	 4 9	46	George Cleal		Makikihi
XV	 1	610	 4 3	11	Arch. M'Culloch		Maheno
XV	 2	574	 3 9	 1	J.H. Andrews		Hook
XV	 3	525	 3 9	 3	Margt Corcoran		Ardgowan
XV	 4	581	 3 9	(not applied for)

VIII	 3	357	 6 7�	 4	Harold Fisher		Dunedin
VIII	 5	561	 4 6	 1	Wm. Simpson		Papakaio
XI	 9	 54	 9 0	25	John Smart		Redcliff
XI	 4	 56	 9 0	25	Michael Burke		Waihao
XI	 5	 54	 9 0	23	Thos. Horne		Papakaio

VII	  1	1153	 4 7�	13	C.D. Fleming		Oamaru
VII	  2	1197	 3 4�	 8	Jno. M'Gregor		Kakanui
VII	  3	1425	 3 4�	 2	T. Hamilton		
IX	  1	1110	 4 9	20	Janet Henderson		Culverden
IX	  2	1034	 2 10�	40	Caroline Sturrock	Cheviot
VIII	  4	 795	 3 9		J.G. Manchester
XII	 12	 420	 6 0	 4	W. Nish			Methven
X	 13	 199			Robert Kain		Springston
X	 14	 452	 5		John Lovett		Woodend
XI	 1	 331	 5 0 		Michael Elliot		Amberley
XI	 2	 299	 9 0	 4	Isabella Geddes		Waimate

VI	8	916	 4 0	28	Hector M'Bean		Dunedin
VI	10	1099	 4 3	22	Ed. Samuels		Christchurch
VI	11	719	 3 9	34	Ada Westmacot		Christchurch
VI	16	641	 8 0	32	John Ford		Christchurch
X	 8	1200	 6 7�	 8	A. Dalgleish		Oamaru
The following were successful:-
Block 8		section  4	J.G. Manchester
		section  9	Annie Raven	Kurow
		section 11	John Breslin	
		section 14	Sarah Puckeridge
		section 16	David Gilmour
		section 17	Robert Simpson
Block 7		section  1	W.H. Dennison
		section  2	Sidney Head
		section  5	Charles Williams
		section  6	J. J. Slattery
		section  8	D. Duncan
Block 8		section  3	Dorothy Slattery

The Board examined a few applicants for vacant sections to be balloted for 
on a subsequent date at Christchurch. Below successful applicants:

Block Sec. Acres Rent/acre Successful Applicant
 V   10 667 7s 8d  James Scott		 1899
 V   11 462 6 3    James Breen		 1899
VI    9 541 7 0    Thomas Dyer		 1899
VI   13 345 6 9    John O'Hara and William Beer 1899
VI   14 492 7 0	   George Duke		 1899
XI    5 480 4 9	   Richard Fraser	 1899
XIII  9  50 3 6	   Thomas Hanley	 1899	
XIII 10 417 4 9	   Hugh Wallace		 1899
XIV   1 421 4 6    Michael Henstridge	 1899
XV    4 581 3 9    William Harrison	 1899

Waimate Advertiser, April 8, 1899

The Waikakahi Sale
The tented opulence of a gold-rush township or of a county fair springing to life like a mushroom, in a single night, is the nearest approachable simile one can get (says the Oamaru Mail) for the unique appearance presented by the Waikakahi station homestead and its precincts on Wednesday. The catering was in the hands of Mr. Bee and this department had been thoroughly and methodically organised.  His army comprised 20 waiters, 4 cooks, 8 washers-up and 4 barmen.  To feed the multitude, as a first installment, there had been provided 3000lb of meat, 500 loaves of bread, unaccountable potatoes, and apple pies, tins of biscuits, sundries innumerable, 10 hogshead of beer, 40 gallons of whiskey, 20 dozen each of lemonade and ginger beer in quarts - not forgetting the insidious soda, and supplies of wines and other spirits.  Everything was free, Mr. M'Lean  having spared no expense to provide for the comfort of visitors whom he wished to consider as his personnel guests.

