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Henry Kugler. One of the most attractive of the many beautiful farms in Liberty township, Butler county, Ohio, is the 115-acre tract owned and operated by Henry Kugler, and today it is not only one of the best kept of the many desirable farms of Butler county, but it is also one of the most productive for its size, the crop yield each year being even beyond expectations. His progressiveness and

enthusiasm for farming are undoubtedly inherited from his father who was one of the alert agriculturists of Butler county in his time and was recognized as a man who had a deep knowledge of affairs pertaining to farming. Born south of Symmes corner, Butler county, March 12, 1866, Henry Kugler was one of five children of John and Margaret Kugler, both natives of Germany, who came to Ohio in 1866, locating south of Symmes corner. Four of the children are living: Elizabeth, Catharine, Mary and Henry. Being of limited means, but of vigorous physique and enthusiastic over the future of Butler county as an agricultural section the father obtained employment as a farmhand and later became a renter, renting and operating land in several townships in Butler county and his efforts were attended with the most encouraging success. His knowledge and application of the scientific principles of farming were such that he was in position to make the most of his land. Evidences of his activity may be had in a number of instances in Liberty township in which the farm land which he once rented has been brought to the highest point of development. Henry Kugler received his schooling in Butler county and associated himself with his father in farming after leaving school, and thus continued until the retirement of his father, when he rented for eight years then moved to Liberty township where he purchased the farm which he is now occupying and operating. The improvement that these 115 acres have undergone since he acquired ownership has been really amazing. In addition to his scientific cultivation of the land the most modern equipment is used in tilling the soil and the buildings that stand on the property have every modern convenience. In 1903 he married Elizabeth Kerr, daughter of Dieterich Kerr, and they have two children: Frederick and Henrietta. Mr. Kugler is an independent Democrat.

Alfred C. Kuhr, one of the enterprising and progressive young business men of Hamilton, who is proprietor of a thriving grocery establishment on East avenue, has passed his entire career in this city, where his family has been well known for many years. Mr. Kuhr, was born at Hamilton, in 1890, a son of John and Anna (Haungs) Kuhr, natives of this city, where John L. Kuhr founded a grocery, coal and feed business in 1887, at the same location as that now occupied by his son's store. Like his father, Charles Kuhr who was the emigrant from Baden, Germany, in early days, John L. Kuhr was a. man who was universally esteemed in his community, and established a reputation for integrity and good citizenship which remained with him until the day of his death in 1903 and which has since served as an example for his son. The latter, Alfred C. Kuhr, was the only child of his parents, and attended the parochial schools of Hamilton and later Xavier college, Cincinnati, from which he was graduated in 1909. Returning to Hamilton, he assumed the management of the business which had formerly been conducted by his father, and since then has built up what is probably the most modern store of its kind at Hamilton. Mr. Kuhr handles the highest grade of staple and fancy groceries to be found anywhere, and the attractive manner in which they are displayed is something that

immediately secures the interest and admiration of the prospective customer. He has introduced modern methods into every department of his work, and his unfailling courtesy and obligingness assist in making a favorable impression. His standing in business circles of Hamilton is now an assured fact, and the confidence in which he is held by his associates is shown in the fact that he at present is secretary of the Retail Grocers' association. He is also a member of the Hamilton Chamber of Commerce and has various other business and civic connections. He belongs to St. Mary's Catholic church, and is affiliated with the Knights of Columbus. Mr. Kuhr was married in 1912 to Miss Nellie B. Jennewein of this city. They have no children.

Henry J. Kumler, now deceased, was for many years one of the energetic farmers of Butler county, Ohio, but he passed his last years at Hamilton, where he lived in comfortable retirement at No. 928 Dayton street, the present residence of his widow. He was born at Millville, Butler county, Ohio, February 27, 1838. The Kumler family was founded in this country by Jacob Kumler, born in Switzerland, but a resident of the American colonies from the time he was seventeen years old. A few years after his settlement in Lancaster county, Pa., he was married to Elizabeth Young, and they had the following children: John, Jacob, Henry, Michael and Elizabeth, and of these, Henry was the grandfather of Henry J. Kumler, whose name heads this review. When he was only eight years old, he having been born January 3, 1775, Henry Kumler had the misfortune to lose his mother, so he grew to manhood without her fostering care. In 1797, he was united in marriage with Miss Susanna Wingert, who survived him many years, and lived to be ninety-six years of age. They had twelve children, as follows: one who died in childhood, Hannah, Henry, Susan, Elizabeth, Daniel, Elias, Jacob, Michael, Joseph, John and Catherine. Of these children, two became ministers of the gospel and one was a physician, and two of his sons-in-law were also ministers, but all were interested in agriculture, as was Henry Kumler. He always felt that the natural means of gaining a living was farming, and he reared his children to have a love for the soil, which attribute has been handed down to his many descendants. His liking for farming was not merely theoretical, but practical, and as long as he lived he owned farm land, and took an active part in its cultivation, but at the same time he was a powerful factor in church work, and an eloquent preacher. While he had early connected himself with the German Reformed church, he did not feel called upon to give forth to the world his religious convictions until he was about thirty-six years of age, when in 1811, he became impressed with the necessity of devoting more attention to his spiritual welfare, and first confiding in his wife, began to work among his immediate family. So convincing was he, that before long he had at least thirty persons interested and prayer meetings were held by them. Both he and his brother-in-law, Jacob Wingert, one of his first converts, began to address the meetings, and they became so popular that their services were demanded by other bodies. Henry Kumler always spoke with great simplicity, earnestness and much feeling, moving others profoundly, and bringing into

the church large numbers. At that time much prejudice was felt because a layman addressed a religious meeting, and this so operated against the little body of followers of Henry Kumler, that he felt it necessary to withdraw from the German Reformed church in which he had held membership for fifteen years, and he had held once with that denomination more than once. Desiring to connect with some regularly organized religious society, and feeling that the creed of the United Brethren in Christ was one to which he could conscientiously subscribe, Mr. Kumler attended the annual conference at Hagerstown, Md., and was by this conference licensed to preach the gospel. The following year the annual conference was held at his residence. During the first year of his ministry, Mr. Kumler accompanied some of the itinerating preachers in their rounds, but at the beginning of his second year he was assigned to a large circuit, which included Greencastle, Pa., and the surrounding country, his labors being so heavy that it was necessary for him to have an assistant. So prominent did he become, that during that second year, he was elected a delegate to the meeting that formulated the first discipline of the church of the United Brethren in Christ. His ability and eloquence received proper appreciation from his colleagues, and in 1816 he was assigned to what was called the Virginia circuit, and he was obliged to travel on horseback 370 miles every four weeks. His associates in this traveling ministry were Reverends Schneider, Dehoff, Spayth and Joseph Hoffman, who had charge of the old Otterbein church at Baltimore, Md. Further honors came to Henry Kumler, for in 1817, he was elected presiding elder, and for thirteen successive Sundays he held protracted meetings, the over-exertion connected with them resulting in a serious illness which extended over sixteen weeks, and nearly resulted in his death, but fortunately for his work, he recovered. Up to 1918 the doctrines of his society had not been spread west of the Allegheny mountains, but in that year he brought his family to Butler county, Ohio, and located near Miltonville and Seven Mile, and began at once to teach his neighbors his principles of belief, being very successful in converting them to a better manner of living. Mr. Kumler thoroughly understood his people. He did not try any labored preaching, or the expounding of abstruse theories, but spoke as one man to another, simply and .sincerely, using homely illustrations, well within their comprehension. His manner was singularly winning, his themes full of encouragement to the pious and affection for those who had still to be convinced of the error of their ways. While he always preached in the German language, so that many of his hearers did not understand his words, his earnestness oftentimes so impressed them, that they were converted, and they followed the example of his upright, godly life. Still later he was made general superintendent of his church, and being an astute financier, he eventually put its affairs in a very prosperous condition. While he was mild of temper, and well balanced, when he deemed it necessary to rebuke the wrongdoer, he could do so in a manner that was never forgotten. True to his convictions of duty, he lived up to them, no matter at what cost. He was noted for his cheerful disposition, and

oftentimes he was able to point a moral by one of his apt stories. After serving as bishop of his church for twenty years, he finally retired, when about seventy years old, but never lost his interest in the church. All his life he was generous in his benefactions and although he died a wealthy man, he probably would have been worth double that amount, had he not given so freely. One of his sons Jacob Kumler, also born in Pennsylvania, was married to Fannie Burtner, of the same state, and they came with Henry Kumler to Butler county, Ohio, and bought land near Miltonville. This land was covered with heavy timber, but he cleared it off and developed a fine farm. Both he and his wife were consistent members of the United Brethren in Christ society, of which Henry Kumler was so long bishop and general superintendent. They died on their home farm, having had the following children: George, who served during the Civil war in the Ninety-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, was killed at the battle of Chickamauga; Abram, who was also a soldier during the Civil war, died February, 1919, at Oxford, Ohio; Margaret, who is the wife of Daniel D. Beal, lives in Wapakoneta, Ohio; Henry J., whose name heads this review; John, who also served his country as a Civil war soldier, was killed at the battle of Stone River; Simon, who was in the Union army during the Civil war, was killed at the battle of Missionary Ridge; Benjamin, who lives at Austin, Texas; Orrin, who lives at Greenville, Ohio; Rev. Frank, who lives at DeGraff, Ohio, is a preacher of the Presbyterian church; and Louis A., who lives at DeGraff, Ohio. Henry J. Kumler was reared on the home farm, his father agreeing with the grandfather in his desire to make of his sons farmers first, no matter along what channels their abilities might later take them. He was sent to the local schools, and had he desired to enter a profession, funds would have been forthcoming for his training. The precipitation of the country into the horrors of a civil war, changed many plans, and perhaps those of Henry J. Kumler, but at any rate he measured up to the highest standards of American manhood, and enlisted in the defense of the Union, in August, 1862, in Company F, Ninety-third Ohio Volunteer Infantry, at Venice, Ohio, whence he was sent to Nashville, Tenn. Before he reached the front, he was stricken down with a wasting illness which confined him to the hospital for three months and he was then honorably discharged for disability, and sent home. In the meanwhile, during December, 1860, Henry J. Kumler had been married to Mary Minton, a daughter of Peter and Hannah (Conklin) Minton. Peter Minton was born in County Cork, Ireland, but left his native land in 1811, when eighteen years old, and came to the United States, settling in Butler county, Ohio. For two years he was in the employ of Jacob Kumler, and then conducted a store near Riley, and later bought a farm, cleared off the heavy timber, and made it a valuable property. This farm was located in Hanover township, near Oxford, Butler county. Although he began with nothing, he became a man of means and one very highly-respected. His death occurred when he was seventy-eight years old, but his wife died when only forty-nine years old. For many years he was a member of the church of the United Brethren

in Christ. He and his wife had the following children: Mrs. Kumler; Joseph, who was accidentally shot in young manhood; William, who is a veteran of the Civil war, is a farmer of Millville, Oho; Hannah and Elizabeth, both of whom are deceased; Harvey, who is a farmer of Hanover township; Martha, who is the widow of William Rosecrans lives at Eaton, Ohio; Ida, who is deceased, was Mrs. William Hanaford; and Rebecca, who married Elmore Wiley, lives east of Hamilton, Ohio. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Kumler located on a farm in Wayne township, Butler county, south of Jacksonboro, and here they resided for a quarter of a century, with the exception of the time Mr. Kumler was in the army. In 1888, Mr. Kumler retired, and moving to Hamilton, Ohio, there died, December 12 1916. He and his excellent wife were consistent members of the Presbyterian church. His political convictions made him a staunch Republican. He inherited many of the sterling characteristics of his grandfather, Bishop Kumler, and like the elder man possessed the faculty of making friends and attaching them to him for life. Although he never aspired to public preferment, had he so desired, doubtless he could have had almost any of the local offices, his personal popularity being' so strong, and the appreciation of his qualities so pronounced.

Joseph E. Kumler. A descendant of the eminent and scholarly Bishop Henry Kumler, who came to Ohio from Franklin county, Pa., at an early date and who for years was one of the distinguished high dignitaries of his church, is found in the person of Joseph E. Kumler, who for years has been engaged in agricultural pursuits in Butler county. Mr. Kumler is now the owner of a farm in the northeastern part of the county, near West Middletown, and is known as one of his community's reliable and public-spirited citizens. He was born on a farm in Butler county, a son of Henry and Margaret (Zellar) Kumler, and was reared in a home where industry and honorable conduct were considered among the leading virtues. He was reared like most farmers' sons of his time, but had better educational advantages than many of his fellows, first attending the district schools, later the normal school at Lebanon, and finally spending one year in the college at Westerville, Ohio. When his education was completed he returned to the farm, and at the time he entered upon his own career took up agricultural work as a means of livelihood, having found prosperity and contentment in the tilling of the soil. Mr. Kumler is an advocate of modern methods and his farm of 163 acres, lying on West Middletown Rural Route, shows the effects obtainable through a study of new discoveries and the use of up-to-date machinery. As a progressive man he has given much thought to appearances, and his buildings are attractive and his farm and all appliances thereto are kept in first class repair. He is a staunch Republican, and while he confines his interest in public affairs to that taken by any good citizen, has contributed of his talents, means and time to the furtherance of worthy movements. With his family, Mr. Kumler belongs to the United Brethren church at West Middletown. In 1888 Mr. Kumler was married to Miss Luella McGonigle, and they became the parents of six children: Joseph Zellar,

deceased; Harry E., a resident of Dayton; Stanley, deceased; Howard and Lee, who make their homes at Dayton; and an infant, deceased.

Peter Kurtz, who for eight years has been identified with the American Rolling mills, at Middletown, is a well-known, enterprising and progressive man, who, starting out in life for himself as a youth, has since been dependent upon his own resources, gaining all that he now possesses through his own energy and ability. He was born at North Industry, Ohio, August 22, 1882, a son of John B. and Mary (De Watceur) Kurtz, the former of whom died in 1901, while the latter still survives as a resident of North Industry. Mr. Kurtz has one sister, Edith, the wife of Charles Roshong, of Canton. Peter Kurtz received a public school education in his youth and when he entered upon his career it was in connection with the steel business, a line which he has followed ever since. He was variously employed for a number of years, and for a time was located at New Philadelphia, Ohio, whence he came in 1911 to Middletown to accept an important position with the American Rolling mills. He has advanced steadily in this company's service, and is now one of its most trusted employees. On January 20, 1903, Mr. Kurtz was married to Miss Ona Elizabeth Hurst, who was born August 16, 1886, at Magnolia, Ohio, daughter of John and Arilla (Gregory) Hurst. Mrs. Hurst comes of Revolutionary ancestry, her great-great-grandfather Green having fought in that struggle in the army of Gen. George Washington. Her grandfather married for his second wife an aunt of ex-President William H. Taft. One of her uncles fought in the Union army during the Civil war and lost his life on the battlefield of Gettysburg. John Hurst, who served in the Civil war as corporal, receiving his honorable discharge therefrom, died April 5, 1914, while his widow still survives. They were the parents of the following children: John, Edward, Harry, Mary of Canton, Margaret, deceased, and Ona Elizabeth. To Mr. and Mrs. Kurtz there have been born these children: John Hurst, born August 30, 1904; Arthur Thomas, born December 10, 1906; Pressley, deceased, who was born June 10, 1907, and died August 12, 1907; Margaret, born August 30, 1910; Wilbur, born March 17, 1912, died May 26,1912; and Mary, born January 17, 1914; and Mildred Catherine, born July 3, 1919. Since coming to Middletown, Mr. Kurtz has contributed to the upbuilding of the city an attractive and comfortable home located on Shafor avenue, where he and his wife are always pleased to welcome their friends, of whom these prepossessing people with likeable personalities have many. Mr. Kurtz stands for principle rather than party in politics. He is affiliated with the Eagles, Moose, Red Men and Amalgamated Association of Steel Workers.

