Historical Collections of Ohio - Muskingum County

This is the chapter on Muskingum County from the book "Historical Collections of Ohio" by Henry Howe, published by him in 1851 by E. Morgan & Co., Cincinnati, OH. Some cosmetic changes were made for readability. Pages 381-393

The complete digital version of the book can be found online by clicking HERE.

A transcribed later edition (1888 - Centennial Edition) of the book can be found HERE.

Transcribed from the original text by Dennis S. Shirer


    Muskingum was formed March 1, 1804, from Washington and Fairfield. The word Muskingum, says Kilborn's Gazetteer. "is said to signify, in the old Indian language, an elk's eye, or the glare of an elk's eye." Col. John Johnston, of Upper Piqua, Miami county, says that "Muskingum is a Delaware word, and means a town on the river side. The Shawanoese call it Wa-ka-toma sepe, which has the same signification." The surface is rolling or hilly, and clay the predominating soil. It abounds with bituminous coal, and has pipe clay and burr-stone or cellular quartz, suitable for mill stones. There are numerous salt works. The brine is obtained by boring into a stratum of whitish sandstone -- called salt rock -- at a depth of several hundred feet. The ancient works are numerous, and iron ore is found. It is a rich and thickly settled county. The principal agricultural productions are corn, wheat, oats, potatoes, tobacco, wool, and pork. The following is a list of the townships in 1840, with their population.

Adams,        988    Jefferson, 2128    Rich Hill,   1426
Blue Rock,   1074    Licking,   1322    Salem,       1002
Brush Creek, 1765    Madison,   1070    Salt Creek,  1252
Falls,       2002    Meigs,     1333    Springfield, 2334
Harrison,    1426    Monroe,     918    Union,       1625
Highland,     894    Muskingum, 1252    Washington,  1486
Hopewell,    1807    Newton,    2707    Wayne,       1276
Jackson,     1123    Perry,     1061    Zanesville,  5141

    The population of Muskingum, in 1820, was 17,824; in 1830, 29,335; and in 1840, 38,746, or 52 inhabitants to a square mile.

    The Muskingum country was principally occupied by the Wyandots, Delawares, and a few Senecas and Shawanoese. An Indian town once stood, years before the settlement of the country, in the vicinity of Duncan falls, from which circumstance the place id often called "Old Town." Near Dresden, was a large Shawanoese town, called Wakatomaca. The graveyard was extensive, and when the whites first settled there, the remains of cabins were still visible. It was in this vicinity that the venerable Major Cass, the father of Hon. Lewis Cass, lived and died. He drew 4000 acres for his military services, and the location embraced within its limits the ancient town plot of the natives.

    The annexed narrative of an expedition against Wakatomaca, is from Doddridge's Notes.

    Under the command of Col. Angus M'Donald, 400 men were collected from the western part of Virginia, by order of the Earl of Dunmore, the then governor of Virginia. The place of rendezvous was Wheeling, some time in the month of June, 1774. They went down the river in boats and canoes, to the mouth of Captina, from thence by the shortest route to the Wappatomica town, about sixteen miles below the present Coshocton. The pilots were Jonathan Zane, Thomas Nicholson and Tady Kelly. About six miles from the town, the army were met by a party of Indians, to the number of 40 or 50, who gave a skirmish, by the way of ambuscade, in which two of our men were killed and eight or nine wounded. One Indian was killed and several wounded. It was supposed that several more of them were killed, but they were carried off. When the army came to the town, it was found evacuated, the Indians has retreated to the opposite shore of the river, where they had formed an ambuscade, supposing the party would cross the river from the town. This was immediately discovered. The commanding officer then sent sentinels up and down the river, to give notice, in case the Indians should attempt to cross above or below the town. A private in the company of Captain Cressap, of the name of John Hargus, one of the sentinels below the town, displayed the skill of a backwoods sharpshooter. Seeing an Indian behind a blind across the river, raising up his head, at times, to look over the river, Hargus charged his rifle with a second ball, and taking deliberate aim, passed both balls through the neck of the Indian. The Indians dragged off the body and buried it with honors of war. It was found the next morning, and scalped by Hargus.