All the sheep sold well, especially good prime ewes and wethers.  The four-year old ewes went cheap, but they fetched a fair average, sustained throughout the lot.  The Lincoln rams sold cheaply, there being a large range of price.  The half-bred rams elicited the keenest competition, but here the price ranged from 35s for the pick of 20 down to 6s 6d,  The lambs sold splendidly, the bulk of the fat going to the dealers for freezing purposes.  The sheep realised a total of about 35,000.

On Thursday, the horses were sold the draughts bringing from 75 downwards, the hacks and carriage horses from 1 10s to 27. 

Waimate Advertiser, July 1, 1899 Morven      page 3

What with the houses already built and the number on the road to completion, Morven presents quite a thriving appearance. The railway station is crowded with timber and Oamaru stone for the various structures, and the mails arriving are growing in bulk. Mr Meehan's store seems to be just the one business to fill a long felt want, judging by the amount of purchasers calling all day long. The new store or the store proper, has just been commenced, and promises to be a credit to the places. I noticed several sections near the township, in fact town allotments, are not yet taken on. The two blacksmiths, who appear to be doing a fair business.

Waimate Advertiser, August 10, 1899     page 3

A return showing the terms of purchase of the Waikakahi Estate was laid upon the table of the House on Friday. The Waikakahi was purchased at �6.15s per acre, and its land tax value was 6 11s 8d. The terms of purchase were Cash - 73,090, debentures at 3� per cent per annum 250,000.

Timaru Herald, Wednesday 4 October 1899
A daughter of Mr Corrie, one of the new settlers on Waikakahi estate, met with a nasty accident yesterday morning, by running into a newly-erected barb-wire fence. The little girl, aged six years, was badly hurt and was brought into Waimate for treatment.

Waimate Advertiser,    January 11 1900     page 2
Mr Allan McLean's home in Manchester St, Christchurch is finished.

Waimate Advertiser  Thursday, May 31, 1900 page 2
Waikakahi Settler's Association
A meeting of the above will be held at Mr C.D. Fleming's Homestead on Tuesday, June 12th at 7.30 p.m.
J. Kennedy, Secretary.

Wanganui Herald, 18 July 1904, Page 7
Timaru, July 18 A Waikakahi settler named James Cochrane was drowned in the Waihao River when returning home from Waimate on Saturday night. The body has been recovered.

Otago Witness 17 May 1905, Page 35
On Furlough. Mr James Carlson, a Waikakahi settler, has left for an extended trip to his native land. All good wishes go with him from here for an enjoyable trip and safe return.

Star 14 October 1907, Page 3
The body of the man Fleming, a settler who was drowned some time ago, was found in the Waitaki River. Fleming, who was a settler on the Waikakahi Estate, disappeared some weeks ago, and his riderless horse was found on the banks of the Waitaki. He was a son of the late Mr Neil Fleming, of Oamaru.


Many had an enjoyable time at the re-enactment of the ballot in April 1999. A play with descendants and locals participating dressed in period costume and speaking words that ballot winners used in 1899 as transcribed in National Archives records was a highlight of the event. 

Waikakahi Centennial 1999

Following the breakup of the Waikakahi Estate in 1899, and the influx into the surrounding countryside of some 140 families, schools and churches were an immediate necessity. A Presbyterian Parish was formed, and an Anglican Parish extending from Morven to the "Downs" in 1902.  The Waihao Valley Presbyterian Church, the forerunner of which was an art gallery of the 'South Seas Exhibition' (Dunedin) of 1889. That building was purchased by John Douglas of Pleasant Valley and Waihao Downs to serve as a place of worship in his grounds for his employees. John Douglas moved his chapel across the road and offered it to the Anglican congregation until they built a Church of their own. That building, the "old" Presbyterian Church, was thus shared by Anglican Clergy and Community. A Vicarage was built in 1906 at the Downs. The present Presbyterian Church and Hall was built on the same site as the Art Gallery and opened in 1965, the Anglican Ladies catering for the occasion.  