Herman L. Kutter, secretary, sales manager and technical engineer of the Black-Clawson company, of Hamilton, an organization of financial strength and country-wide reputation, is one of the able and forceful business men of this city. He was born in Bavaria, Germany, a son of L. and Marie Kutter, natives of the same country, where the father, a paper manufacturer, died while the mother still survives and is a resident of Silesia. Of the children, Herman,

Richard, Rudolph and Eugene, all are living except Richard. After completing a technical course in paper manufacturing and paper mill operation, Herman Kutter came to the United States at the age of twenty years and took employment with the Bagley & Sewell company, at Watertown, N. Y. After being with that concern for a short time, he was employed with a paper mill in Wisconsin, and then became machine tender for the same company. Going to the Michigan Sulphite Fibre company, of Port Huron, Mich., he was made assistant superintendent, and then associated himself with the Lake Superior Paper company, of Sault Ste. Marie, Mich., in the capacity of construction engineer. Mr. Kutter came to the Black-Clawson company, of Hamilton, as a draughtsman, rose to be chief draughtsman, and was eventually made secretary, sales manager and chief engineer, which position he now holds, his duties being chiefly technical in character, including the designing of paper and pulp making machinery, and in this connection his name has become widely known in the industry and bids fair to become still more familiar. As a guiding principle throughout his life, Mr. Kutter has always adhered to the motto: "It can be done." To timidly accept failure at the gruff command of dissappointment has failed utterly to accord with his strong character and superior ability, and any project which initially has received the endorsement of his better judgment has had his enthusiastic support to the very end. He belongs to various scientific societies, including the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Pulp Paper Technical association, and his high standing in business circles is evidenced by his secretaryship of the Manufacturers' association of Hamilton. He is also a member of the Hamilton club and the Hamilton Country club, and is a Mason of high standing and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine, Syrian Temple, Cincinnati. In 1894 Mr. Kutter married Florence, daughter of Thomas Kennedy, of Detroit, Mich. During the war period, Mrs. Kutter had charge of the knitted woolens in this locality for the Red Cross society.

George Huston Kyger. Belonging to one of the honored pioneer families of Butler county, George Huston Kyger is numbered among its native sons, his birth having occurred at Darrtown, where he now lives, July 17, 1878, a son of Huston Daniel Kyger. He has passed his life here as a farmer and stock raiser and is accounted one of his community's most progressive and enterprising agriculturists and substantial citizens. The paternal grandparents of Mr. Kyger, Daniel and Ann (Teegarden) Kyger, were pioneer settlers of Butler county, taking up land on section 30, Milford township. This was all wild property, but the sturdy grandparents transformed the wilderness into a productive farm and comfortable home and there rounded out long and honorable careers. They were the parents of these children: George, deceased, who was a merchant at Oxford, Ohio; Moses, deceased, who was a resident of that place; Huston Daniel; Maria, deceased who was the wife of John Wallace, deceased; Henrietta deceased, who was the wife of Joseph Nichols; and Elizabeth, deceased, who was the wife of the late John Chatten. Huston Daniel Kyger was educated in the home schools of Darrtown

town in which community he was reared as a farmer on the home place and was married in 1871 to Louisa Flenner, of Milford township, a daughter of Adam and Catherine (Wehr) Flenner, natives of Butler county and farming people of Woods dale, Ohio. Adam and Catherine Flenner were the parents of these children: Chambers, a farmer of Milford township, who married Laura Elliott of Darrtown and died March 3,1899; Nathan, who is single and resides at Darrtown; Louisa, who became Mrs. Kyger; Harriet, who married William Levin of Darrtown; Lavanda, the widow of John Clements, of Hamilton; and Catherine, who married Cornelius Irwin. For his second wife, Adam Flenner married Amanda Harnnek, of Westchester, Ohio, and they had these children: Ollie, who is deceased; Frank; James, of Trenton, Ohio; Elizabeth, who married Joseph Wehr, of Overpeck, Ohio; and Isabelle, who married George Cook, of Westchester. Early in his career, Huston Daniel Kyger became a breeder of fine trotting horses and gradually developed into a man of national reputation in that line, having bred and owned such horses as Kit Kurry, Mansfield, Ed Ammon, Frank and others. He followed the racing circuit for thirty-five years all over the United States, but while he was one of the best known horsemen of his day did not devote his time entirely to that business, as he was also the owner of a fine farm and a planing mill and sawmill, in addition to which he carried on an extensive tobacco business, in which latter he lost some $65,000 when he was burned out in 1876. He was a Democrat in politics and an influential man in his party during his day, and as a fraternalist was a charter member of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He was also the principal founder of the Home Protective association, of which he was the author of the by-laws, and was always active in matters of this kind. His death occurred September 19, 1908, at the age of seventy-four years, while Mrs. Kyger passed away in 1886, aged forty years, in the faith of the Methodist Episcopal church. They were the parents of five children: Anna, who married William Ramsey, of Darrtown; Ella, who died single; George H., of this notice; John F.; and Catherine, who married Clarence McVicker, of Darrtown. John F. Kyger, of Darrtown, is a farmer of Butler county and in partnership with his brother, George H. He is president of the Butler County Farmers' bureau and of the Queen City Milk Producers' association of Cincinnati, a breeder of pure bred Holstein cattle and active in township and county affairs. He married Miss Effie Meeks. Like his brothers and sisters, George Huston Kyger attended the public schools of his native place and was reared on the home farm, where the brothers remained with their father until the elder man's death. With him they had been in the trotting horse business for several years and had assisted him in developing some of his most famous animals, but in 1915, the brothers, who had taken over the management of the farm, turned their attention more particularly to the raising of pure bred Holstein cattle, a business in which they have continued to the present, with constantly-increasing success. Mr. Kyger and his brother operate a farm of 225 acres, devoted to general farming purposes, and are accounted among the most

progressive and thoroughly capable men in their line in this part of the county. Their farm work is characterized by the use of the most highly improved equipment and nothing but modern methods, practically applied, are sanctioned. George Huston Kyger was married June 6, 1916, to Maria Kabig, born in Wood county, Ohio, and they are the parents of two children: Helen Louise, born April 17, 1917; and Frank Huston, born April 2, 1919. Mr. Kyger is a staunch Democrat in politics, and as a fraternalist is a member of the Knights of Pythias at Darrtown.

Benjamin Franklin Kyle. The Kyle family is one of the pioneers in Ohio, it having been founded in this state at a very early date by Samuel Kyle, a native of Pennsylvania, who, impressed by the tales of the desirable lands to be secured in the newly opened region, made the then long and dangerous trip overland from Pennsylvania to Ohio, and located permanently in Butler county, his original farm being the site of the present Kyle Station, named in his honor. He obtained a section of land, and when his four sons reached their majority, each one was given 160 acres. These sons were as follows: Samuel and James, both of whom lived on the old homestead; Robert, who lives in Illinois; and Roland, who lived on the homestead. James Kyle, the father of Benjamin F., was born in Pennsylvania, and was brought by his father to Butler county, O., where he spent the remainder of his life, and there died. In politics a staunch Republican, he was too much occupied by his agricultural activities, which included farming and stock raising upon an extensive scale, to enter into the race for political preferment. The Methodist Episcopal church had in him a conscientious member. James Kyle was married first to a Miss Clark, and second to a Mrs. Conover. By his first marriage, James Kyle had three children, namely: Marian, who married A. C. Martin; Benjamin F., whose name heads this review; and James, who lived for some time at Kyle Station, later moved to Cincinnati, O. All of these children are now deceased. The children by his second marriage were also three in number. Benjamin Franklin Kyle, who is now deceased, was born in Butler county, O., in 1837, and he died May 23, 1900, on his old homestead. Growing up in Butler county, he was given the advantages provided by the local schools, Monroe academy and business college of Cincinnati, Ohio, and he also learned to be a farmer from his experienced father, remaining on the homestead until 1864, when he left Ohio for Illinois, and for a time was interested in manufacturing gang saws at Rock Island, under the firm name of Donaldson & Kyle. After four years at Rock Island, in 1869, he returned to Butler county, O., and resumed his agricultural operations, becoming one of the leading farmers and stockmen of his locality. When he died he had been for forty years a member of the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, and its oldest living member. While still living at Rock Island, Mr. Kyle was married in 1868, to Miss Helen Leiter, born in Stark county, O., a daughter of S. K. Leiter, who came at an early date to Stark county, O., where he was married. Later he brought his family to Hamilton, O., arriving here in 1845, and he and his wife had three children, namely: Mrs. Kyle, and Frank A., who served as a soldier

in the Union army during the Civil war, and after his discharge, located at Toledo, O.; and Clara, who died in childhood. After he came to Hamilton, Mr. Leiter, who was a carpenter by trade, opened a sash, door and blind factory, and operated it as well as conducting a large contracting business, erecting a number of the residences and business blocks of his day, including the opera house and the Burdette block. In 1870, he went to Emporia, Kans., where he was extensively interested in the coal mining industry. In 1875 he moved to Chicago, Ill., there engaging in business for several years, and died at the home of his daughter, Mrs. Kyle, at the ripe old age of eighty-one years. After the death of his first wife, in 1847, Mr. Leiter was married (second) to Sarah Morris of Hamilton, Ohio, who is also deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Kyle had the following children born to them: Harry, deceased; Blanche, who is living at Cincinnati, O.; Walter, who is also living at Cincinnati, O., married Mary Blodgett and has five children; Josie, who married William E. Brophy, lives in Liberty township, Butler county, O.; and Alice, who resides with her mother. These children were all carefully reared and given good educational opportunities, and are a source of great comfort and justifiable pride to their mother. While never inclined to place himself in the line of political preferment, Mr. Kyle always did his duty as a citizen, and cast his vote for the candidates of the Republican party. For many years he maintained his membership with the Bethany (Ohio) Methodist Episcopal church, and gave generously towards its support. He was a man whose judgments were upright and sincere; he never asked more of any man than he was willing to give in return, and he enjoyed a popularity which was widespread and well merited. In March, 1917, Mrs. Kyle moved to Hamilton, where she and Miss Alice have since resided. A lady of unusual attainments, she and her daughter have gathered about them a congenial circle of friends, with whom they are as popular as they were with those with whom they were associated in Butler county.

John W. Kyle. Among the old and honored residents of Butler county's agricultural contingent, few can boast of better or more loyal service to the community's interests over a long period of years than can John W. Kyle. Since young manhood he has been a successful tiller of the soil, and for many years he has occupied positions of public trust and responsibility, and under all conditions he has shown himself eminently worthy of the confidence reposed in him. Mr. Kyle was born on the old Kyle homestead in Lemon township, Butler county, O., November 15, 1842, a son of William Kyle. The family was founded in Liberty township, Butler county, at an early day by the grandfather of John W. Kyle, Thomas Kyle, who bought land upon his arrival from Pennsylvania. He passed his entire life here in the development of a farm and was a true type of the sturdy, honest pioneer citizens who paved the way for later development and progress. William Kyle was born on the old homestead in Liberty township and there passed his entire life in agricultural pursuits. Like his father, he was a man who commanded respect because of the sterling qualities of his character and

who took a keen and helpful interest in the welfare of his community. He was married in this township to Miss Sarah Cheesman, whose people were early settlers of Butler county, and to this union there were born four children: John W., of this notice; Lydia, who married John Van Skaik, and died February 15, 1888; Martha, who lives on the old homestead. In the sketch of William Kyle m this work the genealogy of the Kyle family will be found; and Louis. John W. Kyle received a district school education and also attended the public school at Monroe, and grew up on the home farm, where he made his home until his first marriage. This occurred in 1865, when he was united with Naomi Van Skaik, of Lemon township, a daughter of George Van Skaik. She died August 1, 1871, leaving one daughter, Tena, who was cared for by her grandparents till their demise and who now resides with her Aunt Martha, on the old homestead, which they own conjointly. For his second wife Mr. Kyle married Lizzie Ammons, who died August 31, 1902, she being a daughter of Garwood Ammons. Mr. Kyle was married a third time, being united with Mary E. Anderson, of Lemon township, widow of John Anderson, and a daughter of Frank Garver. After his first marriage Mr. Kyle located on a farm near Monroe, O., where he bought a tract of thirty-five acres, and on which he resided for practically a quarter of a century. During 1886 and 1887 he served as superintendent of the Butler County infirmary, and in 1890 located on his grandfather's old place, where he resided for two years. In 1891 and 1892 he was again superintendent of the Butler County infirmary, and then located on the old homestead once more, but in 1913 took up his residence on the Shoemaker farm, where he lived for four years. In 1918 he settled on the Cole farm, in Lemon township, one and one-half miles east of Middletown, where he has since carried on successful operations on his 200-acre tract. Mr. Kyle is now largely engaged in general farming, but in former years was greatly interested in the breeding of Poland China hogs and fine horses, with which he took many valuable prizes, and is still considered one of the best judges of live stock in his county. He is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and is a generous and large-hearted man who has many friends in his community. In his political views he is a Democrat, and for a quarter of a century served Lemon township on its board of trustees.

William Kyle. The substantive claim of the late William Kyle for enumeration among the representative citizens who in the past have assisted in the development of Butler county, rests upon a long career of constructive agricultural endeavor and splendid discharge of the responsibilities of good citizenship. During his long and useful life he exemplified at all times the possession of the highest integrity, and while his death occurred a number of years ago, his memory is still kept green in the hearts of the many who had come to know of his sterling qualities of mind and heart. William Kyle belonged to one of the earliest settled families of Butler county, and was born November 14, 1813, on the old Kyle homestead, in Lemon township. His father, Samuel Kyle, was born at Mercersburg, Pa., February 23, 1785, and died February 1, 1870; and his mother,

Martha (Long) Kyle, who was married January 28, 1808, was born July 13 1790, and died March 2, 1864. Their children were as follows: Thomas, born January 4, 1809, married Eliza Harkrader; James, born November 4, 1810; William; Elizabeth, born August 26, 1815, married Thomas Van Cleave and died September 6, 1891; Jane, born September 26, 1819, married Jacob Mulford, and died April 10, 1871; Sarah Ann, born September 24, 1820, married John Harkrader; Maria, born June 21, 1825, married George Bercaw, and died March 16, 1876; John, born December 29, 1829, died February 10, 1841; and Samuel, born February 5, 1832, married, first, Mary Webster, and second, Josephine Lyon, and died December 28, 1910. Samuel Kyle the elder was one of the earliest settlers of Liberty township, Butler county. In March, 1803, in company with his father, Thomas Kyle, he came down the Ohio river in a flatboat to Cincinnati, at that time a small hamlet, and made his way thence to Liberty township, where he located on a farm and lived on it for sixty years. A man of marked industry and real ability, he accumulated a competence for his declining years and was also able to furnish farms for all his children, and his success in life was not bought at the sacrifice of his personal integrity; on the contrary his transactions were always notably free from any taint of dishonesty or doubtful methods. William Kyle, growing up in a new and undeveloped country, had only somewhat limited opportunities to gain an education. However, he was observant and intelligent and in making the most of his chances was able to become a well educated man and one of broad knowledge of essential facts. He was reared on the home farm and there remained until his marriage, February 1, 1842, to Miss Sarah Cheesman, who was born in New Jersey, May 13, 1823, daughter of Abijah and Hannah (Parker) Cheesman. This family came early to Butler county, O., where Mr. Cheesman was engaged in agricultural pursuits. There were the following children in the Cheesman family: Sarah, who died January 13, 1914; Anna, born October 8, 1825, who married first John Kyle and second Stacey Brant and died February 27, 1910; Lewis, born October 13, 1827, died January 8, 1915; Elizabeth, born September 16, 1830, who is the widow of Peter Shafer and lives in Liberty township; John, born February 15, 1833, who married Eliza Clark, now deceased, and lives in Liberty township; Lydia, born November 7,1836, and died June 14, 1919; William, born December 13, 1841, who married Emmeline Kyle, and died August 16, 1897, his widow living at Monroe, died April 28, 1909; and Mary Jane, born January 10,1.845, who married Samuel Mulford, and died May 26, 1883. Following his marriage, William Kyle settled on the farm in Lemon township which is now occupied by his daughter and granddaughter. At that time it consisted of eighty-one acres, and was practically devoid of improvements, but Mr. Kyle's industry and good management soon remedied matters, and in addition to clearing his land and to putting in many modern improvements and erecting good buildings, added fifty-six acres to his property. As the years passed, he became well-to-do through his well-directed efforts, and when he died, July 2, 1885, he was accounted one of

the substantial men of his community. While he was a great man for his home, and found his greatest pleasure there, he was by no means indifferent to the pleasure of companionship of his fellow-men, and was widely known and well liked. While he was a staunch Democrat, his political activities were largely confined to the .casting of his vote, although he was interested in the welfare of his community, and an ardent supporter of every movement which promised civic progress of any kind. He and his wife, who is also deceased, became the parents of the following children: John, a farmer of Lemon township, a sketch of whom will be found in another page of this work, has one daughter, Tena, by his first wife, who has always made her home with her aunt Martha and grandmother on the home place in Lemon township; Lydia, deceased February 15, 1888 who was the wife of John Van Skaik; Martha, single, who has always made her home on the old farm; Lewis, who resided on the homestead until his death, in 1901; and Hannah, who died at the age of two years. Martha and Tena Kyle, who now occupy the home place, are the owners of this property, which now consists of 197 acres of valuable and productive land. The farm is under a good state of cultivation and as operated is a decidedly paying investment. Both aunt and niece are well known to the people of Lemon township, where they have spent their entire lives, and are highly esteemed and have numerous warm and affectionate friends and well-wishers.

