Pages 118 - 124

The Press, continued

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Of the Hamilton and Rossville News we know nothing but its death. This happened on the 10th of February 1848.

Democracy Untrammeled and Butler County Investigator was first issued at Rossville, September 20, 1849. It was printed by J. M. CHRISTY.

The Hamilton Daily Chronicle was proposed by S. R. SMITH & CO., in 1855. We do not know whether it came to pass.

The Herald of Education was published by J. P. ELLINWOOD, in 1854. He was then superintendent of schools here.

Steph. R. SMITH issued the Butler County Democrat, in August, 1861, which died after one week.

The Tri-weekly Advertiser was published March 14, 1867, by Jacob H. LONG, and a weekly newspaper of the same name was begun by Mr. LONG, February 24, 1875. The first was afterward merged into the Independent, which began in 1871. Mr. LONG afterward disposed of his interest to Dr. J. R. BROWN, Samuel L'HOMMEDIEU, and H. H. ROBINSON, and W. H. BEARDSLEY. The paper was edited by Colonel H. H. ROBINSON, and was printed until 1874, when it was disposed of to the Hamilton Printing Company, and merged into the Examiner.

The Examiner was begun in 1874, by the Hamilton Printing Company, and was conducted thus until in October of that year, when it was sold out to the Guidon, and became merged into that paper. It was edited by Thomas A. CORCORAN of Cincinnati, six or eight weeks, and afterward by John F. NEILAN.

The Guidon was started Auust 26, 1875, by John MCELWEE. It established a reputation at once for ability to criticize, ridicule, and lecture the community in general. Its proprietor associated with him J. J. MCMAKEN, and they bought out the Examiner, and the paper then became more conservative, and was removed to West Hamilton. In May, 1875, McELWEE and McMAKEN sold out to the Butler County Democrat, and the Guidon and Examiner were merged into that paper.

The Orcus was originated in 1878, by S. D. CONE, who published and edited it for about three months; then being purchased by Lou J. BEAUCHAMP and Robt. S. CARR, when it was bought by B. R. FINCH and N. E. WARWICK, and ran about six months---being noted for its sprightliness. Then, on account of change of business affairs, it was discontinued, the proprietors refunding advance subscriptions.

July 17, 1876, S. D. CONE and Colonel P. H. GALLAGHER, formerly of Charleston, West Virginia, and was Mr. CALLEN's business manager of the Democrat, began publishing the Sunday Morning Press News. Mr. CONE was the originator of the venture, in the belief that a Sunday paper issued at an early hour, before the arrival of the Cincinnati trains, could acquire a large and profitable circulation, and in great measure supplant the Cincinnati Sunday dailies. With that view, special telegraphic dispatches were engaged, by the Atlantic and Pacific line, from all important points---the first attempt at newspaper special telegraphing ever made in Hamilton. The News ran its career in a little less than four months, and was high appreciated. I came to an end through the business troubles of the Democrat, and not through lack of support.

The Observer is published by Jacob H. LONG, and is a continuation of the Advertiser. It was established February 24, 1876. From the same office there was published, in the Fall of 1881, a Democratic daily of the same name, and later, another daily, entitled the Daily People.

The Hamilton Register was established in 1877, by J. W. BENNETT, and was afterward changed to the Hamilton Free Lance. It suspended publications in 1879, and its editor entered the field of journalism in Warren County where he continued his labors.

The Schildwache was established in May, 1859, by F .E. HUMBACH and John P. BRUCK, being edited by John P. DIETZ, of Dayton. After six months' service in this capacity he resigned and was succeeded by L. F. SCHMIDICKE, of Cincinnati. During 1860, F. E. HUMBACH sold out to J. P. BRUCK. In 1861 J. P. BRUCK responded to the call of the President for troops, and raised the first company that left Hamilton for the seat of war, which he was elected captain. During his absence in the field (three months), Frederick EGRY acted as superintendent and attempted to run it in the interest of the Union cause, although it was originally an outspoken Democratic sheet. In November, 1862, Captain BRUCK sold out to Peter MILDERS, with Professor A. GOERING and Louis HEY as editors. In 1863 MILDERS disposed of the Schildwache to Robert CHRISTY, Esq., now a prominent practicing attorney at Washington, D.C., who immediately sold it to J. H. LONG, the latter publishing it as the Butler County Democrat, a short time, in connection with L . B. DELACOURT. After a brief partnership, De la COURT withdrew, and, in 1864, began the publication of the National Zeitung.