    Soon after the town was taken, the Indians from the opposite shore sued for peace. The commander offered them peace on condition of their sending over their chiefs as hostages. Five of them came over the river, and were put under guard as hostages. In the morning, they were marched in front of the army over the river. When the party had reached the western bank of the Muskingum, the Indians represented that they could not make peace without the presence of the chiefs of the other towns. On which, one of the chiefs was released to bring in the others. He did not return in the appointed time. Another chief was permitted to go on the same errand, who in like manner did not return. The party then moved up the river to the next town, which was about a mile above the first, and on the opposite shore. Here we had a slight skirmish with the Indians, in which one of them was killed and one of our men wounded. It was then discovered, that during all the time spent in negotiation, the Indians were employed in removing their women and children, old people and effects, from the upper towns. The towns were burned and the corn cut up. The party then returned to the place from which they set out, bringing with them the three remaining chiefs, who were sent to Williamsburgh. They were released at the peace, the succeeding fall.

    The Army were out of provisions before they left the towns, and had to subsist on weeds, one ear of corn each day, with a very scanty supply of game. The corn was obtained at one of the Indian towns.

    Additional to the above, we give the reminiscences of Abraham Thomas, originally published in the Troy Times. He was on this expedition, and later, among the early settlers of Miami county.

    The collected force consisted of 400 men. I was often at their encampment; and against the positive injunctions of my parents, could not resist my inclination to join them. At this time, I was 18 years of age, owned my own rifle and accoutrements, and had been long familiar with the use of them. Escaping, I made the best possible provision I could from my own resources, and hastened to enter as a volunteer under old Mike, then Captain Cressap. The plan of the expedition was for every man to cross the Ohio, with seven days' provision in his pack. The object was to attack the Indians in their villages at Wapatomica. Some were on the waters of the Muskingum. On the first or second day's march, after crossing the Ohio, we were overtaken by a Colonel M'Donald, a British officer, who highly incensed the troops by ordering a halt for three days, during which we were consuming our provisions. While laying here, a violent storm through the night had wet our arms, and M'Donald ordered the men to discharge them in a hollow log, to deaden the report. My rifle would not go off, and I took the barrel out to unbreech it. In doing this, I made some noise in beating it with my tomahawk, on which M'Donald came towards me swearing, with an uplifted cane, threatening to strike. I instantly arose on my feet, with the rifle barrel in my hand, and stood in an attitude of defense. We looked each other in the eye for some time; at last he dropped his cane and walked off, while the whole troop set up a laugh, crying, the boy has scared the colonel. Cressap heard what was going on, and approached to defend me, but seeing how well I could defend myself, stood by, smiling at the fracas. The colonel having no reputation as an Indian fighter, was very naturally disliked as a leader, by Cressap and the men.

    From this encampment we proceeded towards the Indian villages with the intention of surprising them; but late in the afternoon before we reached them, we encountered the Indians laying in ambush on the top of a second bottom. We had just crossed a branch, and was marching along its first bottom with a view of finding some place to cross a swamp that lay between us and the upper bottom. The men were marching in three parallel, Indian file columns, some distance apart. On espying a trace across the swamp, the heads of the columns, in passing it, were thrown together, and as soon as they had gained the bank, unexpectedly received the fire of the enemy. The troops immediately displayed to the right and left, under the bank, and commenced ascending it, when the skirmish became general and noisy for about thirty minutes. The Indians then gave way in every direction. In this fight, we had four or five killed and many wounded; it was supposed the Indians suffered much more.