Francis Ellsworth Lacey. In Francis Ellsworth Lacey, Butler county has a farmer who conforms his labor to high standards. His present property is located in Ross township, in which community he stands high in the estimation of his fellow-citizens. Mr. Lacey was born on a farm in Fairfield township, Butler county, Ohio, August 15,1866, a son of Wesley and Elizabeth (Riley) Lacey. The father, a native of Pennsylvania, was brought as a lad to Butler county by his parents and here passed a long and honorable career in the pursuits of the soil. Levi and Thomas Lacey, brothers of Wesley, fought as soldiers of the Union during the Civil war. The children of Wesley and Elizabeth Lacey were: Willie, Charles, George W.; Mary, who became Mrs. Daniel Bevington; Isabella, who became Mrs. Joseph Luechener; Wesley, Thomas and Francis Ellsworth. Francis E. Lacey received a public school education in the rural districts of Fairfield township, and when he left school began to apply himself to farming in association with his father. His independent career was not started until after his marriage to Zona, daughter of Montgomery Alston, of Fairfield township. Mrs. Lacey died several years later, leaving one child, Frances Elizabeth. Later Mr. Lacey was united in marriage with Ipha, daughter of Robert Vaughan, of Brown county, Ohio, and to this union there have been born two children: Hazel Marie and Edith May. Mr. Lacey has devoted himself to farming and has made a success of his operations, his property in Ross township being a highly improved, productive and valuable country estate. Notwithstanding his many home duties, he is active in general township affairs, and is a staunch Republican. Fraternally, he is affiliated with the Masons and the Eagles.


William E. Lackey. Of the men who have passed their lives in the Miami valley, and who have devoted their energies to the vocation of farming, none have a better record for success fairly and honorably won, in a straightforward manner and without animosity, than has William E. Lackey, whose model farm is located in Madison township, Butler county. Mr. Lackey began his career under humble circumstances, and the success that has come to him has been the direct result of his own industry and well-directed efforts. Mr. Lackey was born on Clear Creek, Warren county, Ohio, October 19, 1853, a son of John and Unity (Wells) Lackey, natives of Butler county, although the maternal grandparents were from Pennsylvania. The paternal grandparents of Mr. Lackey had a large family. John Lackey, during a somewhat varied career, lived at various places in Ohio, at Ridgeville, Harpersburg, near Dayton and Franklin, and died at Lebanon, in December, 1905. He was employed at various occupations, although his principal vocation was farming, and was a man who had the esteem and friendship of his neighbors in whatever community he resided. He and Mrs. Lackey, who died June 27, 1900, had the following children: William E., of this notice; Lincoln, a resident of Lebanon, Ohio; Horace; Addie, of Centerville, Ohio; Harry; Cassie, of Franklin; Essie, of Detroit, Mich.; Bertha and Jobe, both deceased; and Harter, a carpenter of Dayton. William E. Lackey received only a common school education, and this somewhat limited, as, being oldest in his family's large household, he was expected to be his father's chief assistant in procuring the family income. He remained under the parental roof until he nearly reached his majority, and was married January 31, 1884, to Ada May Earnhart, who was born north of Lebanon, Ohio, a daughter of Charles E. and Maria (Graham) Earnhart, natives of Warren county, Ohio, and farming people. Their children were William, who makes his home in Missouri; David LeRoy of Waynesville; Perry L., who lives north of Lebanon; Elmer, a resident of Dayton; Ada M.; Anna E.; Homer, deceased; Clara B.; Hattie and Ralph. To Mr. and Mrs. Lackey there have been born five children, as follows: Florence, who died at the age of eleven years; Carrie, who married David Weikel of Madison township and has four children, Homer, Marie, Elmer and Ada May; Mabel, who resides with her parents and is single; and Ethel, who married George Smith and has two children, Florence and Esther; and Ralph at home. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Lackey settled on a farm north of Lebanon, from which community they removed to near Lytle, where they spent nine years in farming. From the Lytle property they came to the farm which Mr. Lackey now owns, in section 28, Madison township, where he has 105 acres under cultivation. By constant, systematic and intelligent care he has made this one of the handsome and valuable farms of the county. He is a general farmer, as well as a breeder of stock, and in all departments of farm work has displayed thorough knowledge and splendid mechanical and business capacity. As before noted, he started life with but little to encourage him save his own self-reliance and determination, and with these he has overcome all the

obstacles which have lain in his path. Mr. Lackey is a public-spirited citizen and takes an interest in the affairs of the township and county. In him church and school have always found a ready help and advocate, and his time and means are freely given to the maintenance of the public welfare. His political support is enlisted upon behalf of the Republican party.

August H. Lamb. Among the men who in past years were identified with business matters at Middletown, and who, because of their excellent commercial qualifications and talent, as well as their business integrity, are still remembered by their former associates, was the late August H. Lamb. A native of this city, he was distinctively a product of its virile life, by education, by training and by inclination, and his record was one that reflected credit upon himself and upon his community, whether taken from the standpoint of business acumen or from the viewpoint of good citizenship. Mr. Lamb was born at Middletown, Ohio, September 24, 1855, a son of Adam and Barbara (Walter) Lamb. His parents, natives of Germany, emigrated to the United States in 1852, and for a number of years Adam Lamb was successfully engaged at Middletown in real estate ventures and the grocery business. Both he and his wife are now deceased. They were the parents of four children: August H.; Mrs. Mary Huffman, who is deceased; Millie, now Mrs. G. Smedley, a resident of Hamilton, Ohio; and Frank, of Cincinnati. August Lamb received his education in the public schools of Middletown, and when he entered business it was after a preliminary training by his father. He was associated with the elder man for some time, but later embarked upon ventures of his own, in which he won success because of his marked and inherent business talent, his great industry and his faculty for close application and lasting perseverance. He was one of his city's most charitable men, and no worthy request met with an unfavorable reply from him. He was also a staunch supporter of movements calculated to help the city, and was the prime mover in a number of enterprises which made for better and cleaner civic life. When he died, December 15, 1918, at the age of sixty-three years, his community lost one of its best citizens. Mr. Lamb was married December 11, 1896, to Mrs. Elizabeth (Luibel) Green, the widow of the late D. J. Green. Mrs. Lamb married her first husband in 1896, and they were the parents of one daughter, Clara Emma, who, June 7, 1888, married Nathan Oglesby, shipping clerk at the Colin-Gardner Paper company, at Middletown. Mr. and Mrs. Oglesby are the parents of six children: Edwin, who married Helen Royce of Portsmouth, Ohio; Ruth, who married Harold Royce, of Portsmouth; and Elizabeth, Mildred, August and Nathan, who reside with their parents. Mrs. Lamb is a daughter of Frank and Frances (Stricker) Luibel, natives of Germany who came to the United States as young people and settled at Cincinnati. They became the parents of the following children: Frank; Louis, of Springfield, Ohio, who is deceased. Elizabeth, now Mrs. Lamb; Adelina; Mrs. Cornelius Kelly, who is deceased; Frances; and Mrs. Michael Meehan. Mrs. Lamb, who survives her husband and still resides at Middletown, has recently

remodeled her beautiful home on Tytus avenue, where she has twelve acres in the grounds. Since her husband's death she has managed his estate in an excellent manner, being a woman of splendid business qualifications, and has also taken care of his various charities. She is a faithful member of St. Johns church and has taken an active part in the religious, missionary and benevolent work of that congregation.

George Lamb, a lifelong resident of Middletown and one of her most influential citizens, is a son of George Charles and Bena (Young) Lamb, who came from New York to Middletown seventy years ago and for fifteen years was engaged in active business pursuits. His death occurred seventeen years ago; that of Mrs. Lamb on December 25, 1894. The subject of this sketch had two brothers and one sister - Charles at Rockford, Ill.; Peter in Middletown; Bena, Mrs. W. H. Drayer, deceased. October 28, 1887, he married Miss Sevilla Becker, daughter of Michael and Sevilla (Boecher) Becker, of New Middletown, Ind. She had two brothers and a sister: Peter and Michael, farmers in Butler county, Ohio; Eva, deceased. Her father died eleven years ago; the mother still lives. Three sons out of the seven children born to them was the contribution made to the country by these parents: George C., in France; Raymond, in service; Dr. William, in the Navy. The other children are Stella. Mrs. Bob Greathouse; Walter, Edna and Edward, all in Middletown. Mr. Lamb is a man of pleasing personality and magnificent presence, public-spirited and very progressive. He was long engaged in the liquor business and met with great financial success. Several years ago he retired from active business life and built and furnished a palatial residence on Third street, where he, with his family, enjoys life. Mr. Lamb holds membership in St. Paul's church, and in politics is liberal.

Samuel C. Landis. In the career of Samuel C. Landis there has been demonstrated the fact that an individual can dominate in more than one line of activity. His life work has not been confined to a single avenue of effort, for he has been both educator and farmer, and in addition has served his locality capably and conscientiously in various official capacities, being an ex-state legislator and at present deputy auditor of Butler county. Samuel C. Landis, one of Hamilton's most highly esteemed and useful citizens, was born on a farm in Milford township, Butler county, Ohio, December 11, 1856, a son of Jacob K. and Rebecca (Jones) Landis, the former a native of the same county and the latter of the village of Jacksonboro. Jacob K. Landis was a farmer up to the time of the Civil war, in which he fought bravely as a private in Company I, 5th Ohio Volunteer Cavalry, but the hardships of war caused him to become an invalid, and as such he remained until his premature death in 1887. He and Mrs. Landis were the parents of three children: Samuel C.; Philip, who is deceased; and Beulah, the wife of Rolland Hiatt, of Straughn, Ind. After attending the public schools of Seven Mile, Ohio, Samuel C. Landis entered upon his career as an educator. For thirteen years he was thus engaged, and for six years was principal of the Third Ward school of Hamilton. During- this time

he studied law, and was admitted to the state bar, but never took up the active practice of his profession. For some time he was engaged in farming in Butler county, and for three years was located at Blanchester, this state, as manager of the 1200-acre farm of Judge A. F. Hume, but in 1901 returned to Hamilton, and after two years spent in teaching again took up farming. In the meantime, in 1893, he had become the candidate of the Democratic party for the office of representative to the state legislature, and, being elected, served in that august body during the sessions of 1894-1895 and 1896-1897, working faithfully in behalf of his constituents and his state. On his return to Hamilton, he was appointed deputy auditor of Butler county, and after three years resumed farming in Butler county on his own property, where he remained until October, 1915. He was then appointed deputy auditor again, under Q. A. Davis, and has continued to serve in this capacity to the present time. He is a careful, accurate, energetic and thoroughly reliable official, and one whose experience and talents make him an excellent man in the position. Other public affairs have found him eager to share the responsibilities of citizenship, and during the war period he was particularly active, especially in the matter of assisting in the proper making out and filing of questionnaires, a duty which he took up by appointment. As a member of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks he was also very active in the sale of Liberty bonds and was a member of the War Savings Stamps committee of that order. Mr. Landis is the owner of an attractive home at No. 312 N. Second street. He is widely known and it has been said of him that every time he makes an acquaintance his list of friendships is increased by one. In 1888, Mr. Landis married Anna, daughter of John and Mary Harlow, farming people of the Hamilton community of Butler county, and to this union there was born one child: May E., the wife of Clarke Marion, of Overpeck, Ohio, with one daughter, Anna May. Mrs. Landis is a devout member of the Catholic church.

Harry G. Lang, a native of New York, son of George John and Louise (Kohm) Lang, was born in Buffalo, October 19, 1889, and received his education in the public schools of that city. In 1911, he located in Middletown, Ohio, and October 28, of the same year, married Mane Coyne, daughter of James and Hattie (Rue) Coyne, the result of which union was a daughter, Harriett Louise, born August 5, 1912. The parents of both Mr. and Mrs. Lang are still living. Mrs. Lang's father has been a mail carrier in Middletown for many years. She has also one sister, Ellen, Mrs. Gus. Nichol, of Middletown.. Mr. Lang has two brothers and two sisters, William, John, Mamie, and Edna, living in Buffalo. For the past eight years, Mr. Lang has been associated with the American Rolling Mills company as a heater, and is one of the steady and reliable men connected with the plant. He is very conservative, a man of excellent judgment and has hosts of friends among his acquaintances and fellow-workmen. He is a member of the Episcopal church and fraternizes with the Elks and Eagles. In politics, he holds liberal views.

Amos Larew, who is known as the leading carpenter and builder of Union township and well known in his trade and otherwise all '

over Butler county, was born at Crestonville, Ohio, August 12 1860, son of Henry and Mary Larew, grandson of Amos Larew and great-grandson of Moses Larew, who was the founder of the family in Ohio. In his earlier life Henry Larew was a farmer and owned 120 acres of excellent land. Later in life he followed the carpenter trade and it was with his father that Amos Larew had his first practical training with adz, plane and saw. This has been Mr. Larew's business in life and all over the county may be found samples of his skill in house building. In 1884 he married Anna Kitchen, and they have four children, namely: Charles, George, Mary and Olive. Olive is the wife of Elmer Surface and they have three children: Robert, Homer and Catherine. Mr. Larew and his family belong to the Presbyterian church at West Chester. He is somewhat prominent in Democratic political circles, has taken part in many party caucuses and has served in the office of road supervisor.

Rudolph George Laubach. Among the men who have made excellent records as the incumbents of public office in Butler county, Rudolph George Laubach is an example. For a number of years a traveling salesman, and widely known in various parts of Ohio by reason of his business connections, he has proven a capable and faithful deputy sheriff, and during his residence at Hamilton has succeeded in forming a number of lasting friendships, based upon esteem and respect. Mr. Laubach was born in Butler county, Ohio, May 18, 1878, a son of Valentine and Marie (Schafer) Laubach, the former of whom came to the United States from his native Germany and settled as a young man in Lemon township, Butler county. Not long thereafter he met and married Marie Schafer, who had also been born in Germany, arid who was a child when she came to Madison township, Butler county. After their marriage the parents settled on a farm in Butler county, and continued as honored and respected agricultural people of Lemon township during the remainder of their lives. They had four children: Dora, deceased, who was the wife of Arthur Millin, a resident of Florida; Herman, residing in Oklahoma; Paulina, the wife of Sheriff Pepper, of Butler county; and Rudolph G. After his graduation from the high school of Trenton, Ohio, Rudolph G. Laubach took a course in a commercial college at Hamilton, and at that time began traveling for wholesale houses. He was thus employed until 1916, when he was appointed a deputy sheriff of Butler county, a position in which he has since served with ability and faithful discharge of duty. He was married June 6, 1899, to Louisa, daughter of Charles and Catherine Ranke, the former of whom, a cooper by vocation, is now deceased, and the latter a resident of Hamilton. Their other children were Charles, William and Theresa. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Laubach resided for a time at Middletown, whence they came to Hamilton, and since 1903 have resided at their pleasant home on Campbell avenue. They are the parents of five children: Catherine, who is a stenographer in the Chamber of Commerce, and a graduate of high school and a commercial college; Oren, who is employed by the Miami Motor Car company; Robert, attending high school; and John and Russell, attending the graded schools. Mr. Laubach is

past dictator of the Loyal Order of Moose. Also a member of the Elks, Fraternal Order of Eagles and Commercial Travelers of America. He took an active part in all war activities and was a supporter of the Red Cross, Liberty Loan and War Savings Stamps drives.