After the close of the Fall campaign, in the year 1863, the German Democrats of Butler County manifested a desire to start a new German Democratic newspaper, not having been satisfied with the policy pursued by the Democrat. The project was carried out by a number of German Democrats, who called a meeting for the purpose of organizing a stock company. On the thirteenth day of April 1864, the following persons met at Rumple's Hall, West Hamilton: Messrs. Christian MORGENTHALER, January GETZ, Eberhart BOTLINGER, John FISCHER, L. B. De la COURT, Adolph SCHMIDT, Peter BECKER, and others. Mr. MORGENTHALER was elected president; Adolph SCHMIDT, secretary; and January GETZ, treasurer of the company. The meeting resolved to publish a German Democratic newspaper, to solicit subscriptions for stock, and elected L. B. De la COURT editor and business manager of the concern. On the fourth day of July, 1864, the first number of Hamilton National Zeitung was published. A few years later the paper passed in the sole possession of L. B. De la COURT, who bought the entire stock of the company. The National Zeitung has been published since without interruption, and is a present the on German newspaper published in Butler County.

Preceding the Schildwache there has been a German paper called the Wachter, and during the war, a Republican journal was issued in Hamilton, entitled the Beobachter.

We can not refrain from expressing our indignation at the vandal who destroyed a series of files of these newspapers, running up the beginning of the county, and of priceless value. He had before refused to allow access to them on the ground that Butler County had not treated him right. He was a disappointed candidate for office, and his fellow-citizens had undoubtedly judged his capacity and public spirit correctly.

There are not published in the city the News and Telegraph, from the same office by C. M. CAMPBELL, the former being daily; the Democrat, by B. K. BRANT; the Observer, by Jacob H. LONG; and the National Zeitung, by L. B. De la COURT. The two advertising sheets are also issued.


Butler County was fomed and organized in 1803. The following table will show the march of population since the organization of the State government, according to the quadrennial enumeration of the free males over twenty-one years of age, made for the purpose of apportioning the representatives and senators to the State Legislature:

In 1803,...............   836
In 1807,...............1,719
In 1811,...............2,326
In 1815,...............2,877
In 1819,...............3,754
In 1823,...............4,239
In 1827,...............4,546
The whole population was, in 1810, 11,071; in 1820, it had increased to 21,726; and in 1828, amounted to about 26,000. The whole number for each of these dates may be ascertained with sufficient accuracy by multiplying the number over 21 years by 5.6. The whole number of free persons of color in 1820, was 158.

In 1820, there were in this county, of free white males under 10 years of age, 459; between 10 and 16, 1,774; between 16 and 26 years, 2,656; between 26 and 45, 1,976; and of 45 years and upward 1,242. And there were also of free white females under 10 years, 3,870; between 10 and 16 years, 1,694; between 16 and 26 years, 2,022; between 26 and 45 years, 1835; of 45 years and upward, 961. From this data it will appear that in 1820 the number of males exceeded that of the females 928.

This excess was accounted for, in part, by the spirit of adventure and the prospects of success inducing more young men to emigrate to and try their fortunes in the new countries than young women; but, even of that class under 10 years of age (upon whom these circumstances could have little or no influence), there is an excess of 189 males.

Fairfield Township contains 26,294 acres of land, valued, with the improvements, in 1827, at $192,112. It contained also 594 head of horses, and 863 head of cattle, valued at $30,664. The foregoing items, together with the town property, valued at $169,990, and the capital engaged in merchandise, estimated (before the court) at $6,600, made the aggregate value of the township $300,366. This amount of property paid a tax of $941.14, for State and canal purposes; $640.60 for school and county expenses; and $330.11 for township expenses; making, in the whole $1,911.94.

Hanover Township contains 21,890 acres of land, valued in 1827, at $101,876. There were in this township 391 horses, and 540 cattle, valued together at $19,960. Total value of the towship, $128,836. On this amount there was paid $387.50 State and canal tax; $258.35 county and school tax; and $64.91 for township uses; total $710.32. Number of voters, 285, and of inhabitants, 1,596.