    During the engagement, while I was ascending the point of the bank, formed by a ravine from the second bottom, in company with the two men, Martin and Fox, all aiming to gain the cover of some large oak trees on the top, they both fell. The first was killed, the last wounded in the breast, the ball having entered the bone, but was drawn out, with the clothes. Those men were walking in a line with each other, and an Indian chief, concealed behind the tree for which I was aiming, shot them both with one ball. I took no notice whence the ball came, and hastened to the tree; just as I had gained it, the chief fell dead from the other side, and rolled at me feet. It seems a neighbor, who had seen him fire at Martin and Fox, and dodge behind the tree, stood ready to give him a shot whenever he should again make his appearance. The Indian had got his ball half down, and peeped out to look at me, when Wilson shot him in the head. The Indians retreated towards Wapatomica, flanked by two companies in hot pursuit; we followed in the rear, and as the last Indian was stepping out of the water, Captain Teabaugh, a great soldier and good marksman, brought him to the ground. I was at the time standing near Teabaugh, and shall never forget the thrilling emotion produced by this incident. During this battle, one of the men, Jacob Newbold, saw the colonel laying snug behind a fallen tree, sufficiently remote from danger, had there been no defence. It was immediately noised among the men who were in high glee at the joke; one would cry out, "who got behind the log!" when an hundred voices would reply, "the colonel! the colonel!" At this, M'Donald became outrageous; I heard him inquire for the man who had raised the report, and threatened to punish him. I went round and told Newbold what the colonel had said; "that's your sort," said he. Raising on his feet and going towards the colonel, declared he did see him slink behind the log during the battle. He gave his rifle to a man standing by, cut some hickories, and stood on the defence, at which the whole company roared with laughter, and the colonel took himself off to another part of the line. Night was now at hand, and the division was ordered, by the colonel, to encamp in an oak woods, in sight of the Indian villages, Cressap's party laying by themselves. This evening, Jack Hayes was spying down the creek, saw an Indian looking at us through the forks of a low tree; he leveled his rifle and shot him directly between the eyes, and brought him into camp. Just after night-fall, Col. M'Donald was hailed from over the creek by an Indian, who implored peace in behalf of his tribe. He was invited over by the colonel, who held a parley with him, but declined entering into his terms until more Indians were present. It was then proposed, if two white men would go with the Indians, they would send two more of their number to us; but none being willing to undertake the visit, two came over and stayed all night in the colonel's tent; but their only object was to watch the troops, and gain time to remove their families and effects from the town. Captain Cressap was up the whole night among his men, going the rounds, and cautioning them to keep their arms in condition for a morning attack, which he confidently expected. About two hours before day-break, he silently formed his men, examined each rifle, and let them across the creek into the villages, leaving M'Donald, with his other troops, in the encampment. At this time, the Indians who had passed the night in the camp, escaped. The village was directly surrounded, and the savages fled from it into the adjoining thicket in the utmost consternation. In this attack, none were killed on either side, but one Indian by Captain Cressap.

    By this time, the camp was nearly out of provisions, with a three day's march before them. A small quantity of old corn and one cow was the entire spoils of the villages. Those were distributed among the men, the villages burned, and the troops immediately commenced their march for the Ohio river, where they expected to meet provisions sent down from Redstone. The men became exceedingly famished on this march, and myself being young, was so weak that I could no longer carry any thing on my person. An older brother and one or two others kept encouraging me; one of them had a good stock of tobacco. I saw him take it, and with an earnestness bordering on delirium, insisted on having some. As I had never used it before, they refused, thinking it would entirely disable me; but as I was so importunate, they at last gave me a small piece. I directly felt myself relieved. They gave me more, and in a short time my strength and spirits returned. I took my arms and baggage, and was able to travel with the rest of them, and was actually the first to reach the Ohio. Here we met boats, but nothing in them but corn in the ear. Every man was soon at work with his tomahawk, crushing it on the stones, and mixing it with water in gourds or leaves fashioned in the shape of cups, while some provident ones enjoyed the aristocratic luxury of tin cups; but all seemed alike to relish the repast. A party of us crossed the Ohio that day for the settlement, when we came up with a drove of hogs, in tolerable order. We shot one and eat him on the spot, without criticizing with much nicety the mode or manner of preparation. Indeed, the meat of itself was so savoury and delicious, we thought of little else. In a few days, I returned to my parents, and after a little domestic storming and much juvenile vaunting of our exploits, settled down to clearing.

    Zanesville, the county seat, is beautifully situated 54 miles east of Columbus, at the point where the national road crosses the Muskingum, and opposite the mouth of the Licking.

    In May, 1796, congress passed a law authorizing Ebenezer Zane to open a road from Wheeling, in Virginia, to Limestone, Now Maysville, Ky. In the following year, Mr. Zane, accompanied by his brother, Jonathan Zane, and his son-in-law, John M'Intire, both experienced woodsmen, proceeded to mark out the new road, which was afterwards cut out by the two latter. The cutting out, however, was a very nasty business, in which nothing more was attempted than to make the road passable for horsemen. As a compensation for opening this road, congress granted to Ebenezer Zane the privilege of locating military warrants upon three sections of land, not to exceed one square mile each; the first of these to be at the crossing of the Muskingum, the second at the Hockhocking, and the third at the Scioto. It has been generally said that these were free grants to Mr. Zane, for opening the road; but an examination of the law will show that it was only a permission for Mr. Zane to locate his warrant on land which had not been appropriated to that purpose. Mr. Zane first proposed to cross the Muskingum at Duncan's falls, but foreseeing the value of the hydraulic power created by the falls where Zanesville now stands, he crossed the river at that point, and thus became entitled to a section of land embracing the falls. Regarding the fertility of the soil and the beauty of the vicinity, his next choice was selected where Lancaster has since been built, rather than at the crossing of what now bears the name of Rush creek, which is really the main branch of the Hockhocking. At the Scioto, he was obliged to locate his warrant on the eastern side of the river, as the western shore lay within the Virginia military district. His location was made nearly opposite to Chillicothe. These choice tracts would no doubt have all been taken up before that time, but they had not been surveyed and brought into market. The country east of the Muskingum, and for some distance west, also being hilly and comparatively poor, this was thought to be the least valuable section of the three, and E. Zane gave it to his brother Jonathan, and J. M'Intire, for assisting him and opening the road.