Dennis B. Lauderback. The qualities of common sense, ability, good judgment and perseverance have been applied in the active and energetic life of Dennis Burrel Lauderback, and have won for him a substantial position among the reliable men of his community. During the past seventeen years he has been identified with the American Rolling mill, and for five of these years has been employed at the plant at Middletown, where he occupies the post of roller. He was born at Georgetown, Ohio, April 25, 1878, a son of Michael W. and Agnes (Allen) Lauderback, the former a veteran of the Civil war, through which he fought as a soldier of the Union. Michael W. Lauderback died in 1907, while his widow still survives. They were the parents of nine children: Dennis B.; Mattie and John, who are deceased; Grant, of Pike county, Ohio; Allen and May, of Brown county, this state; Henry, deceased; and Rosa and Corda, residing with their mother. The last-named was with the 319th Field Signal Battalion which he joined at Massillon during the great war, and saw overseas service in France. Dennis B. Lauderback received a public school education at Georgetown, and as a young man learned his trade, which he followed at various places until locating at Cincinnati. From that city, in 1901, he went to Amanda, Ohio, and about that time entered the employ of the American Rolling Mill company, as a roller, with which concern he has since been identified. In 1914 he came to Middletown and entered the same plant as a roller, a position which he has since held and in which he has gained good standing as a reliable and thoroughly competent workman. Mr. Lauderback is a good manager and is the owner of an attractive home at No. 929 Logan avenue, in which neighborhood he has numerous friends, as he has also among his co-workers at the plant. He is a member of the local lodge of the Odd Fellows, and in his political alliance supports the candidates and principles of the Republican party. With his family, he belongs to the United Brethren church. April 24, 1900, Mr. Lauderback was united in marriage with Miss Mattie Stivers, of Cincinnati, and to this union there have been born the following five children: Nellie, a member of the class of 1920 of the Middletown high school; Dennis B., jr., a junior of the high school; Agnes Alvira, Alberta and Delta, all in the grade schools.

William G. Laughlin. Ever since its incorporation, Butler county has been noted for its phenomenal development, due not only to the fertility of its land, but to the industry and public spirit of its citizens as well. Particularly has this rapid advancement been noted during the past several decades, during which it has taken great strides and assumed a place among the leading counties of the Miami valley. One who has shared in this work of general advancement is William G. Laughlin, who owns and operates a productive farm of eighty acres lying in section 18, Milford township. Mr. Laughlin

was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, February 15, 1864, a son of David and Mary (Stewart) Laughlin. His parents, natives of Ireland, emigrated to the United States as young people and met and were married at Cincinnati. Some years afterward they removed to a farm near Mechanicsburg, Ohio, where the father carried on operations until his retirement. This highly respected old citizen is a veteran of the Civil war, having served in the Union army, and been with General Sherman on his famous March to the Sea, and is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic and of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. He and his worthy wife, who died in July, 1873, were the parents of four children, of whom only William G. survives. William G. Laughlin had but scanty opportunity to attend school as a lad, for at the time of his mother's death, when he was only nine and one-half years of age, he went to live with his grandfather Stewart and his educational training was somewhat neglected. However, he made the most of his opportunities and today is a man well informed upon all essential matters. At the age of nineteen years he left his grandfather's home and went to Osage, Kans., where he remained for several years engaged in farming, then coming to Butler county, where he purchased his present farm. He has made all the improvements on this property and is engaged successfully in general farming. He has not confined his interest to his own personal affairs, for he has been found ever ready to lend his aid to whatever promised to work out for the ultimate good of the community, and by his own example has done much to advance and improve the standard of farming in his neighborhood. He is independent in his political affiliation and has never been a seeker after personal preferment. He and the members of his family belong to the United Presbyterian church at Oxford. Mr. Laughlin was married in 1905 to Anna Luella Finlay, of Milford township, a daughter of John and Mary J. (Todd) Finlay, of County Downs, Ireland. After coming to the United States Mr. and Mrs. Finlay settled in Milford township, Butler county, where the father followed farming until his death in 1905, his widow surviving until 1914 and passing away in the faith of the Presbyterian church. They had eight children : Anna Luella, who became Mrs. Laughlin; Robert, of Collinsville, Ohio, who married Lucinda Harden; Edward H., a farmer of Milford township, who married Nora Blount; Alberta, a teacher in Milford township; Charles, a farmer in the same township; John and Margaret, who are single and residents of Milford township; and one child who died in infancy. Mr. and Mrs. Laughlin are the parents of two children: Mary Chastine, born November 24,1906; and Howard Stewart, born July 5, 1908.

Frank J. Law. The farming and stockraising interests of Butler county have a capable, energetic and progressive representative in Frank J. Law, who has devoted his life to these vocations and has had the satisfactory experience of having made a success of his undertakings. At this time he is the owner of a productive property situated in the vicinity of Jacksonboro, where he is exhibiting the possession of abilities as a tiller of the soil and a raiser of high grade cattle, while as a citizen his community has no more helpful

member, he having filled a number of local offices to the entire satisfaction of his townspeople. Mr. Law was born at Trenton, Ohio, and is a son of John F. and Sarah (Trion) Law, being descended on the paternal side from an old family of New Jersey, and on the maternal side from an honored line of Pennsylvania. His paternal great-grandfather came to America from England as a British subject during the War of the Revolution, but, becoming convinced of the justice of the colonists' cause, deserted the British man-of-war and joined the forces of Gen. George Washington. After the war he settled in New Jersey, from whence his descendants gradually drifted toward the West. The maternal great-grandfather of Mr. Law was an Indian fighter during his day and founded the Trion family in Pennsylvania. Frank J. Law grew up as a farmer's son and received his educational training in the public schools. He has passed his life as an agriculturist, and his present farm, located near Jacksonboro, consists of 112 acres, all acquired through the medium of his own efforts. He carries on general farming and raises fine stock, and, as before noted, has made a success in both departments of his work. A Democrat in his political views, he has been markedly interested in local affairs, and the manner in which he has discharged his duties in a number of township positions has left no doubt as to his entire fitness for public service or as to his conscientious desire to be a helpful factor in his community's progress and development. October 13, 1903, Mr. Law married Margaret A., daughter of Benjamin F. and Ellen (Williams) Hartman, and to this union there was born a little daughter, Stella, who passed away when eight years and eight months old, in May, 1918. Mrs. Law's father, B. F. Hartman, was born in 1840 in Madison township and was educated in the schools of that vicinity. He was raised a farmer and married Ellen Williamson, by whom he had three daughters: Eliza Ann, who makes her home with Mrs. Law since the death of her parents, is single; Margaret A., now Mrs. Law, and Mary Elizabeth, now Mrs. Ross, who lives at W. Middletown, Ohio.

Roland Edward Layer, son of Peter and Catharine (Niswonger) Layer, was born in Bradford, Miami county, Ohio, July 12, 1869. His father was a farmer, but our subject preferred another vocation and upon leaving school, secured employment in the rolling mill at Piqua, Ohio, and on leaving that place went to Alexandria, Ind., thence to Hammond, Ind. When the plant of the American Rolling Mill Company was removed to Middletown, Ohio, he went there and remained fourteen months when he secured employment in the Sheet and Tube Mill at Youngstown, Ohio. The next move made was to Indiana Harbor, Ind., where he remained for three and one-half years, and then, August 9, 1905 he returned to Middletown took a position as heater with the American Rolling Mill company; and has since continued in its service. Mr. Layer's father died in Miami county, November 15,.1909; his mother, January 29, 1912. Mr. Layer was married to Carne Ellen Graham, daughter of Richard and Margaret (Mullen) Graham, on June 30, 1902. To this union five children were born: Edward Graham, February 3, 1904; James Orthal, March 6, 1906; Richard Roland, September 25,1907; David

William, December 6, 1909; Eugene Riley, August 3, 1914. Mrs. Layer is a charming woman, of lovely character, a devoted mother and a member of the Christian church. Mr. Layer is a close student and is possessed of more than ordinary intelligence. He is an omnivorous reader, has a large and well-selected library and is considered one of the best informed men in his community. He has been honored by appointment to a place on a committee on the high cost of living probe. Mr. Layer has purchased a comfortable home on Moore street, and contentment and happiness is the good fortune of the family. He is politically, a Socialist.

Orlando Rollin Ledwell, now deceased, was for many years one of the progressive farmers of the Miami valley, whose work as an agriculturist brought him favorable notice. He was born near Collinsville, Ohio, February 5, 1855, a son of Alfred and Hannah (Smith) Ledwell, natives of Virginia and Ohio, respectively. Alfred Ledwell was brought to Ohio by his parents when he was still a child, and was reared in this state, where he attended school, his educational advantages being limited to those offered by his neighborhood. When he attained to manhood's estate, he took up farming, and followed that calling all his life. He and his wife had the following children: Andrew, Mary E., Sarah, Ellsworth, Alfred, Lizzie, Malinda and Orlando R. Orlando R. Ledwell was reared under the parental roof, and from childhood was taught to make himself useful on the farm. After his marriage in 1881, he left home, and he and his wife rented a farm near Collinsville, on which they lived until they bought the old Simon Williamson place of ninety-four acres, one-half mile south of Collinsville. At that time this farm had been so neglected that it was in a very rundown condition, but Mr. Ledwell was a thoroughly practical farmer and knew just how to go to work to reclaim it, and he succeeded so well that this property became one of the most valuable in his township. He not only made it very productive, but he erected new buildings, put up fences, installed modern machinery and appliances, and with these aids, carried on farming in a thoroughly scientific manner, his methods being adopted by many of his neighbors. Here he was very successfully engaged in farming until his death, which took place February 28, 1914. December 29, 1881, Mr. Ledwell was united in marriage with Miss Mary Alice Shaffer, born near Geneva, Ind., a daughter of Henry and Elizabeth (Yeakle) Shaffer, he born October 13, 1828, and she born November 2, 1849, both being natives of Ohio. Henry Shaffer was a son of Frederick and Elizabeth Shaffer, natives of Pennsylvania, who came to Ohio at a very early day, driving overland with a horse and wagon and locating near Somerville, being among the pioneers of that part of the state. They entered heavily timbered land from the government, and cleared, developed and improved it, and became very well-to-do people. In their family were ten children. Henry Shaffer located on his father's farm, and here he spent the remainder of his life, dying at the age of fifty-five years. His first wife died at the age of forty years, having borne him the following children: John; Elizabeth, who died in 1916, was Mrs. Conrad Filler; Margaret, who is Mrs. Emanuel

Harsh; Laura, who is Mrs. William Capp; Sarah Loretta, who is now deceased, was Mrs. Andrew Ledwell of Preble county, Ohio; Mrs. Orlando R. Ledwell; William, who is deceased; Frank, who is engaged in a butchering business at Seven Mile, Ohio; and Joseph. After the death of his first wife, Henry Shaffer was married (second) to Mary Montgomery. Mr. and Mrs. Ledwell became the parents of the following children: William F., who is engaged in farming in the vicinity of Collinsville, married Edith Trustes, and they have one daughter, Doretha A.; Margaret, who died October 28, 1913, was Mrs. Grover Lane of Somerville, Ohio; Fay W., who is owner and proprietor of a garage at Collinsville, Ohio, married Luella Webber, and they have two children. Orlando Rollin and Gladys Irene. Mr. Ledwell was a man of considerable prominence, serving as supervisor of his township for thirteen years, and always supported the principles of the Republican party. A man of sincere and earnest manner, he convinced others of his fidelity to duty, and inspired confidence and respect. Essentially a home man, he took great pride in his wife and children, and sought to add to their happiness in every way possible. Mrs. Ledwell is a member of the Presbyterian church of Collinsville, which received substantial support from her. After his demise, Mrs. Ledwell moved to Seven Mile, where she is now residing. She is a woman possessed of loveable characteristics, a good Christian, a kind neighbor, and one to whom confidences are naturally given, for her advice is oftentimes needed by those whose experience is less and who lack her excellent judgment. She has been spared to see her family grow up about her and she takes a deep and natural pride in her children and grandchildren.

Arthur D. Lefferson. Of the men who in the past have long lent dignity and progressiveness to the business of agriculture in Butler county, none is held in higher esteem than Arthur D. Lefferson, who for forty-two years was engaged in farming in the Middletown community, but who is now retired from active pursuits. Mr. Lefferson is a member of one of the best known agricultural families of Butler county, and was born on Lebanon road, in Lemon township, March 28, 1847, a son of Garrett and Rachael (Clayton) Lefferson. The paternal great-grandparents of Mr. Lefferson, Arthur O. and Sarah (Schenck) Lefferson, were the parents of the following children: Margaret, Eleanor, Benjamm, Jane, Mary, Arthur, Ann, Garrett and Stafford. Arthur Lefferson, of these children, was born in New Jersey, where he married Eliza Barcolo and in 1810 came to Ohio and secured a large tract of land in Lemon township, Butler county,. on which he passed the remainder of his life in agricultural pursuits, dying in 1870. .He and his wife had the following children: Garrett, Tobias, Benjamin, Elizabeth, Sarah Ann and Rebecca. Garrett Lefferson, father of Arthur D., was born on a farm in section 8, Lemon township, January 21, 1814, and received an ordinary education in the public schools while growing to manhood in the midst of agricultural surroundings. When still a young man he settled on a farm in Lemon township, and this he cleared and developed into a valuable property, so that when he died at the

advanced age of nearly ninety years, he was one of the well-to-do and influential men of his community. He was a Democrat and for many years served as a member of the board of school directors, and was a faithful member of the Presbyterian church, at Blue Ball, as was also his worthy wife. He was married first to Rachael Clayton, who died at the age of forty-six years; his second wife was Sarah Randolph, and his third marriage was to Amanda J. Hart. His children, all born to his first wife, were: Eliza B., who died single; Arthur D.; William B., a retired farmer of Middletown, a sketch of whose career appears elsewhere in this work; Thomas C., deceased, who married Ann E. Young; Hannah J. and Sarah M., who are deceased; John, a resident of Indiana; Tobias S., deceased; one who died in infancy; and Alice Ann, the widow of William Bailey, of Middletown. Arthur D. Jefferson was educated in the home schools and reared on his father's farm, dividing his time between his studies and the assisting of his father and brothers. He was married January 12, 1871, to Miss Sarah E. Holmes, who was born May 29, 1847, in Franklin township, Warren county, Ohio, a daughter of George and Nancy (McClellan) Holmes, and a granddaughter of John Holmes, who emigrated from Ireland and became an early settler of Warren county, where he was engaged in farming until his death in 1850. George Holmes was born on Dix Creek, in Warren county, and followed in his father's footsteps as to occupations, being a farmer throughout life. He was a generous man, and, being of a deeply religious nature, many of his benefactions took the form of contributions to churches, including the donation of the site for the Presbyterian church at Blue Ball, in 1854. He was active in the work of that church, as he was also in the United Presbyterian church at Monroe, later. He and his wife were the parents of five children: William, deceased, who married Eliza Meeker; Mary Jane, who died young; John, who also died as a youth; Sarah E., who became Mrs. Lefferson; and Martha Evelyn, who died young. After the death of his first wife, in 1855, Mr. Holmes married Hannah Hill, and they had one son, George A., who died in 1917. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Lefferson rented land near his old home for two years, then rented land near Blue Ball, for a like period and then bought a farm two miles east of Middletown, upon which they made all the improvements. During the forty-two years that they resided on this property they made it one of the most valuable and attractive in their part of the county, and Mr. Lefferson won very gratifying success as a general farmer and breeder of mixed stock. After this long period of agricultural labor, Mr. and Mrs. Lefferson felt that they had earned a deserved rest, and accordingly disposed of their property and moved to their present fine home, at No. 1039 Linden avenue, Middletown, where they have resided, surrounded by all comforts, since 1916. As a friend of education, Mr. Lefferson served as a member of the board of school directors for several years. He is a Democrat, and, with Mrs. Lefferson, belongs to the Presbyterian church at Blue Ball, of which he was a trustee for several years. The great sorrow of Mr. and Mrs. Lefferson's lives occurred November 27, 1906, when they lost their only son,

George Garrett Lefferson, in death. .He was born May 19, 1880, on the old home place in Lemon township, and educated at the Columbia school, and graduated from the Middletown High school, in addition to which he took a course in a Cincinnati commercial school. He did not care for farming as a vocation, having a preference for business and financial matters, and entered the Merchants National bank at Middletown, where, through industry, fidelity and a display of ability he advanced himself to the position of teller, in which capacity he was acting when called by death. He was a young man of much promise, and there were many in the city to share his parents' grief in their great loss.'