E. Wheeler & Son photograph
A tree nursery in the foreground. The station had thousands of pine, gums and ornamental trees. In the 1890s the station, 48,000 acres, had 50,000 sheep. There was 400 miles of fencing and 3,000 to 4,000 acres sown for cropping each year and grew 2,500 acres to 3,0000 acres of turnips yearly.


Wilson, John M.  'Waikakahi, Fulfilling the Promise' Caxton Press, 1999, hardback, 354pp, $60 (plus $6 postage/ packaging); available from P. D. Hughes, Morven, No 10 RD, Waimate, or Family Bookshop, Queen Street, Waimate. [Mr Wilson was editor for nineteen years of Historic Places, the national magazine of the Historic Places Trust] 

The Press Friday, 05 October 2001 Reviewed by Ken Fraser. Wilson writes that although the "slant" was influential on how New Zealanders came to interpret their own past, it did not fit the facts to describe McLean as a "land baron". Also the Waikakahi settlers did not think of themselves as "yeomanry". Nor was nationalism of all land in the minds of the Liberal Government.

McLean, a canny Scot and self-made man from grim beginnings. Under McLean's management, the estate coasted through the economic depression of the late 19th century, sending up to 20,000 crossbred and frozen carcasses a year to the London market. McLean placed great store in contractors, and the estate participated in a wheat boom as well as running upwards of 60,000 sheep at a time, whereas 1000 was a large flock for any of those who later settled on Waikakahi.

Influential in coaxing McLean to sell the property was the Minister of Lands, John McKenzie, a fellow Scot. Not surprisingly, many of McLean's lieutenants were Scots, and, unlike elsewhere in Canterbury, it was people with Scottish and Irish links who outnumbered people of English heritage when Waikakahi was subdivided. Surviving relics of the estate subdivision include McLean's The Valley homestead built from kauri in the 1870s. The town of Waimate in 1899 was already able to provide the settlers with all the services they needed. And small townships such as Morven and Glenavy became practically self-sufficient in shops. Morven for decades had two schools � State and Catholic (partner of a bigger parish school in nearby Waimate borough) � in harmonious co-existence.

Harmony in Maori-pakeha relations is another theme in this handsome book, with the author giving due weight to the significant Maori contribution. It is also a story of mixed farming, drought, floods, bridge-building, departures to 20th-century world wars, hall and domain committees, sports clubs, upturns and downturns � then major irrigation, pronounced swing to dairying, and diversification into deer and alpaca � but always a sense of pride and strong community bonds.

Getting on the Land  07 July 2001
John Wilson's new in-depth history does justice to the Waikakahi centennial project and the generations who have lived on typical New Zealand family farms in an appealing district, writes Ken Fraser. 

Land-hungry new settlers in the 1890s were recognised by the Liberal Government when it bought one of South Canterbury's biggest and most productive freehold properties, the Waikakahi Estate, for subdivision. Scores of young families were settled on farms by ballot on a mostly lease-in-perpetuity basis, laying the platform for a rich tapestry of communities between the Waitaki and Waihao rivers and from the sea to the Stone Wall. Instead of people saying they are from Waikakahi, they, in historian John Wilson's words, are more inclined to say "Morven, Glenavy, or Ikawai, or even more specifically from Broad Gully, Dog Kennel Road, McCullochs Bridge, and so on". Before the breaking up of the 20,000-hectare Waikakahi Estate of Allan McLean into 142 farms and 13 small grazing runs balloted for in 1899, much of the Waimate district had been landlocked by the estate and Michael Studholme's Te Waimate Station.

Chicago journalist Henry Demarest Lloyd, an advocate of American land reform, was a scrutineer (by invitation) at the ballot in the Waimate Courthouse. He had been sent to New Zealand by the United States Government to study the Liberal Government's policy of land settlement. Lloyd back home described "New Zealand in the act of driving out the land barons, creating a happy, prosperous yeomanry, and moving slowly to its ultimate goal � the nationalisation of every foot of land".