    One of the conditions annexed to the grant of Mr. Zane, was that he should keep ferries across these rivers during the pleasure of congress. Messrs. Zane and M'Intire gave the Muskingum ferry for five years to William M'Culloch and Henry Crooks, on condition that they should move to the place and keep the ferry, which they did. The ferry was kept about where the upper bridge is situated, and the ford was near the site of the present dam. The ferry-boat was composed of two canoes, with a stick lashed across. The first flatboat used for the ferry, was one in which Mr. M'Intire removed from Wheeling, in 1799. Mr. Zane resided at Wheeling. The first mail ever carried in Ohio, was brought from Marietta to M'Culloch's cabin, by Daniel Convers, in 1798, where by the arrangement of the postmaster general, it met a mail from Wheeling and one from Limestone. M'Culloch, who could barely read, was authorized to assort the mails, and send each package in it's proper direction, for which he received $30 per annum; but the service often fell to the lot of Mr. Convers, as he was more expert. At that time, the aforesaid mails met here weekly. Four years after, a number of families having settled here, a regular post-office was opened, and Thomas Dowden appointed postmaster, who kept his office in a wooden building near the river, on Front street.

    In 1799, Messrs. Zane and M'Intire laid out the town, which they called Westbourn, a name which it continued to bear until a post-office was established by the postmaster general, under the name of Zanesville, and the village soon took the same name. A few

families from the Kanawha, settled on the west side of the river soon after M'Culloch arrived, and the settlement received pretty numerous accessions until it became a point of importance. It contained one store and no tavern. The latter inconvenience however, was remedied by Mr. M'Intire, who, for public accommodation, rather than for private emolument, opened a house of entertainment. It is due to Mr. M'Intire and his lady, to say that their accommodations, though in a log cabin, were such as to render their house the traveller's home. Prior to that time, there were several grog shops where travellers might stop, and after partaking of a rude supper, they could spread their blankets and bearskins on the floor, and sleep with their feet to the fire. But the opening of Mr. M'Intire's house introduced the luxury of comfortable beds, and although his board was covered with the fruits of the soil and the chase, rather than the luxuries of foreign climes, the fare was various and abundant.

    This, the first hotel at Zanesville, stood at what is now the corner of Market and Second streets, a few rods from the river, in an open maple grove, without any underbrush; it was a pleasant spot, well shaded with trees, and in full view of the falls. The engraving was made from the description of one who knew it well. Louis Phillipe, the present king of France, was once a guest of Mr. M'Intire. The Hon. Lewis Cass, in his "Camp and Court, of Louis Phillipe," thus alludes to the circumstance. "At Zanesville, the party found the comfortable cabin of Mr. M'Intire, whose name has been preserved in the king's memory, and whose house was a favorite place of rest and refreshment for all the travellers who, at this early period, were compelled to traverse that part of the country. And if these pages should chance to meet the eyes of any of those who, like this writer, have passed many a pleasant hour under the roof of this uneducated, but truly worthy and respectable man, he trusts they will unite in this tribute to his memory."

    At that time, all the iron, nail, castings, flour, fruit, with many other articles now produced here in abundance, were brought from Pittsburgh and Wheeling, either upon pack horses across the country, or by river in canoes. Oats and corn were usually brought about fifty miles up the river, in canoes, and were worth from 75 cents to $1 per bushel. Flour, $6 to $8 per barrel. In 1802, David Harvey opened a tavern at the intersection of Third and Main streets, which kept entertainment for public accommodation, discontinued, after the opening of Mr. Harvey's tavern.

    In 1804, when the legislature passed an act establishing the county of Muskingum, the commissioners appointed to select a site for the county seat, reported in favor of Zanesville. The buildings were yet few in number, and the streets and lots were principally covered with the native growth; but the citizens, in order to put on the best appearance possible, turned out, while Zanesville was yet a candidate (if we may so speak) for the county seat, and cut out the bushes from some of the principal streets, and especially from the public square, that the situation might appear to the best possible advantage in the eyes of the commissioners. Some were anxious that the county seat should be at Coshocton, and others preferred the Cass section above Dresden, but Zanesville was finally selected, but in part because it was so near Marietta, as to render any country between the two places forever unnecessary. Muskingum included within it's original limits the present counties of Muskingum and Coshocton, besides the greater part of what now constitutes the counties of Holmes, Tuscarawas and Guernsey, and part of Perry Morgan, Monroe and Carrol.