William B. Lefferson. An impressive instance of the power of innate energy, self-reliance, indomitable resolution and incessant perseverance in moulding an unaided career, is manifest in the life of William B. Lefferson, who, making use of ordinary opportunities, became one of the prominent and influential farmers of Butler county. Mr. Lefferson, who was for many years a tiller of the soil in Lemon township, but who is now living in comfortable retirement at his home in Middletown, was born on his father's homestead place in Lemon township, October 4, 1842, a son of Garrett and Hannah (Clayton) Lefferson. His grandfather was Arthur Lefferson, a native of Pennsylvania, who left the refinements and comforts of a civilized community to seek his fortunes in a newly opened section, becoming one of the pioneer settlers of Butler county. His choice of locations here was a property in the vicinity of Middletown, and there, in addition to carrying on farming, he conducted a still house. He was a man of good business ability and sound integrity, merited the respect in which he was held by his fellow-citizens, and was accounted a helpful and public-spirited man in his community. He and his worthy wife were the parents of six children, as follows: Elizabeth, who married Thomas Wilson; Jacob, a dry goods merchant of Middletown, who married Sarah Leiby; Homer, who married Rebecca Peck and was an attorney at Middletown; Garrett, the father of William B.; Tobias, a farmer who lived near Middletown; and. Benjamin, who lived first in Butler county, O., and later in Indiana. Garrett Lefferson was born at Poast Town, O., and received a common school education while growing to manhood on his father's farm. He chose agricultural work as his vocation when he came to decide upon a career, and was still a young man when he located on a farm m Lemon township. He was compelled to start at the bottom of the ladder, as he was without any great amount of capital, and the land upon which he settled was just as nature had left it, with a great deal of timber. He was a young man of industry and much determination, however, and soon had his land in a condition for planting crops, from which time forward his progress was rapid. Mr. Lefferson developed a valuable property and a comfortable home, accumulated a goodly share of the world's goods, and in the evening of life retired from active pursuits. Although he lived to be nearly ninety years of age, his memory was remarkable up to the last and he :vas able to relate many interesting experiences and occurrences of pioneer days in Butler county. He was a man

who held the respect of his fellow-citizens in marked degree and for many years served efficiently as a member of the board of school directors. His political support was given to the Democratic party. His first wife, who bore the maiden name of Hannah Clayton, died at the age of forty-six years and he was married a second time to Mrs. Sarah Randolph, the widow of Benjamin Randolph, and a third time to Amanda Hart. His children, all by his first wife, were: Eliza, who died single; William B.; Thomas, a farmer, who married Ann Eliza Young, and resides on Park street, Middletown, and where Thomas died; Arthur, a retired farmer of Middletown, a sketch of whose career appears elsewhere in this work; and Alice, who married first Ben Randolph, and after his death, William Bailey, and is a resident of Middletown; and John M., who married Molly Denise, of Middletown, and who are now living at Liberty, Ind. The parents of these children were faithful members of the Presbyterian church at Blue Ball, O. William B. Lefferson attended the public schools of his native community and was reared on the home farm, where he remained until about the age of twenty-five years. He was married May 24, 1866, to Miss Martha Ann Piper, who was born at Blue Ball, Ohio, a daughter of Andrew and Eliza (Watson) Piper, of that community, the former of whom died there and the latter at Blue Ball at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Lefferson. After his marriage, Mr. Lefferson located at Blue Ball, where he resided one year, but at the time of his re-entrance into agricultural affairs went to Madison township, where he followed farming for some years. When his father died, Mr. Lefferson bought the old home place of 125 acres in Lemon township, and following that for nearly a half a century he operated that property, only retiring in March, 1916, when he felt that his many years of faithful tabor had entitled him to a well-earned rest. He at that time moved to Middletown, where he bought his present modern home at No. 1010 Crystal avenue, having since sold the farm. Mr. Lefferson has filled some township offices, and has always shown himself a good citizen with the welfare of the community at heart. His political support is given to the candidates and principles of the Democratic party, and his religious connection is with the Presbyterian church at Blue Ball. A man of wide acquaintance, he has numerous friends throughout this section of the county. Mr. and Mrs. Lefferson are the parents of four children, as follows: Nettie, the widow of William Bailey, living with her father, has two children, Clayton and Martha; Jennie, the wife of Lewis Whitman, of Franklin, with three children, Bessie, Herbert and Florence; Earl C., a farmer in Lemon township, who married Virtue Sellers and has three children, Russell, Ruth and Mary; and Homer, a farmer of Madison township, who married Myrtle Mullendore.

Charles J. Lehne, district agent for Butler county and a part of Warren county, for the Union Central Life Insurance company, is favorably known to the citizens of Hamilton as a progressive and energetic business man and one who takes more than a passive interest m the welfare of his community. Through his native abilities he has established a recognized position for himself in insurance

circles, and since beginning his connection with his present company, in 1914, has made steady and consistent advancement.. Mr. Lehne was born at Ross, Butler county, Ohio, a son of Louis and Louise (Lucke) Lehne, natives of Germany, who were married in that country and came to the United States in 1860. They first settled in the village of New London, now known as Shandon, and then made removal to Ross which now bears the name of Venice. Mr. Lehne, a harness maker by trade, followed that vocation and was not only a business man of ability and unquestioned integrity, but a man well versed in general matters and of extensive reading who was frequently called upon by his fellow-citizens among the early settlers for advice and counsel. A stalwart Republican, for sixteen years he served as postmaster of Venice, and his religious faith and that of his wife was of the Presbyterian church. They were the parents of the following children: Mary; Louis, jr.; Wilhelmina, deceased; Carolyn; Amy; Louise; Charles J.; Martha; William; Adolph; and Clarence, deceased. The father was a charter member of the local lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Charles J. Lehne received his education in the public schools of Venice, following which he engaged in business as a harness maker, in association with his father. Later he took up work in an agricultural implement line, and while thus engaged, during the first administration of President McKinley, was appointed postmaster of Venice, a position which he retained and efficiently filled for about eight years. When he retired from that office he identified himself with the Willey Mill and Elevator company, but subsequently came to Hamilton, where he turned his attention to the buggy business with Clark & Lehne. It was while he was thus employed that he became interested in selling insurance as a side line, and this business grew to such proportions that in February, 1914, he severed his connections with the buggy business, in order to give his undivided time to the new venture. Later he was appointed district agent by the Union Central Life Insurance company, for all of Butler and part of Warren counties, and this position he still fills. He has five agents under his superintendency, and has built up the business of his company wonderfully during the period that he has been in charge at Hamilton. Mr. Lehne's home is made on the old Capt. A. J. Lewis farm of 250 acres, situated two miles south of Millville, where the residence is one of the landmarks of the county, being 109 years old. In 1905, Mr. Lehne married Ella Lewis, daughter of Capt. A. J. Lewis, who was a well-known figure during the earlier days of this region. Mr. Lehne has a number of business, social and civic connections and is justly regarded as one of his city's prominent and influential business men.

Nathan Leshner. A rising young man of business affairs of Hamilton, and now president of the Leshner Paper company, Nathan Leshner is one of those of foreign birth, but of American training, who have so truly absorbed the best spirit of the times and of the land of his adoption. He was born March 20, 1887, at Keiver Guberne, Mosnne, Russia, son of a distinguished and learned Jewish scholar and wine merchant, and at the age of twelve years started to

earn his own living by working for a wholesale grocer. Mr. Leshner came to the United States in July, 1906, and landed at New York City, where he remained only eight days, going first to Fall River, Mass., and later to Middletown, Ohio. He found the medium for the start of his American career in the business of buying and selling rags, first with a push cart, and, as his finances were bettered, later with his horse and wagon. Subsequently he located at Hamilton, where, through his untiring energy and native business ability, in less than a year he had accumulated $1000. He then went back to Europe with his brother Jacob, and while there was married to Rosa Strauss. Thus his progressive and promising career was advanced in a way most fitting to the true American citizen, who, whatever his many activities, is anchored to wife and home. In 1907 Mr. Leshner returned to the United States with Mrs. Leshner. During his trip he had exhausted his funds and reached Baltimore penniless. He and his young wife had to undergo numerous hardships before they were able to reach Middletown, where Mr. Leshner, who was well known, found employment and worked for a short time. Once more supplied with funds, he then came to Hamilton, and this has been his permanent home and the scene of his remarkable success. His progress was as rapid upon his second arrival as it had been before, and in 1916, he established the Leshner Paper company, incorporated for $50,000, with factory and offices on Central avenue and the Baltimore & Ohio railroad tracks and a branch office on Wood street. The latter was recently destroyed by fire, but the loss was covered by $10,000 insurance. An eastern office of the company is maintained at Holyoke, Mass. The company's officers are: Nathan Leshner, owner and president; H. C. Henn, secretary and treasurer; and William Riegers, superintendent. Mr. Leshner and his wife reside in their pleasant and attractive home at No. 385 N. C street, which Mr. Leshner purchased in 1917. He is a member of the Hamilton lodges of the Knights of Pythias and Elks, and has several civic and business connections.

Conrad John Lewing, one of the most enterprising, successful and progressive of the farmers of his part of Butler county, has been a resident of this locality for more than thirty years, during which time he has contributed to the general advancement of this locality while at the same time materially aiding his own prosperity. He comes of a line of farming ancestors, and was born amid agricultural surroundings in Boone county, Ky., April 27, 1874, but feels himself essentially a son of the Miami valley, as he has been a resident of Madison township since his twelfth year. His parents, Henry and Mary (Bentler) Lewing, were born in Germany and were both young people when they emigrated to the United States, their marriage taking place at Cincinnati, O., whence they went to Kenton county, Ky. Later they moved to Boone county, in the same state, and continued to be engaged in farming until 1887, in which year they took up their residence on a farm of 109 acres, in Madison township, Butler county. Mr. Lewing the elder, a man of much industry and many admirable traits of character, made numerous improvements on this farm, which he continued to operate until his retirement,

early in the spring of 1905. He did not live long to enjoy the fruits of his years of hard labor, however, as his death occurred in May of the same year, he being then eighty-two years old. Mrs. Lewing had passed away on the farm in 1899, aged sixty-four years. They were faithful members of St. John's Catholic church of Middletown, O., and the parents of seven children, as follows: Elizabeth, who died in Kenton county, Ky.; John, a farmer and teaming contractor of Middletown; Bernhard, deceased; Conrad J.; May and Tina, twins, deceased; and Anthony, a farmer and teaming contractor of Middletown. Conrad J. Lewing attended the parochial schools of the Catholic church, thus gaining a good education, and remained under the parental roof until after attaining his majority. He had inherited his father's industry as well as his self-reliance and resource, and, after working for a time for others, at a monthly wage, decided to become his own employer, and accordingly secured a tract of 121 acres, this being a part of the old homestead in section 4, Madison township. About this time he was united in marriage with Miss Catherine Smith, a daughter of Jacob and Elizabeth (Weekly) Smith, a farmer and thresher of Butler county, and to this union there have since been born four children, all of whom reside with their parents: Jacob Henry, John William, Ruth Catherine and Mary Elizabeth. Mr. Lewing, while a general farmer, devotes a large part of his attention to the breeding of full-blooded cattle, of which he has a fine herd on his farm, maintaining also a good grade of horses and hogs. He possesses in a notable degree all the qualities which enable a man to take the lead in whatever he undertakes -intelligence, resolute purpose, untiring energy and diligent application to the details of the work he has in hand. His efforts have been rewarded by very favorable results, and he has already attained a prominent standing among the successful men of his community. From early youth he has been a hard and steady worker, so that his success has been the result of his own efforts, and he may be classed among the self-made men of the locality. As a voter Mr. Lewing supports the principles of the Democratic party, but he is not himself an office seeker. He and Mrs. Lewing are members of St. John's Roman Catholic church, at Middletown, in which congregation they have numerous friends, as they have among their neighbors and acquaintances all through Madison township.

Roscoe C. Lewis was born in Hamilton county in 1872, son of George and Theresa (Deeme) Lewis. George Lewis was born in Paris, France, and his wife was born in Germany. They were married in this country and settled in Crosby township, Hamilton county, Ohio, and he became a farmer. They were the parents of thirteen children, of whom five are now living: Elizabeth, married C. Fisher; Martin J., George, Henry, and Roscoe, subject of this sketch. Joseph Fisher, son of Eliza (Lewis) Fisher, served at the front with the U. S. Army in France. Roscoe Lewis received his education in the schools of Hamilton county, and at the end of his schooling, he turned his attention to the farm. In 1900, he was married to Bertha Dixon, daughter of Robert and Alice Dixon, of Fairfield township, Butler county, Ohio. Robert Dixon and wife had ten children, five

of whom are living: Ollie, married John Schwab; Bessie, Mrs. Bert Heilman; Robert, Burt, Hazel; Bertha, wife of our subject died in December, 1917. After their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis took up their home on a fertile farm of 121 acres, located in Fairfield township. He built a fine new house and in many ways has added much to the value of the farm since his occupancy. Four children were born in this family: Paul, in the Ohio State university, who is making a specialty of chemistry and engineering; Adrian, Nellie M., Bessie M. Elmer and Raymond Schwab, sons of Mrs. Ollie (Dixon) Schwab, sister of the late Mrs. Lewis, served in the U. S. Army in France. Mr. Lewis is held in high regard by his fellow-citizens and neighbors. He was twice elected trustee of Fairfield township, and performed the duties of his office in a manner creditable to himself and most satisfactorily to the public. In all the calls of the Government for financial assistance during the war, he did his full share. Mr. Lewis is both a Mason and Odd Fellow, and his political affiliations are with the Democratic party.

Harry W. Lindner, a prosperous general farmer and representative citizen of Union township, where he owns 158 acres of fine land, belongs to a well-known and highly respected family of Butler county. He was born in Union township, Butler county, Ohio, March 15, 1880, son of John and Mary (Schollenberger) Lindner, both of whom were born in Germany. John Lindner was sixteen years old when he came to the United States and after a short season in the city of Cincinnati, he came to Butler county and lived here until his death in 1912. Until he was about twenty-eight years old he worked on different farms, then married and for twelve years afterward rented farm land, at the end of that period buying a farm of 107 acres in Union township. He was considered an excellent farmer and a good neighbor. Of his thirteen children the following are living: Maggie, Anna, Christina, Barbara, Elizabeth, Mary, George, Harry W., Edward, Clara and Fred. Harry W. Lindner attended the public schools in Union township and afterward assisted his father until he was twenty-seven years old, when he married and moved to Glendale, but two years later returned to Union township and settled on his present farm, 130 acres of which he has under cultivation. His agricultural operations are carried on according to modern methods and with first class machinery, making use of a Packard truck for general hauling. In 1908 he married Mrs. Ella (Fehleison) Hoffman, daughter of Edward Fehleison, who had three children, namely: Clarence, Edward and Wesley Hoffman. Mr. and Mrs. Lindner are members of the Methodist Episcopal church, in which he is a trustee. To some extent Mr. Lindner is interested in politics and is serving in his second term as trustee of Union township, elected on the Democratic ticket.

Leonard Lindner, deceased, was born in Germany, the son of Jacob and Ann Lindner. When twenty-four years of age he came to this country and settled in Fairfield township, Butler county, Ohio. He received his education in Germany, where he also engaged m the occupation of farming. He married Anna Schonberger, and to them were born four children, three of whom are living: Paul, in

Glendale, Ohio; Marie, Mrs. W. VanDyke, in New York; John, in Norwood, Ohio. He was married (second) to Elizabeth Eichler, daughter of John and Barbara Eichler, of Butler county. Following the marriage, Mr. Lindner and wife lived in Union township, and from this union became the parents of nine children, all of whom reached maturity, namely: Charles, deceased; Matthew, Vide, Leonard, Louis, Rudolph, Edith, Lena, Mrs. Robert Matson; and Joseph, who completed a course in the Cincinnati College of Medicine and also graduated from Miami university. Rudolph was born in Union township, January 11, 1887, and there received his early education and grew to manhood's estate. On August 22, 1917, he was married to Delilah Mehl, daughter of Samuel and Mathilda (Fischer) Mehl. Samuel Mehl and wife lived near Hamilton, Ohio, and had the following children: Nellie, Mrs. Louis Lindner; Delilah, Mrs. Rudolph Lindner; Eva and Oliver. Since their marriage, Rudolph Lindner and wife have lived on the homestead of 135 acres, in Fairfield township, which he farms for his mother and himself. They have two children, Malcolm and Cliford, both bright and interesting boys. Mr. Lindner did his full share in the various war activities, and his patriotic spirit was manifest on every occasion. He is a Lutheran, a member of Zion congregation, and his politics, Republican.

Charles R. Line. On the South Yankee road, not far from Middletown, is located the property of one of Butler county's prosperous, prominent and progressive agriculturists, Charles R. Line. Mr. Line is not only a lifelong resident of this county, but is a member of one of its oldest settled families, the history of which dates back in this region to the year 1797, when his great-grandfather, Benjamin Line, located as a pioneer from Pennsylvania. From that time to the present the members of this family have been devoted to the pursuits of agriculture and have contributed materially to the development of the county and the advancement of its interests. The grandfather of Mr. Line, Moses Line, was born in Butler county, and rounded out a long, successful and honorable career as a farmer, developing a valuable property and establishing himself firmly in the confidence of the people as a good citizen.

