The Land for Settlements Act of 1892 promoted the division of large estates into smaller farms. In 1899 the Government purchased the large sheep run 'Waikakahi Estate' of 47,830 acres, all freehold, for about �322,835 for closer settlement. A property survey was carried out and the sections were balloted on 29th and 30th March 1899. 122 farms and eleven grazing runs were on a on a lease-in-perpetuity from the government for a certain yearly rent. The county population and businesses in the service township of Waimate grew thanks to the subdivision of the estate which was located 39 miles couth of Timaru. The village of Morven, eight miles south of Waimate, and 31 miles south of Timaru was established when the run was broken up to supply farmers needs. Twelve sections in Morven were offered for ballot. Only land-less men and women could take part in the ballot and all the land whether sections, farms or small grazing runs had to be drawn by ballot. In 1948 the population of Morven was 601.
Henry Demarset Lloyd was invited to be one of the scrutineers wrote 'The ballot was to take place in the little town of Waimate... and when I arrived I found the hotels, boarding-houses and private residences filled to the eaves with people who had come to submit their applications to the scrutiny of the Land Board... Even the railway carriages were turned into sleeping rooms..., later 'The dingy Court room, lighted by a dull, flaring lamp, was filled to the doors with patient, eager faces. It was a plain lot of working farmers and their wives, and of young men and young women... There were also villagers, farm labourers, workers on railway, constables, shepherds and domestic servants.... One applicant had come from Queensland; there were some from the North Island; one from Canada.' Thomas Noel Brodrick (1855-1931) the surveyor helped to interview some of the applicants, some had problems filling out the application forms due to their writing ability.
Allan McLean born about 1822 in Scotland, the son of a farmer-fisherman, came to Australia with his widowed mother and brothers John and Robertson. In 1852 they took up a run near Christchurch. In 1866 the McLean's acquired Waikakahi about ten miles south of Waimate. The run on the Waihao flat was bounded on the south by the Waitaki River, the west by the Elephant Hill estate, on the north by the Waihao River and on the east by the coast. A homestead, �the Valley�, was built about 1874 and still stands today surrounded by fine and well kept grounds. Allan McLean's sheep returns: 1879 - 1880 - 1881 49,383 - 46,510 - 45,200 respectively. A self-made man from grim beginnings McLean's hospitality and response to loyalty were well known in Canterbury. He gave sides of mutton weekly to his Maori shearers and any bereaved families. During the depression in the 1870s a sixteen bed bunkhouse was set aside on the Waikakahi Estate for swaggers and they were always given an evening meal and a morning meal before they moved on.
The Star Friday 20 June 1879
Inquest - Oamaru - McGregor page 3
The inquest on the body of John McGregor, who was found drowned in the
harbour yesterday, resulted in an open verdict. The body was recognised by Mr A. McLean, late manager of the Waikakahi Station ------------ deceased has intimated his intention of returning to the Old Country and was probably on his way to go to Dunedin on the night of May 27th, when he stumbled on the wharf and drowned.
Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, Oct. 22nd, 1898 page 5 Local News
The Waikakahi estate, consisting of 44,000 acres has been purchased by the Government under the land for Settlements Act for �6 15s per acre.
North Otago Times, 22 December 1898, Page 3
The harvest prospects and the cutting up of the Waikakahi Estate are throwing a little vigor into business in Waimate. Several new business premises are going up, and there are no dwelling houses vacant. In connection with the Waikakahi Estate it should be mentioned that Mr Cox, the photographer of Waimate, has been out taking views wherewith to illustrate the Government schedule book of area to be let. There are six surveyors on the estate, and it is expected that their work will be completed about the end of February.
Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, Nov. 5, 1898 page 1 Public Meeting.
The weather on Monday evening was very wet and cold, but nevertheless a good number of people turned up to the meeting held in the Liberty Hall.
His Worship the mayor (Mr R. Nicol) was voted to the chair, and explained the object of the meeting, which was to have the ballot for sections of the Waikakahi Estate held in Waimate.