    The county seat having been established, the town improved more rapidly, and as the unappropriated United States military lands had been brought into market during the preceding year, (1803,) and a land office established at Zanesville, many purchases and settlements were made in the county. The first court in Zanesville, sat in Harvey's tavern. In a short time afterwards, a wooden jail was erected, and also a wooden building, the lower part of which served as a residence for the sheriff and his family, and the upper room was used as a court room and as a place for all public meetings, political or religious. These buildings stood between the site of the present court house and jail, and were afterwards burnt down by a negro, who was confined on a charge of larceny.

    Anecdote may serve to convey some idea of the difficulties of frontier life. It may also show that vice and crime were not less scorned then, than in later days. After the organization of the county, but before the erection of any public buildings, two men were apprehended on a charge of counterfeiting silver dollars. It was impracticable to send them to the jail in Marietta, a distance of sixty miles through the woods, until the next term of court, to which they were bound over. To turn them loose or permit them to escape, would encourage others to depredate in like manner; it was necessary, therefore, that they should be punished. Under the circumstances, Mr. M'Intire called on Daniel Convers, and in strong language stated his views, adding, "we must take them in charge and keep them until court." This was contrary to law, but as necessity knows no law, the justice was persuaded to surrender them to M'Intire and Convers, as they pledged themselves that if the prisoners were not forthcoming at the hour of the trial, they would take their paces and abide the penalty. After conducting them to a cabin selected for this purpose, and putting hand-cuffs on them, they were addressed by M'Intire, who, axe i hand, stood by the door; "Now, boys." he said, pointing at the blankets provided for their bed, "there is your bed; with your guilt or innocence we have nothing to do, --you shall have plenty to eat and to drink, but." added he, raising his right arm in a threatening manner, "if you attempt to escape, d__n you, I'll kill you." The firm, resolute manner of the address, deterred them from making the attempt. M'Intire, with his axe by his side, took his seat by the door; and here, day after day and night after night, did he and his associates watch the prisoners until the term of court arrived, when they were tried and convicted. One confessed his crime, and told where the tools were secreted, about 18 miles off, on the Rocky fork of the Licking, where they were found and brought into court. Agreeably to the law then in force, he was sentenced to receive twenty-five lashes, well laid on, and to stand committed until all costs were paid. The other was to receive thirty-nine lashes, and also to be re-committed. Their sentence was immediately carried into effect, as to the stripes, which were well applied by Mr. Beymer, the sheriff. After having been re-committed to their prison, they were left on parole of honor, and their guards once more retired to their beds, free from care. Next morning, to the great gratification of all, it was found, notwithstanding their promise to the contrary, they were among the missing; their hand-cuffs having been carefully laid away for the use of their successors.

    Mr. M'Intire, the founder and patron of Zanesville, was indefatigable in his attention to the interests of the town; no personal or pecuniary sacrifice being considered too great, in his anxiety to promote its prosperity.

    The seat of government had been fixed temporarily at Chillicothe, but for several reasons, many members of the legislature were dissatisfied, and it was known that a change of location was desired by them. Muskingum possessed natural advantages favorable to agricultural and manufacturing purposes, which gave Zanesville a fair prospect of becoming an extensive town; while it's nearly central situation rendered it a desirable site for the state metropolis. It was believed, therefore, by many, that if once the legislature could be induced to fix the temporary seat here, it would not be removed, but made permanent. The citizens of the town and county were alive to the importance of obtaining the change, and a committee, consisting of John M'Intire and others, was appointed to visit Chillicothe during the session of the legislature, and make whatever pledge might be necessary on the part of the county, as well as to aid the Muskingum delegation in obtaining the passage of the desired law. At the session of 1808 and 1809, the Muskingum delegation received assurances from their friends in the legislature, that if the county, at its own expense, would furnish suitable buildings for the use of the legislature, a law would no doubt be passed for making Zanesville the place of meeting. Encouraged by the cheering prospect, the county commissioners determined to erect a brick building in front of the old court house, which would make a respectable state house, if the law of removal should be passed, and should they fail in that, it would make an excellent court house. The county was without funds, but a few public spirited individuals stepped forward and offered to loan the money, and the buildings were accordingly erected in the summer of 1809, but not finished.