Robert Line, son of Moses and father of Charles R. Line, was born, reared and educated in Fairfield township, Butler county, and there passed his entire life as a cultivator of the soil. He was industrious in his habits and progressive in his methods and as a result was able to acquire a competence and to rear his children in a comfortable home. He married Nancy Slipher, who was born in St. Clair township, and whose mother was a Wilson and a native of England. Charles R. Line was born November 8, 1870, in Fairfield township, Butler county, Ohio, and received his education in the district schools. Subsequently he attended a commercial college at Hamilton, but in making his choice between a career in the marts of commerce and trade or the more quiet vocation of farming, decided upon the latter and accordingly returned to the home place. Mr. Line has conducted his operations in a methodical although progressive manner, for while he has been loath to depart from the customs which time has proven to be practical, still he has not failed to take advantage

of new discoveries and has kept fully abreast of his vocation. His property, located on the South Yankee road, is one which bears every evidence of prosperity, being under a high state of cultivation and boasting substantial buildings and modern improvements of all kinds. While he has been, in the main, what is known as a general farmer, he has also given considerable attention to stock raising and is accounted a good judge of stock and a skilled breeder of Holstein cattle and high grade Poland China hogs, which are his specialty and for which he secures top-notch prices. Mr. Line was united in marriage July 26, 1893, with Miss Nellie Babeck, daughter of Albert and Theresa (Kronmuller) Babeck, of Princeton, Ohio, and to this union there have come four children: Helen, born May 12, 1894; Leroy, born July 21, 1895; Murray, born February 1, 1897; and Ralph, born August 31, 1898. Mr. Line is a member of the local Grange and takes much interest in its meetings. He has also been prominent in local movements, having been a member of the school board for nine years, and is a staunch advocate of good roads. While he leans toward the Republican party as a voter, he is somewhat liberal in his views, and party lines do not necessarily decide for him the choice of a candidate.

James Dallas Linkins. Two occupations, farming and merchandising, have occupied the energies of James Dallas Linkins since his arrival in Butler county in 1872, and while he is now practically retired from active pursuits still takes an interest in the varied life of the community in which he has lived so long and in which he has formed so many agreeable and profitable associations and connections. Mr. Linkins was born March 9, 1845, at Upperville, Fauquier county, Va., a son of Benjamin Franklin and Mary E. (Enden) Linkins. Benjamin F. Linkins was born near Winchester, Ill., and there grew to young manhood, learned the trade of carpenter, and followed that vocation for several years. Subsequently he went to Virginia, where he was married, his wife being a Virginia girl, who died just previous to the outbreak of the Civil war. When that struggle came on Mr. Linkins, as a Southern sympathizer, enlisted in the army of the Confederacy, with which he fought until the close of hostilities. He then returned to his home, whence he went to Loudoun county, Virginia, and there followed his trade until his death, at the home of his son, James D., aged sixty-six years. He and his wife were the parents of eight children: Virginia, deceased; Mary E., of Middletown, the widow of George Guy; Richetta, the wife of Robert Hensley, of Middletown; Henry B., who was a resident of Virginia; James D.; John D., a merchant of Middletown; Frank, deceased, who was a resident of Washington, D. C.; and Stephen Sylvester. The education of James Dallas Linkins was interrupted by the Civil war, and, following his father's lead, he enlisted in the Confederate ranks when he was little more than a boy, fighting through the various campaigns with the Army of Northern Virginia. His service covered a period of three years and six months, to the close of the war, and he established an excellent record for bravery and fidelity to soldierly duty. Returning to his home he remained with his father until he was twenty-four years of age and

then went to Washington, D. C., where he secured employment in the shops of the Baltimore & Ohio railroad, and in that city, in 1872, was united in marriage with Miss Sarah Dove, a Washington girl. Shortly after that event he came to Middletown, O., which continued to be his home until November 1, 1910. During that time he was variously occupied, principally as the proprietor of a successful meat business. In 1910 he purchased the John Van Dyke farm, section 24, Lemon township, a tract of 134 acres, on which he built a fine brick residence and installed many valuable and attractive improvements. He continued to carryon general farming with success until August, 1918, when he sold his land, although he still continued to make his home on the property until February, 1919, when he again moved to Middletown and located upon the property he now owns, 1059 E. Third street. Mr. Linkins started in life in a small way, and the success which attended his efforts came to him unaided, principally through his great industry and splendid business ability. He has always been a Democrat, but has not sought preferment at the hands of his party. In all movements pertaining to the public welfare and the development of the industrial, educational and moral interests of Butler county, he has taken a leading part and is credited with being one of the useful members of his community. His fraternal connection is with Middletown Lodge, No. 90, A. F. & A. M. and he has been an interested fraternalist. Mr. and Mrs. Linkins are the parents of five children, as follows: John Stephen, a butcher at Middletown, who married Mary T. Lemkuhl; Mary Etta, the wife of Robert Benner, of Middletown; Benjamin F., formerly a butcher, but now living with his parents; Jennie, the wife of Jacob Augsperger, of Middletown; and Helen Mable, residing with her parents.

William J. Lintner, a stable representative of the honorable vocation of farming, is the owner of a well-cultivated and productive property located in Union township, Butler county. He was born in the township in which he now resides, January 21, 1865, a son of Lorenz and Barbara Lintner, natives of Germany. The parents were married in their native country and in 1849 emigrated to the United States, first locating at Cincinnati, Ohio, and subsequently moving to Butler county. For a short time they lived in Ross township, then moved to St. Clair township, and in 1865 came to Union township, where they rounded out long and honorable careers on their 140-acre farm. They were people who well merited the respect and esteem in which they were universally held. Of their seven children, three now survive: Anna, Mary and William J. William J. Lintner received the education ordinarily granted farmers' sons of his day and locality, that of the rural public schools, and when he had completed his studies associated himself with his father in farming activities. At the time of his father's death he assumed management of the home place, which he farmed alone for four years, and then, with his brother, John Paul Lintner, bought the old home place and farmed it until 1909. In that year the partnership was dissolved and William J. Lintner began renting, being so engaged for three years on the Anderson farm in Hamilton county. In 1912 he moved to the property which he now owns in Union

township, not far from Sharonville, and here he has developed a handsome property, on which he has made numerous modern improvements. This land includes eighty-three acres of fertile soil, on which Mr. Lintner carries on general farming and stock raising in a scientific and practical manner. In politics he votes the Republican ticket, while his religious faith and that of Mrs. Lintner is of the Presbyterian church. May 24, 1909, Mr. Lintner was united in marriage with Mary Barbara, daughter of Paul and Margaret (Kreutzer) Schoenberger, the former a native of Cincinnati and the latter of Aurora, Ind. During the active years of his life, Mr. Schoenberger was a railroad man, and served as an engineer on the Baltimore & Ohio railroad for over a half a century without having a serious wreck. He is now retired from active pursuits and receives a regular pension from the company which he served so faithfully and well. He is also a veteran of the Civil war, in which he served on the commisary wagons. Mr. and Mrs. Schoenberger had seven children: Mary Barbara, Anna, Lillian, Alma, Harry, George and Joseph. Mr. and Mrs. Lintner have no children.

Frank G. Litsch, real estate operator and auctioneer of Middletown, secured much of his experience in his present vocations and a great deal of information thereof, during the time that he was engaged in newspaper work, and today he is accounted one of the best judges of real estate values in the city and his particular gifts have made him a success in the peculiar vocation of auctioneering. Mr. Litsch was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, December 8, 1868, a son of Francis X. and Walburga (Berger) Litsch, early settlers of Cincinnati, where Francis X. Litsch was a truck gardener and farmer. There were twelve children in the family, of whom all died in infancy except: Benjamin X., employed by the St. Louis Roofing company, St. Louis, Mo.; Mrs. E. Wilz, a widow, who carries on farming and is the mother of six children; and Frank G. Frank G. Litsch was educated in the public schools of Cincinnati, in which city he was reared, but when he entered upon his career it was at Wyoming, Ohio, where he was engaged in business for seven years. He then moved to Xenia, this state, where he acted as agent for the Cincinnati Enquirer for two years, this being followed by a like service for the same publication at Springfield. On first coming to Middletown he continued to follow the same line of work, but by this time had decided upon a change in his labors, and eventually embarked in the auctioneering business, this being followed by his entrance upon the realty field. In both of these business endeavors he has been remarkably successful, and his career has been one of constantly increasing success. Mr. Litsch has purchased a splendid home, at No. 326 Tytus avenue, which he has remodeled, and here he has his place of business. Mr. Litsch is a Democrat in his political views. He is a charter member of the Fraternal Order of Eagles at Middletown, in which body he held office for seven years, and has been twice elected president of the Catholic Knights of Ohio. It has been largely through his untiring efforts that Calvary cemetery, of which he is a trustee, has been made one of the most beautiful in the state. During the past ten years Mr. Litsch has been a member of

the board of trustees of St. John's Catholic church, and has taken an active and helpful part in religious work. One of his nephews is a Franciscan missionary, doing Indian mission work at St. Michaels, Ariz., and one of his nieces is Sister Virgila, a Franciscan nun, teaching a parochial school class at Cleveland, Ohio. Mr. Litsch has also been very active in the work of the Red Cross, and in other ways has shown himself a public-spirited and constructive citizen. June 15, 1892, Mr. Litsch married Louise H. Wilker, of Versailles, Ind., and they have been the parents of ten children: Frank; Harry, who is deceased; Oliver; Helen; Marie and Louise, who entered college in the fall of 1919; Florence, Henrietta, Clarence and Robert. Mr. and Mrs. Litsch are firm believers in the value of education and of sound home training. The children have all attended St. John's parochial school, and each daughter is to receive three year's musical education but it is required of the daughters that they remain at home for two years after graduating in order that they may become accomplished housekeepers.

Rev. Samuel Austin Livingston, pastor of the United Presbyterian church of Monroe, O., is one of the earnest and sincere clergymen of Butler county, whose efforts are directed toward the development of the inner life of the soul. He was born in Allegheny county, Pa., June 7, 1861, a son of William R. and Mary (McGowan) Livingston, both natives of Allegheny county, William R. Livingston followed farming and threshing as occupations in his early life and later moving from the farm to McKeesport, Pa., where he died in 1899, at the age of seventy-two years. Mrs. Livingston died in January, 1874, aged forty-four years, and Mr. Livingston was later married (second) to Amanda Beam, also born in Allegheny county, Pa. In his political views, William R. Livingston was a strong Democrat. During his mature years he was a consistent member of the United Presbyterian church. His only child was Rev. Mr. Livingston. Samuel Austin Livingston was reared very carefully, and sent to the home schools, and later to a select school. The atmosphere of his home was decidedly religious, so it was but natural that the lad's mind should turn towards the ministry, and with the idea of preparing himself for that sacred calling, he took a course at McKeesport academy. In April of 1881 he entered the Washington and Jefferson college at Washington, Pa., from which he was graduated after a three years' course, in June, 1884. He then entered the Allegheny seminary of the United Presbyterian church, now known as the Pittsburg seminary, from which he was graduated in 1887. During April, 1886, he had located at Monroe, O., and following the securing of his degree, Mr. Livingston returned to Monroe to take charge of the United Presbyterian church in that town. This church was organized in 1802 as the Mount Pleasant Associate Reformed Presbyterian church. The church had run down, the membership being but thirty-seven, and services were held in a little church edifice of one room. With the enthusiasm of youth, combined with natural organization capabilities, Mr. Livingston began to reorganize, and today has an active membership of 125. The church building has been thoroughly remodeled, and a

dining room and kitchen for social purposes been added. The purchase of new pews and a furnace has added to the comfort and appearance of the interior, and other improvements are under consideration. Better than these outward signs, however, are the spirit of co-operation and helpfulness displayed by the members, which have been developed through the inspiring example of Mr. Livingston. For many years Mr. Livingston has been superintendent of missions for the First Presbytery of Ohio, and his labors in this connection have not been light. There are few men who stand higher in public esteem in Butler county than Mr. Livingston, while with his congregation his popularity is deservedly strong and his influence widespread.

T. C. Lloyd. No man within the city of Oxford has contributed more to the making of his surroundings than T. C. Lloyd. Turn where you will, large buildings and small, beautiful residences and modest homes, banks and industrial concerns, structures for the housing of public utilities, these and more which contribute to the architectural ensemble of a flourishing town, have fallen into his hands and have remained under his watchful supervision until completed. No greater tribute could be paid to the skill, business sagacity and reliability of this veteran contractor than to note that after thirty-five years of operation he still retains in the fullest degree the confidence of the public. Mr. Lloyd was born at Danville, Pa., in 1847, a son of Thomas and Margaret (Clark) Lloyd. His father, who was reared in Pennsylvania, was a carpenter and millwright by trade, and in 1851 moved to Camden, where he spent the rest of his life in working at his vocation and where both he and his wife passed away. They were the parents of five children, of whom but two survive: Kate, who is the widow of the late Dr. H. L. Davis, who was for many years a prominent practising physician of Chicago, where Mrs. Davis now lives; and T. C., of this notice. T. C. Lloyd was educated in the public schools of Camden and learned the carpenter's trade under his father. He remained in that city until February, 1884, in which year he came to Oxford, where one of his first acts was the purchase of the old Oxford public school, which he rebuilt into a planing mill. Later he built the present high school, and from that time to the present has been one of the most active factors in the up building of the city, having erected various structures, including a number of educational edifices both at Oxford and at Camden. His business standing is of the best and he retains the full confidence of his associates. He is a well-informed and broadminded man, and invests his business with a progressive spirit and the community with an extent of practical usefulness which it is difficult to correctly estimate. He has a wide acquaintance, and is a man who makes and keeps friends. Mr. Lloyd married Flora Korner, of Somerville, Ohio, daughter of George Korner, and to this union there have been born six children: Alpha, a graduate of Miami university, and wife of O. H. Hayes, of Chicago, with one son, - Lloyd; Clark a graduate of Oxford High school, in business with his father, who married Catherine Schuster; Louis, also in business with his father, who married

Rose Keegan and has two sons, - Thomas and John; Bruce Edward, educated at Oxford High school, Miami university and Armour Institute of Chicago, was employed at Dayton eight ears and at Middletown two years, and now in business with his father, who married Myrtie Harsh, of Sunbury, Pa., and has two sons, - Emerson and Dale; Lillian, the wife of William Billings, of St. Paul, Minn.; and Flora, a graduate of Oxford High school and Oxford college, now the wife of Bert Kelly, who travels for the Metal Products company of Cleveland. Mr. Lloyd is a staunch Democrat but has never aspired to office. He belongs to the Masonic lodge at Oxford, and with his family holds membership in the Presbyterian church.

William C. Lockard. The career of William C. Lockard is an expression of practical activity and self-made manhood. Having lost his father at an early age, he was practically thrown upon his own resources when still a lad, and whatever success he has made of life is due entirely to his own industry and perseverance. Mr. Lockard was born at Delphos, Allen county, Ohio, February 12, 1879, and is a son of James and Zelphah (Warfard) Lockard. His father died when he was but eleven years of age, leaving the widowed mother with the responsibility of his support as well as that of his brother James Robert, who is now a resident of Covington, Ky., and his sister, Florence, who is now Mrs. Charles Sigmon, of Middletown. Mrs. Lockard still survives as a resident of Piqua, Ohio. The educational training of William Lockard was naturally somewhat limited in character, but he made the most of his opportunities and when ready to begin his career as a self-supporting workman did so with a fairly good practical knowledge of material things. Since then through observation and reading he has made himself well informed and has a good self-gained education. The rolling mills of his home community offered a chance for his employment, and subsequently he was engaged in the same line in other communities, including Piqua, from which city he came several years ago to Middletown. Here he has since been employed in the plant of the American Rolling mill as a heater, and has the confidence of his employers and the respect and friendship of his fellow-workmen. He is a Republican in politics, although he takes only a good citizen's interest in public affairs, and is fraternally, affiliated with the Masons and the Knights of Pythias orders. With his family, he belongs to the United Brethren church, and they reside in a comfortable and attractive home at 1116 Yankee road, built several years ago by Mr. Lockard. Mr. Lockard married Mary, daughter of George and Esther (Early) Weisel, residents of Middletown, and to this union there has come one son: Floyd William, who was born August 23, 1903, and is now attending the graded schools of Middletown.