Mr Petit thought it was the right of the Waimate people to have the ballot held in their town, as the estate to be cut up was within a few miles of it, and much closer than Timaru or Oamaru. He would move, "That in the opinion of this meeting, Waimate, owning to its proximity to the Waikakahi Estate, the accommodation people are prepared to place at the disposal of intending applicants and the Crown Land Commissioners, should be the place at which the ballot for sections in the above estate might with great convenience to all concerned be conducted."
Mr. S. Boreham said "In an estate like Waikakahi every person would have to be on the spot to sign and to show that they were capable of farming the land, and it would be a great saving to Waimate people of they had not to go away. He could guarantee that there would be 140 applicants. If these had to go to Christchurch they could see the amount of money that would be taken out of town." Mr. George Manchester seconded the motion, which was put to the meeting and carried unanimously.
Proposed by Mr Boreham, seconded by Mr Kennard, "That this meeting expresses its thanks to the Hon. John M'Kenzie, for the practical and beneficial land laws introduced by him, and its confidence in the hon. gentleman as an impartial administrator of land laws, which, in the opinion of this meeting are a boon and a blessing to the colony." The motioned was carried.
Waimate Advertiser, Saturday, April 1, 1899
The drawing for sections in the Waikakahi Estate took place on Wednesday at the courthouse. On Tuesday the Canterbury Land Board, Mr. Sydney Weetman presiding, sat to examine the applicants and after sitting late at night had to finish on Wednesday morning. There were 803 applicants, making 8242 applications. The Board struck out 85, and 31 did not appear, so that 686 went to the ballot. At 2.30 the ballot commenced, the courthouse being crowded. Seats for the ladies were provided inside the court. Mr. Sydney Weetman presided, the members of the Canterbury Board and Mr. March, Superintendent of Settlements, being present. Before the ballot commenced Mr. McLachlan (ex M.R. R.) rose and said he would like to address the public. Mr. Weetman objected, but Mr. McLachlan insisted and said he objected to people who had up to �1500 in property being admitted to the ballot while others with much less were not, also against applicants who had not been examined being allowed to ballot.
The business of the afternoon then proceeded. This took a good deal of time, the staff not being large enough for the work. As each lot was drawn the name of the applicant, as well as his or her wife or husband, was struck out of all other sections. Mr. Lloyd of Chicago, who is travelling through New Zealand to enquire into the system of land settlement in vogue here, was elected drawer until he had to leave for the train, when Mr. J.B. Grave (Oamaru) took his place. The balloting continued until 12 o'clock on Wednesday night, commenced at 9 a.m. on Thursday morning and finally finished at 1.30 p.m. Thursday afternoon. Following are the successful applicants, with area and address:-