    In February, 1810, the desired law was passed, fixing the seat of government at Zanesville, until otherwise provided. The county then went on to finish the buildings in such a manner as would best accommodate the legislature. A smaller building was also erected for the secretry of state and the treasurer. This building was used as a jail after the removal of the legislature, and the destruction of the old jail, until a new jail was erected in 1824, and afterwards, as offices for the clerk and county auditor. The county incurred a heavy debt in the erection of these buildings, and the county orders were long under par, but were ultimately redeemed. The legislature sat here during the sessions of '10,-'11 and '11-'12, when the present site of Columbus having been fixed upon for the permanent seat, the Chillicothe interest prevailed, and the temporary seat was once more fixed at that place, until suitable buildings could be erected in Columbus.

    The project of removing the seat of government was agitated as early as 1807 or '8, and the anticipation entertained that Zanesville would be selected, gave increased activity to the progress of improvement. Much land was entered in the county, and many settlements made, although as late as 1813, land entered within three miles of Zanesville. In 1809, parts of the town plat were covered with the natural growth of timber. It was feared by some, that re-action would succeed the defeat of the favorite project of making Zanesville the state capital; but this was not so. The natural resources of the country, and the numerous local advantages amply supplied the necessary objects of pursuit, and saved the country from the lethargy which frequently follows disapointed effort.*

    (* The preceding historical sketch of Zanesville, is from a series of editorial articles in the Zanesville Gazette, of 1835.)

    The annexed sketch of Zanesville, giving its condition, resources and prospects, is communicated by a citizen.

    Zanesville has long been regarded as one of the principal towns in the state, and once bid fair to yield the palm only to Cincinnati. But the extensive internal improvements of the state have built up her rivals, while they have cut off, to some extent, her trade, and checked the rapidity of her growth. Zanesville, however, has advantages and resources which, when fully developed, must again give her a prominent place among the cities of the state.

    Zanesville is situated on the east bank, in a bend of the Muskingum river, about 80 miles above its mouth, by water, and 65 miles by land. The river seems once to have run nearly in a right line, from which, however, it has gradually diverged to the westward, forming a horse-show curve, and depositing, through successive centuries, an alluvion of gravel, sand, &c., of great depth, on which Zanesville now stands. In sweeping around this curve, through the space of about l&frak34; miles, the river falls 8 or 10 feet, and by the aid of a dam, a fall of between 16 and 17 feet is obtained, thus furnishing very extensive water power, which is used for hydraulic purposes. Near the toe of the shoe, Licking creek or river, discharges her waters from the west, and while above the mouth of Licking, West Zanesville, containing some three hundred inhabitants, is located, South Zanesville, with nearly the same population, is situated immediately below. Further down the curve, and separated from South Zanesville by a bluff, id the beautiful village of Putnam, containing about 10 or 1200 inhabitants. A substantial and handsome bridge connects Zanesville with Putnam, while less than a half mile above, another similar bridge is thrown from Zanesville Main street, to a point in the stream, where the bridge forks, and one branch connects on the route of the national or Cumberland road, with South Zanesville, while the other connects with West Zanesville, and the roads leading off in that direction. The "Cumberland road," constructed by the national government, and originally designed to run from the town of Cumberland, in Maryland, at the eastern foot of the Alleghany mountains, indefinitely westward, as the country becomes settled, crosses the Muskingum river, at Zanesville, bearing upon it a constant and immense travel; while the Muskingum, mad navigable for steamboats, by dams, locks and short canals, opens a trade southward to the Ohio, and northward to the Ohio canal, near Dresden, which is 16 miles above, by water. The low level of the Ohio canal, between Licking and Portage summits, passes within 2 miles of Dresden, and a navigable side-cut of 2½ miles, connects the canal with the river, at that place, which is the head of steamboat navigation. The trade of Zanesville having, through the river and side-cut, reached the canal, is conveyed southward through the interior of the state, or northward to the lake, and thence through the New York canal, &c.; or leaving the Ohio canal, through the Sandy and Beaver, it may branch off towards Pittsburgh and Philadelphia, before reaching Cleveland. The freight, however, designed for Pittsburgh and other points on the Ohio, and for the south, is usually shipped down the river upon steamboats, and on entering the Ohio, it may ascend or descend. One or more steamboats run regularly, during business season, from Zanesville and Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, New Orleans, &c.

