In 1933, the Ohio General Assembly made the cardinal Ohio's state bird. The cardinal's scientific name is Cardinalis Cardinalis.
When Europeans first arrived in Ohio during the late 1600s and the early 1700s, cardinals were very rare to the area. Cardinals are an edge animal, living in shrubs and thickets, along the edges where woodlands meet fields, and in urban and suburban yards. In the 1700s, Ohio was 95% forested with very little appropriate habitat for cardinals. As forests were cleared, the habitat became more suitable for cardinals. By the late 1800s, cardinals had expanded into the modified habitat of Ohio and could be found in all of the state. In 1882, J.M. Wheaton reported seeing more than one hundred cardinals during a one-hour period in central portions of Ohio. During this period, some people trapped cardinals and sold them to people as pets. By the start of the twentieth century, cardinals existed as far north as the southern portions of Canada. Today, cardinals live in all of Ohio's eighty-eight counties and can be found in both rural and urban settings.


American Rivers and Waterways/Migration Routes
by Beverly Whitaker--has links to location-specific sites about canals, rivers and lakes across the country with a series of migration route fact sheets with maps.
Folk History
19th century American fur traders; online transcriptions of diaries, narratives and letters-from early 1800's
Mt. Pleasant
Historical Info from Jefferson County
Coal Fields of the Appalachian Mountains
Town, Villages & Hamlets of Jefferson County, Ohio
Jefferson County Cities and Towns of Today
Ohio Cities and Towns Index for Jefferson County of Today
BLM GLO records, Bureau of Land Management--Free early land records from the land bureau offices
Chalkley Chronicles--Augusta County, Va 1745-1800-Scotch-Irish Settlement in Va
Stories of and around Jefferson County
Old Disease Names and Their Modern Definitions
Jefferson County page, Ohio Memory Scrapbook

Ohio Memory-Online Scrapbook of Ohio History
Fashion Era
information and visual depictions of the clothing, hats, jewelry, hairstyles, etc. from 1750 to present
Dress Up
See ordinary people from 1700 to 1900 dressed - pop up descriptions to explain fabric and purpose of each clothing item

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