Block Section Acres Rent/acre No. of Applicants Successful Applicant II 1 261 9s 3d 27 John Moynihan II 2 174 9 0 25 Maurice Lawlor junr. Geraldine II 3 265 8 0 11 William Dixon Waituna II 4 348 8 0 19 Munro Don Oamaru II 5 250 8 6 5 G.T. Stewart Banks Peninsula II 6 253 8 0 7 D. Flynn Oamaru II 7 264 9 3 9 John Elliot Waikari II 9 196 4 0 28 Wm. Forrester Little River III 3 186 14 0 11 Michael Crowe Waihao III 4 148 14 0 18 George Sides Christchurch III 5 221 9 0 10 Adam Borwick Waihao III 6 250 9 0 11 Mary Dixon Waituna III 7 239 8 0 3 W. Wreathal Methven III 8 278 7 9 5 Benj. Corry Alford Forest III 9 166 9 0 42 John O'Connor Waimate III 10 164 9 6 38 Fanny Aitken Kurow IV 1 104 20 0 30 Kathie Burns Doyleston IV 2 101 19 0 29 Robert Kerr Ashburton IV 3 94 12 0 22 Murdoch Bruce Cheviot IV 4 82 19 0 13 Thomas Scales Woodend IV 5 19 18 0 10 Eliza Wellwood IV 6 88 17 4� 10 Elizabeth M. Wellwoood Christchurch IV 7 121 18 0 11 Jas. Bruce, jur. Cheviot IV 8 109 18 0 15 Jas. McIlwraith Cust IV 9 103 16 0 41 Mrgt. Fitzharris Waihao IV 10 104 16 0 45 George Spriggs East Eyreton IV 11 110 18 0 46 A.F. Forsyth Coutt's Island IV 12 99 19 0 42 Christina Smith Waimate IV 13 101 19 0 26 Arthur Dale Kingsdown IV 14 110 19 0 40 David Lundy Kaiapoi IV 15 110 16 0 56 Thomas Huston Tinwald IV 16 112 16 0 49 James Arnold Rangiora V 1 470 10 6 5 Joseph Allan Kaiapoi V 2 208 10 0 3 Kate Gorman Springfield V 3 250 10 6 1 R.B. Hurst Waimate V 4 324 6 6 3 Arnold G. Field Chertsey V 5 197 8 6 12 W. Simpson, jr. V 6 255 7 0 13 Thos. McGinnis Templeton V 9 634 6 3 10 John W. Cowan Southbridge V 10 667 7 8 (not applied for) V 11 462 6 3 (not applied for) V 12 341 8 3 16 Jessie M. McCallum Amberley VI 1 228 9 0 3 John Matheson Waimate VI 2 233 8 9 2 Alex Shepherd Pleasant Point VI 3 173 8 6 13 Jas. McCrossan Southbridge VI 4 240 8 0 3 James Dalziel Amberley VI 5 814 5 9 6 Jane Tyndall Woodend VI 6 225 7 6 11 William Ray Owaka VI 7 230 8 0 2 Thomas Currie Waitohi Flat VI 9 541 7 0 (not applied for) VI 13 345 6 9 (not applied for) VI 14 492 7 0 (not applied for) VI 15 325 5 6 1 Neil Menzies Amberley VII 1 143 14 0 40 Robert Smith Longbeach VII 2 157 14 0 31 John Netting Longbeach VII 3 197 14 0 19 Ellen Allnutt Ashburton VII 4 172 14 0 34 Margt. Kennedy Papanui VII 5 193 14 0 26 Richard Reece Longbeach VII 6 76 14 0 51 Jas. Carston, jr. Leeston VII 7 253 8 3 1 Eliz. Meehan Oamaru VII 8 238 12 0 120 G.E. Marshall Woodend VII 9 46 14 0 66 John M. Taggart Waimate VII 10 196 14 0 26 R. McAlister Ashburton VII 11 243 13 6 32 A.W. Barnett Leeston VII 12 181 12 6 6 Patrick Condon Kurow VII 13 211 12 6 15 John Slattery Bangor VII 14 195 8 6 45 John Morrison Pleasant Point VII 15 266 12 0 12 Emily R. Hart Winchester VII 16 257 12 6 4 Maggie Hay Lincoln VII 17 244 12 6 2 Alex Brown Orari VII 18 240 8 6 5 G. Robbins, senr. Ashburton VII 19 138 9 0 9 Geo. H. Curtis Albury VII 20 241 1 0 8 John F. Cooney Gebbie's Valley 18179 79 13 6 76 John Breslin Little River IX 1 200 8 6 55 Jas. Coskerie Little River IX 2 640 12 10 1 A. McLean Waikakahi IX 3 280 8 10� 6 Alfred Judge Oamaru IX 4 478 9 0 22 Mary C. Dixon Ashley X 2 389 6 9 2 G. Dabineit Owaka X 3 317 8 6 4 John A. Raine Kurow X 4 372 6 9 3 Eliza Corrigan Lincoln X 5 290 8 6 12 John W. Gray Papakaio X 6 419 7 0 5 John Blakie Papakaio X 7 296 11 9 40 James Smillie Awamoko X 9 49 5 9 9 James Major Fernside X 10 48 5 6 10 J. Humphries Waitaki North X 11 49 5 0 11 Janet Blackwood Waitaki North X 12 45 4 9 6 Patrick Higgins Christchurch XI 1 110 4 61 9 Mary Quigley Awamoko XI 2 278 9 0 130 Jos. Callaghan Lincoln XI 3 221 9 0 165 Joseph Reed Ohoka XI 4 400 5 0 23 Jas. Cochrane Waimate XI 5 480 4 9 (not applied for) XI 6 496 4 9 1 Jas. Carlson Oamaru 22267 262 4 9 19 Wm. Williams Glenavy XIII 1 50 3 