    In addition to the hydraulic power furnished by the Muskingum and Licking, the hills which surround Zanesville abound in the veins of bituminous coal, which lead to the free employment of steam power, and is almost exclusively used for fuel, except for cooking, and a good deal for that. But though Zanesville seems thus favored by nature with all the facilities for manufacturing, and art has constructed avenues of communication in every direction favorable to the procurement of the raw material and the transmission of manufactured goods, her citizens have not turned their attention heretofore, so much as they might have done in that direction. Their former great advantages in the salt and wheat trade, seem, with other circumstances not necessary to specify, to have shaped their course differently; but the silent workings of causes growing out of the public improvements, have satisfied business men that Zanesville must be made a manufacturing -- a producing place -- or diminish in importance; and a company is now, with praiseworthy spirit and enterprize, erecting a cotton mill, which is believed, will be the forerunner of many others. Zanesville should be the Lowell of the west; but this will never be brought about by old capitalists whose fortunes have been differently made, and whose thoughts have always run in other channels. A new population rising up and mingling with emigrants of skill and enterprize, may do it; but it must be in despite of such, as having amassed wealth, would play the part of the dog in the manger.

    At present, there are in the above mentioned cluster of towns, 5 extensive flouring mills, 2 oil mills, 4 saw mills, 1 paper mill, on the most recent and approved plan of machinery, 5 iron founderies in active operation, and 2 others not doing business at present, 2 manufactories of yellow-ware, of beautiful finish, and much used for culinary purposes, 2 manufactories of glass, 2 of woollen goods, 2 machine shops, 1 last manufactory, with numerous other establishments of less note. There are 5 printing offices, 4 being in Zanesville, and 1 in Putnam. At these are published the Gazette, weekly; the Courier, weekly and tri-weekly; the Aurora, weekly; the Western Recorder, weekly; and Lord's Counterfeit Detector, monthly.

    There are in Zanesville, 2 Catholic churches, 2 Baptist, 2 Episcopal Methodist, 1 Protestant Methodist, 3 Lutheran, 1 Presbyterian, 1 Episcopalian, 1 Universalist and 1 African. Some of these are extensive and Beautiful buildings. In Putnam, there is a handsome Presbyterian church, of the new school order, and a spacious Episcopal Methodist church. For educational purposes, there is an extensive female seminary in Putnam, designed as a boarding school, and male and female district schools. South Zanesville and West Zanesville have district school buildings; and in Zanesville, much attention has been bestowed upon that subject for a few years past. The founder of the town, John M'Intire, left his immense estate, now worth probably $200,000, to found and sustain a school for the benefit of the poor of Zanesville, and a handsome brick edifice has been erected for their accommodation. The town owns two large buildings, one for males, the other for females, in which schools are kept that acknowledge no superiors. Each building is capable of accommodating 350 scholars; and the scholars, under one general head, are classified and placed in charge of assistants, but may, on any extraordinary occasion, be all brought into one room. The price of tuition for the wealthy, is from 50 to 75 cents per quarter; the public money pays the rest. But the beauty of the system is, that such as are not able to pay, are admitted to all the advantages enjoyed by the most wealthy, even to the learned languages, without money and without price. Every child, then, in Zanesville, is provided with the means of education.

    There are in Zanesville upwards of thirty stores for the wholesaling and retailing of dry goods, besides hardware stores, wholesale and retail groceries, drug stores, confectionary establishments, shoe stores, hat stores, &c.

    The court house, with a western wing for public offices, and a similar one on the east for the atheneum, has a handsome enclosure, with shade trees and fountain in front, making altogether an object of interest to the passing traveller, and a place of pleasant resort for citizens. The atheneum was commenced as a library company, by a few individuals, nearly twenty years ago, and soon becoming incorporated, put up a handsome two story brick building, as a wing to the court house. The lower rooms are rented for offices, while the upper are occupied by the company for the reading room, library, &c. Strangers have, by the charter, a right of admission, and during their stay in Zanesville, can always find there access to many of the leading journals of the United States, and to a library of between 3 and 4000 volumes, embracing very many choice and rare books, in literature and science; while additions are annually made with the funds arising from rents and $5 per annum paid by each stockholder. There is a commencement for a cabinet of minerals and curiosities; but that department has never flourished as important demands.

    The water works of Zanesville are very great. The water is thrown, by a powerful forcing pump, from the river, to a reservoir upon a hill half a mile distant, 160 feet above the level of the pump, and thence let down and distributed by larger and smaller pipes into every part of the town, furnishing and ample supply for public and private purposes, as well as providing valuable safeguard against fire. By attaching hose at once to the fire plugs, the water may be thrown without intervention of an engine, by the pressure of the head, far above the roofs of houses. The public pipes are all of iron, and at present there are between six and seven miles of pipe owned by the town, besides that owned by individuals, and used in conveying water from the streets and alleys to their own hydrants. Much of this, however, is of lead. The cost to the town has been about $42,000. The reservoir is calculated to contain about 750,000 gallons. The present population of Zanesville, is probably something under 6,000, excluding Putnam, West Zanesville and South Zanesville.