Madison Township contains 24,502 acres, estimated, then valued at $134,972. Horses, 532; cattle 786; value $27,688. Capital engaged in merchandise $2,976. Town property, $6,074. Affregate estimate $171,710. On this amount was paid $534.90 for State and cal purposes; $363.20 for county and school uses; total, $898.11. Number of coters, 418; of inhabitants 2,340.

Lemon Township contains 22,165 acres of land, then valued at $153,458. Horses, 632; cattle, 886; estimated at $32,376. Capital in merchandise, $16,900. Town property, $33.395--- making the aggregate value of the township, $236,129. On this was paid $762.12 State and canal tax; $495, for county and school expenses; total $1,221.19. This township contained 554 voters and 3,100 inhabitants.

Liberty Township, 17,783 acres of land, estimated, in 1827, at $105,439. Number of horses 377; and of cattle, 529; valued at $19,212. Town property, estimated at $700; capital in merchandise, $1,750. Giving an aggregate value for this township of $127.101; payig a tax of $389.54 for State and canal expenses; $262.74 for county and school uses; and $128.55 for township purposes; total, $781.25. Number of voters, 255; of inhabitants, 1,428.

Milford Township, 20,968 acres of land, then valued at $104,984. There were owned in it 428 horses, and 600 cattle, valued at $21,920; town property, $2,400; mercantile capital, $4,780. Value of this township, $134,004. Taxes: State and canal, $407.10; county and school, $273.02; total, $680.12. Number of voters, 307; and of inhabitants, 1,713.

Oxford Township contains 1,583 acres of taxable land, valued at $7,886. The college lands, amounting to 17,464 acres, valued at $59,257, were not subject to taxation. This township contained 332 horses, and 8,507 (correct quote from book) cattle; valued at $18,136. Town property, $10,585; merchants' capital, $6,700; property of the Miami University, building, etc., $25,000. Total value of the township, $127,566. This township paid $104.35 for State and canal purposes; and $87.50 for coounty and school purposes; making only a total of $198.05. The number of voters was 367, and of inhabitants 2,050. The annual rents paid to the university by the lease- holders of this township amounted to upward of $4.000.

Morgan Township contains 23,003 acres of land, then valued at $72,072. It also contained 392 horses, and 654 cattle; valued at $20,912; capital in merchandise, $700; total value, $93,684. This township paid $291.37 for State and canal purposes; and $197.95 for county and school expenses; total, $489.32. Voters, 333; inhabitants, 1.884.

Ross Township---acres of land 18,395; value $105,306. Horses, 369; and cattle 586; value, $19,424; town property, $6,700; merchants' capital, $4,400; total value, $135,930. This township paid a tax of $416.73 for State and canal purposes; $280.90 for county and schools; and $105 for township expenses. It contained 304 voters, and 1,702 inhabitants.

Reily Township---22.,125 acres of land, valued at $70,463. Horses 397, and 624 head of cattle, valued at $20,872; merchants' capital, $800. Tax: $278.34, State and canal; $186.21, county and school; $186.99, township; total, $464.56. Number of voters 268; and of inhabitants, 1,500.

St. Clair Township contains 17,761 acres of land, valued, in that years, at $125,638. Number of horses, 356, and of cattle, 509, valued at $18,312; town property, $28,120; merchants' capital, $10,075; making the aggregate value of the township $182,145. This township paid $556.12 State and canal tax; $378.98 county and school tax; and $186.99 township tax; making a total of $1,117.09. Number of voters 294; and of inhabitants 1.664.

Union Township contains 21,104 acres of land, then valued at $120,220. Horses, 397, and cattle, 574, value $20,472; town property, $3,413; capital in merchandise $1,250; aggregate value of the townshiop, $145,355, Taxes: $468.51, State and canal; $323.25, county and school; $97.17, township. Number of voters, 314; and of inhabitants, 1,164.

Wayne Township---This township, the last in their alphabetical order, contains 21,207 acres of land, v alued, in 1827, at $122,974. There were in this township 525 horses and 676 cattle, valued at $26,384; and also town property work $5,748; with $4,500 of capital engaged in merchandise; making an aggregate value of the township of $159,606. Tax: $483.24, State and canal; $223.63, county and school; and $80.90, township; total, $887.78. Voters, 294, inhabitants 1,646.

To arrive near the whole value of the county, to the items above enumerated must be added the value of young horses and cattle under three yers old, and the sheep and swine, which would amount to a very considerable sum, and also the amount of household furniture, farming implements and mechanic tools. These items would probably increase the amount nearly one half, the horses and cattle being each valued at a fixed rate---the horses at $40 each, the cattle at $8---probably much below the average value which they would then sell for in the market.