6 15 John Brooker Fairlie XIII 2 50 3 6 17 Hy. Davidson Amberley XIII 3 50 3 6 17 Eliza Hyland Glenavy XIII 4 50 3 6 17 Thomas Coulter Christchurch XIII 5 50 3 6 13 Jennings Coates Kaiapoi XIII 6 50 3 6 12 Chas. Morrison Waitaki XIII 7 50 3 6 16 Jas. M. Cowan Glenavy XIII 8 50 3 6 16 Albert Henry Glenavy XIII 9 50 3 6 (not applied for) XIII 10 417 4 9 (not applied for) XIV 1 421 4 6 (not applied for) XIV 2 420 4 6 5 A.J. McLean Waikari 22268 191 4 9 46 George Cleal Makikihi XV 1 610 4 3 11 Arch. M'Culloch Maheno XV 2 574 3 9 1 J.H. Andrews Hook XV 3 525 3 9 3 Margt Corcoran Ardgowan XV 4 581 3 9 (not applied for) ELEPHANT HILL SURVEY DISTRICT VIII 3 357 6 7� 4 Harold Fisher Dunedin VIII 5 561 4 6 1 Wm. Simpson Papakaio XI 9 54 9 0 25 John Smart Redcliff XI 4 56 9 0 25 Michael Burke Waihao XI 5 54 9 0 23 Thos. Horne Papakaio ELEPHANT HILL SURVEY DISTRICT VII 1 1153 4 7� 13 C.D. Fleming Oamaru VII 2 1197 3 4� 8 Jno. M'Gregor Kakanui VII 3 1425 3 4� 2 T. Hamilton IX 1 1110 4 9 20 Janet Henderson Culverden IX 2 1034 2 10� 40 Caroline Sturrock Cheviot VIII 4 795 3 9 J.G. Manchester XII 12 420 6 0 4 W. Nish Methven X 13 199 Robert Kain Springston X 14 452 5 John Lovett Woodend XI 1 331 5 0 Michael Elliot Amberley XI 2 299 9 0 4 Isabella Geddes Waimate Elephant Hill SURVEY DISTRICT VI 8 916 4 0 28 Hector M'Bean Dunedin VI 10 1099 4 3 22 Ed. Samuels Christchurch VI 11 719 3 9 34 Ada Westmacot Christchurch VI 16 641 8 0 32 John Ford Christchurch X 8 1200 6 7� 8 A. Dalgleish Oamaru
SMALL GRAZING RUNS
MORVEN TOWNSHIP The following were successful:- Block 8 section 4 J.G. Manchester section 9 Annie Raven Kurow section 11 John Breslin section 14 Sarah Puckeridge section 16 David Gilmour section 17 Robert Simpson Block 7 section 1 W.H. Dennison section 2 Sidney Head section 5 Charles Williams section 6 J. J. Slattery section 8 D. Duncan Block 8 section 3 Dorothy Slattery
The Board examined a few applicants for vacant sections to be balloted for
on a subsequent date at Christchurch. Below successful applicants:
Block Sec. Acres Rent/acre Successful Applicant V 10 667 7s 8d James Scott 1899 V 11 462 6 3 James Breen 1899 VI 9 541 7 0 Thomas Dyer 1899 VI 13 345 6 9 John O'Hara and William Beer 1899 VI 14 492 7 0 George Duke 1899 XI 5 480 4 9 Richard Fraser 1899 XIII 9 50 3 6 Thomas Hanley 1899 XIII 10 417 4 9 Hugh Wallace 1899 XIV 1 421 4 6 Michael Henstridge 1899 XV 4 581 3 9 William Harrison 1899
Waimate Advertiser, April 8, 1899
The Waikakahi Sale
The tented opulence of a gold-rush township or of a county fair springing to life like a mushroom, in a single night, is the nearest approachable simile one can get (says the Oamaru Mail) for the unique appearance presented by the Waikakahi station homestead and its precincts on Wednesday. The catering was in the hands of Mr. Bee and this department had been thoroughly and methodically organised. His army comprised 20 waiters, 4 cooks, 8 washers-up and 4 barmen. To feed the multitude, as a first installment, there had been provided 3000lb of meat, 500 loaves of bread, unaccountable potatoes, and apple pies, tins of biscuits, sundries innumerable, 10 hogshead of beer, 40 gallons of whiskey, 20 dozen each of lemonade and ginger beer in quarts - not forgetting the insidious soda, and supplies of wines and other spirits. Everything was free, Mr. M'Lean having spared no expense to provide for the comfort of visitors whom he wished to consider as his personnel guests.