John Lodder. To the lover of nature no occupation known to man furnishes more interesting possibilities than the florist business. Recent developments along this line have been as wonderful as they were formerly unexpected and unbelievable. Yet even to the man who labors faithfully to maintain standards already established and

who has no time to explore in luring paths of promise, there is always that satisfaction in accomplishment possible only when one works in collaboration with the elements of creation. Hamilton has had its share of earnest, painstaking florists, men who delighted in their labor and contributed liberally to the well being of the community. Few, however, had a longer or more prosperous career than did the late John Lodder, one of the best known and most highly respected men in his line in Butler county, whose sons are stillperpetuating the business under the style of John Lodder & Sons, florists. John Lodder was born at Arnold, Germany, September 16, 1832, a son of Henry Lodder, and received a common school education in his native land, where he served three years in the army. He came to the United States as a young man and located first at Buffalo, N. Y., where he was early handicapped by his lack of knowledge of the English language, an obstacle which he overcame by self-teaching. Later he was joined by his sister, Mena, at Cleveland, Ohio, where he was employed as a hostler for Senator William Payne, and while residing there he and his sister were the first to skate on Lake Erie. Going from Cleveland to Cincinnati, Mr. Lodder at one time in the floral business, engaged in the queensware business until 1863, and in 1866, with his brother, Rudolph, who is now engaged in the truck business at a point in Missouri, came to Hamilton and secured land from Owen & Beckett, a tract of twelve acres, for which they paid $500. It was upon this tract that there was started the present business of John Lodder & Sons, and this grew apace until Mr. Lodder's name became associated with all that was best in the floral business, a business in which the Lodders have been engaged for three generations. He continued to be connected with this line of effort until his death in 1910, when he was seventy-eight years of age, his wife passing away when sixty-two years old. They were faithful members of St. Joseph's Roman Catholic church and were active in religious work and movements and highly esteemed members of their community. John Lodder married at Hamilton Eliza Duettman, who was born at Cincinnati, Ohio, of German parentage, her parents locating at Cincinnati after an ocean voyage of six months. Mr. and Mrs. Lodder became the parents of six children: William C.; Henry C., born May, 1866, with John Lodder & Sons, married Mary Ann Budderick; Fred J., born in 1868, married Pauline Heintz, of Gardner Hyde Park, Ohio, and has a son, Andrew; Rudolph B., born in 1870, with John Lodder & Sons, married Catherine Eichhold, and has two children, - John, jr., and Elizabeth; and Mary, also connected with the business, and unmarried. William C. Lodder was educated in the parochial schools of Hamilton and from youth has been identified with the firm of John Lodder & Sons, in the success of which he has been a most important factor, giving it the benefit of his knowledge, acquired ability and great industry. The company was started in a small way, but has grown to large proportions and the original structure has been added to from time to time until it is now a large modern plant. The concern handle, a great many cut flowers and potted plants, and does an

extensive truck business, and ships its goods all over the country. William C. Lodder has traveled extensively, having made four trips to California and also having visited various other large cities, and is a man well posted upon important matters. Like the other members of the family he is a member of St. Joseph's Roman Catholic church at Hamilton.

The Long Family. More than one half century ago an industry was started in Hamilton by John M. Long, and the family of Long has been represented in this industry, during the successive generations ever since. John M. Long was born iu Germany, October 14, 1825. His father, J. M. W. Long, was a miller in Germany. His mother, who was Mary Ann Mohr before marriage, was also a native of Germany, having been born in the village of Fulda in that country. In 1836 the Long family emigrated to America locating in Richmond, Va., later coming to Cincinnati, Ohio. Here, John M. Long, ambitious to succeed, attended night school while employed as a machinist apprentice. He acquired the rudiments of a business education at this time and also thoroughly mastered the machinist trade, both of which were important factors in his later life. In 1854, he came to Hamilton, taking employment with the Owens, Lane & Dyer company. In 1855, he, with Peter Black who conducted a blacksmith shop on Water street and Robert Alstatter, a file cutter by trade, started in business as the Long, Black & Alstatter Co. They began this business in a small way, the capital being only a few hundred dollars. Their first venture was the manufacturing and marketing of sickles and other small devices for farm use, mostly wrought by hand. In 1857 they began the making of mowing and reaping machines, made entirely of iron. They were known as the "Iron Harvesters" and were the first iron reapers made in this country. In 1858 sixty-five machines had been disposed of and they were soon in great demand. Subsequently they began the manufacturing of punching and shearing machines for their own use, which has earned them their present great reputation, and this latter line has made this firm known throughout the manufacturing world. By 1859, this concern had sold three hundred harvesters, and during that year alone sold more than fifteen thousand sickles. Step by step the concern grew, adding other lines, including corn drills and feed cutters, in the meantime expanding the punching machine business and its other established lines. In 1871, Mr. Black retired and the firm now moved to newer and larger quarters at Fourth and High streets, and about this time began the manufacture of hand plows, sulky plows and cultivators. In 1874 Chas. E. McBeth and Hermann Snider acquired an interest in the firm and soon after the concern was incorporated as The Long & Alstatter Co. In 1881 the concern sold the sickle department of their business to other interests, this department at that time ranking as the second largest producers of sickles in the world. Mr. Alstatter retired from active business in 1890. On June 29, 1901, John M. Long died and was succeeded by his sons, J. M. William Long and Jos. H. Long, who had been associated with their father in the business for many years. They,

however, did not live to see many years of active management for they too passed away in January, 1905, and January, 1909. During their incumbency they did much to give the company its present substantial position in the industrial world.

Frank Pierce Long, the present vice-president of the above concern, was born in Hamilton, the son of J. M. W. Long and wife Eliza (Conover) Long, the former of whom was born in Cincinnati and the latter in Butler county. The other children of this union were D. Paul, Cora and Marie. Marie married John Andrews of the law firm of Andrews & Andrews, D. Paul is general superintendent of the plant and Cora is single and resides in Hamilton. Mrs. J. M. W. Long died in April, 1915, her husband having passed away in 1905. Frank Pierce Long was educated in the public schools of Hamilton and also studied at the Cincinnati Technical schools and supplemented this with one year at Purdue university. After completing his education, he entered The Long & Alstatter Co. as a draftsman and served throughout the plant in various capacities, familiarizing himself with every detail of the business. He later became vice-president and is at the active head of the business.

D. Paul Long, the general superintendent, became interested in the business early in life and is the directing head of the actual manufacturing of the company's products. He was married to Viola Simcox and to this union have been born two children, Louis Pierce and Elizabeth. During the recent war, the resources of this concern were taxed to the utmost. The punching and shearing machines made by The Long & Alstatter Co. have long been recognized as second to none. Shipyards, railroads and other industries engaged in war work required Long & Alstatter machines and this concern, true to their tradition, made good, and delivered 100 per cent. Steel cars, steel ships, bridges and countless other sources demanded punching and shearing machines. No other concern in Hamilton and few concerns in the United States played a more important role in this connection that did The Long & Alstatter Co. The present management of the company has gradually expanded the physical property as well as all other avenues of the business. The old woodworking plant of the Bentel-Morgedant company was acquired, also the old MacNeale-Urban Safe company, which is now used for the farm implement section of the business. The present officers of the company are William N. Rumely, president; Frank Pierce Long, vice-president; L. A. Pfau, secretary; R. E. Clark, treasurer; and D. P. Long, general superintendent. The Long family has been active in the growth and progress of Hamilton, taking a leading part in all worthy enterprises. The present representatives of this notable family, Frank Pierce and D. Paul, bid fair to add new laurels to the enduring fame achieved by their father and grandfather who were so notable in their lifetime, as manufacturers and citizens.

Hampton H. Long. Through a residence of more than three-quarters of a century in Butler county, Hampton H. Long has become known to his fellow-citizens as a man who can be trusted at all times and in all places, one who is honorable in business, loyal

to his duties of citizenship and faithful in his friendships. Therefore, as well as for his sterling rectitude of character and for his long connection with the history of this part of the Miami valley, a review of the career of this retired citizen of Hamilton is deserving of presentation in this work. Mr. Long was born January 8, 1843, on a farm in Madison township, Butler county, Ohio, a son of John G. Long. The latter was born in the same township in 1815, being a son of Armel Long, the first of the family to locate here. This sterling and sturdy old pioneer of Scotch descent, who died in 1827 married Hannah Grunden, who died December 26, 1865, at the ripe old age of eighty-seven years. To this worthy agricultural couple, who assisted in the development of Butler county, there were born four children: John G.; George, formerly a farmer of Wayne township, Butler county, where he married Elizabeth Weaver. Noah who was a farmer and brick mason of Madison township and died unmarried; and Louisa, who died when still a child at the homestead. John G. Long was given only a limited educational training in the district schools of Madison township, and resided at home, assisting with the work of the homestead up to the time of his marriage to Hannah C., a daughter of Abraham and Mary (Ball) Squires, who had come from New Jersey to Cincinnati in 1800 and later moved to Madison township in 1802, where Mr. Squires died on a farm near Miltonville. Mrs. Squires passed away at the home of her son-in-law. There were eleven children in the Squires family: Ezekiel, Ellis, David, Stephen, William, an infant, Johanna, Hannah C., Mary, Sarah and Phoebe, and Mr. and Mrs. Squires also reared a nephew, Ezekiel Fisher. In going to Cincinnati, Mr. and Mrs. Squires made the journey by flatboat, then journeyed overland to Middletown, and finally settled in Madison township. Mrs. Squires attained the advanced age of ninety-one years, passing away in October, 1878. Mrs. Squires' father, Ezekiel Ball, was one of the prominent men of his locality, having been the first postmaster at Middletown and one of the first county commissioners, being elected to office in 1804, and wielded an influence for higher citizenship and progress. After their marriage, John G. Long and his wife located in Madison township on his father's place, where they resided until 1879, Mr. Long passing away in that year and being laid to rest in the cemetery at Miltonville. He was a farmer throughout his life, a capable, industrious and honorable man, and one widely known and highly respected for his many sterling qualities. In politics he was first a Whig and later a Republican. In religion he worshiped with the United Brethren church, while Mrs. Long, who survived him until 1915 and was ninety-three years old at the time of her death, was of Presbyterian faith. They were the parents of four children: Armel who died in infancy; Hampton H.; Josephine, born in 1845, who married Mr. P. H. Kumler and has a son, Paul, in Cincinnati and George, who died at the age of nineteen years. Hampton H. Long was a pupil in the Trenton school, where he had as teacher Robert Dine, who had been one of the instructors of Mr. Long's parents and completed his education at Miltonville. He was married in

Wayne township, October 14, 1868, to Maria, daughter of Henry and Catherine (Hurst) Snively, the former born in Pennsylvania and the latter in Wayne township. Mr. Snively was born in 1803 and in 1819 came to Butler county with his parents, the family settling in Wayne township, where he was engaged in farming during the rest of his life. He was a Democrat in his political allegiance, and both he and his wife were faithful members of the United Brethren church at Miltonville, Mr. Snively dying in that faith in 1878, at the age of seventy-four years, and Mrs. Snively passing away in 1856, when forty-five years of age. Mr. Snively's second wife was a Mrs. Wells who bore the maiden name of Isabella Stanley. His seven children, all by his first marriage, were: Martin, who died at the age of twenty years; Jacob, a soldier of the Civil war and a member of the 83d O. V. I., met a soldier's death on the battlefield of Milliken's Bend, La., and his body was brought home and interred in the Miltonville cemetery; Samuel, formerly a farmer of Elwood, Ind., who married Mary Lambertsen; Leander, who died at the age of sixteen years; Isaac, who died at Camp Nelson, Ky., during the Civil war, as a member of the 22nd Regiment, O. V. I.; Susan, who married J. P. Cory, of Seven Mile, O., a review of whose career will be found elsewhere in this work; and Maria, now Mrs. Long. To Mr. and Mrs. Long there have been born four children: Harry, who died in infancy' Letha, who married Samuel Wilson of Seven Mile; Fannie, who resides at Dayton; and John G., who is engaged in agricultural operations on the old home place. John G. Long, jr., was educated in the home schools and the high school at Hamilton, and at the outbreak of the war between the United States and Spain enlisted in the Regular Army, becoming a member of Company F, 22nd Regiment, rising to the rank of commissary sergeant, serving three years, and upon his return in 1901 engaged in construction work at Hamilton, in which he was engaged until 1914. At that time he relieved his father of the burdens of the farm and has since made a decided success of his work. His first wife was Angie Stannard, of Independence, Ia., by whom he has one son, Hampton H., jr. The present Mrs. Long bore the maiden name of Lydia Doll, and is a native of Hamilton. They are members of the Presbyterian church and Mr. Long is a thirty-second degree Mason and a member of the Mystic Shrine. With the exception of the period when he served in Company E, 167th Regiment, O. V. I., and in the 61st Regiment Ohio State Militia, during the Civil war, and in 1863 was called out with the militia to assist in quelling the Morgan raid which was rampant throughout Ohio, Hampton H. Long devoted himself uninterruptedly to farming on the homestead up to the time of his retirement, since when he has resided at No. 313 North Seventh street, Hamilton. After his marriage he located on the homestead, where he made all the improvements with the exception of the residence, which had been built by his father after he had bought fifty acres of land from the other heirs, this acreage subsequently being increased to 152. In turn, Hampton H. Long added to the value and size of the holdings of the farm, and now owns 280 acres

in Madison and Wayne townships and twenty acres in St. Clair township. During the years of his residence in the country, he carried on general farming and stock raising on a large scale, and became known as one of his community's most skilled and thoroughly learned agriculturists. Other business interests have also attracted his attention and he has been a director in the Miami Valley National bank of Hamilton for many years. In politics he votes the Republican ticket. In 1866 he joined Jefferson Lodge, No. 90, F. & A. M., and at this time is a thirty-second degree Mason and a Noble of the Mystic Shrine, also a member of the Wetzel Compton Post of Hamilton, Ohio, No. 96. Formerly a member of the United Brethren church at Miltonville, and later of the Presbyterian church at Jacksonboro, he is now a member of and elder in the Westminster Presbyterian church at Hamilton. During the past ten years he has been an active member of the Butler County Agricultural society. The old Long homestead, noted throughout the countryside for the prominence given it by its location 969 feet above sea level, was the scene of a large and enthusiastic gathering, October 14, 1918, when Mr. and Mrs. Long celebrated their Golden Wedding Anniversary. In addition to the members of their immediate family there were in attendance friends and acquaintances from all over the county, who came to congratulate the honored couple and to express their continued good wishes to two of Butler county's most highly respected residents. To Mr. Long belongs the honor of being the originator of the first Chautauqua in the Miami valley and the largest one at the present time in the state of Ohio.

John B. Long. The qualities of marked business capacity, ready adaptability to his calling, recognition of its many advantages and faith in his own power to make a success of his operations, placed John B. Long among the substantial and prominent farmers of Butler county. From the fields this Civil war veteran's industry brought forth ample means, permitting his retirement from active affairs and his consigning to younger hands the tasks that made up the sum of his existence for many years. He still has a tract of thirty-three acres, on which, more as a recreation than as an employment, he is engaged in raising garden stuff. Mr. Long was born at Poast Town, O., August 27, 1844, a son of John B. and Delilah Ann (McNeely) Long, the former of New York state and the latter of Ohio. Barnett Long, the grandfather of John B., was an early settler of Butler county, where he passed the rest of his life in agricultural pursuits, and where he and his wife were among the highly respected earlier residents. They had five children: George, Joe, John B., Betsy and Polly. Delilah Ann (McNeely) Long, was a daughter of John and Delilah McNeely, natives of Pennsylvania and early settlers of Butler county, where they passed their later years in farming in Madison township. They had four children: Polly, Jane, Delilah Ann and John. John B. Long, the elder, father of John B. of this review, was a child when he accompanied his parents to Ohio, and his youth was passed amid pioneer scenes and surroundings. He received his education in the

primitive district schools of his day, and adopted farming when he reached manhood, owning a good property near Poast Town where he carried on operations to the time of his death at the age of seventy-two years. He was a Republican in politics, and he and Mrs. Long, who died at fifty-five years of age, were faithful members of the United Brethren church. They had a family of fourteen children, of whom seven grew to maturity: Elizabeth, deceased, who was the wife of John Finkbone; Mary Ann, who died single; William B.; deceased, who lived for many years at Poast Town, served in Company E, 350th Regiment, O. V. I., and met his death by drowning; Hattie, deceased, who was the wife of Hampton Alexander, also deceased; Eliza, deceased, who was the wife of James Patterson, deceased; John B.; and Ella, who made her home with her brother John B. until her death January 3, 1919. Their sister Eliza also lived on the old home place with them until her death, March 27, 1917. John B. Long the younger received a public school education, and resided on the home place, assisting his father and brothers in their agricultural operations until he entered the ranks of the Union army, May 14, 1864. He joined Company E, 167th Regiment, O. V. I., with which he served bravely and faithfully until receiving his honorable discharge, December 25, 1866, the principal part of his service being in West Virginia. On his return home, the young soldier settled down again to the pursuits of peace, and founded a household of his own by his marriage to Miss Malinda Huffman, who was born on the farm now occupied by the family, in Madison township, a daughter of Robert and Julia Huffman, the latter of Germantown, O., and the former of Pennsylvania. Mr. Huffman came to Ohio at the age of twelve years, and for a long period was engaged in farming in Madison township, where his death occurred, as did that of his wife. They were faithful members of the Lutheran church. Mrs. Long died June 3, 1908, having been the mother of three children: Julia, the widow of Frank Hasselman, a farmer of Butler county, who died in January, 1901, makes her home with her father and has three sons, - Homer, who married Bertha Yost and is a farmer of Lemon townhsip, and they have one son, Earl Eugene; Arthur, a farmer in Lemon township; and Harold a fireman on the railroad, living at West Middletown, who married Hattie Witzel and has a daughter, Ruth Louise, and son Harold, jr.; Maude, who married Harry Temple, a farmer of Warren county, and has one child, - Mary Lucile; and Garnett, who married Milton Myers of Middletown, and has two children, - Laura and Charles. Following the war Mr. Long made his home in Warren county for one year, and then located on his present property, in section 33, Madison township, where he carried on active and successful operations for many years, as a general farmer and truck raiser. While he is now retired from the more arduous labors of life, having reached his seventy-fifth year, he still maintains an interest in affairs agricultural, and raises garden stuff on a thirty-three acre patch, one of his specialties being the banana squash, which vegetable has become famed throughout the neighborhood for its delicacy and general

wholesomeness. In his daily actions, Mr. .Long evidences the splendid qualities of the pioneer stock from which he comes. He is a Republican voter, and he and his family are members of Union Chapel of the United Brethren church.