Vance, William, 1901-1981 Land of Promise : The Story of Waikakahi. [1957]. Printed by Timaru Herald, 191 p. :Illustrated with b&w photographs and a large folding map at rear.  Dust wrapper. Limited edition. [ca.,1962]. A study of a South Canterbury farming district, between the Waitaki and Waihao rivers, with illustrations, drawings and map.

Gillespie, O. A. South Canterbury A Record of Settlement

The Waikakahi Settlement, Canterbury, New Zealand : particulars, terms and conditions of disposal and occupation of 47,320 acres, open on Monday, 20th March, 1899.  Wellington: John Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1899. Aotearoa NZ Centre located at the Central City Library Christchurch. Research Room  "Issued under the instructions of the Hon. McKenzie, Minister of lands."  75 p. [20] leaves of plates(2 folded) : ill., col. map ; With map, from survey made by T.N. Brodrick, J. Langmuir, G.H. McClure, L.O. Mathias, W.D. McCurdie, and W.T. Neill, and illustrations from photos by Ferrier, Timaru".  "Issued under the instructions of the Hon. John McKenzie, minister of lands" New Zealand. Dept. of Lands and Survey. 22 cm 

New Zealand. Dept. of Lands. Particulars, terms and conditions of disposal and occupation [of land in Canterbury]. 
Wellington : Govt. Printer, 1897-1904. Christchurch Cities Library NZ Research Room 14 v. in 1 : illus., maps  Horsley Down - Kapuatche - Kohika - Lyndon no. 2 - Pareora no. 2 - Pawaho - Punaroa - Raincliff - Rapuwai - Rosewill - Tamai - Tarawahi - Wa iapi and Rakitairi - Waikakahi.

Website : An extract from the publication, "Kapua - The Years Between" produced by J G Stace.

North Otago Times, 15 January 1900, Page 2
The Timaru Herald of Saturday says : "It was reported at Waimate on Thursday that a Boer flag was hoisted on a conspicuous position on the lately out up Waikakahi estate. Some persons whose sense of loyalty was disturbed made inquiry, when it was found that one of the new settlers, as an intimation that he had some friends as visitors, had hoisted an old patchwork quilt without any idea of flag display."

Waikakahi Settlement: Three publications including 'The Waikakahi Settlement, Canterbury, New Zealand, 20th March, 1899. Govt. Printer, Wellington 1899. 8vo. 75p. Illus, maps (incl fold). Illustrations from photos by Ferrier.
'Waikakahi Clearing Sale April 5, 1899', (Lyttelton Times), 1899,

_____________  _____________ 

More land was taken in South Canterbury for closer settlement than in any other part of New Zealand starting with a part of Pareora, the first in 1893.

Land for Settlements Act. 1912
Lands for Selection 
Renewable Lease. 

Notice is herby given that the undermentioned Lands are open for Selection on Renewable Lease and applications will be received at the District Lands Office Christchurch and Local Land Office, Timaru , on ______. Applicants will have to appear before the Local Land Board. Preference will be given to landless applicants and the decision of the Land Board as to which of the applicants are landless shall be final and conclusive.

Instructions to Applicants.

Applications may be made at the District Lands Office, Christchurch, and the Local Lands Office, Timaru. 
    Applications must be made on proper forms, to be obtained at the District Lands Office, Christchurch, and the Local Lands Office, Timaru, and the principal post-offices in the locality of the lands to be opened. 
    The sections are described for the general information of intending selectors, who are recommended, nevertheless, to make a personnel inspection, as the Department is not responsible for the absolute accuracy of any description.
    In order that the Land Board may be in a position to judge the general ability of applicants to properly work and cultivate the land and fulfill the conditions of the lease, each applicant is required to produce for inspection when examined by the board documentary evidence of his financial position such as bank pass-books, certificates or letters of credit from managers of banks, financial institutions or merchant firms or from private persons or parents undertaking to give financial assistance.  Persons undertaking to assist financially should state to what extent they are prepared to do so, and supply guarantee of their own financial position.
    Deposits sent by post must be by post-office, draft or cheque marked by the bank on which it is drawn as "Correct for twenty-one days," in favour of the Receiver of Land Reserves.  They will be returned in case of non-success.  Post-office orders should be made payable to the Receiver of Land Revenue at the money-order office nearest to where the applicant lives. A separate deposit must be sent by each applicant. Bank notes, gold, or coins should not be forwarded by post. 
    Possession will be given on the __________.
    Copies of the Regulations issued under the Land for Settlements Act may be had on application to any Land Office throughout the Dominion, or they will be forwarded by post to any address.