An ingenious writer who collated the above statistics indulges in the following anticipations as to the future of this county. He writes in 1828:

"We will indulge, here, in a few speculations on the energies which heaven has imparted to the soil, and to how great an extent its resources maybe developed. Butler County contains about 15,000 acres of first-rate land; 180,000 acres of second-rate land; and 80,000 acres of third-rate. This 15,000 acres of first-rate land will produce annually of corn, at the rate of 45 bushels per acre, 675,000 bushels.

"This amount of corn, at two gallons per bushel, would yield 1,350,000 gallons of spirits, which at 20 cents per gallon, would amount to $270,000; and it would produce, allowing 10 bushels to yield 100 pounds, 6,750,000 pounds of pork, which at 2 ½ cents per pound, would be worth $169,750, and would subsists about 100,000 persons!

"The 180,000 acres of second-rate land, supposing it to yield at bushels of wheat per acres, would produce 2,700,000 bushels, which would make about 500,00 barrels of flour, worth $3.25 per barrel, and would amount the enormous sum of $1,375,000, exclusive of the price of the barrel and expense of grinding and packing; and at 40 cents per bushel would amount to $1,080,000. This quantity of wheat would subsist 400,000 persons, allowing each to consume 6 ½ bushels, which is rather more than is actually consumed in bread-stuffs. One-third of the second rate land, 60,000 acres, in grass, would yield at 1 ½ tons of hay per acres, 90,000 tons, which would winter about 90,000 head of horses or 120,000 head of cattle; and the remaining two-thirds, 120,000 , would yield sufficient grazing to feed them through the Summer. Were they disposed of, either horses or cattle at three years old---in general, the most judicious age---if horses, 30,000 (one-third_ might be disposed of annually, which, at an average of $40 each, would yield. $1,200,000; if cattle, 40,000 would be disposable annually, which at $10 per head, that would yield $400,000. This showing proves clearly that horses are much the most profitable species of stock.

"The living animals which are annually sent from the Western States in the Southern markets (principally horses) yield about $3,000,000. It is, perhaps, not rating horses too high in those markets at $80 per head; and 37,500 horses only would be required to produce that sum. Butler County, alone appropriating all her lands, could produce this number.

"Eighty thousand acres of third rate land, very propert for that purpose, would support, at 5 sheep to the acres, 400,000; which, averaging each fleece at 2 pounds, would yield 800,000 pounds, worth, at 30 cents per pound, $240.000.

"These calculations have been made, supposing every acres of land to be under cultivation. At present this quantity in actual agriculture does not greatly exceed one-third, and there is a very small portion of it, indeed under that high state of cultivation to which it will probably arrive at some future day, when the great increase of population will demand every energy of the soil to produce aliment to sustain animal life. We may gather a knowledge, satisfactorily accurate, of the prospective population which this county may one day contain, or at best support, by ascertaining the greatest quantity of grain which it will produce. It is a principle infallible in the economy of nature to produce life to as great an extent as nature and art furnish means to sustain it.

"The whole quantity of land (rating the first quality at 30 bushels of wheat per acres, the second quality at 15, and the third-rate at 8) would produce 3,790,000 bushels. Estimating the consumption of each individual, young and old, in bread, meat, liquors, clothing, and that consumed by the necessary proportion of domestic animals to be equal to 25 bushels (and this is apportioning a more liberal allowance than is consumed in some countries of Europe), it would give 156,000 inhabitants---a number greater than was contained in the States of Delaware and Rhose Island in 1820. And yet this would not make a population much more dense than some sections of country in the old world. It gives 326 to the square mile. The Netherlands contains 214 persons to the square mile; England 225; and Ireland 228. In countries as extensive as either of the last mentioned, there must be considerable quantities of land which not produce; in this county there is scarcely a rood which may not be profitably improved.

"There were, in 1810, in this county, 10 tanneries, and 74 stills for distilling ardent spirits. We have no data from which we could forma any tolerable estimates of their numbers at present, but the numbers of both are considerable increased. There was also, in that year, it it, 514 looms, upon which were woven 156,476 years of various kinds of fabrics, estimated at $130,000. The number of looms, and the quantity of labor performed on them, has not probably increased since then with the amount of population. Our citizens now purchase much of their clothing which they were then compleed to manufacture for themselves.