All the sheep sold well, especially good prime ewes and wethers. The four-year old ewes went cheap, but they fetched a fair average, sustained throughout the lot. The Lincoln rams sold cheaply, there being a large range of price. The half-bred rams elicited the keenest competition, but here the price ranged from 35s for the pick of 20 down to 6s 6d, The lambs sold splendidly, the bulk of the fat going to the dealers for freezing purposes. The sheep realised a total of about �35,000.
On Thursday, the horses were sold the draughts bringing from �75 downwards, the hacks and carriage horses from �1 10s to �27.
Waimate Advertiser, July 1, 1899 Morven page 3
What with the houses already built and the number on the road to completion, Morven presents quite a thriving appearance. The railway station is crowded with timber and Oamaru stone for the various structures, and the mails arriving are growing in bulk. Mr Meehan's store seems to be just the one business to fill a long felt want, judging by the amount of purchasers calling all day long. The new store or the store proper, has just been commenced, and promises to be a credit to the places. I noticed several sections near the township, in fact town allotments, are not yet taken on. The two blacksmiths, who appear to be doing a fair business.
Waimate Advertiser, August 10, 1899 page 3
A return showing the terms of purchase of the Waikakahi Estate was laid upon the table of the House on Friday. The Waikakahi was purchased at �6.15s per acre, and its land tax value was �6 11s 8d. The terms of purchase were Cash - �73,090, debentures at 3� per cent per annum �250,000.
Timaru Herald, Wednesday 4 October 1899
A daughter of Mr Corrie, one of the new settlers on Waikakahi estate, met with a nasty accident yesterday morning, by running into a newly-erected barb-wire fence. The little girl, aged six years, was badly hurt and was brought into Waimate for treatment.
Waimate Advertiser, January 11 1900 page 2
Mr Allan McLean's home in Manchester St, Christchurch is finished.
Waimate Advertiser Thursday, May 31, 1900 page 2
Waikakahi Settler's Association
A meeting of the above will be held at Mr C.D. Fleming's Homestead on Tuesday, June 12th at 7.30 p.m.
J. Kennedy, Secretary.
Wanganui Herald, 18 July 1904, Page 7
Timaru, July 18 A Waikakahi settler named James Cochrane was drowned in the Waihao River when returning home from Waimate on Saturday night. The body has been recovered.
Otago Witness 17 May 1905, Page 35
On Furlough. � Mr James Carlson, a Waikakahi settler, has left for an extended trip to his native land. All good wishes go with him from here for an enjoyable trip and safe return.
Star 14 October 1907, Page 3
The body of the man Fleming, a settler who was drowned some time ago, was found in the Waitaki River. Fleming, who was a settler on the Waikakahi Estate, disappeared some weeks ago, and his riderless horse was found on the banks of the Waitaki. He was a son of the late Mr Neil Fleming, of Oamaru.
Many had an enjoyable time at the re-enactment of the ballot in April 1999. A play with descendants and locals participating dressed in period costume and speaking words that ballot winners used in 1899 as transcribed in National Archives records was a highlight of the event.