    The attention of applicants is drawn to sections 101 and 102 of the Land Act 1908 which provide that any person making a false declaration  of obtaining land not exclusively for his own use or benefit or any one aiding or abetting in such a breach of the Land Act, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment in addition to the forfeiture of any land obtain by false declaration. 

T.N. Brodrick
Commissioner of Crown Lands


Draught: A strong trace horse capable of pulling heavy loads.

Ginger beer: an effervescing beverage made by fermenting ginger, cream of tartar, sugar, yeast and water.

Hack: A horse for ordinary riding.

Hogshead: 2 Barrels, or 63 gal. = 1 Hogshead hhd.

Pounds shillings and pence:
12d=ls  (12 pence equals one shilling (1/-) 
20s=l  (20 shillings (20/-) equals one pound)

Sir John McKenzie: (1838-1901) the son of a poor Scottish crofter had emigrated to NZ in 1860 and became a farmer. He was Minister of Lands and Agriculture from 1891 until 1900, a popular man who fought for things he believed in especially the rights of the small farmer and disliked absentee landowner and pushed for polices regarding 'lease in perpetuity' for land occupiers or the right to purchase on generous terms. Buried at Palmerston Cemetery.

Swagger: A tramp, a man travelling on foot carrying a bundle wrapped in a blanket (a bluey) over the shoulder. A swag.

Waikakahi: means freshwater mussels. In the 1880s the spring fed Waikakahi stream flowed over a clean, stony bottom and abounded in freshwater mussels. Today agricultural pastureland predominates and the once numerous wetlands have been drained. Sheep farming was the predominant land use but over the past fifty years dairy farming virtually occupies the entire Waikakahi flats. 

GLUYAS, William
Farmer, Morven. Mr Gluyas was born at Helston, Cornwall, England, in 1851. He attended school in his native place and was brought up to the saddlery trade by his father; three of his brothers also following the same calling. Mr. Gluyas worked at his trade in the midland counties, and afterwards at Penzance, where he was employed by Mr. Ash, proprietor of a leading establishment. In 1877 Mr Gluyas came to Lyttelton by the ship "Cardigan Castle," and settled in Christchurch, where he worked for five years for Mr. Howell and others. In 1887 he removed to Longbeach station, as saddler for Mr. John Grigg, with whom other members of the family also found employment. Shortly after the opening of the Waikakahi estate Mr. Gluyas acquired 193 acres under lease in perpetuity, and his sons at once settled on the property; the family have resided on the farm since 1901 and considerable improvements have been effected. As a volunteer Mr. Gluyas served in the 7th Duke of Cornwall corps for three years. One of his sons was saddler-sergeant to the 8th New Zealand Contingent in South Africa and returned, unscathed, to settle at Otanaki in the North Island. Mr Gluyas was married in 1875, to a daughter of Mr. Henry James Richards of Prussia Cove, Mount's Bay, Cornwall, and has three sons and one daughter. Ref.:  "The Cyclopedia of New Zealand" page 1091 Canterbury volume.

TREZISE, Joseph Henry
Born in Helston, Cornwall 1859 son of John , (Farmer) and May. Arrived Lyttelton on ship "Northern Monarch" in 1878 and settled at Makikihi 1900. Farmed Waikakahi Block V11,section 2. 1900-1919. died 22 Sept 1945 aged 86 buried at Waimate.

South Canterbury NZGenWeb

Photographs courtesy of Jude Elliot. Page created Oct. 2001. Updated Dec. 2014.