"In 1820, there were 1,022 persons engaged in manufactures. This number probably includes adult artificers of every kind. There were also 59 persons employed in mercantile business, and 3,961 persons engaged in agricultural pursuits.

"There is at this time (1828) in operation within the county 39 grist-mills, driving from 1-3 run of stones; 45 saw-mills; and 12 fulling mills. Besides these, there are various other kinds of machinery propelled by water- power, and a large amount of water-power yet to be improved and brought into profitable operation."




Emerson says: {"The world exists for the education of each man." The founders of the American Republic believed that a free government is a government for each man, and that without universal education a permanent republic is impossible. In the famous ordinance of 1787 are these words:

"Religion, morality, and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged."

The men who wrote the great ordinance were no dreamers. They applied their theories of government, and in educational affairs at least they were eminently successful. They provided that no State or territorial legislature should interefere with the disposal of public land by the government, and that a portion of these lands should form the nucleus of a fund for he education of the whole people.

The constitution of Ohio, formed in 1802, as well as the constitution of 1851, copies, in substance, the part of the ordinance which is above quoted, and from this it will be seem that which the fostering of schools has been one of the objects which the State of Ohio has constantly sought to attain.

It is not sufficient to show that Butler County has borne a worthy part in the promotion of that intelligence for which the State has become so favorable known, and in which the people of the commonwealth have a laudable pride.

This county was organized in 1803. The first settlers came from nearly all the older State, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and Kentucky being the most numerously represented, No sooner did the pioneer finish his cabin than he began to plan for the education of his children. The primitive log school-house. With its "stick and mortar" chimney, paper windows, puncheon floor, slab seats, and itinerant schoolmaster, immediately followed the completion of his dwelling, and although not much was attempted in these schools, what was attempted was thoroughly done.

The children learned to spell, read, write, and ciper (often as far as the "rule of three"). One of the best features in the training of pioneer children was the physical exercise which all received--- boys and girls alike. At home the boys cut fire-wood, fed the stock, broke the flax, and went to the mill, ten or even twenty miles away. The girls milked the cows, worked in the fields, spun flax and wool, wove, and did all manner of housework, and thus became accustomed to labor with their hands---a schooling that is not less valuable in business life than that derived from the study of books. Nor was moral training neglected in these days. Habits of industry, thrift, and patience were universally inculcated.

The children crossed the threshold of the school-room prepared to respect and obey the rules of the teacher and when this respect and obedience were not given, the offender promptly punished, both by teacher and parent.

The timing in these schools and homes did not end with school-books and moral precepts. The first exercise at school was commonly the reading of a chapter of the Bible; and in many a cabin, at night, before the family retired, was enacted the scene of family worship, so beautifully pictured by the poet Burns, in "The Cotter's Saturday Night:"

	"The cheerfu' supper done, wi' serious face,
		They round the ingle form a circle wide;
	The sire turns o'er, with patriarchal grace,
		The big ha' Bible, ance his father's pride.
	He wales a portion with judicious care,
		And ‘Let us worship God,' he says, with solemn air,
	They chant their artless notes in simple guise,
		They tune their hearts, by far the noblest ain,
	Perhaps Dundee's wild-warbling measures rise,
		Or plaintive Martyrs, worthy of the name."
The backwoodman's children entered the field of active life with strong bodies and good characters, and with a very fair common school education. The physique and the sturdy charater of these children were chiefly due to their parents, but the faithful work of the humble and poorly paid schoolmaster had not been in vain.

The primitive teacher in Ohio was either from of of the older States or from across the Atlantic. With rarely an exception, he was earnest, industrious, and conscientious. He was dignified, and could scarcely be called genial by his pupils. He believed in his prerogative. And would sacrifice his position rather than humiliate himself in his own estimation. He was often a classical scholar. He taught for three months at a time and boarded around among the parent of his pupils. His pay was always meager, being but a few cents per day for each pupil. Once a quarter, generally at Christmas time, "the big boys" would meet at the school-house before daylight, fasten the shutters and the door, and thus "bar out" the master, demanding of him "a treat." Sometimes he would give them apples and cider, and sometimes he would not. In case he refused to comply with the demands of the boys, they would either yield gracefully to their master's firmness, or otherwise they would treat him with personal violence, such as immersing him in the nearest mill-pond. Or, in very rare cases, inserting his head under the corner of a fence. These were rude timesx, which, for the good of all, have long since passed away, never to return; but, for the sake of truth, it should be remembered that what the "big boys" did to the master was prompted more byu their love of fun than by their desire to see any one suffer physical pain.