Following the breakup of the Waikakahi Estate in 1899, and the influx into the surrounding countryside of some 140 families, schools and churches were an immediate necessity. A Presbyterian Parish was formed, and an Anglican Parish extending from Morven to the "Downs" in 1902. The Waihao Valley Presbyterian Church, the forerunner of which was an art gallery of the 'South Seas Exhibition' (Dunedin) of 1889. That building was purchased by John Douglas of Pleasant Valley and Waihao Downs to serve as a place of worship in his grounds for his employees. John Douglas moved his chapel across the road and offered it to the Anglican congregation until they built a Church of their own. That building, the "old" Presbyterian Church, was thus shared by Anglican Clergy and Community. A Vicarage was built in 1906 at the Downs. The present Presbyterian Church and Hall was built on the same site as the Art Gallery and opened in 1965, the Anglican Ladies catering for the occasion.
Wilson, John M. 'Waikakahi, Fulfilling the Promise' Caxton Press, 1999, hardback, 354pp, $60 (plus $6 postage/ packaging); available from P. D. Hughes, Morven, No 10 RD, Waimate, or Family Bookshop, Queen Street, Waimate. [Mr Wilson was editor for nineteen years of Historic Places, the national magazine of the Historic Places Trust]
The Press Friday, 05 October 2001 Reviewed by Ken Fraser. Wilson writes that although the "slant" was influential on how New Zealanders came to interpret their own past, it did not fit the facts to describe McLean as a "land baron". Also the Waikakahi settlers did not think of themselves as "yeomanry". Nor was nationalism of all land in the minds of the Liberal Government.
McLean, a canny Scot and self-made man from grim beginnings. Under McLean's management, the estate coasted through the economic depression of the late 19th century, sending up to 20,000 crossbred and frozen carcasses a year to the London market. McLean placed great store in contractors, and the estate participated in a wheat boom as well as running upwards of 60,000 sheep at a time, whereas 1000 was a large flock for any of those who later settled on Waikakahi.
Influential in coaxing McLean to sell the property was the Minister of Lands, John McKenzie, a fellow Scot. Not surprisingly, many of McLean's lieutenants were Scots, and, unlike elsewhere in Canterbury, it was people with Scottish and Irish links who outnumbered people of English heritage when Waikakahi was subdivided. Surviving relics of the estate subdivision include McLean's The Valley homestead built from kauri in the 1870s. The town of Waimate in 1899 was already able to provide the settlers with all the services they needed. And small townships such as Morven and Glenavy became practically self-sufficient in shops. Morven for decades had two schools � State and Catholic (partner of a bigger parish school in nearby Waimate borough) � in harmonious co-existence.
Harmony in Maori-pakeha relations is another theme in this handsome book, with the author giving due weight to the significant Maori contribution. It is also a story of mixed farming, drought, floods, bridge-building, departures to 20th-century world wars, hall and domain committees, sports clubs, upturns and downturns � then major irrigation, pronounced swing to dairying, and diversification into deer and alpaca � but always a sense of pride and strong community bonds.
Getting on the Land 07 July 2001
John Wilson's new in-depth history does justice to the Waikakahi centennial project and the generations who have lived on typical New Zealand family farms in an appealing district, writes Ken Fraser.
Land-hungry new settlers in the 1890s were recognised by the Liberal Government when it bought one of South Canterbury's biggest and most productive freehold properties, the Waikakahi Estate, for subdivision. Scores of young families were settled on farms by ballot on a mostly lease-in-perpetuity basis, laying the platform for a rich tapestry of communities between the Waitaki and Waihao rivers and from the sea to the Stone Wall. Instead of people saying they are from Waikakahi, they, in historian John Wilson's words, are more inclined to say "Morven, Glenavy, or Ikawai, or even more specifically from Broad Gully, Dog Kennel Road, McCullochs Bridge, and so on". Before the breaking up of the 20,000-hectare Waikakahi Estate of Allan McLean into 142 farms and 13 small grazing runs balloted for in 1899, much of the Waimate district had been landlocked by the estate and Michael Studholme's Te Waimate Station.