    Putnam is less dense in it's construction than Zanesville, and contains many beautiful gardens. It being principally settled by New Englanders, is in appearance a New England village. The town plat was owned, and the town laid out by Increase Mathews, Levi Whipple and Edwin Putnam. The latter two are dead; Dr. Mathews still resides in Putnam.

    The town was originally called Springfield, but there being a Springfield in Clarke county, the name of the former was changed to Putnam. The view represents Putnam as it appears from the east bank of the Muskingum, about a mile below the steamboat

landing, at Zanesville. The bridge connecting Putnam with Zanesville, is seen on the right. On the left is shown a church, and the top of the seminary a little to the right of it.

    The Putnam Female Seminary is an incorporated institution, and has been in operation about 10 years. The principal edifice stands in an area of 3 acres and cost, with its furniture, about $20,000. Pupils under 14 years of age are received into the preparatory department. Those over 14 enter the upper department, in which

the regular courses of study requires 3 years, and excepting the languages, is essentially like a college course. It is proposed soon to extend the time to 4 years, and make the course the same as in colleges, substituting the German for the Greek. The average number of pupils has been about 100. "By reason of the endowments, the term bills are very much less than at any similar school in the country. Exclusive of extra studies, the cost per year will not exceed $100 per scholar." There are about 5 teachers in this flourishing institution, of which Miss Mary Cone is the principal. It is under the general direction of a board of trustees.

    Dresden is situated on the Muskingum side cut of the Ohio canal, at the head of steamboat navigation on the Muskingum, 15 miles above Zanesville. It is the market of a large and fertile country by which it is surrounded, and does a heavy business. It possesses superior manufacturing advantages, there being a fall of twenty-nine feet from the main canal to low water mark on the river. The adjacent hills abound with coal and iron ore. It contains 1 Presbyterian and 1 Methodist church. about 15 stores, a market house, and 1000 or 1200 inhabitants.

    Taylorsville, laid out in 1832 by James Taylor, is on the Muskingum, 9 miles below Zanesville, at what are called Duncan's Falls, and has about 500 inhabitants. On the opposite side of the river is a village called Duncan's Falls. In the two villages united are 6 stores, 1 Catholic, 1 Lutheran and 1 Methodist church, 1 fulling mill, 1 carding machine, and two merchant mills. An Indian town existed in the neighborhood when the whites first made settlement.

    Chandlersville, 10 miles se. of Zanesville, has 2 churches, 3 stores, and about 300 people. In boring for salt in that neighborhood, in January, 1820, some pieces of silver were dropped into the hole by some evil disposed person, and being brought up among the borings, reduced to a fine state, quite a sensation was produced. The parts were submitted to chemical analysis, and decided by a competent chemist to be very rich. A company was immediately formed to work the mine, under the name of "the Muskingum Mining Company," which was incorporated by the legislature. This company expended about $10,000 in search of the expected treasure, ere they abandoned their ill-fated project.

    Norwich, 12 miles e. of Zanesville, on the national road, has 4 stores, 2 churches, and about 500 inhabitants. The county in this region is well adopted to wheat, and the population embraces many substantial and independent farmers.

    New Concord, 3 miles east of Norwich, on the same road, has in the place or immediate vicinity, several churches, 3 stores, and about 400 inhabitants. Pleasantly located, on an eminence north of the central part of the village, is Muskingum College. In March, 1837, the Trustees of New Concord Academy - an institution which had been in operation several years -- were vested with college powers by the legislature of Ohio, to be know by the name of Muskingum College. It is a strictly literary institution, and the first class graduated in 1839, Although pecuniary embarrassments have impeded its progress, it has continued uninterruptedly its operations as a college. These difficulties having been recently removed, its prospects are brightening.

    Gratiot, on the national road, on the line of Licking county, contains 3 churches, 1 grist and saw mill, a carding machine, and about 300 inhabitants.

    The following are small villages in the county. The largest contains several stores and churches; but none have over 300 inhabitants. Uniontown, or Fultonham, Roseville, Adamsville, Mount Sterling, Frazeyburg, Otsego, Irville, Meigsville, Nashport, Hopewell, Newtonville, Jackson and Bridgeville.

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