These early schools began about eight o'clock in the morning, and continued till four or five in the afternoon, with an hour's intermission at twelve. Nearly all the pupils "brought their dinners," which consisted of apples, bread, meat and sometimes milk.

After the dinner had been eaten, the boys would play ball, and the girls "black man" and other lighter games, till the time for books. All played hard, and all studied hart.

In the school-room there were nearly as many classes as would be obtained by multiplying the number of pupils by the number of the R's. Blackboards were not known, and school apparatus had not been thought of west of the eastern cities.

The text-books were not uniform. Each pupil used what he could get. Webster's and Dillworth's Spelling books, the New Testament, the English Reader and its Introduction, Pike's and Bennett's Arithmetics, and Murray's Grammar were among those most common. Penmanship was taught by copies written by the master, and the goose-quill pen was in general use. Occasionally there was a school in which geometry, surveying, and natural philosophy were taught, but such were exceedingly rare. In these schools the higher branches were recited at the noon hour, or after the lower classes had been dismissed. Nothing but the love of learning could have induced these overworked teachers, in their log school-houses, to have done such work for their older pupils.

In these same log school-houses statesmen, authors, and generals were inspired to study and to acquire the knowledge which afterward made them a power in their day and generation. The primitive schoolmaster, as we now all him, builded wiser than his patrons knews. But we are mistaken if these early and true teachers did not expect to see their ambitious pupils become useful and eminent citizens. Whoever seeks an honest answer to the now general inquiry, What is the cause of such a host of great men in Ohio? Will find the true answer in the lives and services of the primitive schoolmasters of our great State. Grant, Sherman, Hayes, Garfield, Halstead (and hundred of really great men in Ohio, whom the world does not know), were not all of these the pupils of the primitive schoolmaster?

A roll of the names of those who were especially useful in developing Butler County into an influential part of a great commonwealth would be incomplete without RITCHIE, PARDEE, PROUDFIT, McMECHAN, SMITH, MONFORT, BEERS, MARSTON, GAILBREATH, THOMAS, BEBB, HUGHES, CLACK, BISHOP, and others who taught the children of the pioneers.

There are no records to show when the first school was held within the limits of what is now Butler County. It is said that reading and writing were taught in Fort Hamilton during the Autumn of 1791, by a soldier to some of his comrades. It is not probably that any school existed before 1805. In every new settlement, however, there was one during a part of a year. These were subscription schools, and the names of the teachers have not been preserved.

In Hamilton a Mr. RICHIE, the Rev. M. G. WALLACE, Benjamin PARDEE, Alexander PROUDFIT, the Rev. James McMECHAN, Henry BAKER, Hugh HAWTHORNE, Miss Ellen A. McMECHAN, the Rev Francis MONFORT, and Benjamin F. RALEIGH all taught prior to the year 1830.

In Middletown, Judge BEERS, Marsha WILSON, Ephraim GRAY, Joseph WORTH, and Jeremiah MARSTON were among the earliest teachers.

In New London, Adam MOW, a Mr. JENKINS, David LLOYD, and the Rev. Thomas THOMAS taught school at an early date.

The Rev. R. H. BISHOP, who was the first president of Miami University, is justly entitled to a place on the roll of the great teachers of Butler County. James M. DORSEY was the firsdt teacher in Oxford.

In Butler County the higher educaztion has not been limited to the university at Oxford. In 1810 the Rev. Matthew G. WALLACE taught the classics and the higher English branches in Hamilton.

In 1815 Alexander PROUDFIT, an alumnus of the Ohio University, taught Latin and Greek to the sons of Dr. Daniel MILLIKIN, and to others. In 1818 the Hamilton Library Society erected a substantial building for academical purposes. In 1821 the Rev Thomas THOMAS established a high-school at New London, and in the same neighborhood, in the same year, a ligrary association was formed.

One of the teachers in the New London High School was William BEBB, afterward governor of Ohio. Evan DAVIS taught in New London from 1830 to 1836, inclusive. For nearly forty years this gentleman occupied a prominent place in the educational work of the county.