Chicago journalist Henry Demarest Lloyd, an advocate of American land reform, was a scrutineer (by invitation) at the ballot in the Waimate Courthouse. He had been sent to New Zealand by the United States Government to study the Liberal Government's policy of land settlement. Lloyd back home described "New Zealand in the act of driving out the land barons, creating a happy, prosperous yeomanry, and moving slowly to its ultimate goal � the nationalisation of every foot of land".
Vance, William, 1901-1981 Land of Promise : The Story of Waikakahi. . Printed by Timaru Herald, 191 p. :Illustrated with b&w photographs and a large folding map at rear. Dust wrapper. Limited edition. [ca.,1962]. A study of a South Canterbury farming district, between the Waitaki and Waihao rivers, with illustrations, drawings and map.
Gillespie, O. A. South Canterbury A Record of Settlement
The Waikakahi Settlement, Canterbury, New Zealand : particulars, terms and conditions of disposal and occupation of 47,320 acres, open on Monday, 20th March, 1899. Wellington: John Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1899. Aotearoa NZ Centre located at the Central City Library Christchurch. Research Room "Issued under the instructions of the Hon. McKenzie, Minister of lands." 75 p.  leaves of plates(2 folded) : ill., col. map ; With map, from survey made by T.N. Brodrick, J. Langmuir, G.H. McClure, L.O. Mathias, W.D. McCurdie, and W.T. Neill, and illustrations from photos by Ferrier, Timaru". "Issued under the instructions of the Hon. John McKenzie, minister of lands" New Zealand. Dept. of Lands and Survey. 22 cm
New Zealand. Dept. of Lands. Particulars, terms and conditions of disposal and occupation [of land in Canterbury].
Wellington : Govt. Printer, 1897-1904. Christchurch Cities Library NZ Research Room 14 v. in 1 : illus., maps Horsley Down - Kapuatche - Kohika - Lyndon no. 2 - Pareora no. 2 - Pawaho - Punaroa - Raincliff - Rapuwai - Rosewill - Tamai - Tarawahi - Wa iapi and Rakitairi - Waikakahi.
Website : An extract from the publication, "Kapua - The Years Between" produced by J G Stace.
North Otago Times, 15 January 1900, Page 2
The Timaru Herald of Saturday says : "It was reported at Waimate on Thursday that a Boer flag was hoisted on a conspicuous position on the lately out up Waikakahi estate. Some persons whose sense of loyalty was disturbed made inquiry, when it was found that one of the new settlers, as an intimation that he had some friends as visitors, had hoisted an old patchwork quilt without any idea of flag display."
Waikakahi Settlement: Three publications including 'The Waikakahi Settlement, Canterbury, New Zealand, 20th March, 1899. Govt. Printer, Wellington 1899. 8vo. 75p. Illus, maps (incl fold). Illustrations from photos by Ferrier.
'Waikakahi Clearing Sale April 5, 1899', (Lyttelton Times), 1899,
More land was taken in South Canterbury for closer settlement than in any other part of New Zealand starting with a part of Pareora, the first in 1893.
Land for Settlements Act. 1912
Lands for Selection
Notice is herby given that the undermentioned Lands are open for Selection on Renewable Lease and applications will be received at the District Lands Office Christchurch and Local Land Office, Timaru , on ______. Applicants will have to appear before the Local Land Board. Preference will be given to landless applicants and the decision of the Land Board as to which of the applicants are landless shall be final and conclusive.
Instructions to Applicants.
Applications may be made at the District Lands Office, Christchurch, and the Local Lands Office, Timaru.
Applications must be made on proper forms, to be obtained at the District Lands Office, Christchurch, and the Local Lands Office, Timaru, and the principal post-offices in the locality of the lands to be opened.
The sections are described for the general information of intending selectors, who are recommended, nevertheless, to make a personnel inspection, as the Department is not responsible for the absolute accuracy of any description.
In order that the Land Board may be in a position to judge the general ability of applicants to properly work and cultivate the land and fulfill the conditions of the lease, each applicant is required to produce for inspection when examined by the board documentary evidence of his financial position such as bank pass-books, certificates or letters of credit from managers of banks, financial institutions or merchant firms or from private persons or parents undertaking to give financial assistance. Persons undertaking to assist financially should state to what extent they are prepared to do so, and supply guarantee of their own financial position.