John W. Long, a retired farmer and highly respected resident of Madison township, has practically spent his life in Butler county, and is numbered among those here who have done much to raise the standards of living, and advance the interests of agriculture. He was born on the old Long homestead, in Madison township, July 31, 1847, a son of Samuel M. and Lydia Ann (Walters) Long, natives of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, respectively. Samuel M. Long was a son of Silas Long, and his wife who bore the maiden name of Marshall, and they were both natives of New York city, and very early settlers of Butler county. Lydia Ann Walters was a daughter of John S. Walters, who married Ann Schenck of New Jersey, and he was a silversmith by trade, making all kinds of silverware by hand, being a very expert workman, and a natural artist. Some of his productions, now owned by Mr. and Mrs. John W. Long are remarkably beautiful. Later in life he located at Middletown, O., and still later bought a farm in Madison township, on which he died. He and his wife had the following children: William Walters, who was a blacksmith, left Madison township for LeRoy, Ill.; John J., who was a blacksmith of Madison township; T. S., who remained on the Walters homestead; and Lydia, who became the mother of John W. Long. Silas Long, the paternal grandfather of John W. Long, secured wild land in Madison township, and developed it into one of the most valuable properties in this part of Butler county. The handsome brick residence he erected on his farm was the best in the neighborhood for many miles around, and excited the admiration of all who saw it. Silas Long was always engaged in farming, and both he and his wife were very much respected. Their children were as follows: Nelson, who became a farmer of Illinois; David, who also engaged in farming in Illinois; James, who was a farmer of Butler county, O.; Samuel M., who became the father of John W. Long; John L., who became a farmer of Madison township; Malinda, who married Nelson Long of Franklin, O.; Sarah Jane, who married Clinton Paullin of Madison township; and Huldah, who married David Schenck, went to Illinois to live. Samuel M. Long, the father of John W. Long, received only a common school education. But he made the most of his opportunities, and upon the limited amount of knowledge he received, he built up a superstructure that served him well in later life. Learning the blacksmithing trade, he followed it, and in time bought a farm, and conducted it. From the time he cast his first vote he was staunch in his support of the Democratic party, and his activity in its behalf was recognized by his election to the offices of county commissioner and township trustee. Both he and his most excellent wife were very active in the work of the Baptist church, of which they were devout members. He died at the age of sixty-four years, and his wife was about the same age when death claimed her. Their children were as follows: Philip Schuyler, who

is now deceased, was an educator, and served as county auditor. Adeline, who died in childhood; John W., whose name heads this review; William S., who is conducting the old Long homestead in Madison township; and Charles G., who lives at Los Angeles, Cal. John W. Long grew up under the careful supervision of his father, and was sent to the local schools. While still at home, he was married to Mary Ann Jacquart, March 19, 1879. She was a daughter of Peter Jacquart, born in France, and his wife Frederika Frebe, born in Germany. Both came to America in childhood, their parents locating at Trenton, O., where they became acquainted and were married. Peter Jacquart was a shoemaker by trade, and located at Astoria, O., after his marriage, and worked for a brother who was in the shoemaking business. In 1879, Peter Jacquart bought a farm of twenty-eight acres of land, now owned by John W. Long, and on it both he and his wife died, he passing away at the age of sixty-eight years, and she at the age of sixty-nine years, both having been consistent members of St. Paul's church of Middletown, O. The children of Peter Jacquart and his wife were as follows: Samuel, Henry, Peter, Mrs. Long, and John. Mr. and Mrs. Long had two children, namely: Peter Edward, who is a farmer, lives at home, married Mary Cooper, and they have two children, - Mayme and Ralph; and Mary Mayme, who died July 23, 1905, married Edward Michael, and had one son, - Walter. John W. Long has always been engaged in farming, adopting it as his life work in boyhood. Having acquired a knowledge of it firsthand, he has put to practical use the knowledge thus acquired, and in connection with his farming, conducted a threshing machine outfit for thirteen years. He and his wife have lived on their present farm since 1897, but for the past few years, Mr. Long has not taken an active part in the conduct of affairs, leaving the operation of the farm to his son, who is a very capable and experienced man. Like his father, Mr. Long has always been active in politics, espousing the principles of Democracy, but has not cared to run on the party ticket, preferring to exert his influence as a private citizen. Since he has had more leisure on account of his retirement from farm labor, Mr. Long has had time and opportunity to cultivate the various friendships he had formed during previous years, and he and his wife enjoy visiting and entertaining, their pleasant home oftentimes being the scene of social gatherings. Having always lived up to high principles, they have won the confidence and respect of their associates, and are regarded by all who know them as very fine people.

Samuel S. Long, one of the retired farmers of Madison township, was formerly actively identified with the agricultural interests of Butler county, and is held in the highest respect by all who have the honor of his acquaintance. He was born on the old Long homestead in Madison township, September 18, 1857, a son of John L. Long, who was also born in Madison township, and died here in 1898, aged sixty-seven years. John L. Long was a son of Silas Long, born in New York city, who after his marriage to a Miss Marshall, also of New York city, came to Butler county, O., and

was among the first to locate east of Middletown, in Lemon township, and here he secured wild land. He divided his time between developing his farm and conducting a blacksmith shop. In time this farm became one of the most valuable in the neighborhood, and on it Silas Long erected a commodious brick residence and made many other improvements. He and his wife were members of the old school Baptist church. He always believed in the principles enunciated by the Democratic party, and voted for its candidates. Allover this part of Butler county, Silas Long was well and favorably known, and he is still remembered by some of the older inhabitants. The children born to him and his wife were as follows: Samuel, who was a farmer and county commissioner, lived in Madison township; Amy, who married Peter Baird; Nelson, who was an extensive farmer and stockman, moved to Illinois, and was killed in a runaway; Huldah, who married David Schenck, lived in Illinois; David, who was a farmer of Illinois; James, who was a farmer of Butler county, O.; John L., who became the father of Samuel S. Long; and a sister Sarah Jane, who married Clinton Paullin, of Tuscola, Ill. John L. Long attended a school held in the old, primitive log cabin of his period, upon the subscription plan, and made the most of his opportunities for acquiring an education, but they were very meager. Remaining at home with his father, after the latter's death, he bought out the other heirs to the homestead of 164 acres of land in Madison township, and carried on farming until his death. Not only was he widely known, but he was universally liked, and when he died, his death was felt to be a loss to his community. He was married to Susan Shartle, a daughter of Daniel Shartle, an orphan boy, bound out to strangers, and very badly treated, being denied proper clothing. The lad resented this abuse, and finally ran away, and made his way back on foot to Pennsylvania, where he had been born. Later in life he made three trips between Ohio and Pennsylvania, traveling on horseback. He was married to a Miss Lingle, and securing land in Madison township, Butler county, O., developed a fine property from it. Early in life he was engaged in cutting and hauling lumber, and was a hard worker, whether engaged in lumbering or farming, and was entirely self-made. He and his wife had the following children: John, who is a farmer and shoemaker of Madison township; Daniel, who died in 1918 at College Hill, O., was eighty-seven years old; Susan, who was Mrs. Long; William, who lived in Indiana; Elizabeth, who married David Marts, during her lifetime resided on the present farm of Samuel S. Long in Madison township; Harry, who lived in Butler county, O.; and Frank. John L. Long died on his own farm, Mrs. Long surviving him until 1913, and then passing away firm in the faith of the Reformed church, of which she was a consistent member. The political convictions of John L. Long, which were strong, made him an adherent of the Democratic party. He and his wife had the following children: Sarah E., who is the widow of Dr. Owsley of Madison township a sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work; Samuel S., whose name heads this review; Ella M., who married D. M. Smith, a

farmer of Madison township; Ida, who is the widow of Edward Marts, lives on the old Long homestead; William, who died in childhood. Samuel S. Long grew up on the farm of his father being taught by that excellent man not only to farm properly but to so govern his life as to bring out the best in his character, and to give full justice to his associates. He attended the district schools, and also the local high school, and since then has added to his store of knowledge by reading and observation, being a very well informed man. In 1880, Mr. Long was united in marriage with Miss Ida Marts, born on the old Marts homestead in 1860, a daughter of David Marts, and his wife, whose maiden name was Snyder, both of whom are deceased, he passing away in 1902. They were both born in Madison township, Butler county, O. Mrs. Long died in June, 1907, having borne her husband the following children: Aletha, who married Lester Corson; Paul, who is a farmer, operates his father's farm, married Stella Griswold, and they have three children, - Mary Elizabeth, and Paul, jr, and Ida May; Raymond, who married Hazel Shwank, lives at Dayton, O., and they have one daughter, Hellen Jane; and William, who enlisted September 18, 1917, in the 83d Division, was made a corporal of his company, and landed in France, June 26, 1918, and was one of those to participate in the dress parade at Paris, July 4, 1918, and was later assigned to the duty of drilling recruits. Until 1904, Samuel S. Long lived on the Long homestead, when he moved to his present valuable farm of 169 acres of land, but has been retired from active participation in the work of conducting it for several years. He votes the Democratic ticket, and has been very active in township and county affairs all his mature years, and for ten years was trustee of Madison township, and for twenty years served on the school board. The Reformed church has in him a valued member and generous supporter. Few men stand any higher in Butler than Samuel S. Long, and he has won the confidence he inspires through upright living and honorable dealing.

Charles S. Longstreet, one of the retired farmers of Monroe, O., is still interested in several of the live enterprises of his community, and is a recognized factor in Butler county. He was born in Warren county, O., July 19, 1856, a son of George, and grandson of Aaron Longstreet, both natives of New Jersey. When his son George was a child, Aaron Longstreet came to Ohio, and settled in Warren county, where he secured 400 acres of land, and became a successful farmer and desirable citizen of his new home. He and his wife had the following children: Euphemia, Aaron, George, Ann, Rebecca, and one whose name is not recorded. George Longstreet received only those educational advantages afforded by the common schools, and he was reared on his father's home place, one and one-half miles east of Monroe, O. He was married to Harriet Keever of Maryland, whose family settled at an early day on Turtle Creek, Warren county, O., just east of Monroe, and they had the following children: Aaron, who was a physician, lived at Springfield, O., until his death at the age of sixty-four years; John, who was a farmer of the old homestead, died in 1911; Clara, who

married J. F. Gallagher of Warren county, O.; Charles S., whose name heads this review; George, who is a retired farmer of Monroe, O.; and two who died in childhood. Charles S. Longstreet attended the local schools, and spent all of his active life on the homestead, with the exception of three years. Until 1913, he was engaged in cultivating his ancestral acres, but then retired, and moved to Monroe where he still resides. Mr. Longstreet was one of the organizers of the Butler County Canning company, which has the following officials: William M. Stewart, president; Arthur T. Smith, secretary; and William H. Compton, Freeman Smith and Charles S. Longstreet, stockholders. The National Bank of Monroe has Mr. Longstreet as one of its directors, and his name lends solidity to that institution. April 28, 1896, Mr. Longstreet was united in marriage with Pearl E. Robinson of Monroe, O., a daughter of Jerome and Mary J. (Kitchen) Robinson, of Warren county, O. After spending a number of years engaged in agricultural pursuits, Mr. Robinson died on his farm, and his wife survives him. She is a daughter of Peter and Mary (Williamson) Kitchen, farming people of Warren county, O., who died on their farm. Mr. and Mrs. Kitchen had the following children: John W., George, and Mary. The Kitchen family all belonged to the Presbyterian church. Mr. Robinson was a Republican. Fraternally he was a Knight of Pythias. He and his wife became the parents of two children, namely: Mrs. Longstreet; and Charles, who is a grocer of Monroe, O. Mrs. Longstreet's paternal grandfather was Mathew Robinson of Warren county, O., and he married Martha Kimball of Hamilton, O., and they became the parents of the following children: Henry, Jerome, who was the father of Mrs. Longstreet, Emma, Ella and Carrie. Mathew Robinson spent his life engaged in agricultural pursuits up to within a few years of his death, when he retired, moved to Monroe, and there passed away, aged seventy years. Mrs. Robinson also died at Monroe many years ago. Charles S. Longstreet has never aspired to assume the responsibilities of public office, but he conscientiously casts his vote for the candidates of the Democratic party. His fraternal affiliations are with the Odd Fellows, and he is prominent in the local lodge. Coming as he does of one of the pioneer families of the Miami valley, Mr. Longstreet naturally takes a deep and intelligent interest in all matters pertaining to this important section of the state. Big of brain and warm of heart, he has stamped his personality upon the affairs with which he has been connected, and Monroe owes much to his broad-visioned ideas and generous donations of effort and financial support. Upright and sincere in his advocacy of measures, Mr. Longstreet’s advice is oftentimes sought, and usually acted upon for it is sound, and drawn from a wide experience, and varied knowledge of men and events.

Samuel W. Love, superintendent of the Metropolitan Life Insurance company, at Hamilton, and who has been the incumbent of this post during the past ten years, was born at Cincinnati ,Ohio, in 1866, a son of David and Mary (Scarlett) Love, and a nephew of Lieutenant Love, chief of detectives of Cincinnati. His

natives of Ireland, were young married people when they emigrated to the United States and settled at Cincinnati, where David Love found employment as a city fireman. He met his death in the line of duty, being one of those to lose their lives while fighting the great bucket factory fire of some years ago, which is well remembered for its size, fierceness and number of casualties. He and his wife had two children: Samuel W. and Mary. The latter is the wife of George Frowe, of Cincinnati, where the aged mother also makes her home. Samuel W. Love received his education in the public schools of Cincinnati, but his advantages were not numerous, as the death of the father left the family in somewhat straitened financial circumstances and it was necessary that he go to work. He accordingly found a position with the Herman Manufacturing company, a concern with which he remained for thirteen years. During this time he was promoted from time to time, but finally felt that he was not making rapid enough progress and accordingly resigned and turned his attention to the field of life insurance. Securing a position as agent for the Metropolitan Life Insurance company, within the space of one short year he had won his way to the assistant superintendency at Cincinnati, and after capably discharging the duties of this office for some time was given the Hamilton agency as superintendent, this having been his post for the past ten years. The Hamilton agency also includes College Hill and Franklin, and Mr. Love now has fourteen solicitors under his charge. He has been very successful in his field and under his direction the company's business has assumed large proportions here. In 1904 Mr. Love married Elizabeth, daughter of Louis Popper, a retired citizen of Cincinnati, and to this union there have been born two children: David, deceased; and Jean, born in November, 1910. Fraternally, Mr. Love is identified with the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, the Knights of Pythias and the Masons, and is a Shriner. He belongs to Trinity Episcopal church of Hamilton. During the campaign of selling Liberty Bonds and War Savings stamps, his allotment of bonds was $5,000 for each man in his district, which he exceeded, while he personally sold $114,000 worth of war savings stamps. He has always been active in movements which have contributed to the welfare of his community, and has thus been rightfully accredited with being a public-spirited and useful citizen.

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