Of the teachers who won distinction in the New London High School, the Rev. B. W. CHIDLAW deserves favorable mention. Murat HALSTEAD, who has won a more than national reputation as a journalist, was one of his pupils.

In 1833 Nathaniel FURMAN established an academy in Middletown. His school was continued for fifteen years, and became widely known for its excellence.

In 1835 "The Hamilton and Rossville Female Academy" was opened. In 1836 the number of pupils in this school was one hundred and twenty-seven. Miss Maria DRUMMOND, Miss Georgietta HAVEN, Miss Amelia LOOKER, Miss Eliza HUFFMAN. Mr. Nathan FURMAN, and others, were at different times teachers in this academy.

The educational revival, which began in the United States in 1825, bore fruit in Ohio in 1853. The new school-law then enacted put an end to nearly all private schools, except seminaries, colleges, and universities. With scarcely an exception all the citizens of Butler County united in availing themselves of the privileges of the new law. County examiners were appointed, school directors were elected, school-houses built, apparatus and school libraries purchased, teachers employed, and for once in the history of the State nearly all the children were in school a part of each year.

Under the law of 1853 the most important and influential school officers in a county are the school examiners, whose duty it is to examine teachers and to give certificates to those who are of good character, and who posses an adequate knowledge of the various branches studied in the schools.

The following is a complete list of all who have been school examiners in Butler County since 1853: Evan DAVIS, Benjamin F. RALEIGH, Andrew G. CHAMBERS, S. V. CHASE, J. T. KILLEN, W. H. WYNN, S. A. CAMPBELL, J. LONGNECKER, John R. CHAMBERLIN, A CRIDER, Benjamin F. THOMAS, H. C. WILLIAMSON, Gilbert L. TRAVIS, H. D. HENKLEY, F. Z. LEITER, Wesley THOMAS, A. ELLIS, D. P. NELSON, S. I. McCLELLAND, J. Q. BAKER, and L. D. BROWN. The last three names constitute the present board.

A sketch of the educational history of Butler County would be incomplete without at least a brief mention of the Western Female Seminary, at Oxford, and of the Oxford Female College. The seminary was incorporated in 1853. In 1860, and again in 1871, the building of the seminary were destroyed by fire. Since the last fire, the building has been rebuilt, and the school has been more prosperous than ever before. The Female College, under the careful supervision of Dr. Robert D. MORRIS has done great good to the public. As a whole, the schools of Butler County are in a highly prosperous condition. Hamilton, Middletown, Oxford, Monroe, New London, Amanda, and West Chester have excellent building and excellent graded schools. Hamilton and New London have well-equipped public libraries, and Middletown stand first in her supply of school apparatus.

In the towns the majority of the teachers are ladies. In the country this is not the case. Teachers will receive wages that are too low in comparison with what is generally paid for skilled labor. Nevertheless, Butler County has for years paid her teachers far better than the average county in the State has done.

The following school statistics for Butler County have been taken from the last annual report of the Hon. J. J. BURNS, state school commissioner of Ohio: Number of youths between 6 and 21 years of age, 14, 844; number of school-houses, 123. Value of school property, $421,550; number of teachers necessary to supply the schools. 201; number of different pupils enrolled, 9,067; average daily attendance of pupils, 5,796. Number of certificates issued, 226. Average wages of teachers per month in township districts: Gentlemen, $45; ladies $33. In special districts: Gentlemen, $59; ladies, $46. In high schools, gentlemen, $65; ladies, $78. (Transcribers note: ladies, $78 is not a mis-print) Averages number of weeks schools were in session: township, 35; separate districts, 37.

An interesting chapter on the growth and influence of the Butler County Teachers' Association could be written. The names of Thomas M. MENDENHALL, Emanuel RICHTER, Alston ELLIS, James A. CLARKE, J. W. JUDKINS, J. P. SHARKEY, John Q. BAKER, Professor B. STARR, James M, SLICHER, Isaac S. COY, L. E. GRENNAN, and many others, would desrve more than mere mention in such a chapter. Were a complete list of the benefactors of the public schools of Butler County to be prepared, many pages would be required. It is certainly in place, however to state here that CLARK LANE, founder of the Lane Free Library, of Hamilton, is on of the greatest of these benefactors. The library that he established will be an imperishable monument in the lives of those that have been enriched by the healthful literature be made free to the people of his city.