Deposits sent by post must be by post-office, draft or cheque marked by the bank on which it is drawn as "Correct for twenty-one days," in favour of the Receiver of Land Reserves. They will be returned in case of non-success. Post-office orders should be made payable to the Receiver of Land Revenue at the money-order office nearest to where the applicant lives. A separate deposit must be sent by each applicant. Bank notes, gold, or coins should not be forwarded by post.
Possession will be given on the __________.
Copies of the Regulations issued under the Land for Settlements Act may be had on application to any Land Office throughout the Dominion, or they will be forwarded by post to any address.
The attention of applicants is drawn to sections 101 and 102 of the Land Act 1908 which provide that any person making a false declaration of obtaining land not exclusively for his own use or benefit or any one aiding or abetting in such a breach of the Land Act, shall be liable to a term of imprisonment in addition to the forfeiture of any land obtain by false declaration.
Commissioner of Crown Lands
Draught: A strong trace horse capable of pulling heavy loads.
Ginger beer: an effervescing beverage made by fermenting ginger, cream of tartar, sugar, yeast and water.
Hack: A horse for ordinary riding.
Hogshead: 2 Barrels, or 63 gal. = 1 Hogshead hhd.
Pounds shillings and pence:
12d=ls (12 pence equals one shilling (1/-)
20s=�l (20 shillings (20/-) equals one pound)
Sir John McKenzie: (1838-1901) the son of a poor Scottish crofter had emigrated to NZ in 1860 and became a farmer. He was Minister of Lands and Agriculture from 1891 until 1900, a popular man who fought for things he believed in especially the rights of the small farmer and disliked absentee landowner and pushed for polices regarding 'lease in perpetuity' for land occupiers or the right to purchase on generous terms. Buried at Palmerston Cemetery.
Swagger: A tramp, a man travelling on foot carrying a bundle wrapped in a blanket (a bluey) over the shoulder. A swag.
Waikakahi: means freshwater mussels. In the 1880s the spring fed Waikakahi stream flowed over a clean, stony bottom and abounded in freshwater mussels. Today agricultural pastureland predominates and the once numerous wetlands have been drained. Sheep farming was the predominant land use but over the past fifty years dairy farming virtually occupies the entire Waikakahi flats.
Farmer, Morven. Mr Gluyas was born at Helston, Cornwall, England, in 1851. He attended school in his native place and was brought up to the saddlery trade by his father; three of his brothers also following the same calling. Mr. Gluyas worked at his trade in the midland counties, and afterwards at Penzance, where he was employed by Mr. Ash, proprietor of a leading establishment. In 1877 Mr Gluyas came to Lyttelton by the ship "Cardigan Castle," and settled in Christchurch, where he worked for five years for Mr. Howell and others. In 1887 he removed to Longbeach station, as saddler for Mr. John Grigg, with whom other members of the family also found employment. Shortly after the opening of the Waikakahi estate Mr. Gluyas acquired 193 acres under lease in perpetuity, and his sons at once settled on the property; the family have resided on the farm since 1901 and considerable improvements have been effected. As a volunteer Mr. Gluyas served in the 7th Duke of Cornwall corps for three years. One of his sons was saddler-sergeant to the 8th New Zealand Contingent in South Africa and returned, unscathed, to settle at Otanaki in the North Island. Mr Gluyas was married in 1875, to a daughter of Mr. Henry James Richards of Prussia Cove, Mount's Bay, Cornwall, and has three sons and one daughter. Ref.: "The Cyclopedia of New Zealand" page 1091 Canterbury volume.
TREZISE, Joseph Henry
Born in Helston, Cornwall 1859 son of John , (Farmer) and May. Arrived Lyttelton on ship "Northern Monarch" in 1878 and settled at Makikihi 1900. Farmed Waikakahi Block V11,section 2. 1900-1919. died 22 Sept 1945 aged 86 buried at Waimate.
Photographs courtesy of Jude Elliot. Page created Oct. 2001